Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00003
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

The FL





Sophie 19th's Victor 81st
Florida's New Junior Herd Sire
This blue-blooded bull calf has just been presented by Win. R. Kenan, Jr.,
president of the Florida East Coast Railway Company, to Dr. Wilmon
Newell, director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, to be
used in the Station's dairy herd. Particulars will be found on page 6.


15 Cents

Vol. II, No. 1


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Contents for November

Forwarding the Prosperity of Florida's Agriculture
By Wilmon Newell- -----
Our Changing Agriculture-By W. L. Floyd -
Urea in 1828 Versus Urea in 1928-By H. W. Jones -
Grape Growing in Florida-By E. L. Lord -
Ten Hardy Shrubs-By John V. Watkins -
The Production and Use of Alcohol-By Sidney Wells
Effect of Climate on Production-By M. A. Bondet -

- 4
- 5
-- 4






for agricultural

Editorial- --
Our Alumni -
Florida 4-H Club News
Organizations -
Exchanges -

- - - 6
- - - 10
- - - 11
- - - 12





Fertilize ers

due to the generous amount of organic Nitrogen (al-
most entirely from Genuine Peruvian Guano) used in
their make-up.
Plan now to use NACO Brand Fertilizers. Results will prove the
wisdom of your choice. Bigger yields of improved quality fruit and
truck will bring added profits.









November, 1930


Forwarding the

Prosperity of

Florida's Agriculture....

The FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER occupies a unique place in the agricul-
tural field. Primarily it is, of course, a student's publication but its field
of usefulness extends beyond the student body and is by no means
limited to the campus. It has a valuable service to render to agricultural
interests over the entire state.
To members of the student body it offers opportunity for acquiring
skill in presenting information and knowledge to others and in better
preparing themselves for service to others in the future.
The publication can, and doubtless will, carry to the alumnae an
intimate and continuous picture of agricultural activity at the institu-
tion: and it may well be said that the alumnae of all the Colleges are
vitally interested at this time in Florida agriculture and everything per-
taining to it.
It can also serve as a connecting medium between the College and those
staff members, the county and home demonstration agents, whose duties
keep them far afield and who can spend but little time on the campus.
Finally, but by no means least, it is confidently anticipated that the
FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER will carry in its columns articles and infor-
mation of real value to all those, on the campus and off of it, who are
interested in forwarding the prosperity of Florida's agriculture.
Dean and Director


Nov'nembr, 7 :-.0I


"Florida First"


Our Changing Agriculture

EVEN the casual observer realizes
that important changes in farm
practice have taken place in recent
years and are still going on. One who
gives more careful consideration finds
certain definite factors involved in
bringing about those changes, which
should be given consideration by all
interested in progress and advance-
Some of these are: the introduc-
tion of the internal combustion en-
gine for transportation and power;
the increase of new types of labor
saving machinery; the improvement
of plants and animals by selection
and breeding; the control of insect
pests and diseases; a more thorough
knowledge of soils, their adaptations,
proper physical and chemical condi-
tion; and conservation of fertility.
Since 1880 the volume of produc-
tion per agricultural worker on the
farms of the United States has
doubled. This increase has not been
met by a corresponding increase in
demand, thus tending in some prod-
ucts to over production and a con-
sequent reduction of profits. We
need to give ourselves no alarm,
therefore, about the drift away from
the farms. Those who go can well
be spared. The efficient, progressive,
industrious ones who remain, and
the young who from inclination, en-
vironmental influences and training
go into it prepared for advanced posi-
tions, will take care of the world's
Proper grading, packing, distribut-
ing and marketing are more vital
problems than ever before. Though
cooperation in disposing of agricul-
tural products is receiving more care-
ful thought and effort than ever be-
fore, much is yet to be accomplished,
but the menace of over production is
being minimized, more satisfactory
returns for the careful and progres-
sive secured, and prospects for the
future made brighter.
Agriculture has all that science
and invention can offer for its im-
provement and operation, but re-
quires leaders to aid in understand-
ing and applying them to practical
every day problems. There is un-
doubtedly much yet to determine and
many new or different applications
to make.
There are groups and individual
farmers who for lack of leadership
are yet too near the margin of bare


W. L. Floyd

Major Floyd, Vice-Dean of
the College of Agriculture, has
been closely associated with
agricultural work in Florida for
many years. He was with the
college in Lake City before it
was moved to Gainesville, and
has had opportunity to notice
the important growth that has
taken place since that time.

existence for the good of the com-
munity or the state. These should be
shown a better way or encouraged to
do something else.
Leaders are needed to train and
develop such boys in the rural dis-
tricts as are, by environment, interest
and desire to learn, receptive to
training and guidance in the basic
principles and the art of applying
them in solving their problems.
The work of the 4-H boys is na-
tion wide; starting with the young-
sters on the farms, our club leaders
tactfully securing the cooperation of
the dads in their boys club projects,
with an acre of land, a calf, pig, or
hens; by advice and encouragement
in selecting good seed, pure bred
stock, followed by the practice of
right methods and well directed work,
are laying foundations for Master
farmers of the future.
Agricultural Schools, under the
trained leadership of teachers pre-
pared for the important tasks com-
mitted to them, are carrying on the
work begun in many instances in club
work, and training boys of high
school age in the principles and prac-
tice of scientific agriculture.
Research workers of Experiment
Stations are investigating perplexing
agricultural problems in each state;
their accomplishments are growing in
importance and value each year. For
the continuance and extension of
such work men must be trained so
that their results may be in accord
with scientific principles and modern
What the research workers find
out to be of greatest value must be
promptly taken out to the farmers
by those who can explain and apply
the knowledge thus acquired. Often

the quiet retiring investigator is not
well fitted to present results in a
practical forcible way to the man in
the field. For this task persuasive,
tactful, well informed Demonstration
Agents are selected.
Serious disease and insect pests
have gained entrance into our fields
and groves, which must be eradicated
or controlled. A knowledge of their
life histories and remedies which may
be effectively used against them is
necessary to successful control. An
organization of trained and prop-
erly equipped men is also needed to
keep out those not yet here.
There is in every State of the
Union a Land Grant College, estab-
lished by National Land Grant Act,
and now supported in part by federal
and in part by state funds.
The statement of purpose of these
colleges in the original National Act
was as follows:
"Without excluding other scientific
and classical studies, and including
Military Tactics, to teach such
branches of learning as are related
to agriculture and the Mechanic Arts
* to promote the liberal and
practical education of the industrial
classes in the several pursuits and
professions of life."
The requirement "to teach" has
been interpreted to include conduct-
ing scientific research in order that
the matter taught may be accurate
and applicable to practical problems.
The requirement "to promote the
liberal and practical education of the
industrial classes in the several pur-
suits and professions of life," has
been interpreted as an obligation to
carry on extension work; as only a
small fraction of the people in our
industrial classes can ever enroll in
The College of Agriculture, of the
University of Florida, was provided
for by State Legislature to take ad-
vantage of the National Land Grant
Act. After delays and unsuccessful
efforts to establish the college in dif-
ferent places, it was located in Lake
City and began work in 1884. By the
Buckman Act of 1905 it became a
part of the University of Florida,
established at Gainesville. Its efforts
to direct educational endeavor in the
direction of the broad lines of state
and national welfare, requires the
united efforts teachers, research
workers and extension leaders.


