Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00006
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text






Vol. II



No. 4

\it-, IAt4-


I __ ~~____~~____~_j___

(%) 70) (%) (/%)
Ammonia Phosphoric
Nitrogen Equivalent Acid Potash
No. 1 15 18.2 30 15
No. 2 16'/2 20 16 /2 21/2
No. 3 15'/2 18.8 152 19
No. 4 15 18.2 11 26'2
No. 5 10 12.1 20 20
No. 6 10 12.1 20 15
No. 7 16 19.4 16 16
No. 8 12 14.5 24 12
For Better Crops at Lower Costs
34% Nitrogen, equal to 41.3o 15% Nitrogen, equal to 18.2%
Ammonia. 1/5 in nitrate form Ammonia. Nitrate Nitrogen
and 4/5 in organic form combined with Calcium
For Top and Side Dressing

Jackson Grain Company
State Distributors
"Working for Better Agriculture"

On Palma Sola Bay



We offer at reasonable prices
Every animal in our herd is negative to blood test for tubercu-
losis and infectious abortion. We are also tick free.

Come Look Us Over

J. A. FROHOCK, Inc., Owners

Song Birds of Happiness

Are precious gifts and are
always appreciated
Parrots Pet Monkeys
Canaries Dogs
Finches and all Gold Fish
Song Birds Rabbits
Complete line of food, remedies,
dog harnesses, bird cages, fish
bowls, etc.
Write for our complete
Pet Stock List
E. A. Martin Seed Co.
Established 1875
202-206 E. Bay Street
Jacksonville, Florida

More Eggs

Lower Cost



Weekly Price List
Sent on Request

Howard Grain Co.




Contents for February


Recent Trends in the Citrus Industry of Florida-
By T. Ralph Robinson - - -
The Problem of Mating-By James A. McClellan, Jr. -
A Possible New Friend for the Florida Citrus Grower-
By L. W. Zeigler -------
Causes and Control of Black Shank-By Sidney Wells -




Lofton Elected to Ag Club Presidency Philippine
Student Takes Up Work Here Stock Judging Con-
test Prize Winners Announced H. Harold Hume
Gives Series of Lectures Student from College of
Madrid Enrolled at Florida.
Editorials -- - ------- 6
Over the State With Extension Workers - 9
Florida 4-H Club News - - 11
Exchanges -- - ------12
Our Alumni - - -------13



A Size


every use.

A hundred

uses for

every sige

Burgman Tractor &

Equipment Company

No. 8 Riverside Viaduct

Jacksonville, Florida

February, 1931



For 27 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.
Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall main-
tain the reputation of "GULF BRANDS."
Bradenton : Lake Wales : Sarasota : Winter Haven : Winter Garden

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The Intelligent Use of



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Jacksonville .: Florida

We Wish to Announce the


of Our New and Complete

Farmer's Store

To ils and Supplies

Hardware Co.
On The Square

Most Complete
Stock of

for the


Write for
Catalogs and Prices

H. & W. B. DREW
Jacksonville, Florida

February, 1931


"Florida First"


Recent Trends in the Citrus Industry

of Florida

N the citrus industry there is be-
ing exemplified today the almost
universe 1 experience common to
other lines of horticulture and busi-
ness-rapid changes due to compe-
tition and mass production. Oevr-
production has not affected the cit-
rus industry as it has many other
horticultural activities but it has ap-
peared so close on the horizon as to
force consideration of measures to
forestall a disastrous excess of sup-
ply over demand.
For fifty years the growing g of or-
anges and grapefruit has gone on in
Florida with gradual changes in
methods of culture and marketing
that are evolutionary rather than
revolutionary. Varieties have gradu-
ally been in a measure standardized,
methods of grading and packing have
been vastly improved, cooperative
marketing has made slow but sure
progress. Two major invasions
threatening the very life of the in-
dustry-one a fungus pest, Citrus
Canker; the other an insect pest, the
Mediterranean fruit fly-have been
met and conquered, the first time in
history that such campaigns against
seemingly impossible odds have met
'with conspicuous success. It has been
said that the great war of the future
will be a war between man and in-
sects that prey on his food crops.
The outcome of this war on the fruit
fly in Florida has attracted world
wide interest and the results to date
have done much to encourage horti-
cultural experts and officials every-
where not to submit without a strug-
gle to the colossal losses which result
sometimes from an introduced pest.
With the rapid increase in the use
of cold storage, especially in transit,
and the improvements in transporta-
tion facilities, the citrus industry has
rather suddenly become a world in-
dustry. Cargo boats with refrig-
erator equipment are carrying in-
creasing quantities of Florida grape-
fruit from Tampa, Miami and Jack-
sonville to the ports of England and
Europe. This outlet is particularly
advantageous as the European mar-
kets have manifested a preference
for the small sizes that are at a dis-
count in the markets of the United
States. In years of extra heavy pro-
duction the proportion of small sizes
is correspondingly high.
The possibilities of developing this
foreign market has operated to stim-
ulate interest in grapefruit planting
in Florida at a time when it seemed


T. Ralph Robinson
Senior Physiologist
United States Department
of Agriculture

that grapefruit planting was already
overdone. The outcome will depend
much on future economic conditions
in Europe and on the skill with which
the new fruit and its uses are demon-
strated to the European consumer.
The American tourist and his insist-
ence on being served his favorite
breakfast fruit has played no small
part in placing grapefruit in a con-
spicuous place on the menu of the
better class hotels and restaurants
abroad. In the summer months when
Florida grapefruit is no longer avail-
able for foreign shipment, the later
maturing fruit from California takes
its pace, keeping the European mar-
kets supplied practically all the year
around. These California shipments
of summer oranges and grapefruit
are made possible by utilizing re-
frigerator space on vessels going
direct from Los Angeles to Europe
by way of the Panama Canal.
Another comparatively new factor
in the citrus situation is the rapid de-
veloping of a canning industry.
While canned grapefruit has been on
the market for the last ten years, it
is only within the last three years
that the output has reached propor-
tions that make the canning industry
a real factor in the citrus field. With

half a million cases packed in the
season of 1927-28, the business ap-
peared as permanently established.
In each of the following two seasons
over a million cases were packed,
and with the contracts already made
this season it is expected that the
pack will exceed two million cases--
the equivalent of at least two mil-
lion packed boxes or three million
bushels of fruit. Practically every
large citrus packing center has now
at least one grapefruit cannery, and
these plants will handle from twenty
to twenty-five per cent of the year's
crop. The benefits of this canning in-
dustry are obvious. The canning
p'ant can use to advantage the over-
size, scarred and other off-grade fruit
that would otherwise go to waste or
would compete in the markets with
the better appearing fruits, lowering
the price of the entire crop. The
canned fruit, too, reaches many mar-
kets where fresh grapefruit is un-
known or at least only an occasional
luxury, and is available throughout
the year. Grapefruit juice is also
becoming an important product, one
large plant operating exclusively on
grapefruit juice. Orange juice is
also being canned and bottled in
lesser amounts but with improve-
ments recently made in the processes
of canning it is expected that canned
orange juice will shortly become an
important product also.
The freezing process for orange
juice is already well established and
promises to do for the orange grow-
er what grapefruit canning is doing
(Continued on Page 10)

A modern citrus packinghouse


The Problem of Mating
Together with pointers on the care of baby chicks.

