Title: Florida college farmer
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 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

The FL

COLLEGE


ORIDA


FARMER


PUBLISHED BY THE AGRICULTURAL CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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MAY, 1930


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THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


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SEEDS

of all kinds





SPECIALTY:

Centipede
Grass




SeminoleSeedCo.
Gainesville, Florida


The College of Agriculture
of the

University of Florida
offers the best training for Florida boys in all lines of agri-
cultural production and leadership.
Four year course leading to B.S. degree, with specialization
in Horticulture, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, Economics,
Entomology, Chemistry, Agricultural Engineering and
Education.
Only College in Southeast offering full courses in Citrus and
Sub-Tropical Fruit Culture, and in Landscape Design.
Courses of One Semester, One Year and Two Years easily ar-
ranged for those wishing to study technical agriculture only.
Low expenses for board and fees.
For catalog and full information, write postal card to
Dean (or Secretary)
of
College of Agriculture
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE


ORNIMETAL GATES
Add Dignity to Entrancesl are Artistic and
Last Longer
Made by expert iron, workers
Withstood hurricane of Sept. 16, 17, 1928.
SPECIFICATIONS
The signs are made of I% in. galvanized
wire, 2 /2 in. diamond mesh with 1 /4
x/2 in. channel iron frames.
Scrolls of 1 in. x Y4 in. bar iron; stand-
ards of 2 /2 in. pipe, all painted 2 coats
of blue. Letters, 8 in. zinc oval faced,
and 4 in. flat faced small letters, all
painted with 2 coats of orange. Chain
of /8 in. round iron, fastened at one
post and arranged for padlock and
hook at other post. Each post to have
extra rust proof collar at grade line,
8 in. above grade and 8 in. below grade.
We Guarantee These Entrance Way Signs, If
Painted Every 2 or 3 Years to Last 25 Years
A. M. HILL, Jr., State Representative
VERO BEACH, FLORIDA


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Land Tenure and Home Ownership

J. McL. Ridgell


THE history of agriculture and land
tenure is one long record of con-
flict between public right and private
interest. Every policy has been tried,
from the extreme of common owner-
ship with no exclusive possession to
the extreme, in America, of private
ownership.
Perhaps no other one question has
been more debated than that of the
degree to which land shall be subject
to private ownership. The manner in
which individuals or corporations may
acquire land; the security with which
they may hold it either for legitimate
or illegitimate purposes against the
superior right of the public to its
general distribution and usage; the
degree to which they may exercise
control while in possession; and the
extent to which they may project
that control beyond the period of
actual possession; the freedom with
which they may, or may not, dispose
of it to others all these have
been determined in different ways in
different ages and in different coun-
tries. History shows that these
various solutions of the problem of
land tenure have had a profound in-
fluence upon civilization in those ages
and countries.
Land at the beginning of history
was unappropriated. Each man
helped himself to what he could or
what he would, but the preservation
of life compelled the weak to seek
protection by placing themselves un-
der some strong local leadership.
Thus the land gradually became ap-
propriated. It is in Greece and Rome
that we first find individual proprie-
torship. Greece and Rome alike par-
celled out their conquered lands
among the masses with absolute own-
ership. In Rome, however, during
the third century, B. C., the obliga-
tion of military service was based on
land ownership and the recompense
for such service was land. Class
distinction based on land ownership
began there. Those who performed
the most military duties obtained the
most land. Great estates of military
chieftains came into prominence, and
these began to be cultivated by cap-
tives and later by the poorer freemen.
This system undoubtedly contributed
its features to feudalism. The poorer
men became serfs of the soil, entitled
to some rights, but tied to the manor
house and compelled to do service to
the lord of the soil, who in turn paid
taxes to the crown from whence came
his authority. With the decline of the
crown and the rise of the baron, taxes
gradually became less, but the rent
paid by the serf to his lord still re-
mained in full force.
With political independence for
America came individual proprietor-


ship in the soil, which had hitherto
rested in the crown of England. Since
that time the Federal Government has
been the owner of all lands not al-
ready owned by individuals, but it
now has sold it to settlers under the
Homestead Act for a song, or has
given it to towns, railways, or specu-


lating corporations under the cloak of
the Homestead Act.
It is upon the frontiers of a coun-
try where private interests read-
ily became vested, and the pub-
lic most tardily awakens to its loss.
Later these interests attack the body
of the country. Already we have wit-
nessed a "promised land" pass away;
vast tracts upon the border of the
West were either granted directly to
exploiting companies, or parcelled
out to homesteaders thus transferred
from public ownership to that of the
big proprietor.
A man takes up a homestead given
him by the public, or sold to him at
a nominal cost, ostensibly that he



This article was delivered as
an address to the Agricultural
Club by Mr. J. McL. Ridgell,
who is the Secretary of the
Chamber of Commerce at
Gainesville, Florida. The brief
resume of history brings out
facts that substantiate his as-
sertion that "the day of the
American peasant has arrived."
These facts are well worth our
best consideration.


may till the soil and establish a home.

He may find gold or silver or oil be-
neath the surface. The farm is still
there, but as a farm he is not inter-
ested in it, and thus the public is
robbed of what is rightfully its own.
To how great an extent this monop-
olization has taken place and what
effect it is bringing to bear, it may be
well to note. According to the cen-
sus of 1900, only 46 per cent of the
families owned homes and only 31
per cent owned unmortgaged homes.
ty 1920 the home ownership had
fallen to 38 per cent and unmort-
gaged homes to 26 per cent. Ex-
pressed another way, the census taken
now will show about 30 per cent own-
ers and 70 per cent tenants. From
this fact, we are justified in assertng
that the day of the Amercan peasant
has arrived, and with it the thought
for the future of America's domina-
tion in world affairs. There are those
who say that there is no monop-
oly, that general land tenancy with
all its evils will not come to our land.
The fact remains that even now it is
here.
The great holdings, which may be
farmed most economically from a so-
cial standpoint, as they are now run
are a sore to the best development of
society. Labor to work these lands
is secured on the lowest market, re-
sulting in the lowest class of laborer
and a segregation of those types of
humanity least fitted for progressive
development. Society drifts back to
the feudalistic basis, and the ideal
home, which is the anchor of the
world, becomes a rare exception and
not the rule.
Man cannot produce, he cannot
live, without land. If, then, land is
a necessity to production and to life,
the masses of all countries must be
dependent on those who own land.
Under a landed aristocracy, plutoc-
racy reigns and must reign while the
people are dependent on the few for
the necessities of life. The landless
man is an unfree man. If the people
of the country could be taught this
single fact, the solution of the social
evils arising from landed aristocracy
would be simple of solution.
This struggle between private in-
terest and public good has been a con-
stant one; it is destined to become
more gigantic and more desperate
when the body of the people come to
realize more fully the value and ne-
cessity of the individual owning the
portion of land he cultivates. It will
be remembered that in the combat
between Hercules and Anateres, that
when Hercules allowed Anateres to
touch the ground his strength was
multplied tenfold and the only way
(Continued on Page 13)


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Valuable Service Rendered by the Experiment