Urea In 1828 Versus Urea In 1928

UREA is quite an interesting com-
pound even if considered only
from a historical standpoint. From
the first development of chemistry
until the early part of the nineteenth
century, this science was classified as
inorganic or mineral chemistry, and
organic chemistry. This separation
was based on the assumption that for
the formation of an organic com-
pound a certain vital force was neces-
sary. This opinion was overthrown
in 1828 by Frederich Wohler who
succeeded in preparing urea artific-
ially. By heating potassium cyanate
and ammonium chloride together he
synthesized urea from inorganic com-
pounds. This was the birth of "The
Chemistry of the Carbon Com-
pounds" or organic chemistry, as it
is recognized today, for Wohler had
definitely proven that life processes
are not essential for the production
of organic compounds.
Since Wohler's classic discovery
in 1828, methods have been perfected
which make it possible to synthesize
this compound in large quantties
economically. Consequently attempts
are being made to use it as a source
of nitrogen for plant food.
If one stops for a moment to con-
sider some of the physical and chem-
ical properties of urea its possibilities
as a fertilizer are evident. It is a
white crystalline material, on:y
slightly hygroscopic and easy to han-
dle. Also it contains, in commercial
form, about forty-five per cent nitro-
gen or fifty-five per cent ammonia.
This is a highly concentrated source
of nitrogen and therefore has the
advantage of reduced cost of trans-
portation and handling.
However, before a new compound
is used extensively as a fertilizer it
is usually tested for its efficiency as a
plant food. This is done by observing
its effects on plants under fie'd con-
ditions, and measuring the changes
which it undergoes in the soil by
standard methods of chemical anal-
Before considering the changes
which urea undergo in the soil, let
us go back and consider the role
which this compound plays in the
nitrogen cycle. Long before Wohler
synthesized urea in the laboratory it
was known to be present in the ex-
cretions of animals, chiefly in urine,
as a result of life processes.
Wherever accumulations of this
waste product of animals occur in
nature fermentation sets in provided
certain bacteria are present. The
bacteria, during their life processes,
produce an organic ferment or
enzyme known as urease, which by its
catalytic activity produces ammonium
carbonate from the urea. Thus we
often detect the odor of ammonia
around places of sewage disposal.
Since commercial urea is no differ-


H. W. Jones

Mr. Jones, who recently re-
ceived his B.S. degree at Clem-
son Col:ege, is now taking
graduate work at Florida. He
is a graduate assistant in chem-
istry at the Experiment Station.

ent chemically than urea which is
contained in excretions from animals
it undergoes a similar change when
applied to the soil, and the ammonia
formed is absorbed by the soil. Other
bacteria present in the soil oxidize
the ammonia to nitrous acid, and still
others oxidize the nitrous acid to
nitric acid. The nitric acid thus
formed, being a strong acid, immedi-
ately reacts with the bases present in
the soil and form nitrate salts.
Though it has been proven that
plants can utilize nitrogen in the
form of ammonia to a limited extent,
depending on the stage of growth of
the plant, it is a common fact that
nitrate nitrogen is the form most
readily available for plant growth.
Therefore, for urea to be an ideal
fertilizer it must be readily converted
to ammonia and absorbed by the soil,
for in this condition nitrogen is least

removed from the soil by the action
of leaching rains. The ammonia must
then be readily oxidized to nitrates
in which form the nitrogen can be
utilized by plants. These changes de-
pend on a number of factors, e.g.;
temperature, moisture, and physical
conditions of the soil.
A French worker, Ch. Brioux, has
done some work on the influence of
urea on the reaction of the soil. He
treated a slightly acid soil (pH 6.45)
with a solution of urea to a concen-
tration of one-tenth of one per cent.
The moisture of the soil was main-
tained at eighteen per cent, and the
temperature was that of room con-
ditions. The pH increased pro-
gressively to 7.1 after seven hours
and to 8.00 after forty-eight hours
where it remained after fifteen days.
Qualitative tests indicated a corres-
ponding decrease in urea and increase
in ammonia, the urea practically dis-
appearing after twenty-four hours.
This indicates that urea acts first
as an alkali because of its rapid
conversion to ammonia, but as nitri-
fication takes place its action be-
comes distinctly acidifying due to the
development of nitric acid.
A large number of workers have
investigated this material under both
laboratory and field conditions. In a
great number of cases the results
indicate that urea is a favorable fer-
tilizer material.

Effect of Climate on Production


M. A. Boudet, '32

ALTHOUGH this season will go
down in history as one of the
greatest drought years of recent
times, the damage done was most
severe in the North, East and West.
The southern states did not suffer in
anywhere near the same proportion
that the other states did. However,
the lack of rainfall during the months
of August and September delayed the
fall flush of citrus in some sections
until October. Trees which put out
a heavy flush of growth as late as
the latter part of October will prob-
ably produce only a light bloom next
spring. In cases where there is only
a little new growth the effect will
be of little material importance.
The drought in the North is now
practically broken, but there are still
large areas in the eastern and cen-
tral parts of the country that are
suffering considerably. The problem
in those sections is serious. Not only
lave the summer crops been reduced
but many of the new ones are already
past help.
The coming winter is going to be
a hard one for livestock owners. The

country's feed crop is not evenly dis-
tributed. As a whole it is sufficient,
but much of it must be transferred
from sections having a surplus to
areas where there is a shortage.
Farmers are now storing all the feed-
stuffs available to last out the win-
ter. The sacrificing of some live-
stock might even become necessary.
The price of Florida potatoes is
largely influenced by the supply of
northern potatoes kept in storage. If
the North can no more than maintain
itself, it would seem that Florida po-
tatoes ought to bring a better price
this coming season. The advantages
of this better price will be offset,
however, if northern grown seed be-
comes more expensive.
Corn has an average yield in the
United States of 28 bushels per acre,
but this year it will go far below this
level. The estimate is 19 bushels per
acre, nine bushels under average.
Not only was the yield of corn
affectedin the North by the drought,
but in some portions of the South it
was lessened by excessive rainfall.