February, 1931

MATING is probably one of the
most outstanding problems
among poultrymen at the present
time. It is in many cases the cause
of profit or loss. Careful mating pro-
duces quality chicks.
When mating the flock, a careful
examination should be made of each
individual bird before it is placed in
the breeding pen. Be sure that it is
not carrying some disease or parasite
into the pen used for breeding pur-
poses. If possible the egg record of
the bird or of its parents, if it is a
young bird, should be examined, and
only those birds that are from pro-
fitable parents or birds that have
proven to be profitable themselves
should be used. A bulletin, No. 47,
on culling for egg production will be
sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Extension Division,
Gainesville, Florida.
It is not desirable to use a male
that is related to the females, but if
this is practiced, at least every two
years new blood should be introduced
into the flock. However, when birds
are being brought into the flock be
sure that they do not bring some
fatal diseases such as white diarrhea
or some parasite that will spread to
the entire flock. Be sure that the
birds introduced into the flock come
from reliable poultry man. New
blood is often introduced into the
flock by purchasing setting eggs, but
even setting eggs can introduce dis-
eases into the flock of chickens.
Birds should be purchased before
hatching season begins so that they
will become accustomed to their yard
by the time it starts. They should
be mated at least fifteen days prior
to the time that setting eggs are to
be collected. A fertility test of the
eggs should be made before setting.
Eggs that are to be set should be
turned twice each day to prevent the
yolk from sticking to the shell. Eggs
should not be kept over ten days be-
fore they are set. They should be
kept in a room of 50-55" F. Only
eggs that are smooth, regular, well
shaped and weighing from 1 % to 2 V4
oz. should be saved for setting pur-
poses. They should have a medium
thick shell.
After the eggs have been setting
for seven days they should be candl-
ed and all infertile eggs removed.
Again on the fourteenth and eigh-
teenth days, the eggs should be can-
dled and all eggs with dead or weak
germs should be removed.
When the chicks have hatched
they should not be removed to the
brooder until they are dried and
"hardened." This takes about 36
hours. It can be done, if the hatch
is in an incubator, by decreasing the
incubator temperature and increas-
ing the ventilation.
To accommodate 400 to 500 grow-
ing chicks a house 10x12 feet should


James A. McClellan, Jr.

be provided. The house must provide
ventilation without drafts. If a large
flock is desired, it is usually economi-
cal to build a brooder house large
enough to accommodate several
Do not raise chicks on the same
soil year after year. Chick diseases
are easier to prevent than to cure.
Gape worms, round worms and some
of the troublesome intestinal diseases
of chicks can be prevented by chang-
ing the location of the brood coops
from year to year. If large perma-
nent brooder houses are used, plow
up the soil, or sprinkle lime over the
yards and haul a few loads of fresh
dirt into the pens. Chickens are
similar to farm crops, in that they
cannot be grown on the same soil
year after year. They must have a
rotation if profits are expected.
The brooder-house floor should be
covered with fresh sand taken from
a place where chickens have not run.
The floor may also be covered with
a litter of fine cut straw or alfalfa
hay. It should never be allowed to
become damp, because this often
causes a heavy mortality from roup
or brooder pneumonia. Operate the
brooder for three or four days before
the chicks are placed into the house
to be sure that it is working properly
and to dry out the sand or litter on
the floor. At the start the tempera-
ture should be about 100 F. under
the edge of the canopy or hover near
the floor. The temperature should
then be decreased a degree each day
until the chicks are about four weeks
old. The weather and vitality of the
chicks will determine this. Watch
the chicks and adjust the tempera-
ture accordingly. If they tend to
crowd together or chirp constantly
more heat is needed; if they go
far from the stove the heat is too
intense. Chilling or over-heating
will cause diarrhea.
Diarrhea is one of the most com-
mon poultry diseases. It is caused by
chilling, over-heating or improper
feeding. Damp brood house floors
may cause trouble that will lead to
diarrhea. Feeding sour milk or but-
ter milk prevents much diarrheal
trouble. Common diarrhea should
not be confused with white diarrhea,
a more serious germ disease.
White diarrhea is characterized by
the white appearance of the drop-
pings. It may be spread from dis-
eased hens by the hen imparting the
germ to the egg, on the surface of
the egg shell or through the drop-
pings. A chick may be infected with
this disease upon hatching, if the
germ is inside the egg. One infected
chick will soon infect others. The

incubator and brooder may also be-
come infected. The disease may be
controlled by eliminating the germ
A blood test will show the infected
hens. The test costs only about five
cents per bird. By all means the
germ carriers should be eliminated
from the flock regardless of the cost.
The first 48 hours after the chick
hatches it should be allowed to eat
nothing but sand or grit and plenty
of sour milk. For the next eight or
ten days the chicks should have oat-
meal and chopped up hard boiled
eggs, one egg to thirty chicks. This
ration should be divided up and fed
five times a day, feeding only a lit-
tle at a time.
The first ten days of a chick's life
is its most delicate stage. It should
get its most careful attention at that
In ten days to eight weeks the chick
should be getting a full ration of
starter mash and grain, fed about
four or five times a day.
At this age it is most likely to
contract coccidiosis. This is a fatal
disease and causes almost as much
trouble as white diarrhea. The chicks
lack appetite, lose color in their comb
and wattles, their feathers roughen
up, and there is usually some diarrhea
and sometimes a bloody discharge.
The gut or ceca tubes are found to
be enlarged and filled with hard
cheesy matter. Coccidiosis is caused
by a parasite that lives in the wall
of the ceca or blind gut. The sick
chick usually dies, but may get bet-
ter and become a chronic type. The
eggs of the parasite are discharged
in the droppings of the chicks or of
the adult birds harboring the disease.
These eggs may live in the coil for
over a year.
To prevent and control coccidiosis
keep the brooder house and yards
cleaned. Feed plenty of milk, for
this keeps the contents of the in-
testinal tract acid, making an in-
favorable condition for the develop-
ment of the parasites. Cut the grain
ration and feed plenty of green food.
After the chicks are about eight
weeks old they may be fed a mix-
ture of growing mash. This should
be kept before them at all times.
Scratch feed should be fed twice
each day. A good growing mash
consists of one part bran, two parts
yellow corn meal, two parts middl-
ing and one part steel cut oats.
Editors note-Next month's arti-
cle will describe the care of mature

Mr. Boop: So you are having a
family reunion?
Mr. Beep: Yes, all my sons are
broke again.

If caught robbing a fish store-be
nonchalant-smoke a herring.


A Possible New Friend for the Florida

Citrus Grower

FOR years the common citrus
mealybuy, Pseudococcus citri
Risso, has been rather common
throughout the citrus regions of the
state and has from time to time
caused damage to the citrus fruit
crop. During the past season, this
insect became especially abundant in
several communities in the "Ridge
Section" and did a great deal of dam-
age to the fruit, particularly to the
grapefruit crop.
The mealybug belongs to the
family of scale insects, to which a
great many of our citrus pests belong.
The female mealybug lays from 350
to 400 eggs in some protected place
on the tree, either in a crevice in
the bark, in curled-up leaves or among
the closely-fitting clusters of fruit.
Grapefruit seems to be the preferred
host of this insect and the clusters of
grapefruit are especially ideal for the
oviposition and subsequent develop-
ment of the insects. From the eggs
hatch the young mealybug. These
small insects are oval in outline with
a fringe of short white projections
about their outer margin. They are
rather flat and are covered with
ridges which bear a sort of mealy
white substance from which their
name is derived. In common with
all insects of the scale group, they
possess a sucking beak or proboscis
which enables them to pierce the
fruit or leaves And suck the sap.
After spending a few weeks in the
larval stage, they become adults. The
adult female is similar in appearance
to the young, but much larger in
size. The male, however, goes into a


L. W. Ziegler
Assistant Entomologist
Florida Agricultural Experiment

resting, or pupal, stage and emerges
as a very small, white, two-winged
fly with two long white filaments
projecting from the posterior end of
the abdomen. The male mealybug is
only rarely seen by the average per-
son and one would hardly suspect its
presence. There are several genera-
tions of these insects each year in
The mealybug is a rather gregar-
ious type of insect and feeds in large
colonies protected by a mass of cot-
ton-like material which is secreted by
the insects as they feed. This ma-
terial protects them from extremes
of temperature, from their natural
enemies and from other adverse con-
This insect is capable of doing sev-
eral different kinds of damage. Due
to its habit of feeding in large col-
onies in the clusters of grapefruit
particularly, it causes a great loss
of sap, the skin of the fruit takes
on a premature yellowish color, be-
comes rough, and warty excrescences
may appear where the feeding is
severe. The fruit becomes dwarfed
and malformed; the skin is rather
thick and the juice deficient, rend-
ering the fruit rather pulpy and in-
sipid. Much dropping occurs where
the infestations are heavy, as high as

