• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Letter of transmittal
 Enforcement personnel
 Introduction
 The commission's report
 Back Cover














Group Title: Biennial report, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
Title: Biennial report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075940/00015
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Publisher: The Commission,
The Commission
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1945-1946
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Game protection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fish culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State of Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
Numbering Peculiarities: First biennial report covers the period from the time of the organization (of the Commission) July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1936.
General Note: Description based on: 1960/62; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075940
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ABV7514
oclc - 01332271
alephbibnum - 000327977
lccn - sn 87027948
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report - Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Enforcement personnel
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Introduction
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The commission's report
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Back Cover
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text

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ItIUNNIAL ItEPORI













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GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
COMMISSION
of the

STATE OF FLORIDA


BIENNIUM ENDING
December 31, 1946
























Tallahassee, Florida

Mr. L. G. Morris. Chairman
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
State of Florida

Sir:

I am submitting herewith the report of the work of the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission of the State of Florida
for the conservation of Florida's Wildlife Resources during the
biennium closing December 31, 1946.

Respectfully yours,





I. N. KENNEDY,
Director.


205459














GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
COMMISSION
STATE OF FLORIDA


FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT
L. G. Bruce, Bartow, Florida

SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT
Lester Varn, Jacksonville, Florida

THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT
L. G. Morris, Monticello, Florida

FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT
J. W. Corbett, Ft. Pierce, Florida

FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT
John S. Clardy, Ocala, Florida


L. G. MORRIS, Chairman
1. N. KENNEDY, Director
Tallahassee, Florida


OFFICE PERSONNEL

I. N. Kennedy, Director
Alice S. Burr, Secretary
C. R. Phillips, Auditor
Edith Bevan, Stenographer
Olive Yancey, Stenographer
Betty Sisk, Stenographer
J. F. Parramore, Publicity Director
John F. Dequine, Fisheries Biologist
Earl Frye, Wildlife Biologist (Pittman-Robertson)




















Tallahassee, Florida
To His Excellency
Millard F. Caldwell
Governor of the State of Florida

Sir:

I have the honor of transmitting herewith the biennial
report of work that has been done for the conservation of Flor-
ida's wildlife resources, as directed by the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission during the period closing December
31, 1946.
Respectfully submitted








L. G. MORRIS.
Chairman.











to.^c ene~Pt Peuronnel

FIRST CONSERVATION DISTRICT
D. F. SMOAK, Chief Conservation Officer
Conservation Officers: G. L. Abbott, A. A. Albritton, J. E. Al-
britton, Ralph C. Beville, H. C. Bigbie, Dewey Boyd, Ira
Brewer, E. P. Campbell, J. L. Cathcart, R. N. Cook, R. E.
Croyal, J. W. Crum, E. E. Douglas, J. H. Douglas, Roscoe
Godwin, M. E. Grantham, John N. Hardin, Thomas F. Kirk.
L. F. Lowe, A. B. Nathe, James T. Philbin, J. L. Powers.
G. W. Shackleford, W. W. Sheretz, S. B. Snell, Thomas
Stanaland, E. S. Sumner, Leffy L. Taylor, Oscar J. Taylor.
Frank Turner, Carl C. Walker, C. E. Watson, E. M. White.
Walter Whitehead, H. 0. Whittle, C. C. Youmans.

SECOND CONSERVATION DISTRICT
LESTER MIKELL, Chief Conservation Officer
Conservation Officers: Dan N. Adams, William C. Arline, T. M.
Baker, James J. Clary, John S. Croft, Jessie W. Dukes, B. F.
Folsom, John F. Futch, George H. Green, Martin V. B.
Green, L. L. Harvey, George A. Hendry, G. C. Hill, Henry
Howell, James 0. Hudson, Lum Hudson, AM. L. Johns, J. P.
Jones, Fred Kirkland, B. E. Leggett, A. S. McEwen, J.
0. McMullen, Robert K. Mitchell, M. L. Nobles, C. E. North.
Broward Padgett, Leslie B. Pigue, Mark Read, J. A. Revels.
M. C. Sikes, J. W. Simmons, D. H. Smith, Joe C. Smith.
Howard K. Stalls, Herbert Stokes, L. A. Stokes, J. J. Walker,
Von Walker, D. A. Yarbrough.

THIRD CONSERVATION DISTRICT
FRANCIS E. VILLAR, Chief Conservation Officer
T. G. STEELE, Ass't. Chief Conservation Officer
Conservation Officers: 0. L. Allen, George Y. Arrants, J. M.
Atkins, George V. Atkinson, W. L. Boyd, C. P. Bush, F. J.
Chambless, Lothair Chester, Lee Duggar, Joe B. Dykes, John
Elderkin, James Fields, J. C. Gerrell, T. L. Griffin, Leslie
A. Hacrell, J. H. Harrison, H. E. Helms, R. K. Henderson.
R. N. Hill, J. D. Hopkins, Sam Hunter, J. 0. Johnson.
Walter Larkins, B. W. Lee, Allen Legrone, R. E. Little, A.
D. Livingston, Malcolm H. McCoy, S. P. McDonald, D. D.
Miller, H. C. Pelt, S. B. Spears, W. J. Stewart, W. L. Stelts,
W. AM. Stokes, Jr., 0. L. Vause, E. E. Whiddon, Virge Will-
iams, I. R. Willingham.












FOURTH CONSERVATION DISTRICT
CURTIS E. WRIGHT, Acting Chief Conservation Officer
Conservation Officers: J. Ray Barnes, L. E. Bunnell, G. M.
Cooper, J. 0. Cross, T. J. Daigneau, Robert A. Dyches, I.
R1. Gidden, Ralph W. Hartman, Vernon W. Hays, Axel Jen-
sen, J. S. Lanier, Harney R. McCain, R. R. Merritt, W. J.
Newton, George N. Trumble, Erwin Winte, K. A. Wood.

FIFTH CONSERVATION DISTRICT
C. J. FINLEY, Chief Conservation Officer
Conservation Officers: J. D. Beveridge, L. R. Bronson, J. O.
Buckles, -Grady Cason, Charlie Clark, Wayne A. Clifton, S.
C. Collier, Levander Delong, M. J. Dreggors, E. M. Ferrell,
E. S. Hill, Leo Godwin, D. C. Land, Tom W. Lanier, H. L.
Lungren, Robert M. Moore, Alvin Pacetti, J. R. Parker, V.
R. Perryman, R. Remington, E. H. Richey, Vanness Seck-
inger, W. C. Tanner, M. P. Thompson, L. A. Tindall, George
Townsend, J. C. Trice, J. B. Walker, Mallory Welch, W. H.
Wiggins.

















