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Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167
System ID: UF00075980:00001


This item has the following downloads:

Florida College Farmer - April 1930 ( PDF )

Full Text

The FL









Vol. I, No. 1

APRIL, 1930

\XNs>\ \

15 Cents



The Florida College Farmer

We believe there is4 place, now
unfilled, for this new. r rnal. It is to
be edited by the students of the Col-
lege of Agriculture, sponsored by the
Agricultural Club, and has the en-
dorsement and will receive the hearty
support and cooperation of the ad-
ministration and faculty of the Col-
Effort will be made to make it in-
teresting and helpful to farmers, fruit
growers and other real dirt farmers.
The students will contribute articles
and reviews of literature having di-
rect bearing on Florida Agriculture
and will, because of their access to

and personal touch with professors
and other scientific workers, secure
articles from these from time to time
that will carry valuable information
and inspiration.
The large and growing number of
graduates and former students of the
college will, I am sure, find that the
periodic visits of this journal will
keep them in touch with the old
school, renew the recollections of
former days and interest in what is
now being done.
Those who are shouldering the
responsibility of the publication are
earnest, energetic, persistent students,
realizing that they have undertaken a
man-sized job, but determined to do
it. I believe they will both get and
give much in their undertaking.
I commend the periodical to all
past, present and future students of
Agriculture, their parents and friends
and all others interested in the agri-
cultural progress and development of
W. L. FLOYD, Acting Dean,

April, 1930


How Five Boys In Hillsborough County Grew

Over 100 Bushels of Corn Per Acre

C. P. Wright

FIVE boys in Hillsborough Coun-
ty, Florida, grew more than one
hundred bushels of corn per acre,
though it is the general opinion that
corn cannot be raised profitably in
Florida, yet 4-H club boys in Hills-
borough County have proved, beyond
a doubt, that if improved methods
are followed, corn can be made a
profitable crop on the heavier types
of soil.
It is not anticipated that Florida
will ever be placed among the lead-
ing corn-producing states of the Na-
tion, but we must not lose sight of
the fact that a number of outstand-
ing records have been made in the
state the past several years, and that
quite a few counties have made
yields that will compare favorably
with those of the Corn Belt States.
Hillsborough County has produced
the State Corn Champion for the
past four years. The average yield of
the champions during this time was
106.6 bushels per acre. In statewide
competition last year, Hillsborough
County club members had the dis-
tinction of producing 11 of the high-
est yields in the state.
For a number of years the Experi-
ment Station and the Agricultural
Extension Division, at Gainesville,
have urged farmers to grow more
corn and better corn on the farm.
Farmers in the central and northern
portions of the state are planting im-
proved varieties of corn, and the
acreage is increasing from year to
year. At the present rate of increase,
and with more concentrated effort
along this line, the time should not
be far distant when the State of
Florida will produce all the corn she
The 4-H club work is also con-
tributing a great deal toward making
Florida a corn-producing state. In
communities where corn club mem-
bers have made consistent high yields
over a period of years, farmers are
now falling in line and adopting the
same methods as practiced by the
boys. It is not uncommon to see
father and son farming side by side,
following improved cultural methods,
and making more corn on five acres
than they formerly did on twenty-
Last year a number of 4-H club
members in Hillsborough C o u n t y
raised all the corn used on the farm
and marketed a surplus. There were
six organized clubs in the county
last season. One hundred eight boys
were actively engaged in the various
branches of club work 70 of whom
belonged to the corn club. The fifty-
four corn club members completing
their work last year made an aver-

aged yield of 67.6 bushels per acre.
Yields ran all the way from 35 to
112.5 bushels per acre. Quite a few
boys made from 85 to 100 bushe's,
and five went over the 100 mark.
The five high boys made an average
yield of 107.2 bushels per acre. Ver-
non Simmons of the Springhead Club
led the list with 112.5 bushels; Paul
Simmons of the same club came next
with 111 bushels; Edwin Kirkland of
the Cork Club raised 106 bushels;
Thomas Hughes, Springhead, 105,
and Harvey Miley, Cork, 102 bushels.
A number of boys produced corn for
less than 20 cents per bushel. The
cost ranged from 161 to 28 cents
per bushel. The average of all clubs
was 21 cents.
When such yields are compared
with the county average, which runs
from 18 to 20 bushels per acre, one
can readily see that there is room for
considerable improvement along this
More than 50 percent of the corn
planted in Hillsborough County fol-
lows some highly fertilized truck
crop, such as strawberries, beans,
cabbage, potatoes, etc., and conse-
quently little, if any additional fer-
tilizer is required at planting time.
In this case all that is necessary is a
side-dressing of readily available ni-
trogenous fertilizer six weeks after
the corn is planted. If this cropping
system is adopted a large portion of
the residual fertilizer may be utilized
to make feed for livestock; otherwise
it would be washed from the soil by
the heavy summer rains.
The soi's of Hillsborough County
are quite variable, ranging all the

way from Norfolk fine sand to muck.
Of the intermediate types, the Scran-
ton fine sand is generally used for
truck farm-ng and strawberry grow-
ing. This soil, found extensively in
the Plant ity area, is dark gray to
black in color, retains moisture well,
and is one of the most productive in
the State of Florida. Club boys grow
their corn almost exclusively on this
type of soil.
Several months before planting
time, definite instructions are given
each club in regard to the selection
and preparation of land, importance
of good seed, time and method of
planting, and the most economical
use of fertilizer.
There is an unusual amount of in-
terest being shown in club work in
Hillsborough County at the present
t;me. In nine organized clubs more
than 200 boys have enrolled in 4-H
club work for the coming year.
About one-half of this number are
in the corn club. A large number
have planted already and within the
next week or 10 days all corn will
be in the ground.
Several new varieties are being
planted for the first time this year,
and from all indications competition
between the various clubs will be
keener than ever. Hillsborough
County club boys are in the field for
further honors this year and they
are going out to win by making the
best better.

Note: From a radio address broad-
cast over the state's station, WRUF.
Mr. C. P. Wright is County Agent
for Hillsborough County.