November, 1930


Grape Growing In Florida

YOUR editor has placed me in a
curious position by asking me to
discuss the general topic "Grape Cul-
ture in Florida." I am much like
the inoffensive bystander who inter-
fered between an Irishman and his
wife when they were having their
usual daily row.
There are individuals who repeat
in all seriousness that the grape in-
dustry is capable of the same de-
velopment in Florida which the citrus
industry has made. Then there is
another group who say that there is
not and cannot be a grape industry
in Florida. I recently heard two
horticulturists solemnly assure each
other that there was at this time no
grape industry in Florida; although
to spare my feelings, which they
thought might be hurt, they agreed
that it was barely possible that one
might be developed. As far as I can
ascertain neither of these gentlemen
had ever seen a bearing vineyard of
Munson Hybrid grapes in Florida.
Why is it that there are so many
that are unduly pessimistic, and why
are there so many who believe that
we must seriously reckon with grape
culture in considering the future
horticulture of Florida?
Let us see if we cannot find upon
what grounds these men take such
conflicting positions. Taking the
negative side first we find that many
experiments were carried on with
European and northern varieties of
grapes during the last decades of the
nineteenth century. As a result of
these experiments it was found that
diseases and insects shortened the
life of the vines and injured the prod-
uct so seriously that grape growing
was financially a very undesirable
proposition. During the same period
the Munson Hybrids were developed,
but were not thoroughly tested in
The production of the Munson
hybrid varieties made it possible to
avoid the worst pest of the grape in
the South, the grape phylloxera, as
these vines have a high resistance to
the attacks of this insect. A varying
resistance to the mildews and an-
thracnose is found in these grapes,
and it is possible to control by spray-
ing the diseases which affect the ap-
pearance and quality of the fruit as
it arrives upon the market.
Besides the important fact that
table grapes have been produced in
moderate quantities and have found
a brisk demand in local and northern
markets which were hitherto bare,
there are other factors which have
stimulated planting. The shorter time
which elapses between planting and
income; the rapidity with which nur-
sery stock can be produced; the curi-
ous uses which are made of its by-
products; serious sermons on citrus
overproduction and diversification;

E. L. Lord

Professor Lord, well known
in Florida's horticultural cir-
cles, is president of the Florida
Grape Growers Association. His
contacts with the grape situa-
tion in this state form a sound
basis around which this discus-
sion is centered.

the demand for quick action made by
development agencies who wish to
make raw land more salable; the
ever-present specter of frost and
freeze damage to more tender crops;
all of these favor the increase in
number and size of vineyards. The
dissemination of doubtful statements
and heavy advertising of nursery
stock do not make for a lessened
Like any other horticultural in-
dustry, it has suffered much: con-
scienceless misnaming of varieties;
heavy planting on poorly drained
soil; exorbitant prices for nursery
stock; extensive plantings in untested
areas; improper and unsatisfactory
methods of pruning and trellising;
insufficient and poorly understood
spraying practices; lack of familiar-
ity on the part of the grower with
viticultural methods; wonderful
scares about new and strange dis-
eases; and the usual crop of optimists
and pessimists.
The primary cause of most of the
troubles which the grape grower en-
counters in Florida lies in the fact
that we. have no fund of widely dis-
seminated knowledge about grapes
from which the prospective grower
may draw. Many who are somewhat
familiar with grape growing in other
localities transplant their advice free-
ly without pruning, so that there has
grown up a large body of misinforma-
tion about grapes in Florida. While
Munson's Foundations of American
Grape Culture is the only extensive
treatise on this type of grape and its
culture in the South, many of its
recommendations do not apply to our
It may be of use to call attention
to some of the most glaring mis-
takes made. It is doubtful if any
vineyard will succeed on soils that
are poorly drained, and it is practic-
ally certain that the life of a vine-
yard that is well cared for will be
no longer than the time that it takes
for the humus to burn out of the soil.
In consequence a desirable grape soil
should be well supplied with humus,
and well drained. Furthermore, a
large amount of organic matter
should be added as available either
in the form of cover crops or of
stable manure.

The proper varieties to plant can
only be found by experiment, either
by the would-be grape grower or by
someone who has acquired experience
with his locality and needs. Unless
there has already been sufficient va-
riety testing in his locality, the
grower must do it himself. The an-
xiety of many to undertake large
acreages in record time, makes them
careless. As a result, large numbers
of poorly selected varieties are plant-
ed. We need a number of cooperat-
ing branch experiment stations to
test out varieties in this state, but I
fear that we have a hundred times
too many, and that these are not as
efficient as might be. Five vines of
any one variety will supply as much
information as five thousand.
The planting of vines too late in
the spring is not a good practice. De-
cember is the best month for plant-
ing, and one-year-old vines should be
used. These should not be allowed
to dry out. Too many vines are lost
by careless handling.
The planting of varieties that are
self-sterile either alone or with an-
other variety on the chance that it
will supply the needed pollen, is a
risky proposition, yet this has been
done in many cases. The plant-ng
of grafted vines produced by graft-
ing varieties on the various wild
forms of the grape, is also a doubt-
ful proposition. In any case large
plantings of this sort are only advis-
able if there has been sufficient pre-
liminary work.
One of the most general mistakes
is that of choosing the wrong type
of trellising and training, and to-
gether with this a lack of definite
ideas of the pruning requirements of
the vine. Many of the various sys-
tems of handling the vine which will
get by in other parts of the United
States result in absolute failure in
Florida when applied to the Munson
Hybrids. The Munson system of
pruning and training which was de-
veloped for this type of grape is by
far the most suitable. In connec-
tion with this system it is unneces-
sary and wasteful to permit the vines
to grow at will during the first season
after planting.
Last, but not least, is careless and
insufficient spraying. The vine does
not need more spraying than the
citrus tree in order to produce good
fruit, but it certainly fails to pro-
duce fruit fit for shipping if spray-
ing is neglected. It is not only neces-
sary that the ordinary sprays be u:eJ
in order to protect the foliage and de-
veloping bunches, but if the fru t is
to arrive on the market in good con-
dition it should neither be covered
with unsightly Bordeaux or be so
badly attacked by fungi that most of
the berries are shelled out and found
at the bottom of the package.

November, 1930


The Florida College Farmer
Published by the Agricultural Club
JAMES H. LYBASS - Business Manager
WILLIAM T. DUNN Circulation Manager
W. Travis Lofton - Managing Editor
J. R. Greenman - State Editor
R. L. Brooks - - Exchange
S. W. Wells - Science
F. W. Barber - 4-H Clubs
R. S. Edsall - Horticulture
M. A. Boudet Agricultural Economics
J. A. McClellan, Jr. - Poultry
W. J. Platt - Animal Husbandry
R. D. Gill - Organizations
A. P. Evans Associate Business Manager
T. J. Jones Assistant Circulation Manager
O. W. Anderson Advertising Manager
T. E. Collins Assistant Business Manager
C. D. Newbern Assistant Business Manager
C. H. Willoughby, Chairman
W. L. Lowry R. M. Fulghum
Subscription One Dollar
Application filed for entry as second-class matter
at the postofice at Gainesville, Florida.