Station Veterinary Laboratory

T. J. Jones, '31


THE Veterinary Department of the
Florida Experiment Station is do-
ing a valuable service for the State
of Florida. This service is thorough
work conducted in research and
laboratory diagnosis on animal dis-
eases.
The veterinary laboratory is
equipped with apparatus to conduct
work in research and to render serv-
ice to livestock owners of Florida by
diagnosing animal diseases of speci-
mens sent to laboratory. Practicing
veterinarians and employees of the
State Livestock Sanitary Board also
send specimens to this laboratory for
diagnoses. Many and varied are the
specimens but it matters not wheth-
er the animal is the family housecat
from the city home or the cow, horse,
dog or chicken from the farm, the
workers extend their best efforts to
determine the correct sickness of the
specimen and thereby be able to
give advice that will prove beneficial
in correcting the ailment.
From June 30, 1928 to June 30,
1929 the diagnostic laboratory made
one thousand two hundred seventeen
diagnoses consisting of specimens
taken from cows, chickens, cats, dogs,
ducks, hogs, horses, pigeons, rabbits,
sheep and turkeys. In this number
were found eighty different known
diseases ranging from simple colds
to our most dangerous infectious
diseases of animals.
The specimens that come into the
laboratory may be the whole or any
part of animals' carcasses. They
come in shoe boxes, orange crates,
cans, wrapped in paper and in most
every conceivable way both dead and
alive. For instance if a pig died of a
disease that a local veterinarian is
suspicious of being swine plague and
he sends a small vial of blood to the
laboratory. In this case a portion of
the blood is smeared on a small piece
of glass called a micro-slide. This
blood smear is dried, treated and ex-
amined under a microscope by a ex-
pert who can thus study the microbe
of disease and identify it. So that in a
few minutes after the blood reached
the laboratory the reply is on its
way. At other times guinea pigs have
to be injected with diseased blood or
blood culture and kept under obser-
vation to study the effect produced
in the test animal. In some cases it
is necessary to grow the bacteria on
artificial material or media so as to
determine the type of infection or
disease the animal specimen has or
had.
Often milk samples are sent to the
laboratory that have been collected
from cows with diseased udders. In


Mr. T. J. Jones is one of the
student laboratory assistants
assisting the staff members of
the Veterinary Department of
the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, so writes
with authority. He has special
permission to use the data in
this article.



these cases the milk is first examin-
ed for odors and observed for visible
changes that have taken place.
Smears are made on slides, stained
and studied to determine the kind
of infection present.
The milk sample might be one
which shows peculiar changes in it
after being milked. In such cases as
this, a similar procedure is used with
the sample from a diseased udder.
The difference, however, is in de-
termining if the condition is being
caused by a dirty milk vessel or by
a diseased condition of the cow.
Smears on micro-slides when stained
assist in solving this problem, for
bacteria produced in milk cans pro-
duce no pus cells, therefore, the ab-
sence of these little cells in the ma-
jority of cases tells the story. How-
ever, it is very essential to have a
complete history of all cases from
which specimens are sent.
During the past year seven hun-
dred eight samples of cows' blood
were received at the laboratory to be
tested for contagious abortion. These
samples are received, the serum
separated from the blood and the
agglutination test applied. The re-
sults were then reported to the veter-
inarian who sent the specimens as
early as possible.
Of all the specimens received for
diagnosis, one-third were chickens.
Many of the diseased birds sent
to the laboratory were turkeys.
The turkey raiser in whose flock
an epidemic of some disease is
occurring will send in one of the
typically diseased birds to the labor-
atory. The turkey is received, obser-
vations are noted and a clinical di-
agnosis made if possible. The bird is
then destroyed in order that a
thorough post mortem examination
might be made. All the organs are
examined for evidence of a disease
condition. Microscopic examinations
are made of different tissues, fluids
and secretions. A diagnosis is made
and the report is mailed or wired to
the turkey raiser with suggestions
regarding the handling of the dis-
ease found.


Most of the chickens are received
still alive as it is much easier to tell
what is wrong with the bird if it is
received while in the last stages of
the disease. The bird is examined ex-
ternally for lice and other external
parasites. Other disease conditions
are looked for also. The bird is then
destroyed and a post mortem exami-
nation is made. The digestive tract
is examined, after being opened from
mouth to vent, for any disease condi-
tion affecting the digestive system.
The air passages are examined care-
fully as well as the liver, kidneys
and all other vital organs of the
body. In many cases by examining
the blood we find the bacteria that
are causing the disease. A scraping
of the wall of the intestines, examin-
ed under the microscope may reveal
the small tapeworm, Capillaria or
coccidiosis.
Internal parasites, coccidiosis and
paralysis were the most numerous
poultry diseases diagnosed. In report-
ing findings to the sender sugges-
tions are given as to the control and
treatment of the malady in question.
Besides the numerous carcasses re-
ceived for diagnosis a continuous
flow of letters pour into our office
daily from citizens of Florida in
which they describe the symptoms
and their own post mortem findings
and request assistance in diagnosing
the trouble. These letters are given
prompt attention and the best efforts
are used in trying to give them a
diagnosis of the ailment from the in-
formation presented. Often times it
is necessary to ask them to send in
a specimen for examination so that
it may be possible to make a much
more accurate diagnosis.
The staff of this department is
composed of Dr. A. L. Shealy, head
of department; Dr. E. F. Thomas and
Dr. D. A. Sanders, assistant veteri-
narians; and also two student labor-
atory assistants.

Former 4-H Boys
Are Making Good
Marvin Brooker is at Cornell Uni-
versity, working on his Doctors de-
gree in Agricultural Economics.
John Henry Logan was very active
while in college here, being president
of his class and captain of baseball
in his senior year. He is now county
agent in Hernando County.
A champion pig club boy, Clifford
Hiatt of Escambia County is now
county agent in Lake County.
J. S. Kelly, a corn club boy of
Bradford County is now county
agent of Calhoun County.


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Why Curtail Production?

Willard M. Fifield, '30


N ONE of our large daily newspa-
pers an article recently appeared
concerning a speech made by some-
one before a meeting of business men
in that city. "Why," asked the speak-
er. "does the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture always advise
farmers to keep down their produc-
tion and to be slow in putting new
land under cultivation?" He said
that increased production would mean
greater income and the larger a farm-
er's income, the more things he is
able to buy from the city merchants.
He felt that the United States De-
partment of Agriculture is making a
grave mistake and that such advice
is tremendously cutting down the
profits of the city business man.
The speaker evidently was not fa-
miliar with the economics of the situ-
ation. He looked at the matter purely
from his own selfish standpoint and
wonders what business our govern-
ment has in cutting down his profits.
Every day he sends his children to
school, and yet he will not accept the
advice of educated men on questions
with which he is unfamiliar. The
men with the Department of Agricul-
ture responsible for the advice dis-
tributed from it are college trained
men with considerable experience in
their particular line of work.
There are good reasons why we are
advised to use judgment and care in
opening up new lands for cultivation
and production. When it is learned
that there are at the present time
hundreds of abandoned farms scat-
tered throughout the country, it might
be helpful to investigate the reason
for this condition.
Sociologists are greatly perturbed
over the fact that so many of our
farm boys leave the farm and go to
the city to work. Not only the boys
and girls, but whole families are mov-
ing into town. Yet every year we
read of produce rotting in the field
because the market is oversupplied
and it will not pay marketing costs
to harvest it.
In Florida today there are vast
acres of land that have never been
placed under cultivation. The per-
centage of land area in farm' in Flor-
ida is small-only 17 per cent in 1925.
Considering the farms with which we
are acquainted we can readily see
that the amount of land actually cul-
tivated per farm is even smaller.
Europeans are faced with the prob-
lem of securing the greatest yields
possible from an acre of land, but a
short trip through this state will show
that our problem is not so much pro-
duction per acre as it is production
per man. We still have plenty of
room in which to expand our agr!-


Some conditions that are ex-
isting are attributed by most of
us to the hard times, politics or
various other causes. Mr. Fifield
in this article points to our
readily recognizable facts con-
cerning the condition of the
farmers, and in the language of
the layman expresses some very
sound economic facts.