112.5 bushels per acre 111 bushels per acre

April, 1930

~kr-~.~~ic ~

105 bushels per acre


Development of Plant Pathology in the Florida

Experiment Station

George F. Weber

AS EARLY as 1880 the mycolo-
gists recognized Florida as fer-
tile collecting fields for fungi and
plant diseases caused by the para-
sitic species. During the next five
years several lists of Florida fungi
were published in the various jour-
nals, especially the Journal of My-
cology, by such eminent collectors
and scientists as J. B. Ellis, Geo.
Marin, P. A. Ravenel, W. W. Calkins,
Curtis and others.
It was about this time that the
State Experiment Stations were be-
ing established in the various sections
of the United States. The Florida
Agricultural Experiment S t a t i o n
was begun during the year 1887-88
at Lake City, Florida. J. Kost, the
director, according to his first bul-
letin, recognized the huge task be-
fore him and stated with an apparent
dubious mind that they would try to
do that which was expected of them.
He commented on the prevalence of
"Fire blight" of the LeConte pear
and "Stem rust" of wheat. Mr. A. H.
Curt:ss, then botanist of the station,
actually did the first pathological
work in the state on "Foot rot" and
"Scab" of citrus in 1889. J. P. De-
Pass, the new director, mentioned
"peach leaf curl" in his first annual
report in 1889 at which time J. C.
Neal, M. D. was station botanist. Mr.
P. H. Rolfs took up the duties of
station entomologist and botanist in
1891 and during the same year dis-
covered the southern blight disease
of tomato, later named Sclerotium
rolfsii by P. A. Saccardo, an Italian,
in his honor. Prof. Rolfs was very
active in plant pathological invest;-
gations, studying a large number of
truck crop diseases including early
blight of solanaceous plants, celery
diseases, tomato blight and soil rot.
In 1893, shortly after being made
biologist of the station. he published
a comprehensive bulletin on insecti-
cides and fungicides, including most
of those in use today. H. H. Hume
took up the work left by Prof. Rolfs
on September 1st. 1899, following
the resignation of the latter. Prof.
Hume was a very energetic worker,
whose interest was centered pri-
marily on finishing the work on
truck crop diseases previously con-
ducted by Prof. Rolfs. Hume was
assisted by Miss Lucia McCulloch,
who resigned on June 31, 1903 and
by F. C. Reimer, who was appointed
July 1, 1903 and resigned less than
a year later, April 1, 1904. The in-
vestigational work included the leaf
blights and black heart of celery,
mildews of cucumbers, as well as
"watery rots" of vegetables caused
by sclerotina sp. Lists were made up

George F. Weber, M. S.,
Ph.D. (Wisconsin) is associate
Plant Pathologist at the Florida
Experiment Station. The De-
partment of Pathology render-
ed inestimable service to the
citrus industry through the
eradication of the citrus can-
ker, and is still helping by
solving growers' problems with
plant diseases.

of the fungous parasites of canta-
loupe and strawberries. The investi-
gation of potato diseases was inau-
gurated during the following year.
About 1900 Hume published a pro-
visional list, "The Fungous Flora of
Florida," of seventy species. Hume
resigned in 1904 and F. M. Rolfs
was appointed station botanist and
horticulturist in his place. He was
in charge of investigational work for
two years when he resigned. H. S.
Fawcett was made an assistant in
1905 to take over the work left un-
finished when Rolfs resigned.
R. Y. Winters was appointed as
assistant botanist Oct. 29, 1906.
About that time a list of host plants
of Corticium vagum B. &. C. was
made and published by the members
of the department. Bean anthracnose
and black rot of cabbage received
consideration as well as diseases of
dewberries. Scab and withertip of
citrus were recognized as serious dis-
eases of citrus and control methods
were attempted. Fawcett discovered
the scaly bark disease of citrus dur-
ing the following year while con-
ducting experiments on other citrus
problems. The entomogenous fungi,
red, yellow and turbinate Ascher-
sonias were obtained in culture and
were also introduced into groves for
the first time by artificial spraying
methods. Peach, rose and roselle dis-
eases in Florida were listed and
H. S. Fawcett was made plant
pathologist July 1, 1908 and con-
tinued the investigations on the cit-
rus diseases, except dieback of citrus
which was being investigated by the
station physiologist. Thomas Hamil-
ton spent about seven months work-
ing as a laboratory assistant. With-
ertip scaly-bark, gummosis and scab
were the principle citrus investiga-
tions being conducted at this time,
while cabbage, pecan and roselle dis-
eases were additional department
projects. On April 1, 1909, O. F. Bur-
ger was appointed laboratory assist-
ant and R. Y. Winters resigned in

1910. J. B. Griffiths was a laboratory
assistant during 1911-12.
During the following year stem
end rot of citrus was investigated,
its cause determined and attempts
were made to develop control
methods. Likewise black rot and
gumming of citrus were investigated.
H. S. Fawcett resigned in 1912 and
H. E. Stevens was made plant path-
ologist. Stevens took up the investi-
gation of citrus diseases which had
been started by Fawcett. Melanose
and stem end rot were the most im-
portant citrus diseases investigated
at this time. O. F. Burger, recently
made assistant plant pathologist,
concentrated on truck diseases. He
found a new cucumber disease
caused by a bacterial organism. He
also investigated lettuce and tomato
troubles. Citrus canker was discover-
ed in 1913 in Florida and consider-
able concentrated work was conduct-
ed in regard to it, resulting eventu-
ally in the now famous and success-
ful eradication campaign.
Because of the increasing amount
of work required to meet the de-
mands of the growers J. S. Matz
was appointed assistant in plant
pathology on August 1st, 1913 and
assigned to investigate pecan and fig
diseases. O. F. Burger resigned in
the spring of 1914 and C. D. Sher-
bakoff was appointed associate plant
pathologist in his place to continue
the investigation of truck crop dis-
During the next few years the in-
vestigations of citrus diseases was
was centered on gummosis, melanose,
scab and canker and the investiga-
tion of truck diseases, included
seed bed damping-off, eggplant, po-
tato and tomato troubles. Other en-
deavors included investigations of
pecan, pineapple and fig diseases.
Dr. Sherbakoff found a nev dis-
ease of tomatoes namely "buckeye
rot" and described the parasitic or-
ganism causing it. Likewise Mr. Matz
described the new parasite causing a
disease of figs. Matz resigned May
15, 1918, terminating a very success-
ful tour of duty with the station.
During the following year Stevens
devoted most of his time to the study
of avocado diseases and Sherbakoff
concentrated his time on truck dis-
eases. On September 1st Stevens re-
signed and on September 6th Sher-
bakoff resigned, and the station was
without a plant pathologist for the
first time since it was founded. Dr.
O. F. Burger who had resigned May
15, 1914, and since held positions in
California and in the United States
department of agriculture, was ap-
pointed plant pathologist to fill the