Cover This Month
Sophie 19th's Victor 81st, depicted on our
cover, is a gift from Wm. R. Kenan, Jr., owner
of Randleigh Farm and president of the Florida
East Coast Railway Company, to Dr. Wilmon
Newell, director of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, to be used in the station's
dairy herd.
This new sire comes from a high producing
family. His sire, Sophie 19th's Victor, Gold and
Silver Medal bull, has 30 daughters with 40
Register of Merit records that average 9,884.3
lbs. of milk. 5.51% fat, 544.55 lbs. of butterfat,
all but eight of these records being made at
immature ages. His dam, Sophie's Jetty, has a
mature record of 11,529 lbs. of milk and 609.92
lbs. of butterfat.
The famous cow, Sophie 19th of Hood Farm,
appears four times in his pedigree and consti-
tutes 46 percent of his immediate ancestry. She
is considered one of the greatest producers and
reproducers of all the dairy breeds of cattle.

The Question of Policy
We feel that it is appropriate in this issue to
set forth the policy which we shall endeavor
to carry out during the school year.
The Florida College Farmer is primarily a
student publication. True, it is financed by ad-
vertising and paid circulation, but we are not
strictly a commercial magazine. We aim to
provide an additional means of training for
students in the College of Agriculture that a
commercial publication would not find practical
to attempt. If we could not bring to the students
an opportunity that is now lacking we have no
reason for existence.
Therefore we shall endeavor to exclude all
material from our pages that will not be of
benefit to students directly or indirectly. We
feel that articles of a technical nature will be
just as valuable written by students with the ap-
proval and under the direction of an authorita-
tive expert, as they would be, written by the ex-
pert himself.
Furthermore we realize that in our non-com-
mercial position we will be able to secure arti-
cles of an inspirational and broadening nature
from prominent and respected men outside the
field of professional agriculture, that other mag-
azines could not obtain. We propose to take
full advantage of this opportunity and from
time to time solicit interesting articles from
bankers, legislators, manufacturers, and the like
who no doubt can bring very helpful messages
to our readers.
We will not narrow ourselves to the campus,
yet neither will we attempt to take a hand in
any political or professional differences that
might arise.
The Florida College Farmer should be and
can be made interesting and helpful to each
and every one of its readers, and to that end
we, the staff of 1930-31, pledge our sincere

This is the season of Thanksgiving.
Then let us be thankful.
Let us be thankful for one great right;
The right, when things don't suit us, to say
so and try to make things better.

What Counts
It isn't the job we intended to do
Or the labor we've just begun
That puts us right on the Ledger Sheet
It's the work we have really done.

Our credit is built on the things we do,
Our debit on things we shirk,
The man who totals the biggest plus
Is the man who completes his work.

They do me wrong who say I come no more,
When once I knock and fail to find you in;
For every day I stand outside your door,
And bid you wake and rise to fight and win.

November, 1930

November, 1930


Ten Hardy Shrubs

RECENT years have witnessed a
remarkable development in the
use of broadleaved evergreen shrubs
in our Florida gardens. Nevertheless
one occasionally sees a home that
could be made much more beautiful
by judiciously using members of this
great group of plant materials as
hedges, screens, foundation plantings
or specimens.
In this short article I shall describe
my favorite ten hardy broadleaved
evergreen shrubs. For the most part
they are easy to grow and reasonably
free from pests.
Azalea-(Rhododendron spp.) The
azalea well deserves its place as the
foremost flowering evergreen shrub
in the lower south. Scores of admir-
able varieties are on the market to-
Azaleas cannot stand alkaline soils,
so one must be certain that the soil
where they are grown be acid. Muck,
peat, and leaf mold are usually acid
and should be liberally used in azalea
beds. A yellowish condition of the
leaves usually indicates the presence
of lime, in which case alum (alum-
inum sulfate) applied at the rate of
a half pound to the square yard is
recommended as a cure.
Azaleas may be planted three feet
apart but alternate plants should be
moved when they begin to crowd.
Castor pomace, cotton seed meal
and muck are good fertilizers. A
mulch of oak leaves is suggested, as
cultivation should not be practiced.
Azaleas will tolerate shade if they
do not have to compete too sharply
with tree roots for their food and
Propagation is by cuttings which
are best taken in the summer and
early fall.
Bottle brush. (Callistemon spp.)
This showy group of flowering shrubs
deserves the consideration of the
home owner. Of coarse, straggly
growth, the shrubs when not in bloom
have little to recommend them. How-
ever, the bright red or yellow cylin-
drical flowers that resemble bottle
brushes in. form, are exceedingly
handsome in the spring and early
The bottle brush tolerates adverse
conditions, remaining healthy in sit-
uations that would destroy many
Propagation either by seeds or cut-
tings is considered difficult by most
Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana). The
feijoa, a dense shrub to fifteen feet,
is rapidly gaining in popularity easily
understood when one considers its
hardiness, ease of culture, showy red
and white blossoms and delicious
fruits. The oval leaves of glossy
green above and silvery beneath pro-
duce a charming effect in the garden.


John V. Watkins

Mr. Watkins is assistant in
horticulture at the College of
Agriculture, in charge of its
greenhouses. He has just writ-
ten a bulletin entitled "Herb-
aceous Perennia's for Florida,"
which may be obtained by writ-
ing the Agricultural Extension
Service at Gainesville.

As a screen or low windbreak the
feijoa is especially desirable.
Propagation by seed is quite easy.
Japanese yew (Podocarpus sp.)
Although the Japanese yew is a for-
est tree in its native land, in Florida
it rarely attains much height and is
usually grown as a shrub.
The branches which grow in pic-
turesque shapes are densely covered
with narrow sharp-pointed dark green
leaves. The plant is striking and is
valuable as an accent, or as a sheared
Oleander (Nerium oleander). The
oleanders are so popular that a dis-
cussion of this group is unnecessary.
They should be used much more lib-
erally as screens for unsightly ob-
The single white and double pink
are hardier than most of the varieties
and are suited to north Florida
plantings. Farther south the list of
varieties is much greater.
Propagation is by cuttings in water
or sand.
Pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira).
The pittosporum is widely used in
foundation plantings for which it is
admirably adapted. It is a perfectly
hardy evergreen shrub or small tree
that is quite at home in the lower
south and will succeed where drain-
age is good.
In addition to its adaptability as a
material for foundation plantings the
pittosporum is also valuable as a
hedge plant or tubbed specimen.
The varigated form is one of the
best varigated hardy shrubs and is
often used as an accent in a planta-
tion of that type.
Salt bush (Bacharis halmifolia).
The salt bush is a cosmopolitan native
shrub that is found in great quan-
tities in the woods and waste place
of the Gulf Coast region. Its ability
to withstand adverse conditions rec-
ommends it highly as a material for
our gardens. As it is a rank grower
and gross feeder the salt bush is
scarcely adapted for foundation
planting, but it is an admirable sub-
ject for the border.
The pistilate form should be sel-
ected because of its showiness in the