Citrus mealybug infestation on grapefruit

50 percent drops having been noted.
The maturity of the fruit is greatly
retarded, and the grade is generally
Mealybugs secrete a sweetish sub-
stance known as "honeydew," which
forms the food of the sooty mold
fungus. Following an attack by
mealybugs, the grower may expect a
heavy infection of this sooty mold,
which covers the fruit with a very
unsightly black coating. This fungus
does not grow into the fruit, but the
dense cover which it forms prevents
the fruit from ripening normally. It
also necessitates extra scrubbing in
the packing house in many cases in
order to remove this coating.
On account of the habit of this
insect to feed on the inside of close-
ly fitting clusters of fruit, and, fur-
ther, due to the fact, as mentioned
above, that they secret a protective
cottony covering, they are partic-
ularly hard to reach with an in-
secticide under the ordinary pres-
sures commonly used in Florida cit-
rus groves. In an endeavor to test the
efficacy of sprays against these pests,
the writer conducted several tests at
the Citrus Substation at Lake Alfred
during the past summer. Various
substances were used and were ap-
plied with a power sprayer under
about 275 pounds pressure. No
satisfactory controls were obtained
and it is noteworthy that the spray-
ing of plain water gave practically
the same results as did the applica-
tions of insecticides. This may be
explained by the fact that the driv-
ing power of the liquid dislodged
some of the insects which were then
unable to regain a feeding position
to their advantage.
The mealybug, however has sev-
eral enemies among insects which
act either as parasites or as preda-
tors. In Florida there are several
native insects which attack them, but
they are not effective enough to keep
them in check at all times. There is
also a fungus disease, Entomophthora
fumosa, which attacks mealybugs but
this fungus requires damp weather in
order to be of any value as a control
factor. In years of dry weather and
mealybug abundance, therefore, these
enemies do not control the mealybug
to any satisfactory extent.
In view of the fact that the State
of California had successfully intro-
duced and established an Australian
ladybeetle, known as Cryptolaemus
mcntrouzieri, which greatly reduced
the populations of the citrus mealy-
bug in that state, it was decided to
attempt to establish it in Florida.
Work was begun at the Citrus Sub-
station during the summer of last
year. A series of flats were planted
to potatoes. As soon as these pota-
toes sprouted, mealybugs were trans-
ferred onto them. Potato sprouts
(Continued on Page 12)

February, 1931


The Florida College Farmer
Published by the Agricultural Club
J. R. GREENMAN - Business Manager
GLENN D. FINNEY Circulation Manager
W. Travis Lofton Managing Editor
R. L. Brooks - - Exchange
F. W. Barber - 4-H Clubs
W. F. Mitchell - Extension
R. S. Edsall - Horticulture
R. D. Gill - - Alumni
J. A. McClellan, Jr. - Poultry
W. J. Platt - Animal Husbandry
S. W. Wells Associate Business Manager
A. P. Evans Associate Business Manager
T. J. Jones Assistant Circulation Manager
M. A. Boudet - Publicity Director
J. S. McColskey Advertising Manager
Clarke Dolive - Treasurer
C. D. Newbern Assistant Business Manager
G. F. Bauer C. Herminghaus J. A. Chamberlain
C. H. Willoughby, Chairman
W. L. Lowry R. M. Fulghum
Subscription One Dollar
Application filed for entry as second-class matter
at the postoffice at Gainesville, Florida.


Institute of Inter-American Affairs
When the learned men of an age decide to
promote peace and good will among peoples,
and take active steps to bring this about, it is
a sign that the world is changing, from a group
of individualistic governments, to a larger,
more unified, cosmopolitan community. Nations
will always differ, as families differ, but they
will come more and more to realize that as
science reveals new methods of travel and com-
munication, that as education becomes more
specialized, that as one man becomes more de-
pendent upon another, only a complete under-
standing among men will promote peace and
With this principle in view, the University of
Florida has established the Institute of Inter-
American Affairs, to formulate and carry out
plans tending to. increase the understanding
among nations of the Western Hemisphere. The
first annual session was held in Gainesville, Feb-
ruary 10th-13th. Over one hundred of the most
prominent national educators were present to
add their views to those of the committee.
The keynote of the conference was not dis-
armament, nor international law. These men
purpose the silent, surer way-that of educa-

tion. Until we understand our neighbors and
hold a common sympathy with them, we can-
not hope to work with them for the permanent,
common good. In order to make friends we
must first be friendly, and America, this time
through Florida, has taken the first step.

Our Silver Anniversary
Twenty-five years ago the University of Flor-
ida was established at Gainesville. Its growth
has been paralleled with the agricultural ad-
vancement of our state. The College of Agri-
culture, with its Experiment Station and Exten-
sion Service, has done much to make Florida
farming more pleasant and profitable. Here
problems pertaining to Florida's conditions are
studied. Research conducted in other sections
of the country is interpreted, and where pos-
sible, practically applied to our conditions of
soil and climate.
In addition to the main Experiment Station
at Gainesville, it has been found necessary to
establish branch stations at four points in the
State in order to serve areas in which conditions,
soils, etc., are radically different from those of
the main station. These are the Citrus Station at
Lake Alfred; the Tobacco Station at Quincy;
the Everglades Station at Belle Glade; and the
Sub-Tropical Station at Homestead.
Several field laboratories have been estab-
lished at various points over the state where
problems peculiar to a particular crop or area
require investigation. In this manner problems
of the potato, tomato, pecan, citrus, water-
melon and fern growers have been studied.
On the campus, the Agricultural College still
retains its early recognition among the other
colleges. In spite of the rapid growth of the
other schools, the Ag students still hold their
own. Witness the recent campus debating
championship brought home by the Ag fresh-
men, after a win in the finals over the Arts and
Science first year men. The Ag Club is admitted
even among students of other colleges, to be
the most active and enthusiastic literary society
on the campus. Witness still further the Florida
College Farmer, the first and only magazine to
be published by any single college at the Uni-

The cover cut this month, portraying a scene
on the Florida campus, was furnished through
the courtesy of the Publicity Department of the
University. The cuts used inside were all
donated for use in this issue by the News Serv-
ice of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-

The Making of Friends
If nobody smiled, and nobody cheered,
and nobody helped us along,
If each every minute looked after himself,
and good things all went to the strong,
If nobody cared just a little for you,
and nobody thought about me,
And we stood all alone to the battle of life,
What a dreary old world it would be.
-Anonymous. (From Gainesville Sun)