April, 1930


vacancy Nov. 1, 1920, to supervise
the principle citrus investigations,
namely melanose, and stem-end rot
control, scaly bark quarantines and
citrus canker eradication. He select-
ed Carl T. Link Feb. 2, 1919, as a
laboratory assistant to work on cit-
rus canker, also A. H. Beyer, Jan. 12,
1921, to work on truck diseases, and
W. G. Wells, Aug. 13, 1921, to in-
vestigate scalybark, were given part
time appointments. Beyers resigned
July 1, 1921, Link, November 1,
1924, and Wells, January 1, 1925.
During the following year the
tobacco growers experienced severe
losses from a downy mildew disease,
as well as from black shank, result-
ing in the appointment of February
15, 1922 of Dr. W. B. Tisdale as an
assistant stationed at Quincy. He has
developed strains of tobacco resist-
ant to black shank through several
years of selection. Shortly afterward,
July 1, 1922, Dr. G. F. Weber was
appointed to fill the vacancy made
by Sherbakoff for the investigation
of diseases of tomatoes, peppers, cu-
cumbers and other truck crop.
The extension work was inaugu-
rated in the state by the appointment
of Ed L. Ayers in May 1922. He was
succeeded August 1, 1923 by J. R.
Springer, who in turn was succeeded
by M. R. Ensign. Since the resigna-
tion of Ensign on Sept. 30, 1926, the
position has remained vacant. E. F.
DeBusk was appointed extension cit-
rus pathologist in 1925.
On July 26, 1923, Dr. A. F. Camp
was appointed to investigate cotton
diseases which were causing the
growers much concern. Dr. L. O.
Gratz was appointed a month later,
August 27, 1923, to investigate po-
tato diseases, principally those
known as the blights, also variety and
certified seed tests in the Hastings
section. Dr. A. S. Rhoads was ap-
pointed Nov. 1, 1923, through a co-
operative agreement with a group of
growers, to investigate citrus wilt,
a disease long known of, but little
known about. Mr. J. G. Kelley was
made laboratory assistant August 18,
1923 to work on tobacco at Quincy
and Mr. R. E. Nolen received a simi-
lar appointment at Gainesville, Nov.
1, 1923, to inaugurate investigations
of pecan diseases as left by Mr.
Matz. With each of these appoint-
ments a new field of investigations
was opened up, and an additional
number of diseases included in the
experimental work.
Prof. John Gray began the teach-
ing of plant pathology in the Agri-
cultural College in 1924 and has
since built up a well equipped de-
partment. He is assisted by Mr. Ralp
L. E. DuPont was appointed as
part time laboratory assistant July
1st, 1924 and worked on citrus prob-
lems for two years, resigning July
1st, 1926. K. W. Loucks was appoint-
ed laboratory assistant November 27,
1924, to devote full time to the in-
vestigation of Phytomonas citri, the

bacterial organism causing citrus
canker, succeeding Carl T. Link, a
disabled soldier who resigned be-
cause of poor health. Erdman West
was appointed April 22, 1925, suc-
ceeding W. G. Wells, who went into
commercial work. West had been a
nursery inspector in New Jersey and
would continue the scaly bark work.
D. G. A. Kelbert was appointed field
assistant in truck crops January 1,
1925, to be stationed at Homestead
and conduct field experiments on the
control of nail head rust of toma-
An outbreak of coconut bud rot
on the lower east coast endangered
the existence of the coconut palm
in Florida. Because of the seriousness
of the situation the governor releas-
ed a $50,000 emergency appropria-
tion for investigation and later era-
dication of the disease. This made
possible the appointment of J. L.
Sea1, Jan. 1, 1925.
Surveys of citrus groves badly in-
jured by the citrus aphid showed that
during certain periods the insect al-
most disappeared due to a fungus
disease. Mr. W. A. Kuntz was ap-
pointed Nov. 1925 to investigate the
possibilities of artificial control by
culturing the fungus and spraying it
on infested trees. Kelly, who had
been stationed at Quincy working on
tobacco diseases, resigned November
1, 1926 and R. F. Wadkins was ap-
pointed to succeed him. Dr. A. F.
Camp resigned July 1, 1925 to be-
come acting head of the horticul-
tural department of the station.
The strawberry growers presented
their situation before the state legis-
lature and received an appropriation
for the employment of Dr. A. N.
Brooks on Sept. 15. 1925, to investi-
gate the troubles of strawberries in
the state. He discovered a new dis-
ease on the runners, has made trials
with fertilizers and varieties and
found that a nematode is probably
the cause of "French bud "
The investigational work on nail-
head rust revealed the Marglobe
variety as resistant to the disease.
A cooperative investigation with the
United States Department of Agri-
culture necessitated the expansion of
the field work. Consequently, Mr. D.
G. A. Kelbert, who had been located
for a year at Homestead, was moved
to Bradenton and Mr. Stacy Haw-
kins was appointed Dec. 10, 1925 to
continue the work at Homestead. Re-
cent developments indicate that the
Nailhead disease is probably control-
led by the growing of the Marglobe
variety. A new tomato disease was
discovered in the Bradenton section
Pnd has caused considerable losses.
Its control is being investigated.
Dr. O. F. Burger was killed in an
Automobile accident Jan. 26, 1928
near Vero Beach while on a tour of
inspection of the field stations. The
vacancy was not filled until a year
later when Dr. W. B. Tisdale, who
for the past seven years had been in
charge of the branch station at

Quincy, was appointed plant patholo-
gist Jan. 1, 1929.
The allottment of the Purnell
funds for research on economical
problems made it possible to secure
Dr. A. H. Eddins, who was appointed
May 15, 1928 to investigate corn dis-
eases in Florida. Dr. J. L. Seal, hav-
ing finished the coconut bud rot
problem and later made associate
plant pathologist at the Everglades
Experiment Station, resigned :Jan.
15, 1929 to become plant patholo-
gist at the Alabama Polytechnic In-
stitute. R. F. Wadkins, assistant in
tobacco diseases at Quincy, resigned
June 30, 1929 and R. R. Kincaid was
appointed to succeed Wadkins July
1, 1929. Dr. W. B. Shippy of the
Boyce Thompson Institute was ap-
pointed October 15, 1929 to begin
investigations of diseases of ferns
and ornamentals, a new field here-
tofore not investigated in Florida.
Dr. M. N. Walker of the cotton de-
partment, who had been doing path-
ological investigations, was appoint-
ed Nov. 1, 1929 to investigate water-
melon diseases with a location at
Leesburg in a new field laboratory.
The staff of the plant pathology
department at the present time is
composed of fifteen scientists devot-
ing their full time to investigations
of diseases of plants in Florida. The
30 projects being conducted include
as many important diseases of Flor-
ida crops. The department maintains
workers at each of the three branch
stations, namely Quincy, Lake Al-
fred, and Belle Glade and in addition
seven field laboratories located at
Homestead, Cocoa, Plant City, Bra-
denton, Leesburg, Hastings and
Monticello. The members of the staff
have published twenty station bul-
letins, both general and technical,
during the past five years, dealing
principally with the progress of their
investigations on definite projects, as
well as numerous technical papers in
scientific journals.
The cryptogamic herbarium, main-
tained as a record for Florida speci-
mens and for use in comparison and
identification, has been continually
added to until it includes several
thousand fungi correctly classified
and well preserved and likewise the
departmental library is made up of
the important printed matter on the

Board of Control
Names John P. Camp
Assistant Agronomist
State Board of Control during re-
cent meeting approved the appoint-
ment of John P. Camp as assistant
agronomist at the main Florida Ex-
periment Station. Mr. Camp gradu-
ated with the class of 1926 from our
Florida College of Agriculture and
since then has been taking graduate
work under Dr. Bryan in Agronomy.
He will begin work May 1.