cultural production when such action
becomes necessary.
The abandoned farms in America
are readily explained. During the
war farming was a very profitable oc-
cupation. Folks left the city and be-
gan farming, and those already on
the farm plowed up their pastures
and woodlots and planted wheat and
corn. They readily found a market
and a high price for all they could
produce. Some of the land they
planted to corn was so poor that they
had to apply large applications of fer-
tilizer to get a satisfactory yield. It
seemed to pay, though, because the
fertilizer cost was considerably be-
low the market price received for the
crop.
Then in a few years prices sud-
denly dropped. Farmers couldn't
even get enough out of their crops to
pay for the fertilizer they had ap-
plied. "Well," they said, "this was
just a poor year." So they tried the
following year and failed again. A
large percentage of the farmers could
not finance another crop through, so
they left the farm and went to the
city to find work. The others con-
sidered that as corn had been such
a failure, they would grow something
else.
Soon the price of corn went up.
The few who had kept at it received
handsome profits. In a few years,
though, the supply became more or
less balanced with the demand. We
find that a great many former pas-
tures have been returned to pasture.
Hay fields, temporarily plowed up for
corn and wheat, were back in hay
again. Large acreages of young cit-
rus groves are now neglected, because
it has not been worth while for the
owners to fertilize and cultivate them.
Many trees planted farther north
were killed out by the cold.
The whole question centers around
marginal production. Do you suppose
that so much cultivated land was
abandoned only upon advice from the
Department of Agriculture? Of
course not. It was found to be un-
profitable in ordinary times, and so
is no longer in demand. Farmers
cannot buy new clothes and automo-


biles when they are losing money on
fertilizer.
Let us see for a moment just why
a large percentage of our Irish pota-
toes are raised around Hastings,
rather than in Polk county. In the
first place, the soil and climate are
better adapted there, while in Polk
county it has been found more profit-
able to raise oranges. If a sudden
boom should strike the citrus industry
perhaps a large number of potato
farms in Hastings would be planted
to orange trees. If the price of early
potatoes should shoot sky high, then
the citrus groves of Polk county
would be in danger of being plowed
up to make room for potatoes.
There are several reasons for this
distribution of our various types of
farming. Soil, climate, topography of
the land, nearness to market, and lack
of competition are the factors influ-
encing such distribution. When Ken-
tucky and North Carolina can grow
a crop of tobacco with a minimum ex-
pense for fertilizer, spray material
and labor, why should the farmers of
Hillsborough county plant more to-
bacco, when to raise it will necessi-
tate expenditures for fertilizer, pest
control, and untrained labor that will
exceed the price received for to-
bacco?
If indications should point to the
fact that the demand for oranges will
be replaced by a demand for apples
for any reason, economists naturally
will advise that fewer oranges be pro-
duced. It may be that a new market
or by-product field is established,
whereby apples are made more deli-
cious and desirable than oranges.
People cannot be MADE to buy or-
anges if they would rather have ap-
ples, and as soon as the demand drops,
the prices will drop, and unless a cit-
rus grower can produce his fruit very
cheaply, without spending very much
for fertilizer and cold protection, he
will lose money.
We can readily see, then, that there
is no use to cultivate, fertilize, and
spray an additional acre of crops if
the market price will not pay the cost
of production.
The ordinary farmer is too busy to
spend his time conducting surveys of
national production, even if he were
capable of doing so. He is not in a
position to discover the possibilities
of all new demands, and of the crea-
tion of new or the loss of old mar-
kets. These, however, are some of
the chief factors that regulate mar-
ket prices, and by studying them in
detail, the United States Department
of Agriculture is able to furnish in-
telligent advice to those who are un-
equipped to carry on the work indi-
vidually.


May, 1930







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


The Florida College Farmer
ESTABLISHED 1930
Published by the Agricultural Club
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
ARTHUR M. HILL, JR., Editor-in-Chief
EARLE D. MATTHEWS, Business Manager
EDITORIAL STAFF


WILLARD M. FIFIELD, '30 -
TOM J. JONES, '31 -
ROBERT S. EDSALL, '30 -
LOUISE S. BURTON, '31 -
WM. T. LOFTON, '31 -
J. RUSSELL HENDERSON, '31
W. J. PLATT, '33; A.


- Assistant Editor
- Assistant Editor
- Assistant Editor
-Assistant Editor
-Assistant Editor
-Assistant Editor
P. EVANS, '33


BUSINESS STAFF
JAMES H. LYBASS, '31 Advertising Manager
OLIVER W. ANDERSON, '32 Circulation Manager
FACULTY ADVISORY COMMITTEE
C. H. WILLOUGHBY, E. T. INGLE, R. M. FULGHUM
Rates: Fifteen cents a copy; nine month subscrip-
tion one dollar.
Student nine-month subscription 75 cents
Advertising rates upon application
Published monthly except July, August, September
Application filed for entry as second-class matter
at the postofice at Gainesville, Florida.



VOLUME 1 MAY, 1930 NUMBER 2


Policy and Advertisers
Use the advertisers of this magazine. They
have built and maintain organizations so as to
render you the best of service. When you need
their advertised products, consult with them
and they will be pleased to assist and cooperate
with you.
The Florida College Farmer is endeavoring
to render the best service possible to its readers,
both editorially as well as through discrimina-
tion as to advertisers which may appear on its
pages.

Department of Landscape Design
The department presenting the series of
articles, of which the second appears in this
issue, is called the "Department of Landscape
Design" of the Agricultural College. This should
be called to the attention of the readers, since
the term "Landscaping" which is commonly
used is one that bears a slight stigma on account
of the promiscuous use of it, and because of
those who use it to designate their work are
usually untrained in design. The students in
the department here at the college are primarily
designers and work under a code of honor set
by the organization of their profession, the
American Society of Landscape Architects. This


society requires of its members that they be
those who receive no remuneration from the use
of plant or other materials used in construction
of their designs. For this reason they are dis-
tinguished in our college paper as designers
since the University is paying heavily for their
education in design.

New Curriculum for Agricultural
Degree
The Board of Control in its meeting held at
St. Augustine, April 14th, approved the new
four year curriculum for agricultural degree
as adopted by the Faculty March 19th, which is
presented below.
FRESHMAN YEAR Sem. Hrs.
Animal Husbandry 104 0- 4
Biology 101 - 4- 5
Chemistry 105-106 - 4- 5
English 101-102 - 3- 3
Horticulture 101 - 3- 0
Military Science 101-102 2- 2
Phys. Education 101-102 1- 1
Poultry Husbandry 102 0- 3
18-18
SOPHOMORE YEAR Sem Hrs.
Agric. Economics - 3- 0
Agric. Engineering 202 0- 4
Botany 102 - 0- 4
Botany 101 or Option (1) 4- 0
Mathematics, Applied 204 0- 3
Military Science - 2- 2
Organic Chem. or Option (2) 0- 5
Quant. Chem. or Elective 5- 0
Electives - - 4- 0
18-18
JUNIOR AND SENIOR YEARS
Bacteriology or Option (3) 4- 0
Economic Entomology 0- 4
English, Journalism, Language, Speech,
Psychology, Education or History 3- 3
Physics 211 or Elective 4- 0
Plant or Animal Physiology or
Option (4) - 0- 4
Soils (Agronomy) - 5- 0
Electives - - 18-23
34-34
Option (1)-General Economics, Mathematics or Physics.
Option (2)-Chemistry, Engineering, Business Admin.,
Educational Psychology or Education.
Option (3)-Chemistry, Engineering, Education, Busi-
ness Administration, or Mathematics.
Option (4)-Agricultural Bacteriology, Plant Pathology,
Agricultural Engineering, Poultry Husbandry, Feeds
and Feeding, or Agricultural Economics.
Of the electives all except 18 semester hours
are to be technical agriculture, agricultural
education or agricultural chemistry. A min-
imum of 15 and a maximum of 30 semester
hours, of courses 200 or above, must be taken
in one department for major.
The student will be advised to select his
major in the sophomore year if he takes any of
the options of that year; it must be selected not
later than the beginning of the Junior Year. He
may major in any department of the college, or
in Agricultural Education. The head of the de-
partment in which he majors becomes his ad-
visor, and options must be selected with his ad-
vice and consent, as well as required work in
the major department; electives must have his
approval as well as that of the Dean.
(Continued on Page 7)


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


GENERAL NEWS


New Curriculum for
Agricultural Degree
(Continued from Page 6)
This new curriculum will become
effective at the beginning of the
1930-31 winter session next Septem-
ber. The notable feature of this cur-
riculum is its flexibility and enables
the student more latitude in his
choice of courses. This curriculum is
for all students of Agricultural Col-
lege except those working for a de-
gree in Landscape Design, whose cur-
riculum is not completely revised but
corresponding changes are being
made in the curriculum of that de-
partment.