February, .1931


Causes and Control of Black Shank

How Florida's Tobacco Crop Was Saved

ALONG with the marked increase
in consumption of tobacco in both
American and European markets
during the last ten to fifteen years
a decided advance in the develop-
ment of plants resistant to serious
tobacco diseases has been made. The
one disease, regarded as most serious
among growers due to the accumu-
lative effect when tobacco is grown
continuously on the same land for
several years is Black Shank. Credit
for developing several resistant
strains of tobacco should be given to
Dr. W. B. Tisdale, at one time in
charge of the branch experiment
station at Quincy, and now Plant
Pathologist of the Florida Experi-
ment Station.
Black Shank was first reported by
Dr. Tisdale in 1922 in Bulletin 166
in which suggestions were offered for
its prevention and control. This dis-
ease is caused by a fungus known as
Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de
Haan which attacks the roots and
lower portions of the stems of young
plants and shows its presence by
damping off at the surface of the
ground. In older plants it is first
noticed by wilting of the entire plant
from which effect recovery is negli-
gible. Rainy seasons hasten the
spread and destructiveness of black
shank and also bring about another
variation of the disease in which the
lower leaves may be attacked by
the fungus, producing numerous
brown spots which gradually dry out
and render the leaf unfit for wrap-
ping purposes.
Infection may occur in the scars
left after harvesting (pruning) of
the lower leaves and soon spreads
rapidly in both directions traveling
mainly in the pith, causing it to dry
out and split into disc-like plates. By
splitting the stem lengthwise a mark-
ed discoloration is noticed in the pith
which may extend several inches be-
yond the original source of infection.
Indications have pointed out the fact
that the tobacco plant is susceptible
to this fungus at any stage in its de-
velopment. Planting early may give
some plants a chance to escape if they
can be harvested before that portion
of the field has been invaded by black
shank. Otherwise no advantage is
obtained by early plantings.
Reliable sources of information
coupled with investigations have
shown that the fungus is transported
from field to field by diseased plants
from infected beds; by .water; by
farm tools, animals and men; by
wind, and through barnyard manure.
Other tests indicate that the fungus
remains in the soil too long for any
attempt at rotation to alleviate its
action on tobacco. Further investi-
gations in regard to the relation of
soil temperature to the development
of black shank, using Big Cuba seed-
lings in inoculated soil and then fol-
lowing these tests by inoculating the


Sidney Wells

plants directly, showed that below 20
degrees Centigrade no signs of the
disease appeared, while above that
temperature and up to 35 to 40 de-
grees Centigrade infection became
apparent in two to five days. Our
Florida climate would thus allow only
about two to three weeks at the
beginning of the growing season
when the temperature is too low for
infection to take place and the tem-
perature would never become too
high to prevent infection.
Steam sterilization of a 13-acre
field by the inverted-pan method
proved too expensive for the ap-
proximate one year disease free
period it allowed the tobacco farm-
ers. Reinfection from the surround-
ing land would soon make a total
failure of any attempt to plant the
field twice in succession without re-
Experiments conducted to note
the effect of organic content of the
soil upon the development of black
shank gave evidence that no advan-
tage would be gained by eliminating
manure from the fertilizer. Tobacco
grown on soils low in the essential
organic matter became diseased as
rapidly as tobacco grown on soils
having a relative high organic matter
Greenhouse tests devised to find
out the effect of applications of sul-
fur, Semesan, land plaster, and
Uspulum upon the development of
black shank in tobacco seedlings gave
indications that these chemicals did
have a decided inhibiting effect upon
the development of the disease. Field
tests, however, showed that Semesan

and sulfur were the only chemicals
used that showed any tendency to
prevent the spread of black shank,
and these chemicals were effective
just to a slight extent early in the
season. Since all of these methods
of soil treatment proved ineffective
or impractical for controlling the
disease, the development of resistant
strains appeared to be the only solu-
tion of the problem.
Of numerous cultivated varieties of
tobacco investigated as to possible
resistance to black shank, only three,
Havanensis (Cuban), Dubek (Rus-
sian) and Nicotiana rustic showed a
high percentage of natural immunity.
The Havanensis and Dubek varieties
are not adapted for cigar wrappers
under Florida conditions but they
have been crossed with other varie-
ties. Efforts at crossing Nicotiana
rustic with different types of cigar
wrapper tobacco have so far been
Plans for developing black shank
resistant strains of tobacco by care-
ful selection and crossing to obtain
the desired characteristics were now
carried out. From two fields of bad-
ly diseased Big Cuba strain tobacco
selections were made during the
blooming period, in the year 1922, of
about 100 plants that showed prom-
ise of resistance to the black shank
fungus. These plants were prevented
from cross-pollinating by bagging
the inflorescence. After the seed had
matured the plants were pulled up
and the roots were examined for pos-
sible infection. Of the 100 selec-
tions bagged during the blooming
period 23 plants showing the least
infection were saved and the seed
from each plant was kept separate
and planted separately in 1923. As
time progressed similar selections
(Continued on Page 8)


Row on the left is the commercial type of Big Cuba from which the
original selections were made in 1922; row on the right is strani
E-24-6, a vigorous and fairly resistant type.

F~ebruarly, 1931


Treat For Housewives
Offered in New State
Department Bulletin
"Florida Fruits and Vegetables,"
very beautifully illustrated, and con-
taining many pages of interesting
and useful information to house-
wives and others interested in the
preparation of our fruits for the
table, has recently been published
by the State Department of Agricul-
ture at Tallahassee. The bulletin is
written by Mary A. Stennis, Consul-
ant Nutritionist with the department.
Miss Stennis states that requests
have already come from thirty states
for this bulletin, twice the number
printed having been requested. The
department has found it necessary to
have a reprint made of double the
number of the first edition.
The bulletin was written with the
purpose of interesting health and
home economics teachers, as well as
home makers, in the greater use of
products from Florida farms.
Perhaps the most striking part of
the bulletin is its pages of Florida
fruits and vegetables illustrated in
color. The products are pictured in
an unusually accurate and lifelike
manner, showing careful work on the
part of the artist. Other illustra-
tions, not in color, portray various
other fruits and vegetables grown in
The introduction describes Flori-
da's adaptability to fruit and vege-
table growing, and the opportuni-
ties provided for using these pro-
ducts on our table.
All of the important horticultural
food products are then discussed as
to their cooking characteristics and
nutritive value. Fully one-half of
the booklet is filled with new and
original recipes, covering the field
of cocktails, sherberts, salads, cooked
vegetables, preserves and desserts.
A section is devoted to mechanics
of cooking, temperature regulation,
flavor preservation, etc. Included in
the bulletin the readers will find
tables of calorie and vitamen con-
tent for the various products.
A copy of "Florida Fruits and
Vegetables," Bulletin 46, will be sent
free upon application to the State
Department of Agriculture, Talla-
hassee, Florida.

Student from College of
Madrid Enrolled at Florida
A transfer student from the Col-
lege of Madrid, Mr. C. A. Pascual,
of Barcelona, Spain, is taking up his
studies here at the University. He
says that the Ag College here is very
similar to the one he formerly at-
tended in Spain. He is particularly
interested in courses in cotton and
tobacco culture, and is specializing in
Agronomy work.
In Spain, Mr. Pascual states, to-
bacco is grown under somewhat dif-
ferent conditions than here in Amer-
ica. Over there the business is nearly
all controlled by one company under
government regulation. There are

about seven thousand acres under
cultivation, with an average produc-
tion of about 1,150 pounds per acre.
The principal varieties grown are Rich
Wonder, Kentucky, Maryland and
Sucker. The company pays from 15
to 20 cents a pound for extra good
quality tobacco, and from 12 to 17
cents a pound for second-class grades.
The taxes there are about $100 per
acre, according to Mr. Pascual. Spain
imports about $20,000,000 worth of
tobacco every year.
Mr. Pascual says that there are
about 12,500 acres of cotton grown
there each year, with an average pro-
duction of 800 to 1000 pounds per
acre. Most of this is grown in the
province of Andalusia, and the culti-
vation will probably not be greatly
extended, due to the adverse climate
for cotton in that country. The most
extensively grown variety is Egyp-

H. Harold Hume Gives
Series of Lectures
To Ag Club
The Agricultural Club has been
very fortunate this year in securing
the well-known horticulturist and
speaker, H. Harold Hume, for a
series of lectures. Mr. Hume, the
author of many authoritative books
on Florida's horticulture, has already
given three of the lectures, the first
being "Florida's Hollies," the sec-
ond "Florida's Flora," and the third
"Persimmons." Three more are to
follow. The next one will be a dis-
cussion of the Ornamentals that have
been introduced into the state from
China and Japan. Following that
will be a lecture on "Azaleas." He
will conclude the series with a talk
on the "Practical Propagation of
Mr. Hume's lectures have attracted
large audiences, composed not only
of members of the Ag faculty and
student body, but those of other col-
leges on the campus as well. Many
Gainesville residents have also taken
these opportunities to hear Mr.
Hume, and it is hoped that they will
continue to feel welcome at all future
Ag Club meetings.