You saw it in the Florida College

April, 1930


The Florida College Farmer
Published by the Agricultural Club
ARTHUR M. HILL, JR., Editor-in-Chief
EARLE D. MATTHEWS, Business Manager
WM. M. FIFIELD, '30 Assistant Editor
TOM J. JONES, '31 Assistant Editor
ROBERT S. EDSALL, '30 Assistant Editor
LOUISE BURTON, '31 Assistant Editor
WM. T. LOFTON, '31 Assistant Editor
J. RUSSELL HENDERSON, '31 Assistant Editor
W. J. PLATT, '33; A. P. EVANS, '33
JAMES H. LYBASS, '31 Advertising Manager
Rates: Fifteen cents a copy; nine month subscrip-
tion one dollar.
Student nine-month subscription 75 cents
Advertising rates upon application
Published monthly except July, August, September
Application filed for entry as second-class matter
at the postoffice at Gainesville, Florida.


The Florida College Farmer
This is to introduce our first issue of The
Florida College Farmer, a new monthly maga-
zine published by the students of the Agricul-
tural Club of the University of Florida.
Our purpose is to issue an up-to-date journal,
filled with information of value, especially to
all who are interested in the progress and
development of the agricultural resources of
the state and nation, to publish articles by
the college agricultural students and by the
experts of the state experiment station and
extension division staffs, on the latest findings
in our farming science.
Readers of the "Florida College Farmer"
will include the state's agricultural students,
and farm workers, in the various branches of
the state government, and leaders in the agri-
cultural and horticultural activities throughout
Florida. The circulation will not be large at
first, but will be a choice one reaching not only
the present influential factors in Florida agri-
culture but the future leaders in this field as
The publication will be under the direct sup-
ervision of a committee of the faculty of the
college of Agriculture appointed by Major W.
L. Floyd, acting Dean of that college. The mem-
bers of this committee are Prof. C. H. Willough-
by, Chairman;R. M. Fulghum, Asst. Editor of

the Experiment Station; and Prof E. T. Ingle
of the Department of Journalism. It is also
under the general supervision of the Committee
on Student Publications of the University, of
which Prof, E. J. Emig is Chairman.

For Leaders-Present and Future
For the agricultural leaders, present and
future, The Florida College Farmer begins its
appearance. As such its policy will not allow
it to compete with the present monthly agricul-
tural magazines, neither will it simply be a
campus publication.
The fact that a copy will go to every county
and home demonstration agent, every agricul-
tural teacher, to every agricultural college stu-
dent, alumni, and faculty member and many
other men and women who are moulding the
future agricultural policy of Florida make it
well worthy of the support of all concerned.
Such a publication prepared by the students
with the supervision and information furnished
by the faculty, to a large extent, should serve
several purposes. First it offers the great mass
of agricultural leaders a closer contact with
the State College of Agriculture, and especially
the latest that is being given to students.
Its greatest service, however, will be to the
students who read and write its pages. There-
in they may exchange their own ideas, may
find a medium for free thought and expression,
and a handy laboratory for actual practice in
practical agricultural writing. May the stu-
dents at the College of Agriculture take the
fullest advantages of this extra-cirricular activi-
ty which only offers training to students who de-
sire it.
There is much that the agricultural student
can write about, most of which would go un-
told or at least be written from a different
standpoint. What leading students get from
class lectures and laboratory work, just what
progress they are making in debating agricul-
tural problems, in learning the latest scientific
findings, the story of outstanding professors,
county agents, and other leaders, experiences
as a club boy or as a college student, and a vast
number of others are splendid ideas for such
Yes, that is all fine but those advantages will
cost money. The finance plan is advertising.
This has two distinct advantages; first it puts
before the leading public a list of concerns none
of which are afraid to advertise in an approved
University publication, and second it can do it
for no profit and at cost which will make most
firms appreciate the opportunity and thus make
the list more complete.
When using such a publication advertisers
are taking advantage of the good will that
exists between the college, the alumni, and
other state workers; thus the advertisements
are subject to sufficient approval. The public
should feel free to patronize advertisers and to
call on the College Farmer for any service it
can render at any time.

Members of the Editorial staff don't forget
staff meeting, Ag. Building, Friday night, seven
thirty, April 4.

April, 1930


Growing Beef Cattle in Florida

C. H. Willoughby

THE growing of cattle for beef
has always been one of the lead-
ing sources of income for the farm-
ers of Florida, and will probably
remain an important line of farm
work for many years in the future.
According to the census of 1925,
Florida ranked twentieth among the
states of our nation in number of
cattle of all kinds, having 656,000
head, valued at fifteen million dol-
lars. Since that time the number of
beef cattle has been steadily de-
creasing, at the rate of nearly fifty
thousand head per year, until the
estimate of January 1st, 1929, shows
only 480,000 head in Florida, includ-
ing 74,000 dairy cows and 406,000
other cattle and calves. At the same
time, the average value per head of
cattle has been slowly rising, from
the low point of $14 in 1925 up to
$18 in 1928, and during the last year
jumped nearly $6.00 to the value of
$23.40 per head. The total value of
all cattle in January, 1929, was still
nearly twelve million dollars. This
places the cattle industry in high
rank among the profit producing in-
dustries of the state.
Practically all the beef produced
in Florida is handled under the range
system, or some modification of this
method. Very little is produced under
the intensive feed lots methods used
so extensively in the corn producing
states of the middle west. The con-
ditions essential for profit in beef
production in Florida or other states,
depends upon five main factors-
the men, the land, the cattle, the
feed, and the markets. The men in
charge should understand the work
and be progressive in their efforts;
the land should be well suited to pro-
ducing the necessary grazing or feed
crops for live stock; the cattle should
be right sort to make profitable gains
and bring the best market prices;
and the markets should be conven-
ient and able to pay standard prices
for cattle of good quality.
In considering these points for
Florida conditions, we may be sure
that the ability of the men of Flor-
ida is unquestioned, particularly if
they will turn their attention to live
stock work and study the subject
thoroughly. While it is true that a
great many citizens of Florida en-
joy work with fruit and truck crops,
yet the number of general farmers
and people who love live stock will
remain very large. The average farm
without live stock of some sort is an
incomplete project. The nations that
have reached the highest civilization
of the world have always kept large
numbers of live stock on diversified
farms. Every normal person already
possesses or can readily cultivate a
liking for domestic animals of some
sort, and the care and management