Refrigeration Work
Will Be Started by
Experiment Station
Refrigeration studies, badly need-
ed, are to be undertaken in the near
future by the Florida Experiment
Station. The State Board of Control,
at its April meeting, approved plans
for the erection of a series of refrig-
eration rooms on the grounds of the
Experiment Station at Gainesville, to
cost around $16,000.
Plans for the rooms were drawn by
Dr. A. F. Camp, horticulturist of the
Experiment Station, in consultation
with refrigeration experts.

4-H Club Boys Will
Attend Short Course
For a week, beginning June 2, a
short course will be held on the Uni-
versity of Florida Campus. Boys
from practically every county in the
state will be our guests. These 250
boys were chosen to take the short
course by the 4-H club workers be-
cause of ability for leadership as well
as for achievement in county work.
Many of them will receive their
first taste of college life, as they will
live in dormitories, eat in "Commons"
and take courses in all branches of
agriculture.
Mr. Blacklock, the state 4-H club
agent, is in charge and has arranged
recreation and entertainment for the
boys so that they may become better
acquainted with one another and the
professors.
The new officers for the state 4-H
club, that are elected during the
week, are announced during the an-
nual banquet, which is held the last
night of the course.
Competitive examinations for schol-
arships at the University of Florida
wll be given at end of the week.

The Ag. Club in its meeting of
April 7 elected T. J. Jones, president;
Wm. T. Dunn, vice-president, and


Travis Loften, secretary-treasurer.
These officers will serve during the
two months, April and May.

Canadian Minister of
Agriculture Visits Campus
Dr. W. R. Motherwell, minister of
agriculture for Canada, was a visitor
Thursday and Friday, April 17 and
18. He was here looking over the
work of the Experiment Station and
Agricultural Extension Service. He
was making a return trip from the
Indies and came here following stops
at Miami and Lake Wales. He con-
tinued his tour from here, passing
through Georgia, North Carolina and
Washington, D. C.

In the recent University of Florida
student body election the College of
Agriculture elected Bill Henley to
the Executive Council and Travis
Loften to the Honor Court. Bill
comes from DeFuniak Springs; Lof-
ten's home is at Summerfield.

Mr. Estabrook of
International Institute of
Agriculture Visits University
Through the courtesy of Dr. A. F.
Woods, Director of Scientific Work
of the United States Department of
Agriculture, Mr. Leon M. Estabrook
visited the University on April 1st
and 2nd.
Mr. Estabrook was formerly Chief
of the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and has for some years
been connected with the International
Institute of Agriculture with head-
quarters at Rome, Italy. During the
past three years he has visited every
agricultural country of any impor-
tance in the world, organizing the In-
ternational Agricultural Census com-
p'eted by 1930. This census covered
97 per cent of farming area, 98 per
cent of countries and 99 per cent of
the total agricultural population of
the world.



Agricultural Magazines
Published in Florida
The Florida Grower, Tampa.
Citrus Industry, Tampa.
Farm and Grove Section, Hills-
boro Hotel, Tampa.
Florida Farmer, Jacksonville.
Farm and Livestock Record,
Jacksonville.
Seald-Sweet Chronicle, Citrus
Exchange Bldg., Tampa.
Beautiful Florida, Winter Gar-
den.


Outlook of Citrus in 1930
The 1930 outlook of the citrus in-
dustry is that of a considerable in-
crease in the bearing acreage of
grapefruit and oranges. However the
same condition has existed during the
four previous years.
Many trees now in bearing have
not reached the age of maximum
yield, and a large increase in pro-
duction may be expected in years
when favorable growing weather pre-
vails. Assuming an average of about
70 trees per acre, total orange acre-
age in Florida is estimated at 190,-
000 acres, of which 15 per cent is
non-bearing. Texas, with an acre-
age of 18,900 acres, has only about
25 per cent in bearing. Only three
per cent of the 100,500 acres of the
California Navels is classified as non-
bearing. Of the total of 112,200 acres
in California Valencias, 20,900 acres,
or 19 per cent, are non-bearing.
Florida, with the total grapefruit
acreage estimated at 80,000 acres,
has approximately 95 per cent of
bearing age. Texas, with approxi-
mately 70 per cent of the acreage of
Florida is estimated to have only
about 20 per cent of bearing age.
The California bearing acreage is
reported as 9,000 with a forecast of
11,800 bearing acres for 1932.
Porto Rico with an acreage estimated
at 3,800 has not fully recovered from
the damage resulting from the hurri-
cane of 1928. It is reported that it
will be another season before Porto
Rico is again shipping as heavily as
it was previous to the hurricane.
There are good prospects for a con-
tinued expansion in the foreign mar-
kets for grapefruit. In 1929 Great
Britain took more grapefruit than
ever before but the per capital con-
sumption is still far behind that of
the United States or Canada. Porto
Rico is supplying an increasing share
of the British grapefruit imports.
Continental European countries are
showing a greater interest in grape-
fruit and the outlet there will un-
doubtedly expand, particularly if or-
ganized efforts are made to acquaint
consumers with the merits of this
fruit.

National Egg Week
May 1st to 7th
The National Poultry Council has
proclaimed the fifth annual National
Egg Week. State committees have
been organized to secure observance
and foster publicity of all kinds so as
to have everyone talking and writing
and eating eggs during the week.
State, county and local programs
are being developed to make the cele-
bration nation-wide and of real in-
terest to the consuming public.


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Chickens Require Less Feed in Florida Than

in New York State

Martin C. Young, Graduate Student


It is well known that more expen-
sive houses are required in the north-
ern states than in Florida. But it is
not generally known that a hen eats
more feed in New York state than
she does in Florida. Such is the case
when we compare the results of the
farm management studies in poultry
as carried on by the Department of
Agricultural Economics of Cornell
University and by the Agricultural
Economics Department of the Uni-
versity of Florida.
It is seldom that we find similar
studies made in widely separated sec-
tions of the country at the same time,
but D. E. G. Misner of Cornell Uni-
versity and Frank Brumley of the
University of Florida both made farm
management studies of poultry for
the year 1926. Dr. Misner included
121 upstate poultry farms of New
York in one study and 32 farms on
Long Island in another. Mr. Brum-
ley included 20 poultry farms in the
Jacksonville area of Florida for his
1926 study. The number of Florida
farms is small but the results are sub-
stantiated by additional studies made
for the years 1928 and 1929, when a
much larger number of farms was
studied.
Some of the results of the laying
flock feed (this does not include green
feed) studies are shown in the fol-
lowing table:
The pounds of feed per bird for
Pounds C
per bird per
Upstate, N. Y., 1926 81.2 $
Long Island, N. Y., 1926 87.4
Florida, 1926 78.5
Florida, 1928 77.4
Florida, 1929 77.1
Florida farms varied but little for
the three years the study was con-
ducted. New York upstate farms did
not show a much higher feed con-
sumption per bird than did the Flor-
ida farms, but the Long Island farms
showed nearly 10 pounds more feed
per bird than did the Florida farms.
Because feed prices vary from year
to year, we can compare only the feed
costs for the year 1926. The upstate
New York farms had a considerably
less feed cost per bird than did the
Florida farms. The increased con-
sumption of feed on Long Island
farms overbalanced the cheaper feeds
and the feed cost per bird was ex-
actly the same as for the Florida
farms. The year 1926 was one of
low feed costs and a most profitable
one for the poultry farmers.
Egg production has a direct influ-
ence on feed consumption and cannot
be overlooked in a feed study. The