Does Soil Improvement Pay?
The farmers of Northwest Florida
say that it does. The average pro-
duction of corn in one county in
Florida is nine bushels per acre. The
farms are mainly washed, worn, de-
lapidated red hills.
One farm in a county on which
the soil had been maintained, and
probably improved, is making three
times this amount per acre. Aus-
trian winter peas and vetch have
been shown to double the yield of
corn. Crotolaria grown for four
years on a farm in Calhoun County
increased the yield from 25.8 bushels
per acre to 41.2 bushels per acre. In
Suwannee County Crotolaria has in
seven years doubled the yield of
corn on one farm where it has been

Causes and Control
of Black Shank
(Continued from Page 7)
from other fields were made and
treated accordingly.
In 1923 the seed from the above
selections were planted in sterilized
soil, and the healthy seedlings were
then transplanted in parallel rows,
on the same day to a field, which the
year previous was known to have
been heavily infected by black shank
fungus. Blossoms from the healthiest
plants showing the least infection
were saved as in 1922. Certain of
the selections made in 1923 showed
promise of high resistance while
others were very susceptible to black
In 1924 the same process of plant-
ing on sterilized soil, transplanting
the healthy seedlings to infected soil,
bagging the desirable plants at blos-
som time, and careful selection of
seed at harvest time by noting the
degree of infection of the stem and
root systems was carried out. This
season more undesirable types were
eliminated than ever before and spe-
cial attention was given to just three
of the original series in 1925.
The year 1925 showed definite pro-
gress in certain strains over the com-
mercial checks, although some plants
in desirable strains were almost as
susceptible as those in the commercial
checks. Some of the best selected
strains showed marked improvement
in uniformity of growth, vigor, and
resistance to disease over checks and
less desirable strain selections.
In 1925 only one strain of the
original and added selections was
saved to be planted in 1926. Crosses
with plants having desirable charac-
teristics were continued as in prev-
ious years with the hopes of finally
obtaining a strain that would place
the Florida tobacco crop back on its
feet. Constant selections and cross-
ings yielded three very promising
strains in the year 1927. Following
up his success of the previous years,
in the two following years, 1928 and
1929, Dr. Tisdale was able to produce
four excellent strains that combined
good quality of leaf with over a 95
percent healthy rating. Two of these
were especially desirable as to quality
of leaf and resistance to black shank
and are known as strains 94 and 301.
Plantings of these strains, 94 and
301, were made on a commercial
basis in the years 1929 and 1930
respectively. The growers as well
as the buyers expressed their satis-
faction with these two selected
strains. In regards to preference of
these two strains it can be said that
they are equal in offering resistance
to black shank disease. However,
strain 94 is more desirable as to
growth habits in the field and qual-
ity of leaf. It is well to state here
that profits derived by growing these
two strains on black shank infested
soil have proven to be greater than
profits obtained by growing the orig-
inal tobacco on uninfected soil.

February, 1931



Nineteen thirty-one, for extension
workers, has a very promising out-
look. Gardens have been planted by
most of the club workers, and with
good weather to help them along,
great things are to be expected. An
unusually large number of boys and
girls have been enrolled in club work,
and seem very enthusiastic.
Bad weather during December and
January, however, has been quite a
blow to the general truckers and
fruit growers. Agents from most of
these counties report that freezes
and wet weather have caused a heavy
loss to crops, and delayed shipments
that otherwise would have doubtlessly
made money for these sections.
Cooperative hog and chicken sales
have been a source of revenue for a
large number of counties this month,
especially in West Florida. The
prices have held up very well for this
time of year. One home demonstra-
tion agent personally sold a large
flock of Rhode Island Red pullets for
one of her members.
Demonstrations of meat cutting
have been the main feature of a large
number of meetings held by county
agents. The men given these demon-
strations were sent out by the govern-
Many school grounds have been
beautified under the direction of
home demonstration agents. An
important feature of this planting
was the fact that the trees came
from the neighboring woods. Under
the direction of one agent over a
hundred shrubs were set out, as
suggested by Major Floyd of the
Agricultural College.
Now that the west Florida coun-
ties have finished with their fairs the
central and south Florida counties
have started theirs. Of course this
means added work for the agents and
many have kept busy the entire
month on this work.
Cooperative hog sales were con-
ducted at Malone recently and over
1220 hogs were handled through
these sales. The prices received in
this county for hogs have been good,
showing cooperation among the
farmers and agents. They have sold
to date 3178 hogs, weighing 566,633
pounds and selling for $40,172.70.
Poultry sales also conducted bringing
375 farmers, $2,400 for 13500 pounds
of hens, according to S. H. Rountree,
county agent.
This is the rose county. Every
year Osceola county puts on a rose
show that is the talk of the agents.
Miss Albina Smith reports that she
secured 1650 rose bushes on Texas
Wax stock for her club members and
could have sold more if she had
ordered them.

Crotalaria, this fine soil building
crop, has made such successful
growth in beSoto county that county
agent, J. J. Heard, has been able to
sell over $8,000 worth of Crotalaria
spectabilis seed. This variety has
been featured in this county and the
county agent is to be commended on
his success with it. A number of
orders were received that could not
be filled due to the demand for this
particular variety.
Mrs. Bettie Caudle, home demon-
stration agent, reports that four meat
canning demonstrations were held re-
cently and Holmes county farm
women canned 640 cans of meat.
This is another step in emphasizing
the "Live at Home Program."
Three cooperative poultry sales
were recently held in Okaloosa coun-
ty and close to 8,000 pounds of live
chickens and turkeys were sold, ac-
cording to J. W. Malone, county
C. A. Fulford, county agent, re-
ports that his county has sent a whole
carload of vegetables valued at $5,-
000 to the Mississippi and Arkansas
district that is so badly in need at
this time.
Since electricity was installed at
Lake Fern, December 15, different
homes have put in 12 electric refri-
gerators, 7 electric stoves, 5 elec-
tric washing machines, and 2 elec-
tric milk coolers. This equipment
will serve to lighten house work and
will prove economical from the stand-
point of food preservation. Miss
Allie Lee Rush is the home demon-
stration agent for this county.
T. A. Brown, county agent for
Volusia county, attended a con-
ference in Washington, D. C., Janu-
ary 29 in the interest of Florida bulb
growers. The meeting was called by
Lee A. Strong, federal quarantine
inspector, and such topics as restric-
tions on the entry of foreign bulbs
were discussed.

Whole Hog Preserved
A 100-pound hog was recently
made into 45 pints and 16 quarts of
canned meats, 5 pounds of canned
broiled steak, and 15 pounds of fresh
meat by Mrs. A. H. Boynton, farm
woman, near here. She had the heart
and tongue left for cooking, and has
made scrapple from the head. This
was done at a cost of about three
gallons of kerosene and one day's
work. To further supply her pantry
shelf she took 6 hens and canned 14
quarts of chicken, according to Miss
Orpha Cole, home demonstration

Tung-Oil Trees Apparently
Thrive Best on Acid Soils,
Says New Station Bulletin
Bringing up-to-date the experi-
mental knowledge concerning Tung-
oil culture in Florida, a new bulletin
is available for farmers of the state.
The bulletin was written by Dr.
Wilmon Newell, director of the sta-
tion, Harold Mowry, Associate horti-
culturist, and Dr. R. M. Barnette,
associate chemist, and deals with all
phases of Tung-oil tree culture.
It takes up the uses of tung oil,
and compares American production
with that of other countries. A his-
tory of tung oil production in the
United States is included, as well as
a discussion concerning the relation-
ships and adaptability of the tree to
different environments.
Probably the most interesting part
of the new bulletin is its section de-
voted to the culture of the tree, in
which the various problems of soil,
drainage, fertilization and cover-
cropping are taken up, the informa-
tion given being the result of experi-
mental work carried on in this state.
The bulletin, No. 221, entitled
"The Tung-Oil Tree," will be sent
free upon application to the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station at

The Mark of


Nearly fifty years of ex-
perience with Tropical

and Semi-Tropical Horti-
culture is constantly at

your disposal.