With 30 counties released
from State and Federal Quar-
antine by tick eradication, the
cattle industry is starting on a
new era.
Prof. C. H. Willoughby, head
of the Department of Animal
Husbandry, points out facts
that will support the above
statement. Tick eradication has
enabled the raising of improved
breeds of cattle such as the
Aberdeen Angus and Here-
fords. The modernization of
the cattle industry of Florida
is taking place,

of these servants of mankind will
develop powers and qualities of
mind, heart and hand that no other
employment will do. There is no bet-
ter field of work for young men than
some line of live stock effort, especi-
ally for those who have a strong in-
clination in that direction. Those
who wish to be successful will have
little difficulty in acquiring the
necessary skill by practice, by proper
study in our school and colleges or
home study of the modern literature
on the subject, or through experience
on the farm and ranges under the
direction of men who have shown
their ability in this great and useful
Considering next the land and the
feed for cattle, we find that Florida
has millions of acres of land of vari-
ous sorts that can not be used dur-
ing the next hundred years for any
purpose except producing grass for
live stock and timber for future gen-
erations. The cattle carrying capac-
ity of most of these range lands is
estimated at 5 to 15 acres per cow;
but in some parts of central and west
Florida, 3 to 5 acres of better pas-
ture will often be sufficient. The
ordinary growth of native wire grass
and broom sedge furnishes grazing
for only a limited number of weeks
in the spring, and can not be de-
pended upon any further. Many oth-
er native grasses and canes supply
feeds for cattle at various times of
the year.
In the mild climate of Florida,
most people expect to find luxuriant
natural grazing twelve months .of the
year. But this is not true, as most
grasses are dormant after frost, and
they have a rest period in the year.
In most of the states it is wise and
necessary to supply other feed ma-
terials for two or three months of
the winter season, to keep cattle in
good condition and prevent loss.
There are exceptions to this rule, as
in the river bottoms and on some
rich prairie lands of south Florida,

some grasses and feed crops stay
green all winter and keep the cattle
The best pasture grasses thus far
found by our cattlemen and by the
workers in the Florida Experiment
Station are carpet, Bermuda and
Dallis grasses, with Lespedeza or
Japan clover. These are improved
from Mexico and the West Indies,
but all of them except Dallis are
already well established and thriving
in most sections of Florida. The
carpet-Dallis Lespedeza mixture is
easily seeded on cut over lands or in
scattering timber, and improves with
grazing and tramping, and soon kills
out wire grass and weeds. It grows
best on moist lands, but will also do
well enough on high and sandy soils.
A pasture of this mixture will supply
5 to 10 times as much grazing as
wire grass and will last for 9 to 10
months of the year. In extreme south
Florida, Para grass and Bahia grass
are valuable for pasture and hay.
During two or three months of
winter, the common practice in north
Florida is to graze cattle on fields of
velvet beans and corn stalks. In
some cases fields of winter oats and
rye are grazed. Other stockmen feed
native hays or fodder, from cow
peas, beggar weed or mixed grasses;
and some use a silo filled with corn
or sorghum. Any number of well
known millet, sugar cane, Sudan and
Napier grasses will supply both
summer grazing and dry fodder for
winter, if properly grown and har-
vested. With all the many resources
at our command, the fact remains
that the question of cheap pastures
and winter feeds for cattle is still
probably the most perplexing of all
the essential conditions at the pres-
ent time. This problem can be work-
ed out by care and patience, with
different solutions for different sec-
tions of the state, and will go a long
way towards permanent success. Our
average sandy soils are not as rich
as the lands used for corn and blue-
grass in the middle states, but we
can do much towards overcoming
this handicap by using soil building
pastures that are suited to our con-
Probably the greatest obstacle in
cattle improvement and profit dur-
ing the past fifty years in Florida
has been the pest of cattle ticks and
Texas fever. Now that nearly sixty
per cent of the state has been clean-
ed of ticks, we are able to see much
progress, and brighter prospects in
the immediate future. In the coun-
ties free of ticks, the range cattle
are keeping in much better condition
all the year round, and the calf drop
is better and more thrifty. Tick
eradication pays a thousand fold in
(Continued on Page 10)

April, 1930


The History of the Fertilizer Industry

Earle D. Matthews, '31

THE history of development of the
fertilizer industry shows that it
is an outgrowth of practices that
were employed entirely independent
of the sciences. Many of these
farming practices were, however,
subsequently supported by scientific
investigations. T h e s e latter made
ways and means of improving upon
fertilizer practices and also discover-
ed new sources of fertilizer mater-
ials. Yet, whatever modern science
may claim, practice preceded it in
the utilization of mineral manures or
Perhaps the Romans were the first
to recognize the value of lime in
agriculture. Undoubtedly they are
responsible for the introduction of
the practice of liming into France
and the British Isles. Since their time
the value of the chalk deposits of
England and the marl soils of France
has been recognized by the farmers
of those countries. In the United
States, as early as 1645, oyster shells
were burned for their lime content,
to be used for agricultural as well as
building purposes.
The problem of acid soils which is
present in all regions of heavy rain-
fall is partially responsible for the
present enormous lime and limestone


industry of this country. Science has
given us improvements in methods of
production of these materials as well
as better liming practices in agri-
Gypsum, or calcium sulfate, was
once extensively used in the eastern
United States, but lime was found
to be a more economical source of
calcium. However, the superphos-
phate of today carries a large per-
cent of this gypsum.
At one time wood ashes were a
valuable source of potash for agri-
cultural purposes. At present, mod-
ern sources of potash have relegated
them to a position of minor import-
ance in the industry.
Glauber of Germany was thought
to be the discoverer of the fertiliz-
ing value of saltpeter. Subsequent
tests showed its nutritional value to
plants, making saltpeter of nitrate of
potash a much sought after substance
both for agricultural purposes and
the manufacture of gunpowder.
The first shipment of nitrates from
Chile were made from Iquique in
1830. It was some time, however,
before its crop-producing properties
were realized, millions of tons of the
salt being required annually to satis-
fy the demand for it.


The early controversy among
scientists over the source of nitrogen
to plants resulted in field trials with
salts of ammonia. The fertilizer in-
dustry, becoming alert for supplies
of these materials, took advantage
of the discovery that sulfate of am-
monia could be recovered as a by-
product of the coke industry. From
1858, when the first by-product coke
oven was erected, its production in-
creased until in 1929 nearly two
million tons were produced.
One of the oldest and most popu-
lar fertilizers is guano, the excre-
ment and remains of sea fowls and
marine animals. It has been recorded
that guano was used as a fertilizer
as early as the twelfth century. Dur-
ing the controversy between Lawes
and Liebig on the source of nitro-
gen, guano was given extensive field
trials in Europe. It immediately be-
came popular and a total of about
400,000 tons was exported from
Peru in 1885, besides a not incon-
siderable quantity from Mexico.
Machines for the grinding of bones
were developed as early as 1778, ac-
cording to Wheeler. This ground
bone, very coarse, was a more or
less important source of phosphoric
acid. However, when later the raw
bone was steamed or acidulated, a
greater degree of pulverization, and
subsequently a greater fertilizing
value, was attained. The boneblack
discarded from sugar refineries was
also used either in the natural or
acidulated state.
Sir John Lawes was the first to
secure a patent for the sulphuric
acid method of manufacturing super-
phosphate, according to Bear. His
first factory was erected in 1843,
his second in 1857. By 1862 Great
Britain alone produced more than
150,000 tons of superphosphate an-
Thomas phosphate of basic slag
owes its existence to a process of re-
fining pig iron developed by Thomas
and Gilchrist. This material did not
seriously compete with superphos-
phate in England, but due to the
fact that Germany has no important
phosphatic deposits, it soon became
very popular there. 300,000 tons of
the ground slag were utilized in
1887 by that country. In this coun-
try the slag is of very little import-
ance due to the large amounts of
superphosphate produced and the
fact that the ores of this country con-
tain very little phosphorus.
Searchers for common salt near
Strassfurt, Germany, were greatly
disappointed when they found a mix-
ed deposit of sodium, calcium, pot-
ash, and magnesium salts, both chlo-
rides and sulfates. Shortly, however,
the value of these salts as mineral
manures was recognized, although