low egg production on the upstate
New York farms probably accounts
for the fact that they had only slightly
higher feed consumption than did the
Florida farms. Under similar con-
ditions, increased egg production calls
for a higher feed consumption. The
table shows that Florida had a sub-
stantially higher egg production than
did either the upstate New York farms
or the Long Island farms, even with a
lower feed consumption. Here Flor-
ida climate came to the front, as the
conclusion to be drawn from this is
that a hen requires more feed to
maintain the body in a cold climate
than she does in a warmer climate.
Because the hens consumed less feed
and produced more eggs, the Florida
farmers had a lower feed cost per
dozen eggs than did the New York
farmers. This is rather contrary to
the general belief that the greatest
handicap to the Florida poultryman
is the cost of feed.
Since feed cost makes up a higher
per cent of the total cost of producing
eggs in Florida than in New York, the
above finding is even more significant.
In New York, labor and building costs
make up a higher per cent of the total
cost than they do in Florida. Definite
figures have not been worked out as
yet, but the work has gone far enough
to indicate clearly that the cost of


producing eggs
in New York.
ost Feed cost
Sbird per cwt.
1.95 $2.39
2.13 2.44
2.13 2.72
2.34 3.03
2.18 2.88


in Florida is less than


Yearly
production
130.1
142.2
148.6
148.2
149.5


Feed cost
per doz. eggs
$.18
.179
.171
.191
.171


The fact that eggs may be produced
at a cheaper cost in Florida does not
necessarily mean that greater profits
are made. The price received for
eggs plays an important part in the
profits and in this Florida is at a dis-
advantage as compared with New
York. Florida poultrymen for the
year 1926 and in the Jacksonville
area received an average price of 39.7
for all eggs sold. Upstate New York
poultrymen received an average price
of 42.4 cents for all eggs sold. The.
Long Island farmers were especially
well favored as concerned the market.
They received an average price of 4C
cents per dozen for all eggs sold.
These farm management studies
which are now being carried on by
the Department of Agricultural Eco-
nomics of the University are bringing
to light numerous facts such as the
above, and the completed work will
be of interest alike to poultrymen
and to those interested in the eco-
nomic conditions in the state.
Note: Mr. Young is a graduate stu-
dent in the Economics Department
of the College of Agriculture.

Farmers are Buying Bulls, Ter-
racing Land and Sowing Pasture
Last year farmers in Northwest
Florida, through the influence and
help of county agents, secured 86
good beef bulls, J. L. Smith, district
extension agent, recently stated.
One hundred and fifty-two farmers
terraced 4,007 acres of rolling land,
and 67 farmers in 11 counties planted
12,040 pounds of permanent pasture
seed on 1,391 acres during the past
four months, he added.


Egg production has direct influence on feed consumption and cannot
be overlooked in a feed study.


May, 1930







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Vocational Agriculture Under
Provisions of The Smith-
Hughes Act
E. W. Garris
The Federal Commission on Na-
tional Aid to Vocational Education,
appointed by President Wilson, made
its report to Congress in 1914 favor-
ing the participation of the Federal
Government in a program of voca-
tional education of less than college
grade. The recommendations of this
Commission aided the passage of the
Smith-Hughes Act in 1917. This Act
provides $3,000,000 annually for
paying the salaries of teachers of
agriculture, $3,000,000 for trades
and industries and home economics,
and $1,000,000 for the training of
teachers.
The $3,000,000 for agriculture is
apportioned to each state in the pro-
portion that its rural population
bears to the rural population of the
United States. Florida receives $35,-
755.06 annually.
In 1929 the George-Reed Act
passed Congress which further aids
the program. This Act, when it
reaches its maximum in 1933, gives
$1,500,000 for agriculture. The two
Federal Acts together we'll give a
totalof $4,500,000 and Florida will
receive approximately $50,000 in
1933.
Each Federal dollar must be
matched. The money has been
matched so far by our State Legis-
lature and the counties also match
what they receive. In reality each
teacher of agriculture now receives
his salary from the following sources:
Federal funds, one-fourth; State
funds, one-fourth; and County funds,
one-half.
In order to reach people who need
instruction in agriculture of less than
college grade, agricultural teachers
organize the following kinds of
classes: (a) All Day-designed for
boys in the high school Class must
meet daily for a period of 90 min-
utes. (b) Day Unit-designed for
boys in rural graded schools. Class
must meet for one 90 minute period
per week. (c) Part-time-designed
for boys who yre not attending
school. Class must meet 20 times
for 90 minutes. (d) Evening-de-
signed for adult farmers. Class must
meet at least 10 t'mes.
Each boy or person receiving in-
struction is required to take super-
vised practice work. This is usually
given in the farm home projects. The
boy has the responsibility of manag-
ing and producing under supervision,
a crop or animal enterprise.
These pupils have formed a na-
tional organization known as the
Future Farmers of America. They
have three degrees, each of which
is secured only by achievement.
There are approximately 4,000
teachers of agriculture in the United
States, teaching approximately 175.-
000 pupils. In Florida we have 35
white teachers and 12 colored teachers.


With additional funds available for
the next four years from the George-
Reed Amendment, there should be a
gradual increase in the number of
departments and in the demand of
qualified teachers.
Note-Prof E. W. Garris is Profes-
sor of Agricultural Education in the
Teachers College of the University of
Florida.

County Agent, John G. Hudson,
reports that Tobie Leonard, Santa
Rosa County 4-H club boy recently
completed a period of feeding his
pig in which the pig gained 222
rounds n 180 days.


EXTRA

MARGIN


TYPING

Have your themes, notes,
references, and term
papers typewritten.

NEAT
ACCURATE
REASONABLE

Betty Ahrens
8 Johnson Bldg.
Gainesville, Florida


THERE'S A REASON why market re-
ports consistently show an extra margin
of profit on citrus fruit that is grown in
the Indian River District.
INVESTIGATE
PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES

of Indian River County
Inquirc-Chamber of Commerce
VERO BEACH, FLORIDA


HOLD EVERYTHING!

Are you a regular reader of The
Florida College Farmer? If you are
not, now is the time to subscribe to
the journal which perhaps will bring
the State into closer contact with
those who are investigating the agri-
cultural problems, practices and pos-
sibilities of Florida the students,
faculty, and research staff of the
University of Florida.


MR. O. W. ANDERSON, JR.
The Florida Col!ege Farmer,
Gainesville, Florida.
Dear Sir: Enclosed find one dollar ($1.00) for wh:ch send me nine
successive issues of The Florida College Farmer, beginning with the
June, 1930, number.

Name .... .. ...