Reasoner Brothers'

Royal Palm Nurseries

Established 1883


February, 1931


Recent Trends in the Citrus
Industry of Florida
(Continued from Page 3)
for the grower of grapefruit. The
successful marketing of several car-
loads of frozen orange juice last
season has led to a prompt expan-
sion of this new process and the sale
contracts already made point to the
development of an important in-
dustry. Fruit that is scarred, rus-
set, small in size or otherwise un-
suited for shipment can be utilized
for its juice, not only affording a
profitable outlet for this fruit but
removing the temptation to ship in-
ferior appearing fruit to compete
with and lower the price of the
standard grades.
The distribution and merchandis-
ing of this new product is being car-
ried on for the present in connection
with extensive dairy interests. This
simplifies the problem of reaching the
consumer since frozen orange juice
can be delivered with the daily milk
order direct to the consumer in the
amount needed for immediate con-
sumption, whether by a small family
or a large hotel. The recognition
now generally accorded to orange
juice as an important aid to health,
especially in the proper nutrition of
growing children and invalids, makes
this innovation a matter of great
significance, with the increasing ten-
dency, shown in the recent census,
for our population to concentarte in
large cities where they suffer from
a deficiency of sunshine there is need
for this sort of "bottled sunshine,"
with its high content of life-giving
vitamins, not only in the normal
orange shipping season but through-
out the year.
The development of these so-called
by-product uses of grapefruit and or-
anges has come at an opportune time
as the area of young groves soon to
come in bearing in Florida and espe-
cially in extreme south Texas gives
promise of an expansion of the crop
too rapid to be absorbed by the nor-
mal market demand during a six-
months shipping season.
Another new factor of less im-
portance but having especial interest
is the beginning of a domestic citron
industry. The citron was the first
of the citrus fruits to be introduced

into the Mediterranean region from
the Orient and was cultivated for
centuries before the orange and the
lemon were even known in that reg-
ion. It is still an important fruit in
these countries bordering on the Med-
iterranean. Early attempts to grow
the citron in this country apparently
did not meet with success and prac-
tically all citron used in our fruit
cakes and plum puddings has been
for many years imported from Italy,
Corsica or neighboring localities.
From three to four million pounds
are imported annually, an amount to
make it worth while to try produc-
ing citron at home. The true citron,
which resembles a large, coarse lem-
on, and grows on a tree like the
lemon, should not be confused with
the "melon citron" which grows on
a vine and resembles a small water-
melon. There is a small variety of
the true citron, known as the Etrog,
cultivated chiefly on the island of
Corfu off the coast of Greece, where
it is grown solely for use by the
Jewish people in the religious cere-
monies connected with the Feast of
the Tabernacles. The fruit must be
perfect in every way and good speci-
mens bring from twenty-five to fifty
cents each.
One of the largest importers of
citron has recently established groves
of citron in Florida and Porto Rico
which are beginning to supply a part
of the demand. Citron groves have
also been planted in California in
recent years. The production and
fruit quality of the home-grown cit-
ron thus far has been satisfactory,
though the extreme tenderness of the
tree requires that plantings be re-
stricted to regions practically free
from killing frost or else that the
trees be protected by fires in cold
weather. The fruit itself is inedible
except in the candied or preserved
form; the thick, solid rind is the por-
tion that is used for preserving. The
acid pulp makes up only about one-
quarter of the volume of the fruit,
in marked contrast with most other
citrus fruits. The manufacturer of
candied or preserved citron accept-
able to the trade is a special art,
requiring experience and rather ex-
pensive apparatus, so that citron
growing is likely to be profitable only
in the hands of a few specialists.

Cumberland and Liberty Mills Co.




Flour, Grits, Meal, Beans, Peas, Rice, Sugar, Cotton Seed
Meal and Hulls, Corn, Oats, Hay and Feed of All Kinds

Some Citrus Novelties
With a large supply of standard
citrus varieties in prospect, citrus
growers who specialize in the private
order trade are seeking out new
fruits of especial appeal for their ap-
pearance or unusual flavor. This
phase of the industry is bringing into
favor two varieties of grapefruit hav-
ing pink flesh. Both of these fruits
originated as mutations or bud sports
of standard grapefruit varieties. It
is rather remarkable that both these
mutations came to light in groves
only a few miles apart in Manatee
county, Florida. One of these pink-
fleshed varieties, a seedy fruit like
the parent variety, the Walters, is
known as the Foster; the other, a
seedless fruit like its parent, the
Marsh Seedless, is called the Thomp-
The use of these novel fruits is not
now confined to the fancy trade as
they are beginning to find favor in
the regular channels of wholesale
In the search for new and non-
competitive fruits, the tangelos are
also finding increased favor, espe-
cially in Florida. These tangelos are
hybrids introduced by the United
(Continued on Page 12)

Rose Growing Discussed in
New College Bulletin
"Although roses require an abun-
dance of water, they cannot stand
wet feet.", states the new rose bul-
letin recently published by the Agri-
cultural Extension Service at Gaines-
The bulletin, discussing all phases
of rose culture in this state, was writ-
ten by W. L. Floyd, Proffessor of
Horticulture, and John V. Watkins,
Assistant Horticulturist, of the Flori-
da College of Agriculture.
The authors discuss their favorite
dozen varieties for Florida, and in-
cluded a description of each. Other
good varieties for this state are also
The bulletin takes up the prob-
lems of propagation, soil prepara-
tion, planting cultivation and prun-
ing, that rose lovers in the state often
encounter, and also bring out the im-
iportance of choosing proper loca-
tions. Insect and disease control
methods are given, and a section is
devoted to commercial rose growing.
A free copy of the new bulletin
will be sent free upon request to the
Agricultural Extension Service at

RF"A ","a


s R7 he


February, 1931



The 4-H Club Exhibits at
the South Florida Fair
Exhibits by 4-H club members were
unusually good at the South Florida
Fair this year. The individual ex-
hibits of corn and cotton gathered
from the leading clubs of the state
gave ample proof of the club's motto,
"To Make the Best Better." The
well-planned cotton booth showed to
advantage the best stalks, bolls, lint
and seed of the clubs of West Flor-
ida. Being the only exhibit of its
kind at the fair, it attracted con-
siderable attention and favorable
The corn club exhibit composed of
single ear, ten ear and seventy ear,
individual exhibits chosen from the
best clubs in twelve counties, gave a
very good idea of the quality of
corn that can be grown in Florida.
The individual exhibits were artistic-
ally arranged in geometric figures, on
a raised platform about one hun-
dred feet long in the center aisle
opposite the cotton booth. Both yel-
low and white, and small and large
varieties were shown.
The prizes seem to be well dis-
tributed among the counties, as
shown by the individual winners.
Best ten ears of yellow corn (in
order): 1. R. C. Chastain, Sumpter
county; 2. Howard Bell, Walton
county; 3. Tom Bell, Walton county;
4. Van Patterson, Citrus county; 5.
Don B. Rooks, Jackson county; 6.
Odel Jones, Jackson county; 7. Guy
Bryant, Jackson county.
Best ten ears (large eared): 1.
Shelby Parmer, Jackson county; 2.
John Hentz, Liberty county; 3. Frank
Blasey, Escambia county; 4. Herbert
Henley, Walton county; 5. Claude
Byrd, Union county; 6. Fred Goetter,
Escambia county; 7. Steve Mihaly,
Escambia county; 8. Olie Hattoway,
Walton county; 9. Jack Miller, Jack-
son county; 10. Don R. Brooks, Jack-
son county.
Best ten ears (small eared): 1.
David Whiddon, Jackson county; 2. J.
R. Thomas, Union county; 3. Paul
Thompson, Jefferson county; 4.
Andrew Dykes, Jackson county;
5. Millard Young, Madison county;
6. J. Hattoway, Walton county; 7.
John McDaniel, Jackson county; 8.
Carl Adams, Walton county; 9.
Leroy Thorpe, Walton county; 10.
Frank Barnhill, Okaloosa county.
Best bushel (large eared); 1. John
Hentz, Liberty county; 2. Claude
Byrd, Union county; 3. Walter Wil-
liams, Escambia county; 4. Tom Pul-
liam, Madison county; 5. Wilson
Steele, Okaloosa county; 6. Steve
Mihaly, Escambia county; 7. Johnny
Mihaly, Escambia county; 8. Olie
Hattoway, Walton county; 9. Clyde