The Intelligent Use of


Always Pays


Obtain the Best

*1* *




April, 1930


they were not mined extensively un-
til 1860. Refining methods were
utilized to produce almost pure chlo-
rides and sulfates of potash. German
propaganda was responsible for the
enormous amounts of these salts con-
sumed in all parts of the world. The
United States imported nearly a mil-
lion tons annually for the years im-
mediately preceding the World War.
The German investigator Liebig
was the champion of Mineral man-
ures for agricultural purposes. An-
other supporter was Georges Ville of
The fertilizer industry in the Unit-
ed States was slow in its development
because huge acreages of very fer-
tile land have always been available.
Our present industry had its begin-
ning in the East and South, where
land had been under cultivation for
about two centuries. Baltimore early
became the leader, because of its
favorable location to the areas de-
manding fertilizer and because as a
port and railroad center it was the
natural gathering place of the raw
materials and shipping point for the
compounded product.
While the industry in the United
States became early one of mixed
fertilizers, in Europe the materials
were marketed as such, leaving to
the farmer the problems of applying
them separately or mixing them him-
self. In this country there were seven
plants in operation in 1860, accord-
ing to Bear. In 1900 there were 475,
and by 1905, 553 plants were listed.
Fertilizer sales reached their peak
in 1920. The high prices of farm
products during and after the World
War caused the tonnage to grow
rapidly as soon as potash and nitro-
gen supplies became available in suf-
ficient quantity. The war had shut
off the potash supplies of Germany,
and left the country with insufficient
Originally the industry was one of
a scavenger nature. All varieties of
waste and by-products of various
plant and animal industries were us-
ed in the early mixtures. When phos-
phorus became available as phosphate
rock, potash from the German de-
posits, and nitrogen from manufac-
turing processes and air-nitrogen
fixation processes, the product of
the industry became one of almost
pure minerals containing very little
or no organic matter.
Due to advances in chemical
science, higher and higher concen-
trations are constantly being pro-
duced. Superphosphate has been pro-
duced carrying as high as 46 percent
available phosphoric acid. These ma-
terials and others from improved
processes of production are now to
be found in mixed fertilizers. To
quote Bear, "For comparative pur-
poses, what is needed is not the ton-
nage of fertilizers sold but the ton-
nages of each of the three valuable
constituents of these fertilizers, viz.:
nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and pot-

Dont -Starve Your Land--

wasted -why not use the
assured; write for free

L. & G. Fertilizers

are not merely soil stim-
ulants, but are an actual
food for starved land.
Use them to reclaim
cropped-out fields as
well as a dressing for
your best land. Poor
fertilizer is money
best? Prompt service
price list No. 62.

Atlantic & Gulf Fertilizer







"Better Crops at Lower Cost"

Jackson Grain Company

State Distributors


Prices and Information on Request


April, 1930



For 26 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.

Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall main-
tain the reputation of "GULF BRANDS."

Bradenton : Lake Wales : Sarasota : Winter Haven

P. O. Box 2790


Year in and year out dependability is the quality the
grower wants in fertilizers for groves and field crops
... dependability that will produce prime crops and
healthy, vigorous growth.


For thirty-seven years Florida growers have placed
their faith in IDEAL FERTILIZERS for dependable
results of unvarying excellence.
For dependability use IDEAL FERTILIZERS
Write for our free booklets, "Profitable Florida Truck
Crops" and "Summer Fertilizers for Citrus."

Ideal Fertilizers


Growing Beef Cattle in Florida
(Continued from Page 7)
a very few years, and we believe it
is only a question of securing the
necessary funds for the work then
all our counties will make the banish-
ment of the tick unanimous.
This leads to the consideration of
the kind of cattle in Florida, our sec-
ond greatest deficiency at the pres-
ent time. The native Florida range
cows are undoubtedly well suited to
the trying conditions of range life,
and in past years has been about the
only kind that could exist under tick
conditions and make their owners a
little money. But this is not the kind
of cattle that brings the high market
prices and is in ready demand by the
consuming public. We must use a
mixture of modern improved breeds
of beef cattle to make the highest
success. The Florida range cow bred
to bulls of the modern type makes a
cross that grows excellent beef and
is thoroughly hardy for our condi-
tions. Pure bred beef bulls from the
states immediately north of us have
been increasing rapidly in the coun-
ties free of ticks, and the first crop
of calves has already proved from
50 to 100 per cent more valuable to
their owners. The selection of the
breed of bulls to use is largely a
matter of personal choice; but in
general the Aberdeen Angus breed
has been the most popular and suc-
cessful in Florida for some years,
with the Hereford running a close
second. For those who prefer a beef
breed with good milking qualities,
the Red Polls have proved more use-
ful in Florida than any other kind.
The most important point in this
work is to supply all ranges with
these high grade or registered bulls
of beef type, and remove all the
scrubs and mongrels to the slaughter
pen as rapidly as possible. Some
North Florida stockmen will soon be
ready to sell high grade young bulls
to their neighbors at reasonable
prices, and the problem will then be
The last problem is that of mar-
kets and marketing beef products.
This is influenced by public demand,
and by competition of other coun-
tries, and by trade and transporta-
tion facilities. The demand for beef
continues strong in America., and
Florida is continually importing mil-
lions of pounds of beef from other
states, much of which can be sup-
plied by our own stockmen. Some
western beef is fattened on corn, but
by no means all of it. When people
want corn fed beef, we better let
them send to the west for it. Most of
Florida beef is grass fattened, and
it has a flavor and tenderness of its
own, especially when grown on An-
gus or Hereford grades.
Fashions in dressed beef have
changed mightly in the last ten or
twenty years. Where once the pub-
lic preferred mature well fattened
carcasses, now the demand is for