Wax myrtle (Myrica spp.) The
wax myrtle is a valuable native shrub
which can be identified by the aro-
matic odor which is quite noticeable
when the leaves are crushed. Like
the salt bush, the wax myrtle is a
cosmopolitan native found in the
By judicious pruning it can be
trimmed to almost any desirable
The value of the wax myrtle as a
plant material for our gardens can
not be overestimated and it is difficult
to understand why it is not more
widely used.
Wax privet (Ligustrum lucidum).
The wax privet vies with the pitto-
sporium for first place as a founda-
tion plant. The robust shrub is
densely covered throughout the year
with large, glossy, dark green leaves
and is especially fine for use as a
screen, informal hedge or specimen.
Charming white lilac-like flowers are
borne in the spring.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.
Yellow Jasmine (Jasmine flor-
lidum). This particular species is my
favorite of all the real and so-called
It is a delicate, graceful shrub to
six or seven feet which bears quan-
tities of tiny golden yellow flowers
in the spring. Hardy as far north as
the Carolinas, untroubled by pests, of
charming habit, this jasmine has
much to recommend it but strangely
enough, it is very little used.
Propagation is by cuttings.

Fewer Pumpkin Bugs on
Crotalaria Spectabalis
Pumpkin bugs are far less numer-
ous on Crotalaria spectabalis, or
sericea, than on striata, J. R. Watson,
entomologist with the Florida Experi-
ment Station, has just announced,
after making a large number of field
tests and observations.
Extensive studies at the Citrus Ex-
periment Station, Lake Alfred,
showed none on spectabalis and a fair
infestation on the striata. After mak-
ing many other tests and talking with
growers over the state Mr. Watson
believes that the spectabalis variety
is a much poorer host to pumpkin
bugs since it carries pods for a short-
er season and the pods are larger so
that the bugs can reach the seed only
from one side.

November is still time to plant Ital-
ian rye grass on the lawn, and keep
it green all winter. Two to three
pounds of seed will not hurt the old
grass, but will be sufficient for the
rich green color.

The only hen worth listening to is
the one that says it with eggs.


The Production and Use of Alcohol

SINCE the passing of the Eighteenth
Amendment alcohol has become a
national problem. Arguments have
been heard on every side as to the
evils of its use as a beverage, but
little has been written about it to
enlighten people concerning its pro-
duction and other uses. A substance
demanding such universal attention
should merit a brief discussion in
which other points besides its well-
known actions are considered.
At present prices in the United
States no other process of making
ethyl alcohol (ordinary grain alcohol)
can compete with the fermentation
process. In order to produce alcohol
in large quantities we must use cheap
raw materials. Cereal grains and po-
tatoes are grown extensively all over
the world. In certain regions we
find grapes, in others sugar beets.
From these raw materials alcohol is
made in large quantities compara-
tively cheap.
Vegetables composed chiefly of
starch must be converted into sugars
before fermentation can commence.
A substance called malt (usually ger-
minated barley) acts upon the starchy
material converting it into maltose,
a sugar. This reaction is really
brought about by a compound known
as an "enzyme" which is found in
the malt. After converting the starch
into sugar, yeast is added. As there
are many varieties of yeast organisms
we must be careful to obtain a pure
culture of the type needed. The
yeast used produces an enzyme called
zymase, which at the proper tem-
perature induces fermentation, break-
ing the sugar down into alcohol and
carbonic gas. Most of the latter
escapes. This raw mixture of alcohol,
fusel oil (containing higher alcohols)
carbonic gas and other by-products
has a very unpleasant taste and odor
and must undergo a process of puri-
fication before the purified alcohol
(95% pure) is obtained.
It is possible to produce ethyl alco-
hol directly by the fermentation of
grapes, figs, or sugar beets as these
substances are already in the form of
sugars and therefore do not have to
undergo enzymic action as do the
Another alcohol that we should not
confuse with ethyl alcohol is wood
alcohol, commonly called methyl
alcohol. This alcohol has been pro-
duced for years by heating out of
contact with air such woods as birch,
beach and oak. The vapors given off
are condensed to a liquid composed
of various substances, among them
being methyl alcohol. The latter
product is separated from the others
by fractional distillation.
Common examples where ethyl alco-
hol is a by-product of simple opera-
tions are found in the manufacture
of vinegar, malted beverages, the pro-


Sidney Wells, '31

duction of such fruit juices as cider
and grape juice, fermentation of sil-
age, and in ordinary bread making.
In some of these operations govern-
ment regulations have to be observed.
Intoxicating beverages contain
alcohol as the essential constituent.
Chemists recognize two classes of
such beverages; those undistilled, as
wine and beer, and those distilled, as
whisky, rum, gin and brandy. Beer
contains from 3 to 5 percent alcohol
and wine from 5 to 10 percent alco-
hol. Champagne is made by ferment-
ing grapejuice in tightly closed bot-
tles so that the carbonic gas pro-
duced in the fermentation process is
only released when the bottle is
opened, causing effervescence. Whis-
key, rum, gin and brandy contain
from 50 to 80 percent of alcohol.
The determination of the percent of
alcohol in beverages has become a
great court problem since prohibition
was put into force in the United
Alcohol for industrial use is com-
monly "denatured," or rendered un-
fit for drinking, by the addition of
one or more different substances.
Such additions may be composed of
methyl alcohol, kerosene, bone oil,
pine oil, benzene, and other similar
substances. For some manufacturing
processes this denatured alcohol can
not be used, so the manufacturers by
special agreements, can obtain the
pure alcohol. The common "medi-
cated alcohol" is a special denatured
alcohol which is used externally.
When using ethyl alcohol as a bev-
erage we must exercise caution to
see that it contains no methyl alcohol
as the denaturing substance. Methyl
alcohol is poisonous. Cases of blind-
ness and even death have been caused
by drinking mixtures containing it.
Even prolonged exposure to its va-
pors have been known to produce
blindness. Methyl alcohol has selec-
tive action upon the optic nerve,
thereby causing temporary or per-
manent blindness. In large quantities
it will prove fatal. In smaller
amounts, whether taken in by the
mouth or absorbed through the skin
or lungs, it will cause serious infla-
mation of the optic nerve.
As to the effect of ethyl alcohol on
the human body there is no doubt
that the body is able to use it to a
limited extent as a food. It is readily
absorbed, digestion being unneces-
sary. Under certain conditions of
ill health physicians will recommend
its administration. However, it must
be classed as a poison. In small doses
ethyl alcohol has a stimulating action
upon the heart. In large doses it pro-
duces unconsciousness and even