Codwhead, Okaloosa county; 10.
Herbert Henley, Walton County.
Best bushel (small eared): 1. J.
Reamer Thomas, Union county; 2.
Olie Hathoway, Walton county; 3.
Paul Thomposn, Jefferson county; 4.
Leroy Thorpe, Walton county; 5.
Carl Adams, Walton county; 6.
Holmes Robinson, Okaloosa county;
7. Oliver Strickland, Liberty county;
8. A. D. Strickland, Liberty county;
9. Curry Carter, Walton county; 10.
Andrew Miley, Sumter county.
Best bushel of yellow corn: 1. Van
Patterson, Citrus county; 2. Howard
Bell, Walton county; 3. Tom Bell,
Walton county.
The Grand Champion Bushel was
exhibited by John Hentz of Liberty
county. He also had the best single
The Grand Charpionship of the
Ten-Ear Class went to Shelby Palmer
of Jackson county.

International Harvester
Company Scholarships
This year, 1931, is the one hun-
dreth anniversary of the invention of
the reaper, by Cyrus McCormick.
One way in which the International
Harvester Company will celebrate
this anniversary is by giving $50,000
in scholarships to 4-H Club boys and
girls in the United States. Each of
these awards will amount to $500.
The scholarships will be distributed
geographically as follows:
(a) To ten 4-H Club members in
the East Extension Section, which is
composed of the New England states.
(b) To thirty-five 4-H Club mem-
bers in the South Extension Section,
which includes the states from Texas,
Arkansas, Virginia and Florida.
(c) To forty 4-H Club members
,in the Central Extension Section,
consisting of the North Central states.
(d) To fifteen 4- HClub members
in the West Extension Section, which
comprises the western quarter of the
United States.
In order to secure representation
in the awards for all the diversified
major phases of agriculture, scholar-
ships will be allotted for the dif-
ferent projects as follows: Corn, 16;
Cotton, 7; Small Grains, 6; Potatoes,
:3; Tobacco, 2; Baby beef, 6; Pigs,
10; Sheep, 4; Dairy, 16; Poultry, 8;
Open, including home economics,
fruits, vegetables, etc., 22.
Each entrant must be a bona-fide
4-H Club member in 1931, according
to the state requirements.
Each entrant must be qualified to
matriculate on or before September,
1932, in a regular agricultural or
home economics course.

The record of each contestant must
be approved by the State Club
Basis of Award
The winners of the scholarships
will be selected from the entrants on
the following basis:
1. Effort put forth by the mem-
ber in his or her club project as in-
dicated, primarily, by the 1931 rec-
ord, but all previous 4-H Club rec-
ords must be submitted-30 points.
2. Results and accomplishments of
the entrant in worthwhile activities
in connection with the project and on
the farm, and in the home, club and
community-30 points.
3. Evidence of the scholastic and
leadership ability of the entrant-20
4. Development of the member ac-
cording to the 4-H ideals of training,
Head, Heart, Hand and Health-20
points. Total 100 points.

News Items
Arlington Henley of Walton coun-
ty was awarded the Tom Yon Scholar-
ship as Outstanding Club Boy in his
The Parker Pen Company is offering
two scholarships, one of four hun-
dred dol ars, and the other of
two hundred dollars, for the two
best projects in Farm Records in the
United States.
Ben McLaughlin's Poland China
sow was judged Grand Champion at
the South Florida Fair. The award
was fifteen dollars.

Arthur McNelly's Poland China
boar was judged Junior Champion of
the state, at the South Florida Fair.

Seed Treatment Controls
Sweet Potato Diseases
Treating seed sweet potatoes with
corrosive sublimate is an effective
means for preventing several fungus
diseases that might give trouble later
on, according to Dr. W. B. Tisdale,
plant pathologist for the Florida Ex-
periment Station.
Just before bedding, those pota-
toes that show rots or blemishes
should be discarded. The healthier
ones should be disinfected for five to
eight minutes in a solution of cor-
rasive sublimate made by dissolving
three ounces of the crystal in 24 gal-
lons of water. After 10 bushels have
been treated add one-half ounce more
of the crystals, make up to 24 gallons
with water and treat 10 more bushels.
The solution should then be discard-
ed. He advised bedding the potatoes
as soon as they are treated. Cor-
rasive sublimate is a deadly poison,
and should be handled with care.

February, 1931


Stock Judging Contest
Prize Winners Announced
Results of the stock judging con-
test conducted by teams from Flor-
ida colleges and universities at the
Gasparilla Fair held in Tampa were
announced here today by Paul D.
Camp, acting superintendent of the
live stock judging contest.
Taking first prize for the most out-
standing individual judging was R.
M. Fagalie of Monticello. Second
prize was won by J. A. McClellan,
Monticello, and third prize was won
by G. Whitfield of Trenton, all of the
University of Florida.
Prizes were offered by the Gaspar-
illa Fair Association for these con-
tests which are conducted for the
promotion of live stock raising and
judging by students in Florida agri-
cultural colleges.

A Possible New Friend for
the Florida Citrus Grower
(Continued from Page 5)
are very desirable as food for the
mealybug and in this way a large
population of the pests was obtained
in the screen-enclosed laboratory.
Through the courtesy of the Cali-
fornia Experiment Station, a colony
of Cryptolaemus beetles were re-
ceived at the Citrus substation. These
beetles at once set to work feeding
on the mealybugs. Up to the present
time they have greatly increased in
numbers and have shown satisfac-
torily their ability to reduce the
mealy bug population very mater-
Whether this beetle will firmly
establish itself in Florida is now a
question which cannot satisfactorily
be answered. We have no data on
which to base an opinion. It is a
new insect to our fauna and whether
or not it will adapt itself to our
climatic conditions time only can tell.
At the present time steps are con-
templated to liberate these beetles in
various parts of the citrus belt and
we are greatly in hopes that it will
find our State to its liking. As an
aggressive enemy of one of the citrus
industry's potential pests, it should
prove itself a boon to the Florida
citrus grower.

Recent Trends in the Citrus
Industry of Florida
States Department of Agriculture,
and are the result of crosses between
the grapefruit and the tangerine or-
ange. Two varieties, the Thornton
and Sampson, have been under cul-
tivation for about fifteen years.
Rather lately, however, with the in-
crease in use of citrus juices, it has
been found that the juice of the
Sampson tangelo makes an especially
fine-flavored drink, which bids fair
to become a rival of the other fruit
juices, especially since a small quan-
tity of the tangelo juice added to
other fruit juices imparts a peculiar
tang or zent to the combination that
is unique and most palatable.
The Meyer lemon, an introduction
of the United States Department of
Agriculture from China, is proving

well adapted to most of Florida and
to warmer parts of the Gulf Coast
and promises to supply a local need
for lemons in this region, at least dur-
ing a part of the year. The Eustis
limequat, a hybrid between the lime
and kumquat, introduced by the
United States Department of Agri-
culture, is another lemon substitute
that is demonstrating its value in
Florida where it has proven to be
practically everbearing. At the same
time, it is much hardier and much
more disease-resistant than the lem-
on or lime.
These are only a few of the ex-
amples which illustrate the fact that
a modern fruit industry can not be-
come stationary and succeed. Change
is constant and the citrus grower who
will succeed must be alert and ready
to meet, if not anticipate, the inevit-
able changes in the old order of pro-
duction and consumption.