April, 1930


light and young beef of the baby or
almost veal age. Some of the best
profit is now made by selling early
spring calves in the fall when 6 or 8
months old, or by carrying summer
calves through the winter nursing
their mothers and on home grown
hay and fodder, and fattening them
in summer on grass as long year-
lings. Such yearlings and calves bring
more profit, incur less risk, make
quick turn-over of the investment,
and meet the present demand for
small, tender beef.
The only reason for keeping older
cows is to raise more calves, and the
maintance of the breeding herd is
the largest expense of the stockman.
A herd of 100 well selected range or
cross bred cows, with four good beef
bulls, should average a calf of 60 to
70 per cent for good results, in tick
free sections of the state. Just now
is a bad time to buy a breeding herd,
for we are at the top of a high mar
ket cycle, and prices are likely to
drop some in a year or two. But the
stockman who is already well started
is in nice luck, and should invest
some of his profits in making the
business more secure for the future,
and preparing to grow beef at less
cost than ever before.
Florida is favored with dependable
market agencies in most sections
with packing houses and yards at
Tampa, Fort Pie r c e, Kissimmee,
Jacksonville, and at Moultrie, Mont-
gomery and New Orleans. Cattle of
the right sort will bring very close
to Chicago and St. Louis prices.
Railroad shipping facilities are im-
proving, and in many cases cattle
can be marketed by truck to best
advantage. The local butcher in
many of our towns and cities are
using all the beef produced in the
vicinity. Stock buyers in some cases
are coming to the farms and collect-
ing carload shipments. Stock farmers
have been wise a long time, and are
getting wiser on market prices, par-
ticularly when they have the help of
the modern radio and newspaper
service. The new laws of the recent
Legislature providing for additional
service by the State Marketing Bu-
reau should be of much help to our
stockmen. The new law on registera-
tion on marks and brands and identi-
fication of cattle at slaughter pens
should also prevent loss from
Taken altogether, the present con-
ditions and prospects are quite rosy
for the Florida stockman. We con-
tinue to have the great advantages
of the mild climate, long grazing
season, the prospect now for better
permanent grasses, better chance
than ever to grow fine crops of vel-
vet beans, peas and corn for winter
feeding and greater appreciation by
the consuming public of our baby

You saw it in the Florida College


1 AF4A Better

U Fertili4,ers

due to the generous amount of organic Nitrogen (al-
most entirely from Genuine Peruvian Guano) used in
their make-up.
Plan now to use NACO Brand Fertilizers. Results will prove the
wisdom of your choice. Bigger yields of improved quality fruit and
truck will bring added profits.






We will gladly give you estimate
of cost with our recommendation.


stock of Irrigation equipment and
Farm Machinery carried in Orlando.

Farm & Home Machinery Co.


I .

April, 1930


Designing the Unusual Lot

Text and Drawings by

Louise Screven Burton

THE homebuilder often has an op-
portunity to obtain at somewhat
of a discount, a piece of property of
unusual shape, or contour, or the
trees may appear to be inconvenient-
ly located. The aim of this article is
to set forth briefly a few simple solu-
tions of such problems.
The Long Narrow Lot
The elongated lot presents the diffi-
culty of backing a car out on a long
drive, or the alternative of laying-out
a wasteful turn-around. The solution
of the problem lies in attaching the
garage to the house in one of a num-
ber of attractive ways, and then lo-
cating the whole roofed structure as
near the street as desired, within the
restrictions on the district. By lo-
cating the house near the front lot
line, there will be ample space behind
the garage for a drying-yard or other
service area with the possibility of a
narrow vegetable garden or pergola
for grapes beyond that. The space
behind the house will naturally be de-
veloped as a pleasure area, either as
an informal lawn with some shrubs
and flowering plants in the borders,
or as a formal garden with consider-
able paving in the form of a terrace,
walks, or flag-stone paths. A pool
with wide flanking walks would be
a distinctly beautiful feature, and
one which in Florida would cost but
little to construct of concrete. A
more elaborate pool might be tiled,
using black on the bottom to give
the effect of depth.
The Lot With an Unusual Slope
Sometimes an otherwise desirable
lot will have a decided depression in
some part. This may occur in the
center, or in any one of the corners,
or it might even take up half of the
lot. Another type of lot may slope

decidedly in one direction or another.
The first difficulty can be solved
with little expense by utilizing the
depression as a natural excavation
for a pool or sunken garden. The
happy combination of a well located
house and the utilization of the de-
pression in this way creates a scheme
especially interesting in a rather flat
country. If the depression is in the
center of the lot, the house may be
built around the pool with a patio
effect. If the depression occurs in
one corner, the house may be located
to one side of the lot. The living-
room may face on the side-yard in-
stead of on the street.
Saving the Trees
If the best trees on a lot occupy
the space which tradition has allowed
to the house, the homebuilder should
not be discouraged. The simplest


Edited by

Juniors and Seniors

A series of articles has been
prepared by students in this de-
partment. The next issue will
carry an article on the use of
shrubs on the homegrounds,
with directions for planting,
horticultural care, and methods
of propagation. This article
will be equally helpful to town
and country people, and we
hope will serve as a guide in
the selection of plant material
that is both easily obtained and

method of procedure is to make a
drawing of the lot on a piece of trac-
ing paper, locating trees and other
existing objects. Then make a draw-
ing of the floor-plan of the house also
on tracing paper. By slipping the
house drawing under the lot drawing,
and by moving it about, even trans-
posing the plan, a number of choice
locations may be found for the house.
It should be remembered that trees
are valuable for shade first, then for
beauty. Trees enframe a house and
give it a setting if they come in be-
hind it. If used for shade, trees
should be placed on the southern or
'western facades of the house. For
enframement, trees should be placed
so as to show off the best architect-
ural features of the house.
General Information
In locating the house, it is most
important to give the living-room a
pleasant aspect. After that the din-
,ng-:oom should receive first rson-
sideration. This room has most
strain put upon its amenity in the
early morning, and for this reason
should have an eastern exposure. A
rhady terrace is practical in Florida.
It may be located on the eastern
facade of the house, or on the south-
ern if trees are placed well to shade
it from the western sun. The kitchen
is more often than not placed on the
front of the house, and is quite con-
vcnient for service in this position.
This may seem a revolutionary idea
to many people, but it has proved
a boon to the housekeeper with only
one servant, as the maid-of-all-work
can easily answer the door-bell when
working in the front kitchen. This
location permits the living-room and
dining-room to face on the garden
area in the rear, giving them the
maximum of privacy and beauty.

April, 1930


Enclosing a small lot gives the im-
pression of greater extent. En-
closures may be of several kinds,
such as brick walls, iron fences cov-
ered with vines, and wooden en-
closures of various kinds in keeping
with the style of the house. There
are now to be had woven wooden
fences which make good enclosing
structures. Stucco walls are often
used with house of that material.
Stone walls are good if the stone is
found on the ground or nearby.

Campustry 102
Last week a certain section of the
chemistry laboratory apparently
heard a thunderstorm approaching,
but on investigating they discovered
the Agricultural Engineering class
giving the new tractors a vigorous
workout. In the hands of students
the tractors dodged trees, turned
corners, and darted over the lawn
with surprising agility. Now and
then one of the machines would be-
come unruly, due to the driver's un-
familiarity with the new steering
gadgets, and had to be overtaken and
controlled. Prof. Rogers, our athletic
prof., frequently led the chases. The
escapades were enjoyed by all, ex-
cepting of course the "chauffeurs."