P. O. Box or Street No.

Post Office


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Shrubs and the Home Grounds

Ethel I. Fripp and Louise S. Burton


SHRUB planting is the third step in
developing the home grounds. Af-
ter the location and completion of the
house as discussed in our previous
article, we provide communication be-
tween the house and the street or
road by means of a drive and walks.
These should be carefully laid out
with the idea of permanency. Besides
this provision, certain areas are set
apart for definite purposes, and such
areas are outlined by walls or fences.
These two operations form the second
step in the development, and will be
discussed in the near fuutre. After
all this construction work has been
completed, and all the rubbish has
been cleared away, then, and not un-
til then, do we plant shrubs.
Classes of Shrubs
It is very important to know the
character of the material we are using
in any kind of work. This is especi-
ally true of plant material which is
susceptible to change in climatic
conditions. Shrubs fall into two
classes according to the length of
time in which they are clothed with
foliage during a twelve-month period.
Evergreens retain their foliage dur-
ing the entire year, or practically so,
while deciduous shrubs defoliate in
the fall and leaf out in the spring.
Therefore it is necessary for us to
make a choice among the shrubs, tak-
ing into consideration the effect we
wish to produce. For instance, if we
choose all deciduous shrubs, we will
have a bare effect during the winter
months. It is possible to so arrange
the two classes in a mass planting
that a charming effect is produced at
all seasons.
Uses of Shrubs
No doubt the uses to which we put
our shrub material will decide our
choice between these classes. In or-
der to properly clothe the structure
which is now composed of lot, house,
drive, walks, paths, fences, walls, and
arbors, shrubs are planted in masses
to form backgrounds, borders, and
screens. A few choice specimens are
used purely for decoration.
For background or border planting
both evergreen and deciduous ma-
terial may be employed if carefully
arranged so that the evergreens par-
tially conceal the bareness of the de-
ciduous plants during the winter
months.
For screening out chicken yards,
utilitarian fences and other unattrac-
tive but necessary objects, ever-
greens are best, but deciduous shrubs
may be judiciously intermingled with
them.
Background and screen plantings
may be identical, especially on a
small lot. In both plantations high,


medium, and low-growing material
should be combined to give a rich
and complete effect. Several individ-
uals of the same species or variety
should be grouped together, and these
should vary in age wth the older in-
dividuals placed at the front.
The same general rules apply to
borders along fences. The border
line should not be too regular. Little
coves or "bays" should be formed by
allowing the border to jut out here
and there with low-growing plants on
the points. Within the "bays" and
near the edge of the border under the
overhanging branches of the shrubs,
such bulbs as narcissus, leucojum and
Roman hyacinths make interesting
bits of color in early spring.
Specimen shrubs should be selected
for their well-shaped form and regu-
lar habits of growth. Slow-growing
species are best, although, if these
are not available, others that can be
easily controlled may be substituted.
The color of foliage and flowers of
the specimen material is another im-
portant item.
Color in Shrubs
The use of color is perhaps the
most difficult problem of the designer,
and one on which some of the greatest
and most natural mistakes are made.
Violent contrasts are to be avoided.
Green should predominate, and the
various shades of green should be
well blended. Other colors are best
introduced by the use of flowering
shrubs, and even then the colors
must be well chosen and carefully
placed. White, pale yellow, and lav-
ender make good transitions between
stronger colors that do not blend well.
Shrubs with red flowers should be



Landscape

Design

Edited by

Juniors and Seniors
This is the second article of
a series of articles prepared by
the students in the Department
of Landscape Design. This ar-
ticle is on the use of shrubs on
the home grounds, with direc-
tions for planting, horticultural
care and methods of propaga-
tion. The table at the end will
serve as a valuable guide in se-
lecton of plant material.


used sparingly in informal work, and
never against red brick walls. This
rule also applies to plants with varie-
gated foliage. Such plants are never
used to the best advantage in infor-
mal work.
Relationship of Shrub and House
The shrub is definitely related to
the house in two ways: First, as en-
framement; second, as a transitional
medium between the house and the
ground.
The larger, more tree-like shrubs
used in backgrounds and screens serve
as enframement for the house. It is
important to tie these plantings to
those that are still closer to the build-
ing, and no short-cut paths should
mar the beauty of the composition.
Transition plantations serve to tie
the house to the ground upon which
it is built up. These shrubs should
be more or less regular in habit of
growth. That is, shrubs inclined to
be erratic in putting on growth are
best not used for this purpose.
Among those to be avoided are Ligus-
trum lucidum and Abelia. The ju-
nipers of more or less dwarf growth
are recommended. Under the win-
dows a low shrub is used, and against
the broader and higher expanses of
wall higher shrubs look more appro-
priate. Several individuals of one
species or variety should be placed
together so as to overlap when full
grown. Tree-like shrubs are to be
avoided.
The entire base of the house should
not be hidden. If this rule is not
followed, the effect is that of bring-
ing the forest to the house, and the
architectural beauty of the building
is partially lost.
The front entrance should be set
off by two splendid specimen shrubs
of regular habit of growth. Dwarf
varieties of slow growth are best for
this position. Boxwood (Buxus sem-
pervirens) in the dwarf variety, but
in a good size, is one of the finest
shrubs for the effect desired. Pitto-
sporum is another good shrub when
kept under control. The plants
should be set on either side of the
steps, and close to them. The two
plants should be as nearly as possible
of the same shape and size, but they
may be trimmed to get the proper
regularity.
The accompanying lists give a few
shrubs of easy culture, and they can
all be obtained easily from cuttings,
seeds, or by transplanting from the
woods or nursery. No effort has been
made to list the more expensive ever-
greens such as the junipers. All re-
liable nurserymen sell them and are
willing to mail catalogues upon re-
quest.


May, 1930








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


EVERGREENS FOR SPECIMEN PLANTING
Common Botanical Eventual Flower Fruit Flowering Rooting
name name height color color time time
Camelia C. j ponica 25 ft. A'l colors Winter Summer
Boxwood Buxus
Boxwood sempervirens Buy specimens from reliable nurseryman.
Pitto porum P. tobira Buy specimen from reliable nurseryman.
Podocarpus 8 ft. Cream April Fall

DECIDUOUS SHRUBS FOR COMBINING WITH EVERGREENS
Common Botanical Eventual Flower Fruit Flowering
name name height color color time
Laeger-
Crepe myrtle stroemia 25 ft. White
indica Pink
Dogwood Cornu- florida 25 ft. White Red Spring Native
Red bud Cercis cana- Pinkish
Red bud en30 t. lavender Spring Native

EVERGREENS FOR BACKGROUNDS, BORIOES AND SCREENS
Common Botanical Eventual Flower Fruit Flowering Rooting
name name height color color time time
Abelia A. grandi- 4 ft. Pinkish June to Nov. Winter
flora white
Azalea Azalea indica 15 ft. All colors Spring Summer
cuttings
Bottlebrush Calistemon Difficult to
Bottle brush a eous 12 ft. Red Gray brush April root
Butterfly Buddleia Summer
bush officinalis 20 ft. Lavender Late winter cuttings
Cotoneaster C. pannosa 6 ft. White Red Spring Seed 1 well
Feijoa F. Sellowiana 20 ft. Ro e pink Spring Seed well
Jessamine lasminum
Jessamine humile 15 ft. Yellow Spring Fall
Jessamine Jasminum Fall cutting
(primrose) primulinum 6 ft. Yellow Spring or layers
Jessamine Jasminum Summer to
(furry) pubescens 10 ft. White spring
Myrtle Myrtus
Myrtle mmunis 9 ft. White Spring Fall or winter
Myrtle (wax) Myrica 15 ft. Green Native--
cerifera catkins Blue gray Winter transplant
Oleander Nerium
Oleander o'eander 20 ft. All colors Late spring Summer
Privet (wax) Ligu trum 30 It. White Black April, May Any time
Pv igu trum
Privet jLiponicum 10 ft. White Purple Spring Any time
T-a plant Camelia thea 10 ft. White
Viburnum V -uppensum 8 ft. While Red March Any time
Viburnum V. odoratis- 30 ft. White April Fall
simum
Yopon Ilcx vomitoria 50 ft. White Red Spring Native
Slow growing. Good for hedges.