The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission of Florida as
it exists today was created by a Constitutional Amendment,
passed by the 1941 session of the Legislature and ratified by the
voters of Florida on November 3, 1942. It is a five man board.
with members appointed by the Governor for a five-year term.
One member is appointed for each of the Congressional Districts
as they existed in 1941.
The Commission is comprised of the following members:
First District-L. G. Bruce of Bartow. Mr. Bruce's present
term of office will expire January 6, 1948.
Second District-Lester Varn of Jacksonville. Mr. Varn has
just been reappointed to serve until the 1947 Senate.
Third District-L. G. Morris of Monticello. Mr. Morris's
term of office expires January 6, 1947.
Fourth District-J. W. Corbett of Ft. Pierce. Mr. Corbett
is serving under an appointment which expires with the next
Senate.
Fifth District-John S. Clardy of Ocala. Mr. Clardy was
appointed to a term of office expiring with the 1945 session of
the Senate but for some reason, his appointment was not certi-
fied to the Senate, and he is holding office pending another ap-
pointment and confirmation by the Senate.
The fact that each succeeding Governor has seen fit to re-
appoint these five men upon expiration of their various terms
of office is proof of their fitness for the jobs which they hold.
Each of them is now finishing better than five years of service
as Members of the Commission.
No compensation was allowed under the law for Commission
Members. They receive only their necessary traveling or other
expenses "incurred in connection with their official duties.
In January of 1946, Mr. L. G. Morris, Commissioner for the
Third District, was elected as Chairman. I. N. Kennedy is serv-
ing in the capacity of Director. The duties of the Commission
are many and varied. The most important one is the establishing
of seasons, methods of taking and bag limits for the many spe-
cies of fresh water fish and wildlife found within the State.









BIENNIAL REPORT


Other duties are the restocking of woods and streams when
found necessary, the closing of areas as Breeding Grounds, the
removal of predators to both fish and wildlife.
In establishing seasons and bag limits which will prevail
during a given hunting, fishing or trapping season, the Commis-
sion has adopted a policy of requesting the various sportsmen
organizations to be on hand and make their recommendations
prior to final approval. Notification of the meeting when hunting,
fishing and trapping regulations are to be approved is also placed
in every newspaper in the State and the public is cordially in-
vited to attend and make whatever recommendations they wish.
Restocking of both woods and streams has been carried on
through operation of fish hatcheries by the Commission and the
purchasing from outside sources of quail and deer.
To assist in predator removal the Commission during the
past two years has carried on a bounty program which called
for the expenditure of -some $40,875.15. Funds which came to
Florida from the operation of the. Pittman-Robertson Act-Fed-
eral Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act-were greatly reduced dur-
ing the war period. The first allocation of funds coming to Flor-
ida from this source following the war amounted to $31,285.61.
This amount must be matched with $10,428.54 of State funds,
making a total of $41,714.15 which is available this year for
operation of Federal Aid Projects. At the present time we have
in operation two Federal Aid Projects, with three others ap-
proved but not yet in operation.
Our Field Force which came in for such a reduction during
war periods now shows an increase from 90 Conservation Offi-
cers as of December 31, 1944, to 162 as of December 31, 1946.

The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission is financed
entirely from funds derived from the sale of hunting, fishing
and trapping licenses together with a small number of commer-
cial licenses. During the fiscal year 1944-45 total receipts to the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission amounted to $371,-
789.12. In the fiscal year 1945-46 the total amount of money
coming to the Commission was $545,180.23. With this increase
of funds available for the operation of the Commission, increase
in the salary and travel allowance for Conservation Officers was
made possible. Today the monthly average salary of Conserva-
tion officers is $235.00 as compared with $165.00 for the year
1944.

A detailed account of all of the activities of the Game and


10









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Fresh Water Fish Commission during the past two years follows:

LICENSES

Hunting, fishing and trapping licenses are sold by the sev-
eral County Judges over the State, who are permitted a fee of
25c for each license $3.00 or less and 50c for each license costing
over $3.00. From this source the County Judges in Florida re-
ceived during 1944-45 a total of $50,583.50 and in 1945-46 a total
of $50,295.25. Commercial licenses are sold direct from the office
of the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission in Tallahassee.

The only exemptions permitted under the law are to children
under the age of 15 and residents over the age of 65 years. An-
other provision of the law permits residents fishing with not
more than three poles and lines at any one time in the county of
their legal residence to do so without being required to purchase
a license.

FISHING

Series A-Resident State, Fresh Water ...... .... ..$2.00
Series B-Non-Resident State, Fresh Water ................. 7.50 -
Series C-Non-Resident, 10-Day Continuous Fishing,
Fresh W ater ........................................................................ 2.25

License required to take fresh water fish from St. Johns
River, including Doctor's Lake, North to the Florida East
Coast Railway Bridge in Duval County, or in the waters
of Lake Okeechobee or in that part of Crescent Lake and
Dunn's Creek in Putnam County.

License not required of residents to fish non-commercially
with three poles and lines in county of legal residence.

Use of more than a single pole and line at any one time
anywhere else in the State prohibited.


GAME*
.s
Series I- Resident County Game ....................................$ 2.00
Series J-Resident, Other Than Home County ........ 4.50
Series K- Resident, State ................................................ 7.50
Series L-Non-Resident, State ....................................... 26.50
Series M-1-Non-Resident County, Owners of and
paying taxes on 3.000 acres of land .......-....-................. 11.50










BIENNIAL REPORT


Series Y-Guide, required for guiding hunting par-
ties. Guides may not take game or carry rifle or
shotgun while conducting party. Issued from
office of Commission, Tallahassee ............................ 10.00
Alien Hunting-Issued from office of Commission,
T allahassee ................................... ............. ..................... 50.00

TRAPPING*

Series N-Resident, County ...................----.....--......-.....-----------$ 3.25
Series O-Non-Resident, County .....-.............................. 25.50
Series P- Resident, State ................................................ 25.50
Series Q-Resident of County Other Than Home .... 10.50
Series R-Non-Resident, State ............--...---------......-..-.-----...- 100.50

COMMERCIAL LICENSES

(Issued from Office of Commission, Tallahassee)