Lofton Elected To Ag
Club Presidency
At a recent meeting of the Agri-
cultural club, W. Travis Lofton of
Summerfield, Florida, was elected
president for the next two months
term of office. Lofton is a senior in
the Agricultural college, majoring in
Smith-Hughes work. He has held all
of the other offices in the club, and
has been prominent in activities since
his freshman year. At the present
time he is a member of the Honor
Court, and managing editor of the
College Farmer.
Sidney Wells, from Winter Haven,
was elected vice-president in charge
of the club programs. Wells has just
completed a successful term as presi-
dent, and because of his experience
in that office, the Ag Club may be
assured some fine entertainment dur-
ing the next two months. Jack
Greenman, former vice-president,
was elected club reporter at this
meeting. Greenman is from Gaines-
ville. He has also been prominent in
Ag activities, being a member of
Alpha Zeta and business manager of
the College Farmer.
Fred Barber, of Pensacola, was
given the office of secretary-treas-
urer. Barber is a sophomore, and
succeeds M. A. Boudet into the of-
fice. Boudet, a junior, was elected
critic. His home is in Lake Worth.

Philippine Student Take Up
Graduate Work Here
Born on the Island of Luzon,
Philippines, Gervacio E. Juan re-
ceived his grammar school education
there. He came to the United States
about five years ago, intending to
enter the University of Chicago, as
he had friends in that city. En route
to the Windy City, however, the train
had a 50 minute layover at Fargo,
South Dakota. During this brief
time he met a fellow countryman,
who had left the Philippines a few
years in advance of his own de-
parture, working in the railroad sta-
tion. Mr. Juan staid over at Fargo,
and decided to enter the University
of South Dakota, at Brookings, in-


The "Industrial Collegian," weekly
publication, stresses and makes ap-
parent the well-founded custom pe-
culiar to South Dakota State Col-
lege, that of "no-date dances." Al-
though South Dakota is co-educa-
tional, taking dates to a dance there
is unusual. We should surmise that
the "no-date" custom is doubtless
conducive to the presence of a large
number of girls who would be other-
wise barred by the ascribed impro-
priety of a young lady's appearing
at a public dance unescorted.
The Penn State Farmer narrates
the fact that Penn State Jessie 2nd.
has gone to the local butcher, thus
to complete her service to mankind.
Jessie was the second of two animals
to have a permanent window placed
in her left side, in this fashion per-
mitting first hand critical study of
her rumen, or first stomach. Bacterial
count and changes therein, as well
as vitamin studies, were the specific
reasons for placing this window in
the cow's side. Incidently, this un-
usual procedure did not interfere
with the normal functioning of the
animal body, for during the experi-
ment, Jessie gave birth to a calf.
In her page "Through Our Wide
Windows", the Cornell Countryman
gives note to George William Rus-
sell's contention that any group, such
as the American farmer composes,
cannot be economically successful as
long as it is forced to buy at retail
and sell at wholesale. George Wil-
liam Russell is a distinguished Irish
poet and prominent figure in Irish
agricultural economics. He is a sched-
uled speaker on this year's Farm and
Home Week at Cornell.
To the Cornell Countryman, for
winning two awards offered by the
Agricultural College Magazines, As-
sociated, one for the best magazine,
and the other for the best set of cover
pages for the year, we extend our
The Alabama Farmer claims two
winners, (1) a little red hen, Lady
Peacock, Rhode Island Red, current
national champion of her breed with
341 eggs to her credit for one year's
work and (2) the Ag Fair, sponsored
by the Ag Club, and offering a rol-
licking good time to all.
stead. There he took a four year
course in Agriculture, working under
Mr. Juan has secured the fellow-
ship formerly held by Marshall
Deonier, who received his Master's
Degree here last June. He will work
under the direction of Dr. Camp and
Major Floyd, studying the influence
of rough lemon and sour orange stock
on certain characteristics of the fruit
of the cions.

I -

I -

February, 1931

Our Alumni

Clinton B. Van Cleef, '24, is
Greenhouse Foreman at the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station in
John Perlin Camp, '26, is now As-
sistant Agronomist at the Experi-
ment Station. He is married and
lives in Gainesville.
John Thomas Creighton, '26, is in-
structor in Entomology and Plant
Pathology at the College of Agricul-
ture in Gainesville.
Ralph Davis Dickey, '27, is assist-
ant professor and acting head of the
department of Entomology and Plant
Pathology in the College of Agricul-
Aubrey Ellsworth Dunscomb, '29,
of Lynn Haven, is pursuing graduate
work at the university. He is a
graduate assistant in horticulture
and is working for his masters degree
on the root systems of Tung-oil trees.
Robert Spencer Edsall, '30, is also
taking graduate work at the univer-
sity. He holds the Chilean Nitrate of
Soda fellowship, and is studying the
effects of various fertilizers on citrus
William Raymond Lyle, '30, is a
graduate assistant in horticulture at
the Agricultural Experiment Station
here. He is working for his master's
degree on avocado refrigeration and
Richard Kenneth Vorhees, '30, is
another graduate student, and is
working on corn diseases under the
direction of Dr. Eddins at the Ex-
periment Station. He expects to get
his M. S. degree this June.
Louis W. Zeigler, '30, is assistant
entomologist at the Agricultural Ex-
periment Station here. An article by
Mr. Zeigler appears in this issue of
the College Farmer.
Editor's note:
Beginning next month, this column
will be headed "Former Students."
It has been felt that in bringing only
news of the alumni, we fail to cover
a representative portion of our form-
er students. For that reason, we
shall attempt in the future to pre-
sent a widened field, covering former
students whether they hold degrees
or not. This change will be made in
response t o numerous suggestions
sent in to the College Farmer. We
welcome any further advice that will
help make the magazine of greater
interest and value to our readers.

Frenchman: "You have to fill in
the nationality blank also, sir. You
are a Spaniard, "N'est ce pas?"
Spaniard: "No sir. I am English.
My mother and father were English."
Frenchman: "But you were born in
Spaniard: "That's nothing. If your
dog had pups in the china closet,
would you call them soup plates?"

What of the Future?

SN the near future citrus growers' prob-
lems will be solved, citrus marketing
problems will be solved-they must be-to
a point where the individual grower will
reap a gratifying profit on his monetary and
physical investment. As a matter of abso-
lute truth the Citrus Industry will be

Only three points in the United States-Florida,
California and Texas raise citrus fruits in com-
mercial quantities. This means that the fruit grow-
ers of these states hold a virtual manapoly on citrus
fruit-and properly distributed, the citrus growers
will reap their full measure of profit from this mon-
opoly just as surely as do the shareholders in steel,
oil, or radio or the owner of a patented article for
which there is a popular demand.

So we repeat that the future of the Citrus Industry
will be just what the growers make of it-and it is
our sincere belief that the year 1931 will see much
more made of his opportunities than the grower has
ever made of them before.


Tampa BEL Florida
Nc .

805 Citrus Exc. Bldg.

35th St. and 4th Ave.


McCormick Deering Tractors


Farm Operating Equipment

International Harvester Ccmpanv

435 E. BAY ST.



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The College



of the

University of


offers the best training for
Florida boys in all lines of
agricultural production
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B.S. degree, with special-
ization in Horticulture,
Agronomy, Animal Hus-
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College of



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