Cultivation of Shrubs
Shrubs will not grow on indefinitely
without care. Some shrubs do not
need tool cultivation. They are sur-
face feeders, and if their roots are
disturbed, they suffer. Among these
plants are the azaleas and duranta
(golden dewdrop). It is best to mulch
these shrubs with decaying leaves or
peat moss before hot weather comes
on, and never dig about them with a
tool.
Some good commercial fertilizer is
a balanced mixture, or a well-rotted
barnyard manure may be applied in
the winter to aid spring growth. If
a commercial fertilizer is used, care
slgould be taken to wash it off the
leaves of the lower branches before
the sun shines upon them. It is of
the utmost importance to keep shrubs
well watered during dry weather, es-
pecially during the winter when we
often neglect this duty.
Controlling Shrubs by Pruning
Many shrubs get "leggy" with age.
They seem to run to limbs with no
leaves to speak of, and they do not
bloom well. These plants can be


brought back to usefulness by a se-
vere pruning. Flowers may have to
be sacrificed the first season after this
pruning, but the final result is entirely
satisfactory. The cutting should be
done close to the ground with a sharp
instrument, and the cut should be
smooth. This is the time to apply a
good fertilizer, and the ground should
be kept moist. Mulching will aid in
conserving moisture. Heavy pruning
should be done during the fall and
winter. Shrubs pruned as late as
March in Gainesville will put on a
heavy growth from thie old wood close
to the ground.
Shrubs need controlling as to shape.
A light pruning is sufficient if given
at the right time. It is best to nip
off long, scraggly branches as soon
as they appear. This will cause the
plant to put on heavier growth be-
low the cut.
Since most shrubs flower on growth
made the previous season, it is a bad
idea to prune just before bloom is
expected. If the gardener does not
know his material very well, it is best
(Continued on Page 13)


Royal Park


Exotic



Nursery


Vero Beach,Florida





Ornamentals


Shrubs


Palms




Tropical

Water Lillies

Will enhance the beauty
of Florida Lakes and
make a beauty spot of
any pond. All con-
ventional shades and
new hybrids.


Blue Stem

Papaya

Bi-sex type.

These handsome pro-
ductive plants desire a
place for their beauty's
sake.

Large crops of palatable,
healthful fruit are pure
velvet. The only strain
with a definite tendency
to come true.


W. E. SEXTON
President


May, 1930







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


I .


I DThese



rBetter


Fertiliz.,ers


PRODUCE BETTER RESULTS
due to the generous amount of organic Nitrogen (al-
most entirely from Genuine Peruvian Guano) used in
their make-up.
Plan now to use NACO Brand Fertilizers. Results will prove the
wisdom of your choice. Bigger yields of improved quality fruit and
truck will bring added profits.


TIME TO BEGIN


DUSTING


American Beauty Dust Sprayer

Little Beauty Garden Duster -


- $20.00

- 2.50


California Beauty Duster -


13.50


F. O. B. Tampa-5 % Cash Discount


Write us for free booklet on dusting. We can make

prompt shipment on these dusters.




West Coast Fertilizer Co.


KRAUSE BUILDING


TAMPA, FLORIDA


Value and Effect of
Agricultural Engineering
Frazier Rogers
The reduction of the farm popula-
tion in proportion to the total popu-
lation of the United States has been
brought about to a great extent by
the introduction of engineering into
agriculture. In the early days of our
country it took 97 out of every 100
persons to produce enough farm prod-
ucts for themselves and three others.
Now approximately 25 persons are
able to supply farm produce sufficient
for themselves and 75 others. This
has permitted a vast army of workers
to be released from agriculture to be
used in other industries, such as auto-
mobile manufacture, steel works, etc.
This would have been impossible with-
out the increased production per
worker in agriculture.
In the thirteenth annual report of
the Department of Labor it is stated
that the amount of labor required to
produce a bushel of wheat by hand
methods was three hours and three
minutes. This had been reduced to
ten minutes by machine methods. In
the year book of the Department of
Agriculture for the year 1893 it is
reported that the average time of
labor required to cut and cure a ton
of hay had been reduced from eleven
hours to one hour and thirty-nine min-
utes. While the time reduction for
the production of all farm crops has
not been as great as the two just men-
tioned above, we have had time re-
ductions in virtually a 1 crops.
The introduction of more compli-
cated machinery on the farms makes
a more thorough knowledge of me-
chanics desirable. According to the
1920 census, we had farm machinery
manufactured that year to a value
of $536,945,000. Ths means a per
cap'ta production of approximately
,4.50 in farm machinery for that year
alone. If we add to this the value of
the machinery already on the farm,
we will have large investment, the
returns on which will depend upon
skilful operation. The census figures
cf 1920 show that we had 203.207 gas
tractors, with a value of $193,563 -
000, manufactured during that year.
Undoubtedly the number has in-
creased since that time, as they have
been greatly improved since then.
Machinery is not the only phase of
engineering that applies to agricul-
ture. Space does not permit a dis-
cussion of the various ones. Only a
few will be mentioned, as buildings.
drainage, irrigation, sewage disposal,
water supply, etc. Thus tOe training
of future farmers should include en-
gineering along with studies of an*-
mals, plants, soils, economics and
other agricultural subjects.
Note: Frazier Rogers is Professor
of Agricultural Engineering and is
always busy teaching students how
to be mechanically m-nded.


May, 1930







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Land Tenure and
Home Ownership
(Continued from Page 3)
to overcome Anateres was to keep
him clear of the ground. So, great
interests, when based upon lands
seem to expand with a power well-
nigh irresistible, so that every now
and then the small proprietor or the
landless man has to either create a
crisis or take advantage of a passing
one to get a new grip on the land.
The question before this country is
what the future wll be when hope is
destroyed in the peasant group.
The solution of this problem comes.
we believe, by increasing the number
who own small holdings in homes.
Wherever we find peasant proprie-
tors, we also find the comfort, secur-
ity, confidence in the future, and in-
dependence which assures at once of
happiness and virtue. Of all culti-
vators, he is the happiest. Through
the incentive of home ownership, in-
dividual initiative would be increased.
Considerations such as these have led
economists in Europe and in the
United States to believe that in own-
ership of small holdings lies the solu-
tion of land tenure.
The history of the world shows that
civilization, prosperity and progress
have gone with private property
ownership in its general distribu-
tion among the masses. To revert
to common ownership and subvert
this institution would be to revert
to barbarism and discourage thrift
and industry. The whole history
of agriculture is evidence of the
fact that land held in common by a
community or a State can never be
put to its best usage, that fixity of
tenure is essential to improvement,
and that no tenure is so perfect as
small proprietorship in the absolute.

Shrubs and Home Grounds
(Continued from Page 11)
to consult an authority as to when
to prune each species.
Picking flowers often injures a
plant, not because of what is done,
but of how it is done. The instru-
ment, either shears, scissors, or a
sharp knife, should be very sharp.
A short piece of stem should be left
near the main branch to form a shel-
ter for the new growth that will ap-
pear later. Flowers should be cut
from inconspicuous parts of the bush,
or they may be taken so as not to
injure the symmetrical shape of the
plant.

Freshmen Alpha Zata Key
At the Ag. Club meeting of March
24th., William T. Dunn of Gaines-
ville, who is a sophomore in the Ag.
College, was presented with the
alpha zata freshman scholarship key
in recognition of his having had the
highest scholastic average of all the
Ag. College freshmen last year.


For Concentrated Growth--


p fl'A. & G. FERTIL-

SIZERS assure you of

larger and more per-
fect fruit and vegeta-
c bles-quicker matur-

ity-and more profit.
They give you the soil
stimulant from which
you can expect largest returns on your time and
money. Prompt service assured; write for free price
list No. 62.


Atlantic & Gulf Fertilizer Co.