DEALERS IN ALLIGATOR SKINS AND GREEN
OR DRIED FURS (SKINS)
Series S-Resident local dealer or buyer (must
not solicit by mail, advertise, travel to buy or
em ploy agents to buy).............................................-----$ 10.00

Series T-1-Resident State Dealer or Buyer................ 100.00

Series T-2-Agent for licensed "Resident State Dealer
or B uyer" ....... .......... . ... .... .... 5.00

FRESH WATER FISH DEALERS

Series U-Resident retail. May sell to consumer or
dealer. If he takes fish must have also license
for boat .............................. ...........................................$ 5.00
Series V-Resident Wholesale, (to sell or ship by
half-barrel, barrel or in bulk)............................... 50.00
Non-resident or Alien, (to sell to consumer or whole-
saler). If holder catches fish must secure license
for taking and license for boat................................ 50.00
Non-Resident Wholesale (to sell or ship in half-
barrel, barrel or bulk)......-...........................-----------------.............. 500.00

* Report of Game and Fur-bearers taken in previous sea-
son must be filed with County Judge when applying for
hunting or trapping license. Failure to file data on blank
form attached to application is cause for refusal of license.










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 13


BOATS FOR HIRE

Series W-Required for each boat rented for hunt-
ing, or fishing in fresh waters:
18 feet length ........... ...... ..................... ...... $ 1.50
19-21 feet length -....- .. ............ .. .............. ........... 4.00
21-25 feet length ................................................................ 15.00
O ver 25 feet length ..................... ... .- ....- .... ...... 25.00

COMMERCIAL BOATS

Series X-Resident, fish boat twenty feet long, five
foot beam and under .............. ............... ............. $ 1.00
Ten cents for each additional foot in length of
beam.
Non-Resident, fish boat... ............ 10.00

GAME FARM

Series Z-For operating privately owned Game
Farms --..- . . ..$ 5.00












The

edoMU'ia~t ,
















TodaVt

The supply of game in Florida, while not entirely satis-
factory. cannot be said to be alarmingly low. The question
which gives the Commission most concern is the constantly in-
creasing number of hunters and the yearly decreasing number
of acres of land which remain open to hunting as the cattle
industry continues to grow. At the present time the Commis-
sion has a Wildlife Biologist working on this matter in an effort
to arrive at a solution. The species of wildlife most gravely
affected by the cattle industry is quail, but of course, deer,
turkey and squirrel come in for their share as acre after acre
of what used to be open hunting territory is fenced, cleared and
made into improved pasture land where no cover is left for
wildlife.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945, the number of
hunting licenses sold totaled 68,366; 752 non-resident and 67,614
resident. For the fiscal year ending June 30. 1946, the number
of hunting licenses jumped to 76,317. 1,087 non-resident and
75,230 resident. Sales of licenses so far in 1946-47 indicate a
still further increase.
If the number of hunters continues to increase it is going
to be necessary to reduce the seasons during which game may
be taken and also make a reduction in the day's bag of each
species taken, if we are going to continue to have an adequate
supply of game on hand.
Fresh water fishing still remains Florida's top attraction.
For the fiscal year 1944-45 the total number of fishing licenses
was 92,181. This included 18,899 non-resident licenses and
73,282 resident licenses. In 1945-46 the total number of fishing
licenses sold amounted to 84,689, 25,669 non-resident and 59,020
resident. These figures, of course, do not take into considera-
tion the number of residents who confine their fishing to their
home counties and, therefore, are not required to have a license
to fish wvith pole and line. By bringing to a close the com-
mercial seining and sale of all fresh water fish in Florida, the
Commission hopes to be able to retain its bountiful supply of
game fresh water fish during the years to come, even in the
face of the increasing number of persons who seek this form
of recreation.









18 BIENNIAL REPORT


Fur bearers in Florida amount to very little. Due to the
fact that our warm climate makes it impossible for the animals
to produce prime furs, this industry does not amount to a great
deal in the State. During 1944-45, 1,480 persons purchased trap-
pers licenses. In 1945-46 the number of trappers stood at 1,459.
In addition to this, 13 fur dealer's licenses were sold during
1944-45 and 15 in 1945-46.
During the past two years, the Commission has secured the
services of a Wildlife Biologist and a Fisheries Biologist. A
scientific study of the supply of fish and wildlife on hand is
being made. At the same time programs are being formulated
with a view to increasing this supply.
The following is a brief summary report of the species of
wildlife found in Florida.

GAME ANIMALS
Florida has two species of wildlife classified as "Game
Animals." These are the deer and the squirrel.
DEER
The deer population in Florida was greatly decreased when
local laws gave to the State Live Stock Sanitary Board authority
to kill deer in areas which were found to be infested with cattle
fever tick. According to available figures 731 deer were killed
in Orange and Osceola Counties, 136 were killed in Glades and
Highlands Counties, 183 were killed in Hendry County, and
8,428 were killed in Collier County, bringing the total number
of deer killed in tick eradication work to 9,478. Since these
deer were killed in our most densely populated areas, it is only
natural that our (leer population suffered greatly. It is on the
increase, however, and it is hoped that before many years pass,
our deer will be restored to their former number. The last
available kill figures on deer stands at 2,241 as compared with
1,929 during the previous year.
SQUIRREL
There are two species of squirrel found in Florida, the gray
or cat squirrel and the fox squirrel. The squirrel population
varies in different sections of the State. In the Northern and
Western portion squirrel are very numerous while down in the
central portion of the State some Counties report that they are
almost completely gone and that restocking is going to be neces-
sary. Fox squirrel, which at one time were very numerous in
most sections of the State were almost completely wiped out
by disease several years ago. They are making a come back









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 19


now and in an effort to preserve this species, the Commission
set the number which could be taken at 3. Cat or gray squirrel
are more numerous and the day's bag on them stands at 10.
The last kill record on squirrel was 264,535 as compared with
325,429 for the year previous.