The judging class also has its dif-
ficulties. A shortage of judgable
mules last week necessitated using a
horse. Now that cattle judging is
being done, it is expected that Clydes-
dales will be substituted for Here-
fords, and the missing Dutch Belteds
will be made up by using Hampshires!

The capturing and tying of oppos-
ing classmen in the frosh-soph class
rush was not much of a success this
year. When the captives managed to
free themselves from their bonds they
were guided to the campus by the
ducky little red lights atop the radio

The addition of the orchestra at
the "main dining room," formerly
known as the Commons, has boosted
the consumption of food. This is due
to the eaters keeping time to the
jazz with their jaws. It is suspic-
ioned that more waltzes and slow
drags will be played before K. H. G.
has a nervous breakdown trying to
keep the University from going broke.
The students were faced with a
new problem. The music drowned out
the frantic calls for the food at the
other end of the table. The situation
is being solved by the use of the
sign language, which is, by the way,
being modernized by the addition of
college slang. The familiar terms
used in the commons in the past are
being translated into the new "lingo."
-A. E.

County Agent E. P. Scott, Escam-
bia County, organized 6 new 4-H
clubs with a total of 111 members
during the month of February.

Congratulations and

Success To

The Florida College Farmer

This Magazine properly conducted

can be the means of assisting the Col-

lege of Agriculture to a great extent

There IS a Difference In



Tampa BELT Florida

805 Citrus Exc. Bldg.

35th St. and 4th Ave.



Sacrifice-60 acres, deep rich muck, north of
Tamiami Trail, on good rock road, 8 miles from
Miami, adjoining land under cultivation. Ideal
grove and truck land. Free and clear; sell all
or part. Price, $25.00 per acre. Terms.

S. F. MATTHEWS, Homestead, Florida

April, 1930


Florida 4-H Club Boys at College

Experiment Station
Buys Champion Pig from
State Club Boy
Dr. A. L. Shealy, head of the Ani-
mal Husbandry Department of the
Florida Experiment Station has an-
nounced the purchase of the grand
champion pig, at the 1928 Florida
State Fair, which is to be delivered
June first.
The boar was purchased two years
ago by J. A. McClellan, a 4-H pig

The Gator Shop,

it s

club boy of Monticello, for $100. The
boar bred to a sow owned by Hugh
Dukes, Lake Butler, 4-H pig club boy,
produced the champion breeding pig
at the 1929 Boys' State Pig Club
Show, which won for Hugh the $250
Frank Dennis Scholarship to the Uni-
versity of Florida.
McClellan stated that he has saved
over $400 of his pig club profits, and
that his hogs are going to pay his
expenses through college. He is a
freshman at the University of Flor-
ida now. He also stated that his
brothers were planning to finish high
school and college exactly the same
"Does his wife always accompany
that cornetist on the piano?"
"No, sometimes he goes off on a
toot by himself."

Are You Enough Potash?

Your crops demand plenty of potash and unless you meet this demand you will not
obtain maximum yields of best marketable quality.
Do not make the mistake of allowing your crops to suffer from lack of sufficient
potash. Be sure that your fertilizer contains plenty of this most important plant
food. If you cannot obtain a fertilizer high in potash use a top-dressing of straight
Field demonstrations throughout the state and over the entire south have proven
that more potash than is commonly used pays handsome returns on each dollar invested
in extra potash. Investigate and visit your nearest potash demonstration.

Agricultural and Scientific Bureau

P. 0. Box 596

Gainesville, Fla.


A complete stock of
Root's Bee Supplies.
Conkey's feeds and
remedies. A full line

of everything neces-
. sary to raise Poultry
in the back yard or
.I on the farm.

Special 4-H Club Program
Feature of WRUF, April 4
A large number of Florida 4-H
club members rallied to the nearest
radio on the night of April 4, when
WRUF, state radio station, featured
a special 4-H club program under the
direction of R. W. Blacklock, exten-
sion club agent.
The program opened at 7:30 P. M.,
Eastern Time, with music by the Su-
wanee Serenaders, who appeared on
the program at frequent intervals.
Dr. John J. Tigert, president of the
University of Florida, delivered a
five minute address. A male quartet
sang, "The Plowing Song," and oth-
er numbers. Dreaming was sung by
Miss Virginia McCall. Fredreck Bar-
ber, former Escambia county club-
boy and Miss Mary George outstand-
ing Marion County club girl each
gave three minute talks.
The program was given especially
for local 4-H clubs, many of which
held special meetings and listened
in. It is hoped that a program of this
kind may become a regular monthly

You saw it in the Florida College



Have your themes, notes,
references, and term
papers typewritten.


Betty Ahrens
8 Johnson Bldg.
Gainesville, Florida
c .

Write for information

Joseph Bumby Hardware Co., ORLANDO FLORIDA

You Really Feel at Home When You Eat Here

719 W. University Ave.



Compliments of

F. E. Baetzman
Ag Club President '28

Ralston Purina




April, 1930


SoutheastToro Co.
808-816 W. BAY ST.
Importers and Distributors
Grove Owners
Plumosis Growers
Vegetable Growers
Melon Growers
Tobacco Growers
Bulb Growers
Home Gardeners
Park Superintendents
Green Keepers

Also Distributors of
Organic Turf Fertilizers
Write for Descriptive Circular

Amusement centers
for Gainesville
and the University



A safe and progressive de-
pository for your funds.
We handle Club and Asso-
ciation accounts as you
wish, and compound in-
terest at 4(% every quarter.
Gainesville, Florida



Q-.-. GRICULTURAL students of the University of Flor-
ida have our best wishes for success in the publi-
cation of their new FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER.
We welcome these new publishers and promise
them every help we can give them-to the end
that the University's agricultural classes may
grow, and the state's agricultural industries
benefit accordingly.
More Florida fruit growers and farmers read the
Florida Grower than read any other state farm
journal-for it is a reliable source of the most
interesting and instructive information on Flor-
ida agricultural subjects.
Students of Florida agriculture will find the
Florida Grower a valuable aid to them in their
studies-a magazine serving all phases of Florida
farming activities in a practical way.
Subscription Rates:
One year, 50 cents; three years, $1.00



Garden, Field aud Flower Seeds
Poultry Feeds and Supplies

Oldest and Most Reliable Seed Store in Jacksonville


April, 1930


The College of Agriculture

of the

University of Florida

offers the best training for Florida boys in all lines of agricultural
production and leadership.
Four year course leading to B. S. degree, with specialization in
Horticulture, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, Economics, Ento-
mology, Chemistry, Agricultural Engineering and Education.
Only College in Southeast offering full courses in Citrus and Sub-
Tropical Fruit Culture, and in Landscape Design.
Courses of One Semester, One Year and Two Years easily arranged
for those wishing to study technical agriculture only.
Low expenses for board and fees.
For catalog and full information, write postal card to

Dean (or Secretary)

College of Agriculture


April, 1930