death. Physchological tests show
that under the influence of alcohol a
person works less accurately and effi-
ciently, and that his actions are
Another use for ethyl alcohol that
will probably have a world-wide sig-
nificance in the future is its dis-
placement of gasoline as a motor fuel.
At the present time the best substi-
tute that we have for gasoline is
ethyl alcohol. It is superior to gaso-
line in that it is clean, odorless, gives
off no smoke, does not deposit car-
bon in the cylinders, and burns more
efficiently than gasoline. It may
thus actually give more miles per gal-
lon. In special motors built to with-
stand higher compression than in the
present-day types, ethyl alcohol gives
10 to 20 percent more mileage than
gasoline. Alcohol vapor is not in-
flammable unless closely confined, so
that naked lights can be used around
the machine without danger of ex-
plosion. It can be diluted with water
when accidentally ignited and there-
by rendered incombustible.
The disadvantages of alcohol as a
fuel in motors are that it is not
sufficiently volatile to give proper
starting in cold weather, and the
present cost of production is too high
to compete with the price of gasoline
in the quantities now demanded.
Millions of gallons of alcohol are
consumed each year as a solvent in
the manufacture of smokeless pow-
der, celluloid, photographic film,
varnishes, lacquers, explosives, en-
amels, artificial leather, liquid soaps,
tooth pastes, and inummerable other
substances. Lemon and vanilla ex-
tracts, druggist tinctures, hair tonics,
perfumes and other articles familiar
to everyone contain alcohol as a sol-
vent. Alcohol is used as a disin-
fectant and "rub" in our hospitals;
it is used to preserve specimens in
museums; it is used in automobile
radiators to prevent freezing; it is
used in cigar lighters; in small stoves;
and in our homes as a fuel and clean-
ing agent. Such a brief discussion
giving a few of its important uses
serves only to indicate the value of
this organic compound. We would
be without many modern-day con-
veniences were it not for ethyl

Boys Plant Squash
A number of club boys near Cler-
mont have leased five acres of good
irrigated land, and will plant it to
fall squash, County Agent Clifford
R. Hiatt stated. The business men
of Clermont have gone into partner-
ship with the boys, and are furnishing
seed, fertilizer, and half of the con-
tainers for half of the yield from
each boy's plot.

November, 1930



A baseball game being played in
Old Man Jones' pasture broke up in
the seventh inning in an uproar when
Joe Spivis slid into what he thought
was third base.
-Better Methods Magazine.

Lady on Board Ship; "My man,
I suppose you have been in the navy
long enough to become accustomed
to sea legs?"
Seaman; "Lady, I wasn't even
looking at yours."

Villager; "what kind of seed are
you going to plant in your garden?"
Next-door-neighbor; "What do
your chickens like best?"

Wife of patient: "Is there no hope
for my husband?"
Doctor: "That depends upon what
you are hoping for, Madam."

On a farm in South Georgia is
posted this sign: "Trespasser's will be
persekuted to the full extent of 2
mongral dogs which ain't never been
ovarly soshibul with strangers and 1
double barrel shotgun which ain't
loaded with no sofy pillars. Dam, if
I ain't tired of this hel rasin on my
-Texas Utility News.
A petite little lady rushed up to
the ticket office and said to the ticket
agent, "Two to Duluth."
"Tra la la yourself," said the agent
with a wave of his hand.
To be happy you must overlook
some things entirely, among which iis
the cost of running an automobile.
"Gimme a quarters worth of rat
"Do you wanna take it with you?"
"Naw, I'll send the rats in after

A cooperative arrangement for
studying the effect of burning the
woods on the yield of turpentine gum
from pine trees in Florida has been
made by the Florida Experiment
Station and the Southern Forestry
Experiment Station of the United
States Department of Agriculture at
New Orleans. Dr. R. M. Barnette,
associate chemist of the Florida Sta-
tion, has been appointed collaborator.
The Florida Station's chemistry lab-
oratory will be used to assist in the
soil phase of the work.

Wrapping a strip of 1-inch mesh
poultry wire loosely around your
young citrus trees helps to prevent
rabbits from gnawing the bark.

No fillers used A. & G.
Brand is all fertilizer. Prompt
service assured; write for free
pirce list No. 62.


Why Gamble!

Why gamble with your
largest operating expend-
iture? High-class fruit or
vegetables never "just
happen" but A. & G.
Fertilizers in right propor-
tions will produce qual-
ity growth. An A. & G.
mixture for every soil re-






No. 1
No. 2
No. 3


20. 16 /2
18.8 15/2

No. 4 15 18.2 11 26/2
For Better Crops at Lower Costs

34% Nitrogen, equal to 41.3%
Ammonia. 1/5 in nitrate form
and 4/5 in organic form

15% Nitrogen, equal to
18.2% Ammonia. Nitrate
Nitrogen combined with

For Top and Side Dressing

Jackson Grain Company
State Distributors
"Working for Better Agriculture"

(%) (%) (%)
Ammonia Phosphoric
trogen Equivalent Acid
15 18.2 30

November, 1930


Complete Stock


Dairy Supplies and


1 I 1

Steam Boilers
All sizes

DeLaval Separators and
Milking Machines

Cherry-Burrell Creamery
S.f f


Supply Company
Tampa Jacksonville

ALEXANDER G. SHAW, '09, is at
Jacksonville where he is engaged as
Assistant Milk Inspector for the Flor-
ida State Marketing Bureau.
HARRY E. WOOD, '17, is a Super-
visor of Vocational Education, living
at Tallahassee.
Assistant Grove Inspector for the
State Plant Board of Florida, sta-
tioned at Daytona Beach.
County Agent at Fort Myers.
teaching at Clinton, Missouri.
'20, is employed by the United Fruit
Company and is stationed in Hon-
WALTER S. YATES, '22, is Coun-
ty Rural School Supervisor, living at
Plant City.
JOHN W. DYER, '22, is a farmer
and fruit grower at West Palm
ARON J. PEACOCK, '22, is a fer-
tilizer salesman at Sanford.
RUBY F. COOPER, '22, is a celery
grower at Sanford.
JOHN F. WILLIAMS, JR., '22, is



Must Be Earned

Leadership depends entirely on the ability to take the
initiative and to keep it. For thirty-seven years
IDEAL FERTILIZERS have maintained unchallenged
leadership in Florida. IDEAL results have earned the
confidence of growers. Use IDEAL FERTILIZERS
for increased profit in grove and field. IDEAL leader-
ship is assurance of scientifically made, well-balanced


Manufactured Exclusively by

Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Co.


a Supervisor of Vocational Educa-
tion, living at Tallahassee.
employed by the Seaboard Air Line
Railway Company, and lives at Ar-
GEORGE R. GRAHAM, '23, lives
at Lake City, He is Superintendent
of Public Instruction for Columbia
MILLEDGE A. BAKER, '24, is a
Smith-Hughes teacher at Baker.
ALEX R. JOHNSON, '25, is a
Smith-Hughes teacher at Sanford.
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, '26, was
recently appointed Specialist in Farm
Management with the Florida Exten-
sion Service, with headquarters at
ADDISON S. LAIRD, '26, is Assist-
ant Agronomist with the United
States Department of Agriculture,
and is stationed at the Sandhills Ex-
periment Station, Columbia, S. C.
doing graduate work in entomology
at the College of Agriculture, Gaines-
J. H. WALLACE, '28, who has
been working with the Barrett Com-
pany, has been recently transferred
to Jacksonville as Florida and South
Georgia field agent for this company.
recently sailed for Tela, Honduras, to
begin work with the United Fruit
Company. He married last summer,
and Mrs. Richardson will join him in
Honduras in about a month.