GAME BIRDS
We have three birds in Florida classified as "Game Birds,"
the quail, wild turkey and marsh hen.
QUAIL
Quail still remains the hunter's favorite game bird. Dur-
ing 1945-46 hunting season this game bird became so scarce
in Florida as to cause grave concern and the Commission re-
ceived several requests to close the State entirely to the hunt-
ing of quail until they could make a come back. Rather than
take this dractic action the Commission reduced the day's bag
from 15 to 12, hoping that this reduction would have the neces-
sary result on the quail population. Reports coming in to the
office prior to the opening of the 1946-47 hunting season seem
to indicate approximately a 75% increase, but the kill figures
for this period will not be available until the 1947-48 hunting
licenses are sold. The last kill figures which are available are
for the year 1944-45 during which 448,715 quail were killed.
WILD TURKEY
The wild turkey population in Florida is definitely on the
increase. Because of this the Commission has seen fit to in-
crease the bag limits from 1 per day and three for the season
to 2 per day and four for the season. The last kill record shows
that 3,690 turkey were killed during 1944-45. This was prior
to the increase in bag limits, however, so no comparison is
readily available at this time. Reports from the field indicate
approximately a 209/ increase of turkey for the 1946-47 hunt-
ing season.
MARSH HENS
Marsh hens are found only along the upper East Coast line
of the State. They are found in great numbers there and are
easily taken during the open season which begins on September
15 and runs to November 20. A day's bag of 20 is permitted, but
no kill records are available on this species.
MIGRATORY BIRDS
Migratory birds are controlled by the U. S. Fish and Wild-
life Service. Any decrease in population is immediately re-
flected by a decrease in bag limits and a reduction in the length










BIENNIAL REPORT


of time during which they may be taken. Once the season is
established by the Wildlife Service, a State may shorten it or
reduce the bag limit but in no case may a State have a longer
season or a larger bag.
DOVE
The dove population in Florida is controlled by two things-
the hatching season for our native dove which are quite numer-
ous, and the influx of the migratory dove which come yearly
to Florida. The first migration of dove into Florida comes
during the month of October and the birds are to be found
principally in Dade, Broward and Monroe Counties where we
have no native dove. To provide hunting of (love for these
three counties, the Wildlife Service permits dove to be taken
there during the month of October. In the remainder of the
State where native dove are to be found the season begins on
November 20, and extends through January 18, and the bag
set at 10.
Dove are definitely on the increase in Florida. They have
made a marked come back since 1940 when so many of them
were killed by the unprecedented cold weather. The last kill
record for this bird showed 277,231 killed as compared to a
low of 159,379. All indications for 1946-47 point to a good
season for dove.
DUCK
The duck population over the country has again been hit
by disaster. Reports coming from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service warn of a very greatly reduced supply for the 1946-47
hunting season. The season in 1944-45 and 1945-46 was es-
tablished from November 2 to January 20. For 1946-47
the season was set from November 23 to January 6. In addition
to this reduced season, the day's bag has been reduced from 10
to 7, and sportsmen have been requested to refrain from taking
the full day's bag on every day hunted. The last available kill
report on duck showed 98,078 killed during 1944-45.
GEESE
Geese are found principally on the upper West Coast of
Florida. The greater portion of the area where they were
hunted in years gone by has been acquired by the U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service as a Migratory Bird Refuge. This leaves
very little area where sportsmen who wish to take this species
of migratory bird may hunt. The last kill record of geese was
1,003. This figure is high compared with kill records of previous
years. They may be taken during the same period approved
for duck and the day's bag has been set at 2.


20









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 2!


FUR-BEARING ANIMALS
Fur-bearing animals in Florida are divided into two groups
-the ones protected and for which a season is set, and the ones
unprotected which may be taken at any time and in any manner.
In the first group is the muskrat, raccoon, beaver, mink and
otter. In the unprotected group is the skunk, red and gray fox,
bear, opossum. panther, bobcat, civet cat and rabbit.
RACCOON
From the standpoint of number of furs taken, the raccoon
leads among the fur-bearers. During 1944-45, 14,389 raccoon
were reported taken in Florida. In 1945-46 12,858 raccoon were
taken. Reports indicate that raccoon are very numerous in
Florida.
OPOSSUM
The opossum is next in rank. In 1944-45, 4.512 opossum
were reported trapped, but in 1945-46 this number dropped to
1,004. The opossum was declared to be a predator and a bounty
of 50c was paid for each one killed. In this manner 32,346 were
killed. The population, however, still remains high.


32,346 Killed During 1945-46









.2 BIENNIAL REPORT


RED AND GRAY FOX
The fox was placed on the predator list and a bounty of
$1.00 offered for everyone killed. This accounted for 8,409.
In addition to this, 1,457 were reported taken by trappers during
1944-45 and 250 were trapped during 1945-46.
SKUNK
Trappers accounted for 1,721 skunk during 1944-45 and
374 were trapped during 1945-46. The skunk was also placed
on the predator list with a bounty of 50c offered for each one
killed. This accounted for 9.544 being destroyed.
MUSKRAT
Very few muskrat are found in Florida. The Commission
tried to stock them in Florida several years ago but the venture
met with very little success. In 1944-45, 36 were reported taken
by trappers.
OTTER
Of all the fur bearers to be found in Florida, the otter pelt
brings the highest price. They are very scarce, however, and
only 15 were reported taken during 1944-45. This number was
increased to 379 during the 1945-46 fiscal year.
MINK
Mink are evidently on the increase in Florida, judging by
the take record reported. In 1944-45, 120 were reported taken
while in 1945-46 this number jumped to 461.

ALLIGATOR
Efforts are being made to restore our alligator population
to something of its previous number. A closed season during
the months of March, April and May has been established and
in addition, it is unlawful to take alligators under four feet
in length. It is hoped that the Legislature will see fit to pro-
vide a license for those who take alligators as well as a special
license for those who deal in alligator hides and for operators
of alligator farms.

FRESH WATER FISH
Florida's fresh water fishing is world renowned. In Florida
the black bass grow to a size which exceeds those in every other
portion of the country and other species of fresh water fish
are to be found in every section of the State during the full
twelve months in the year. It is very seldom that fishing parties
fail to bring home a good catch of fresh water fish.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 23