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


NITROPHOS2KI
ANALYSES:


(%) (%) (%)
Ammonia Phosphoric
Nitrogen Equivalent Acid


Potash
Potash


No. 1 15 18.2 30 15
No. 2 16'/2 20. 162 21/2
No. 3 15'/2 18.8 15!/2 19
No. 4 15 18.2 11 26%/2
For Better Crops at Lower Costs


CALUREA


CALCIUM NITRATE


34% Nitrogen, equal to 41.3/o% 15% Nitrogen, equal to
Ammonia. 1/5 in nitrate form 18.2% Ammonia. Nitrate
and 4/5 in organic form Nitrogen combined with
Calcium
For Top and Side Dressing


Jackson Grain Company
State Distributors
TAMPA, FLORIDA
"Working for Better Agriculture"


May, 1930







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


PUT YOUR FRUIT

into the

PREFERRED CLASS

There is a way to get your fruit into the preferred class-the class
that will bring top prices. Size and finish are going to bring their usual
premium, and the best way to assure this desired combination is to apply
liberal amounts of high potash fertilizer for the summer application.
While the tissue and texture of the young fruits are forming is when they
need ample potash. Don't wait for the fall application to apply your
potash. Let potash give your trees stamina and reserve to carry the big
crop through with size and finish.
Apply your potash before angular wood and coarse, brittle rinds are
formed. Apply an extra application where wood growth is long so you
will be assured that the growth does not compete with the fruit for the
much needed texture building material. Potash is cheap; use it liberally
for regular crops of fine texture, juicy fruit. Lack of potash does not
show so acutely in the grove as it does on the grading table-and the
grading table is a balance sheet. Which side are you going to be on this
fall?

Agricultural and Scientific Bureau
N. V. POTASH EXPORT MY.
OF AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND
P. O. Box 596 Gainesville, Fla.






IDEAL FERTILIZERS


Unvarying in Quality

Unvarying in Results


Place your faith in IDEAL BRANDS for dependable ex-
cellence for better crops in grove and field.
Only the best materials, scientifically mixed and balanced,
are used in IDEAL FERTILIZERS. Their unsurpassed ex-
cellence has been proved in 37 years of Florida fertilizing
leadership.
Use IDEAL BRANDS for better yields and better qual-
ity. Write for our free booklets, "Profitable Florida Truck
Crops" and "Summer Fertilizers for Citrus."


Ideal Fertilijers

WILSON &TOOMER FERTILIZER

COMPANY

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


Campustry 102
The recent political caucuses, ral-
lies, stump speeches and election have
held the interest of the student body
for the past few weeks. Frequently
through the period of the political
campaign, small groups could be
seen on the campus. Each member
of a group would be earnestly chip-
ping in on the conversation, the sub-
ject of which, nine times out of ten,
would turn out to be campus politics.
The usual earmarks of a political
campaign were also present. The fa-
miliar cigars, stump speeches, hand-
shaking and back-patting accompan-
ied by party bulletins, proclamations
and sample ballots kept up the inter-
est. At the rallies the candidates
peered through the cigar smoke at the
audience as they proclaimed their
principles and aims. After the
speeches, punch was served. The vis-
itors attacked the refreshmets with
gusto and, although there seemed to
be enough to float a battleship, they
guzzled it up in fine shape. The final
balloting ended the demonstrations.

As soon as the political cigar smoke
had cleared away, the studious studies
were confronted with a new problem
in the form of mid-semester quizzes.
The subject matter of various books
was crammed into the craniums of
the victims. Some of it leaked out
before it could be put on paper, how-
ever. Now and then a paper from an
absent-minded one would have a
sprinklng of politics mixed in with
whatever knowledge had remained.
The grades are sent to the parents
and in many cases the "examees" re-
ceived caustic letters from home
about the grades. These students have
learned to write home for money just
before the quizzes instead of just
afterward. The ones who have spot-
ted the profs write home just after
the exams. The trouble with this
proposition is that one doesn't know
if he has spotted the instructors un-
til he sees the questions, and conse-
quently doesn't know when to write.
It's one of the many campus prob-
lems. A penny will be paid for
thoughts on the subject.

The draining of the duck pond to
make way for the construction of the
new stadium has left our pet ducks
without their "ole swimming' hole."
Loud quacks of protest were ex-
pressed by the feathered outcasts,
but as yet nothing has been done
about it. It is suggested that the
new pool be placed at their disposal.
The ducks could be used as pace-
makers when the swimming team has
their races. Rather a ducky idea,
what?-A. E.

You saw it in the Florida College
Farmer.


May, 1930






THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


CITRUS
NURSERY
STOCK

All Standard Varieties
on Sour Orange Root
Your inquiries solicited




SUMMERFIELD
NURSERY
COMPANY
MARION COUNTY
SUMMERFIELD, FLORIDA
NATHAN MAYO, President
W. J. LYLES, Vice-Pres. & Mgr.



Citrus Groves
Developed
Estimates
Furnished

E. J. WOOD


The Final Test

of Fertilizer

THE Grower, who adopted a program of
care and fertilization the past year,
with Quality Fruit as his goal, will be
richly rewarded when his final returns are
in-Quality Fruit will always bring a prem-
ium, even in big crop years.
The coming crop, from present indications,
will be a big one, and your "net profit" will
be determined by the fertilization, care and
attention you give your grove. A saving of
a few dollars per ton on the cost of your
fertilizer may mean the loss of many dol--
lars when your crop is marketed.
ORANGE BELT Brands and the advice of
one of our trained field men will assist you
in the production of a maximum crop of
Quality Fruit-resulting in higher prices
and more net profit-the final test of fer-
tilizer.
Consult us before your next application.
There IS a difference in fertilizer


LYONS I.LIZ RC.

Tampa BET Florida
OFFICE .j S PLANT


805 Citrus Exc. Bldg.


35th St. and 4th Ave.


Vero Beach


Florida


THE PHIFER
STATE BANK
A safe and progressive de-
pository for your funds.
We handle Club and Asso-
ciation accounts as you
wish, and compound in-
terest at 4% every quarter.
Gainesville, Florida


"QUALITY FERTILIZER FOR QUALITY FRUIT"



BISSELL HARROWS
PULL EASIER
Do Better Work
Last Longer
Write for list of Florida users. They can tell you why Bissell beats them all.
FARM & HOME MACHINERY CO.
State Distributors for Eight Years
ORLANDO, FLORIDA


May, 1930






THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


The Intelligent Use of


GOOD FERTILIZER

Always Pays




When Buying FERTILIZER

Obtain the Best

+ +


TRUEMAN FERTILIZER

COMPANY

Jacksonville .: Florida






1 GULF BRANDS

For 26 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been.
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.
Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall main-
tain the reputation of "GULF BRANDS."
WAREHOUSES
Bradenton : Lake Wales : Sarasota : Winter Haven

THE OULF FERTILIZER C0.
P. O. Box 2790
TAMPA, FLORIDA


SoutheastToro Co.
808-816 W. BAY ST.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Importers and Distributors
GERMAN MOSS PEAT
FOR
Grove Owners
Plumosis Growers
Vegetable Growers
Melon Growers
Tobacco Growers
Bulb Growers
Home Gardeners
Park Superintendents
Green Keepers
Nurserymen

Also Distributors of
MILORGANITE
AND
NACO
Ideal
Organic Turf Fertilizers
Write for Descriptive Circular



VERO DEL MAR
HOTEL
VERO BEACH, FLORIDA

European Plan
In the heart of the city offers
you a real summer or winter
home.
PRIVATE BATHS, LARGE BEAU-
TIFULLY FURNISHED ROOMS




FLORIDA
and
LYRIC
Theatres


Amusement centers
for Gainesville
and the University


May, 1930




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