New Bulletin on
Air Seasoning of Wood
A new bulletin "The Air Seasoning
of Wood" based on results of years
of research conducted by the United
States Forest Service is now avail-
able. The publication outlines the
basic principles of wood drying and
reports studies of the air seasoning
of boards and planks, dimension
stock, lath, crossties, poles, posts,
timbers, cordwood, cooperage and
veneer. It also shows the effects on
seasoning of climate, time of year,
kind of wood, thickness of stock, lo-
cality of growth, yard location and
arrangement, piling method and other
factors. This will be useful to the
farmer having a few green fenceposts
and the sawmill owner with a well-
stocked lumber yard.
A copy of the publication, Tech-
nical Bulletin No. 174-T may be ob-
tained from the Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, D. C.

Huntsmen who have the future
supply of game at heart will be care-
ful to avoid starting forest fires.


November, 1930




Many of the 4-H club boys in Flor-
ida do not know of the many awards
and prizes that are given each year
for outstanding work.
These prizes are given by public-
spirited men and organizations who
wish to stimulate an interest in 4-H
club work, and to give boys and girls
a goal toward which to work. Some
boys think, "What's the use of try-
ing? I can't win anything." But it
is worthwhile to try, because some-
body gets these trips every year and
you have just as good a chance as
anyone else. All that is required is
to raise a better calf or pig, or in
some other way make your project
just a little bit better than the other
fellow's. The motto of 4-H club work
is "To Make the Best Better," and by
practicing this motto in every sense
of the word you can win your share
of the awards.
One of the essential points in com-
peting for prizes is to finish your pro-
ject and turn in a compete record
book. Many boys and girls whose
work has been of prize winning qual-
ity have failed at the end because of
uncompleted records. The best policy
is to keep your records up to date
at all times.
The Washington trip, which is
given to the two outstanding boys in
the state for leadership and project
work is the goal of every 4-H club
boy. The trip is provided by the
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and The
Barnett National Bank of Jackson-
There are two trips to Chicago, one
given by Armour and Company for
the State Champion Fat Barrow, and
the other by the Louisville and Nash-
ville Railroad for outstanding pro-
ject work in the counties served by
them. There is also another trip to
Chicago, open to girls and boys in
poultry projects, given by The
Quaker Oats Company.
The Dairy Products Corporation
gives a trip to the National Dairy
Show to the boy having the best dairy
project in this state.
There are also five scholarships to
the Agricultural College at the Uni-
versity of Florida. One scholarship
for $250 is given by Frank E. Dennis
for the best Junior or Senior pig at
the state fair.
Three $100 scholarships are given
by the Bankers Association of Flor-

ida. Competitive exeminations are
given for these at the State Short
Congressman Tom Yon gives a
$100 scholarship to the boy in his
district showing outstanding leader-
ship qualities.
Thomas E. Wilson gives a gold
watch to the State Meat Project
A gold medal is given by the Ni-
trate of Soda Educational Bureau to
the best corn project in each dis-
trict using 100 pounds of nitrate of
Last, but not least, is the trip to
Springfield by Horace A. Moses to
the outstanding boy in the state
showing leadership.

Fallen pecan twigs cut off by the
twig girdler should be picked up and

Charter for Florida's
First Standard 4-H Club
Given Lake Worth Boys
The first Standard 4-H Club in
Florida, with a charter signed by Sec-
retary of Agriculture Arthur M.
Hyde, has just been organized in
Palm Beach county, according to R.
W. Blacklock, state boys' club agent.
The club was chartered as the Lake
Worth Boys' 4-H Club. A. E. Fritz
is local leader, and James Brinson
president. The club has eight mem-
bers and they are planning to carry
out 12 well planned projects.
According to County Agent M. U.
Mounts, the projects will be in vege-
table growing, grading and packing;
beekeeping and poultry raising.
Mr. Blacklock expects many other
standard Florida clubs to be organ-
ized in the near future. The require-
ments of a standard club are five or
more members, an adult leader, an
organization with a constitution, and
a carefully evolved program of work.

The Intelligent Use of


Always Pays



Obtain the Best






Rewards for 4-H Boys
Frederick W. Barber, '33

Nortwih:r, 19i0




Ag Club
This is the largest organization in
the Ag college. Every member of the
Ag student body is eligible for mem-
bership, and all that is required to
become a member is regular at-
The Ag club publishes The Florida
College Farmer, and takes the in-
itiative in organizing many Ag col-
lege activities, such as athletic teams,
debates, social affairs and the like.
Each year the club meets in Talla-
hassee with the Home Economics
club of the Women's College for an
annual picnic.
From time to time prominent
speakers address the club and in-
teresting programs are provided
every Monday n'ght at seven o'clock
in the Ag college.
The present officers are Jim Lybass,
president; 0. W. Anderson, vice-pres-
ident; Sidney Wells, secretary-treas-
urer; Tom Jones, critic.

Alpha Zeta
Alpha Zeta is a national agricul-
tural fraternity, members of which
are selected from among the students
with highest scholarship averages in
their junior and senior years. A few
sophomores are admitted.
The Alpha Zeta medal is awarded
each year to the sophomore who ob-
tained the highest scholastic average
during his freshman year. Other
qualities aside from scholarship are
also taken into consideration.
The officers this year are Russell
Henderson, president; Sidney Wells,
vice-president; Earl Mathews, scribe;
Tom Smith, treasurer; Dwight Free-
man, chronicler.
Alpha Zeta meets every second and
fourth Monday night in the Ag col-
lege chapter room.

Phi Sigma
Phi Sigma is a national honorary
biological fraternity whose member-
ship is selected from among juniors,
seniors, and graduate students who
are interested in and have taken a
certain amount of work in biological
Phi Sigma does not select all of
its members from the Ag college, a
large part of the membership being
held by biological and other science
Phi Sigma meets every second and
fourth Wednesday night of the month
in Science Hall.
Officers for this year are Harold
Mowry, president, Erdman West,
vice-president and Raymond Lyle,

Ames, Iowa: The Agricultural
Journalism Club of Iowa State Uni-
versity recently sponsored the third
annual journalism banquet at which
twenty-seven students working on
campus publications were presented
with honorary "I's."