Perhaps the most forward step taken in wildlife conserva-
tion was taken by the Commission during the period covered
by this report. In October of 1946 it became unlawful to take
fresh water fish commercially and the sale of fresh water fish.
whether the fish were taken in Florida or from waters of an-
other State .was prohibited. Prior to this action by the Com-
mission fresh water fish had been seined commercially in the
St. Johns River from the Volusia Bar North and in Lake Okee-
chobee under a law which designated those two bodies of water
as salt water and placed them under the supervision of the State
Board of Conservation. The Constitutional Amendment which
created the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission as a Con-
stitutional body, placed the control of fresh water fish under
the jurisdiction of the Commission regardless of where fresh
water fish were found and also gave to the Commission the
power to fix bag limits, open and closed seasons on a state-wide.
regional or local basis, and to regulate the manner and method
of taking, transporting, storing and using fresh water fish.
Until the ratification of the Constitutional Amendment, the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission had jurisdiction only
over fresh water fish found in the fresh waters of the State.
Clothed with this authority and power, the Commission adopted
the regulation which put a stop to taking of fresh water fish
by any method other than hook and line, rod and reel, bob, spin-
ner, troll or trot line and prohibited the sale of fresh water fish
except catfish, garfish, mudfish or blackfish. These last named
fish may be taken commercially by methods approved by the
Commission and under permits issued by the Commission.
There has been quite a bit of criticism of the Commission
for prohibiting the sale of fresh water fish, the criticism being
based upon the fact that such action meant the death of one of
Florida's outstanding industries. The Commission would like
to call attention to the fact that the major portion of the fresh
water fish being sold are catfish. Catfish may still be sold.
and there is no intention on the part of the Commission to
cripple any industry.
The Commission operates three fish hatcheries from which
fish are taken for restocking the waters of the State. There is
also one Federal hatchery located at Welaka, Florida, from which
fish are placed in Florida waters.









BIENNIAL REPORT


In Alemoriam

O N December 22, 1946, George T. Sharpe, Conserva-
tion Officer for Broward County, was killed in
line of duty while making an air patrol trip in an effort
to apprehend illegal deer killers.

This space is dedicated to him in recognition of his
faithful service to the conservation of Florida's
wildlife.


24













Th4e eamonUaion 't


4ctiC4IeS

The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission is completing
four full years' operation under the Constitutional Amendment
creating the Department as a Constitutional agency. We feel
that much progress has been made. During the past two years
the Commission has been able to increase its force of Conserva-
tion Officers, thereby insuring better enforcement of the laws.
Salaries have been increased and expense allowances have been
made more adequate. A Fisheries Biologist and a Wildlife
Biologist have joined the staff of the Commission and it is
planned that these two Departments will develop into a division
sufficient to take care of all wildlife problems in a scientific
manner. The seasons for taking game, fresh water fish and
fur bearing animals as established by the Commission under
powers granted by the Constitutional Amendment have served
to do away with a great deal of the confusion which had resulted
from the numerous local laws on the statute books, and the
methods for taking and bag limits approved have assisted great-
ly in conserving Florida's wildlife resources. It is interesting
to note the numbers of other States which are attempting to
have their Game and Fish Departments placed under a manage-
ment similar to that now in operation in Florida.

CONSERVATION OFFICERS
Law enforcement constitutes approximately 70% of the
work carried on by the Commission. To do this important work
the Commission employs a field force of 162 Conservation
Officers. These men work under the direct supervision of five
Chief Conservation Officers one for each of the five Conserva-
tion Districts.
In addition to law enforcement work, Conservation Officers
are required to assist in restocking programs and predator
control work, as well as represent the Commission locally in all
matters pertaining to conservation. With the end of the War
and the return to civilian life, the Commission is gradually
building up its force of Conservation Officers to a number which
will be able to give full protection to every section of the State.










BIENNIAL REPORT


LAW ENFORCEMENT
The major activity of the Commission is law enforcement.
Our Conservation Officers are permitted the same fee for making
arrests as that paid to Sheriffs and their deputies. In addition
to this they are permitted to charge mileage of 1214,c per mile
three ways or 371/.c per mile one way for transporting violators
to court. The fee and mileage are assessed by the Court as
costs in the case and the entire amount paid into the County
Fine and Forfeiture Fund. Later upon invoice to the County
from the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission this amount
is paid to the Commission by County Warrant. During the
period covered by this report the Commission received $13.517.05
from this source.

ARRESTS AND CONVICTIONS
It might be interesting to note that when the Commission
made its last Biennial Report there were reported a total of
1,270 arrests for game law violations. These arrests resulted
in 1,095 convictions, 140 acquittals and when the report went
to press there were 35 cases still pending.
During the two .ear period covered by this report there
were 1,971 arrests made for game law violations which re-
sulted in 1,779 convictions, 178 acquittals and 14 cases pending.
Another interesting fact is that 26 counties out of the 67 in
Florida show a conviction, for every arrest made. When our last
report was made 22 counties showed convictions for every arrest
made.
Since most of the work of the Commission is shown by Dis-
tricts, another interesting comparison would be the number
of arrests made by Districts as compared with those of the
last report.
1944-45 1945-46
First District -.. 337 445
Second District- ..... 201 422
Third District-- --- -- 436 699
Fourth District -------- 66 111
Fifth District .....--.........-------...........----- 230 294
From the tabulation which follows you will note that viola-
tions of fishing laws caused the greater portion of arrests. 645
persons were arrested on the charge of "Fishing Without a
License" while 221 were apprehended for "Possession of Under-
sized Fish." Next in line is "Taking Bass in Closed Season"
which caused the arrest of 112.








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 27



In game law violations "Taking Game During Closed Sea-
son" leads with 199, followed by "Hunting Without License"
for which 99 persons were arrested.
Trapping law violations caused the arrest of 40 persons
during the two year period covered by this report. The leading
violation in this group is "Taking Alligators in Closed Season"
which caused the arrest of 16 persons.
Except for a very few cases, all violations of the fish and
game laws are tried in the County Judges' Courts. The Com-
mission appreciates very much the cooperation given them by
the several County Judges in Florida as reflected by the large
number of convictions resulting from arrests made.
The tabulation of arrests by counties is also very interest-
ing. Out of the 67 counties only one, Union, shows no arrests.
Polk County leads with 119 arrests followed closely by Gulf
with 106 arrests.

FISH AND FISHING
Fishing without license- 645
Possession of undersized fish 221
Taking bass in closed season 112
Fishing with cast net or seine 70
Exceeding the bag limit on fish 63
Possession of cast nets or traps 44
Taking fish with gig.-- --- 23
Fishing in closed waters__ 22
Fishing with more than one pole- 21
Dynamiting fish -- 17
Taking fish with wire traps or baskets 16
Netting in fresh waters ---. 14
Selling black bass ..... ----- ....----- 9
Selling fresh water fish -. 8
Fishing with bream for bait 5
Shooting fish --- ----- 5
Fishing with gourd or iron 3
Fishing with jug- 2
Renting boat without license---- 1
Interfering with Officer 1
Fishing with set pole and line .- -- 1
Transporting seine ----------... 1
Fishing with improper license - -- 1

1305







28 BIENNIAL REPORT


GAME AND HUNTING
Taking game during closed season ------ 199
Hunting without a license- ----- 99
Possession of gun and dog in closed area 66
Hunting with unplugged gun .... .. 55
Hunting on closed day 39
Taking dove in closed season 33
Taking deer at night with light .- -- .. 16
Shooting on Tamiami Trail, Road 26 and Road 27 -- 15
Hunting in breeding ground 14
Hunting over baited area ...... 14
Taking duck in closed season -.... ----... 11
Hunting with light ..... 11
Taking doe deer. 9
Exceeding bag limit on game 7
Killing non-game birds .... 7
Possession of deer with sex
identification removed 5
Hunting during closed season -- .. 4
Shooting waterfowl from motor boat 4
Shooting dove after sunset 4
Molesting game 4
Trapping quail 3
Hunting with improper license- 3
Game on storage ten days after close of season 3
Taking marsh hen with motor boat ------. 1

626

TRAPPING
Taking alligators in closed season 16
Trapping during closed season 9
Possession of hides in closed season 7
Trapping without license 5
Trapping in breeding ground -_ 2
Possession of undersize alligators 1

40

ARRESTS AND CONVICTIONS FOR 1945 AND 1946
County Arrests Convictions Acquittals Pending
Alachua-..... ....... ........... 59 56 3
B aker ...................................... 5 4 1
B ay.. ,'I .......... .. .......... 42 37 5









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


B radford ................................
Brevard .............-....-- ...
Broward .... ....................
Calhoun-..........................
Charlotte.... ...................
Citrus...... .................. ...
C lay............ ........................
C ollier..... ......... ........ ..........
Columbia ...--...- .....-- .
Dade .......... -- .........
DeSoto ........................
D ix ie........ ... ...... ................
D uval ................... .......
Escam bia ...................
Flagler... ........................
Franklin........- ..................
G adsden ....................
G ilchrist.. ......................
G lades...............................
Gulf ...... ............
H am ilton ........... ..............
H ardee ..................................
Hendry.......... .................
Hernando.... ..........
Highlands......................
Hillsborough .............
Holmes.... ...................
Indian River .......................
Jackson.... ....................
Jefferson.... ----..- ..
Lafayette .......................
L ake.................................
Lee.................... ..........
Leon.........................
L evy.--...............................
Liberty.... ..........--..
M adison.... .........................
M anatee.......... .....-............
M arion ................................
M artin ..... ............... ..........
Monroe. --. .......................
N assau..... ............ --.--....
O kaloosa.................. ...............
Okeechobee ...........................
O range ......... .- ...... .- .
O sceola ...- .....- ..... .... ....
Palm Beach .... ................
Pasco --..... -- ...................
Pinellas ... -.....
Polk . ..-......- ....... .
Putnam .........................--.
St. Johns........ .............
S t. L ucie .........- .... .........
Santa Rosa ....-.. ........... .
Sarasota... --------.......
Seminole....... ...............
Sum ter........ .......................


4 -

1


2 ......
4
1
8
12 10


29









BIENNIAL REPORT


Suwannee ........... 39
Taylor..... ............... 29
Union .........
Volusia... .... .... .. 24
W akulla...... ........................... 45
Walton..........---------------......----...-... 51
Washington ............... 51


Total


Conservation Officer Trapping Quail


178








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


RESTOCKING
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission carries on
restocking programs for fresh water fish, quail and deer. No
restocking in turkey is being done because the Commission is
anxious to retain in Florida the pure strain of bronze turkeys
which are native to this State. An attempt has been made to
preserve this species and to increase the population by reducing
bag limits and shortening seasons, and in one section of the
State, by prohibiting the taking of turkey hens.
GAME SANCTUARIES, REFUGES, RESERVATIONS
As another means of preserving our wildlife resources,
the Commission maintains 118 closed areas over the State, lo-
cated in 54 of our 67 counties. Within these areas predators
are controlled and wildlife lives unmolested by hunters and
trappers. The surplus which results from such protection is
trapped and liberated in open areas where it later furnishes
game for the Florida sportsmen.
QUAIL RESTOCKING
Quail restocking is carried on in two different ways. First
quail are trapped in closed areas and liberated in pairs in open
territory, and second, wild-trapped quail are purchased and
Placing Leg Band on Quail








32 BIENNIAL REPORT


liberated in pairs in open territory. Both of these methods
have proved more successful than using pen-raised birds from
the quail hatchery formerly operated at Holt, Florida. During
the two years covered by this report Conservation Officers
trapped and transported to open territory 1954 quail. Follow-
ing the 1945-46 hunting season during which quail population
apparently reached an alarmingly low figure, the Commission
purchased some 16,000 quail which were distributed equally
over the State. Orders have been placed for 40,000 quail which
will be liberated over the State following the close of the 1946-
47 hunting season. Quail purchased and liberated are banded
with leg bands each bearing a number and "Notify Florida
Game Commission." Bands sent in to the Tallahassee office
indicate good results from the liberation of purchased birds.


FISH RESTOCKING

The Commission operates three fish hatcheries, one at
Winter Haven, Florida, where black bass are propagated, one
at Holt, Florida, where bream are propagated and one at We-
wahitchka which furnishes fish for the Dead Lakes in Gulf
and Calhoun Counties.



Fish Biologist Makes Survey of Lake Sue


-AN N








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 33


In addition to this, there is a Federal Fish Hatchery located
at Welaka, Florida, from which many fish find their way into
the fresh waters of this State.
The following tabulation reflects the number of fish placed
in Florida fresh waters from state and federal hatcheries in
Florida during the period covered by this report:
1944-45 1945-46
Bass Bream Bass Bream
Winter Haven 341,000 425,000
Holt -_ 3,563,000 4,053,600
Welaka 50,350 30,375


DEER RESTOCKING
After the counties which had been declared tick infested
and in which deer had been killed thereby declaring it be tick
free, it became necessary to start the long process of restocking
the areas where the deer had been removed.
At one time the Commission employed a deer trapper and
set up a Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Project for securing
deer for restocking purposes. At the beginning of the war,
it became necessary that other means of securing deer be found.
No species except the Virginia Whitetail, a native of Florida,
was to be used. This species of deer was found in the State of
Wisconsin and trappers and game farms were found there which
could supply our needs. The Legislature appropriated $25,000
yearly for the two years covered by this Report to be used for
this purpose and restocking got under way.
At first the deer were purchased for $75.00 each. Before
the end of the second year, the' price was increased to $90.00
and it was at this figure that deer were being purchased when a
second outbreak of Texas fever tick put an end to deer restock-
ing, at least for the time being. The $25,000 which had been
appropriated for deer restocking for 1946-47 was transferred to
another fund to be used in tick eradication work in the counties
where the new outbreaks occurred.
Since deer restocking began a total of 807 deer have been
liberated in Florida. The money which resulted from the op-
eration of the local laws applying to Hendry and Collier Counties
still remains to be used. Hendry County has to its credit
$4,575.00 with which deer may be purchased and Collier County
has $3,680.00.