Athens, Georgia: The Georgia
Agricultural Club has been and stIll
is ambitiously working on a ten thou-
sand dollar campaign for the erec-
tion of a building to house the vari-
ous clubs on the agricultural campus.
In the hope of furthering intersec-
tional comity and promoting the agri-
cultural welfare of the state and na-
tion, Dean Andrew M. Soule of
Georgia State University last year
most commendably effected the ex-
change of Horticulture professors be-
tween his institution and that of
Massachusetts College of Agricul-
ture: Dr. T. H. McHatton of Georgia
went to Amherst while Professor
Frank A. Waugh of Amherst came to

Columbus, Mo. The College Farm-
er, student publication of Missouri
College of Agriculture, introduced
for the first time this past year an
"annual feature writing" contest.
The articles awarded first and second
place are featured in successive
issues of the publication. The con-
test is an incentive for a greater
number of students to avail them-
selves of the opportunity to write.
Missouri Ag Club, with the idea
of furnishing a place for the cultiva-
tion of a better spirit of coopera-
tion between the faculty and students
of the Agricultural College, has re-
cently founded the custom of an an-
nual Ag College banquet.

Champaign-Urbana, Illinois: The
Ag Club of the University of Illinois
periodically sponsors dances. The
institution in co-educational. The
Ag Club and the Illinois Agriculturist
favor social affairs that are exclus-
ively and truly "aggish."

Thyrsus is an honorary horticul-
tural fraternity, the members of
which are selected from among the
leading junior and seniors specializ-
ing in horticulture. At the meetings,
which are held on alternate Monday
nights with Alpha Zeta, interesting
horticultural topics are discussed.
Officers at the present time are
Bob Edsall, president; Bill Fifield,
vice-president, and Jim Lybass, secre-

Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana:
Knute Rochne, football teams, the
"Four Horsemen,"-these are the
usual associations that go with men-
tion of Notre Dame. However, listed
among that institution's departments
for higher learning is one of agricul-
ture. Notre Dame has one of the
largest college poultry farms in the

Drying Florida Hay
to Be Investigated
An artificial hay drier is now being
installed in Gainesville and will be
used in a cooperative experiment be-
tween the F.orida Experiment Station
and U. S. Forage Crops Office. The
drier has a capacity of 500 pounds of
dried hay per hour.
Some of the first crops to be arti-
ficially cured will be a number of
species of crotalaria, according to
Geo. E. Ritchey, agent in charge.
Roland McKee, agronomist in
charge of legume work in the South-
east, was recently here in connec-
tion with this and other cooperative

Four cooperative hog sales were
recently held in Jackson county and
504 hogs, weighing 85,193 pounds
and bringing farmers a cash total of
$7,442.80, were sold, according to Sam
Roundtree, county agent. Two other
sales are schedules for this week.

Carbon bisulfide is cheap stuff, but
almost invaluable when it saves about
25 percent of the stored corn crop
from weevils. Ten pounds per 1,000
cubic feet in a tight bin will do the
work. The application should be re-
peated when necessary.

No dairy farmer ever made any
money running a boarding house for
unproductive cows.

Citrus Groves





Vero Beach Florida

i d

November, 1930

The Mark of


Nearly fifty years of ex-
perience with Tropical
and Semi-Tropical Horti-
culture is constantly at
your disposal.

Reasoner Brothers'
Royal Palm Nurseries
I .sh li.shdI 18


Plant Your "Progress Seeds" Now.
They will germinate and spring to
life this Winter.
Plan now to make business come
your way.
Keep your fields cultivated.
Use seeds of advertising and clever
eye arresting illustrations (cuts) that
your business crop will flourish-
bear fruit now and later on.
Hammer your message home with
good "copy" coupled with Times il-
lustrations to "put it over."
Times cuts mow down sales re-
sistance-build sales-there is plenty
of business to be had,
Get your share-a prolific harvest
is your for the trying!
We have unexcelled facilities and
capacity for executing large and small
orders for any style of cuts or plates,
for printing in one or more colors.
Remember-we specialize in color
Engraving Unit, Tampa Times
Phone M 8121 Tampa, Florida

The College of Agriculture

of the

University of Florida

offers the best training for Florida boys in all lines of agri-
cultural production and leadership.
Four year course leading to B.S. degree, with specialization
in Horticulture, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, Economics,
Entomology, Chemistry, Agricultural Engineering and
Only College in Southeast offering full courses in Citrus and
Sub-Tropical Fruit Culture, and in Landscape Design.
Courses of One Semester, One Year and Two Years easily ar-
ranged for those wishing to study technical agriculture only.
Low expenses for board and fees.
For catalog and full information, write postal card to
Dean (or Secretary)

College of Agriculture

Florida's Farm Journal
Florida's largest and most complete farm journal, the Florida Growe",
covers all phases of this state's many agricultural and horticultural
activities-citrus growing, truck farming, poultry raising, dairy farm-
ing, general farming and such specialized pursuits as tung oil, bulbs,
etc. If you are interested in Florida farming, there is something in
every issue of the Florida Grower to interest you.
One Year for Fifty Cents
Three Years for One Dollar


Cumberland and Liberty Mills Co.


Flour, Grits, Meal, Beans, Peas, Rice, Sugar, Cotton Seed
Meal and Hulls, Corn, Oats, Hay and Feed of All Kinds

The Final Test

of Fertilizer

THE Grower, who adopted a program of
zare and fertilization the past year,
with Quality Fruit as his goal, will be
richly rewarded when his final returns are
in-Quality Fruit will always bring a prem-
ium, even in big crop years.
The coming crop, from present indications,
will be a big one, and your "net profit" will
be determined by the fertilization, care and
attention you give your grove. A saving of
a few dollars per ton on the cost of your
fertilizer may mean the loss of many dol-
lars when your crop is marketed.
ORANGE BELT Brands and the advice of
one of our trained field men will assist you
in the production of a maximum crop of
Quality Fruit-resulting in higher prices.
and more net profit-the final test of fer-
Consult us before your next application.
There IS a difference in fertilizer

LYONS "i I. lZIR @

Tampa BELT Florida

805 Citrus Exc. Bldg.

35th St. and 4th Ave.


(The 14* 4 aA16ompau. Jc.
Jaclkonv14 cylorida



Lower Cost


Weekly Price List
Sent on Request

Howard Grain Co.

140 East Bay Street
Jacksonville, Florida

Garden, Field and
Flower Seeds
Poultry Feed and Supplies
Dog Foods
Canary Bird Seed
Package or Bulk

Catalogue on request

Plant Rye grass now for a
Green Winter Lawn

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