34 BIENNIAL REPORT


PREDATOR CONTROL

In January of 1945, at the request of sportsmen over the
State, the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission began a
bounty program on predator control in an effort to determine
whether the bounty method was the answer to predator control
in Florida. Under the bounty program $2.00 was offered for
each bobcat taken, $1.00 for each fox and armadillo and 50c
for each skunk and opossum. Bounty was claimed by present-
ing the two front feet of each animal taken. In an experimenta-
tion carried on in the Third District a bounty of 25c was of-
fered for each pair of garfish bills brought in. The Bounty has
now been reduced to 10c. The first appropriation of $15,000
for animals and $5,000 for garfish was soon expended and
an additional appropriation was necessary. In direct connec-
tion with the bounty program was a program to analyze the
stomach content of the animals on which bounty was offered.
This analysis was made possible through the cooperation of the
Biology Departments of the several colleges located in Florida.
During the two years covered by this report a total expendi-
ture of $35,768.00 was made which resulted in the death of
8,409 fox, 1,786 bobcat, 9,544 skunk, 32,346 opossum and 2,842
armadillos. In addition to this $7,949.75 was paid for garfish. To
date a total of 33,014 garfish have been accounted for in this
manner.


HYACINTH CONTROL

The menace of hyacinths in Florida has grown to such pro-
portions that the U. S. Engineers have stepped into the picture.
Experiments are being made all over the State in methods
of hyacinth eradication, using various mechanical devices as
well as chemicals. Should the results of these experiments war-
rant it, a Federal appropriation will probably be made and a
large scale hyacinth eradication program started in Florida.
Methods heretofore tried by the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission have proved so costly as to make them prohibitive
when considered in the light of the numerous bodies df water
on which such a program would apply. It is hoped that an
early report by the U. S. Engineers will be available and that
a state-wide program will soon get under way, financed, if not
in full at least in part by Federal funds.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


COOPERATION
Florida has a number of agencies concerned primarily with
conservation, operating within the State. It is only natural to
assume that each one of these agencies at some time or other
will run across efforts of another conservation agency.
State agencies concerned with conservation are the Florida
Forest and Park Service and the State Board of Conservation.
Federal agencies are the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service and the Soil Conservation Service.

THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE'S
Report To
STATE OF FLORIDA GAME AND FRESH WATER
FISH COMMISSION
For the Period Ending December 31, 1946
Farmers, ranchers, and grove owners, cooperating with
organized Soil Conservation Districts in Florida are today apply-
ing soil and water conservation practices to cropland, range, and
pasture land, and land best adapted to the production of wild-
life crops. Because the things these farmers and ranchers must
do to conserve and protect their soil and water resources are
in a large measure the very things they should do to make their
lands more habitable for wildlife, Soil Conservation Districts
may well become one of the greatest forces for the conservation
and natural increase of Florida wildlife.
Soil destruction and depletion and wildlife destruction were
born of the same process. It is an established fact that the
permanence of both our soils and our wildlife is conditioned on
vegetation. Vegetation is the keynote of the program and recom-
mended practices of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service. The
proper coordination of the recommended practices of the Service
which include pasture improvement, contour cultivation, terrac-
ing, reforestation, the construction of farm ponds and the proper
management and development of small natural ponds, will ma-
terially affect the natural increase of the State's game and fresh
water fish by restoring proper living conditions for them. Wild-
life finds its place in a pattern of well-used land.
Throughout Florida there is a pressing need for better use
of land and water and better adjustment of agriculture to the
physical environment. The Soil Conservation Service recognizes
farm ponds, both natural ponds and constructed ponds, as a key
to water conservation in Florida and as potentially valuable also









BIENNIAL REPORT


in increasing opportunities for fishing provided they are properly
constructed, stocked, and managed for that purpose. The Service
biologist is at present making studies on twenty-three small
ponds ranging in size from one-tenth of an acre to 12 acres.
These ponds are located in eight Soil Conservation Districts in
peninsular Florida, viz: Polk Soil Conservation District, Istok-
poga Soil Conservation District, Pinellas Soil Conservation Dis-
trict, Gulf Soil Conservation District, Alachua Soil Conservation
District, Oklawaha Soil Conservation District, Santa Fe Soil
Conservation District, and the Withlacoochee Land Use Project.
The pond studies include fertilization to increase the per
acre production of fish; the use of 2-4D on Water Hyacinths
and other pond weeds; and the renovation of ponds by killing
fish with Rotenone. Without the support and cooperation of the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, much of the work
being done on fresh water ponds would not be possible.
In land management for upland game, the Soil Conservation
Service has under consideration several plants which will do a
two fold job of increasing the fertility of the soil as well as pro-
viding additional food during the season of the year when
natural foods are relatively scarce. For the present the Service
biologist is making extensive field trials with Bicolor Lespedeza.
This perennial legume has proved successful in all southeastern
states except Florida. In Florida Bicolor grows well but does
not always make good seed.
In keeping with the Service policy of cooperation with the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, a soil survey is being
made on the experimental area of the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission in Charlotte County. It is anticipated that
the survey will be developed into a soil and water conservation
plan within the next year.


FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE
The Florida Forest and Park Service maintains areas over
several sections of the State where forest conservation and res-
toration programs are carried on and where recreational facili-
ties are furnished to the public. Within these areas wildlife is
protected under a cooperative agreement with the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission. The following areas are closed
as Breeding Grounds under this agreement:
O'Leno State Forest in Alachua and Columbia Counties.
Pine Log State Forest in Bay and Washington Counties.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 37


Gold Head Branch State Park in Clay County.
Suwannee River State Park in Hamilton and Suwannee
Counties.
Highlands Hammock State Park and Botanical Garden and
Arboretum in Highlands County.
Hillsborough River State Park in Hillsborough County.
Florida Caverns State Park in Jackson County.
Torreya State Park in Liberty County.
Myakka River State Park in Manatee and Sarasota Counties.
Cary State Forest and Ft. Clinch State Park in Nassau
County.
In addition to the areas named above, Blackwater River
Forest is also closed under agreement with the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission. It is within the Blackwater River
area that one of the State Fish Hatcheries is located. The
hatchery came to the Commission under agreement with the
Florida Forest and Park Service, which had received it under
an agreement with the U. S. Soil Conservation Service.

STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Conservation Agents, the members of the field force for
the State Board of Conservation, and Conservation Officers, the
members of the field force for the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, must work together if all fish conservation laws
are to be observed. For this reason the members of the Con-
servation Department's field force hold commissions issued by
the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and members of the
Commission's field force hold commissions issued by the State
Board of Conservation. In cases of violations of the law of
either Department arrests may be made by officers of either.
Persons apprehended are immediately turned over to the of-
ficers of the Department concerned.

STATE .OF GEORGIA
The boundary between the State of Florida and the State
of Georgia is the St. Marys River. For this reason it is neces-
sary that seasons must coincide and that some workable agree-
ment be reached between the two States. To this end, holders
of valid Georgia fishing licenses are permitted to fish the Florida
side of the St. Marys River without being required to purchase









38 BIENNIAL REPORT


Florida licenses, and holders of valid Florida licenses are per-
mitted to fish the Georgia side of the river without Georgia
license. Fishing parties fishing the river, however, are re-
quired to take off from the banks of the river in the State in
which they are residents.

U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
Conservation Officers employed by the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission hold deputy commissions from the U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service and employees of the U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service are issued commissions by the 'Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission. Persons arrested for violation of the
Federal laws are, for the most part tried in County Court in the
same manner as are violators of State laws. Members of the
field force also cooperate and assist in the Big Game Census
and the Migratory Bird Census taken each year by the U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service.

EVERGLADES NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
Of particular note is the newly created Everglades National
Wildlife Refuge. This Refuge is located in Dade and Monroe
Counties and the entire area will be posted and closed to hunting,
trapping or to any disturbance of animal or plant life. Violators
are prosecuted in County Court in the same manner as are
violators of the game laws. Federal personnel have been issued
full commissions by both the Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission and the State Board of Conservation.

FEDERAL AID TO WILDLIFE RESTORATION
Supervision of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service is re-
quired with Pittman-Robertson Federal Aid to Wildlife Restora-
tion. Florida has two Pittman-Robertson Projects under opera-
tion at the present time. Three others have been approved but
are not yet under operation.
A brief report of the work undertaken with the two pro-
jects now in operation follows:

CHARLOTTE COUNTY QUAIL PROJECTS
In January, 1946, a Wildlife Biologist was employed by the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to investigate factors
affecting quail abundance in South Florida. The research work
was to be conducted on a 60,000 acre tract of flatwoods land








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


in Charlotte County purchased by the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission with the aid of Federal Aid funds. As of July
1, 1946, this work was designated a Federal Aid project to be
financed through the Federal Aid program and entitled the
Charlotte County Quail Investigation. At the same time a
second Federal Aid project, entitled Charlotte County Quail
Project, was set up for the development of the area for quail.
Both these projects are under the immediate direction of
0. E. Frye, Jr., Wildlife Biologist, with administrative and tech-
nical supervision from the Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the University
of Florida.
The primary object of the research project is to determine
the effect of fire, grazing, and disking upon vegetation and
their consequent influence upon the quail population, and to use
the information obtained in arriving at a sound management plan
for quail in the type of territory studied. Additional phases
of the research problem include the determination of the
"normal" number of quail on different types of land; and studies
of plants that can be cultivated for the production of quail food,
of the food habits of quail in Charlotte County, of the effect of
excessive rainfall on breeding quail, of the reproductive ca-
pacity of quail under shooting and protection from shooting,
and of native plants of importance to quail. Throughout the
studies consideration is given primary land uses, and manage-
ment procedures will be worked out that are compatible with
cattle and timber production.
Tentative conclusions from the study, pending further in-
vestigations, are: 1. That most plants planted for quail food in
other parts of the Southeast are unsuccessful in southern Florida
flatwoods. 2. That the natural food of quail in Charlotte County
is composed largely of seeds of grasses and sedges and differs
greatly from that of quail in other parts of the Southeast. 3.
That fire, when properly controlled, is beneficial to quail in
Charlotte County. 4. That disking on lands protected from
grazing causes a greatly increased production of important an-
nual quail food plants.
The .primary object of the development project is to put
into effect management procedures worked out on the research
project. One man, Herbert Allgood, is employed on the
development project. Among his duties on the project area are
maintenance of roads, bridges, and fences, planting of quail
foods, plowing of fire lanes, controlled burning, and incidental
to his other duties-protection of the project area from hunting
or other unlawful trespasses.








BIENNIAL REPORT


The fall quail census of the project area indicates a popula-
tion of between nine and ten thousand birds. Plans are being
made by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to trap
three thousand of these birds for restocking throughout the
state.

BIENNIAL REPORT
on
Apalachicola, Ocala and Osceola Wildlife Management Areas

The Wildlife Management Areas established on the Apala-
chicola, Ocala and Osceola National Forests are operated under
the terms of a cooperative agreement between the Commissioner
of Game and Fresh Water Fish and the U. S. Forest Service.
Annually, game management plans for the areas are prepared
stipulating seasons, bag limits, stocking plans and law enforce-
ment organization.

Apalachicola Management Area
This area embraces 198,500 acres in Franklin County. Dur-
ing 1945 and 1946 the area remained closed to hunting of deer,
squirrel and game birds since stocking was not considered ade-
quate to open it to hunting. Trapping of fur bearers was per-
mitted but due to the low price of furs only a small number of
trappers were induced to take the field.
During the period November 18 to 23, 1945, two 3-day bear
hunts were held. This was a new form of hunting on Florida's
Management Areas but it attracted 57 enthusiastic bear hunt-
ers. Although in the six days of the hunt only one bear was
killed, about 20 were jumped and chased. Failure to kill more
bear was due to hunter inexperience and insufficient good bear
dogs. Much good publicity resulted from the bear hunt and
another hunt is planned for 1947.

Ocala Management Area
This area located in Marion, Lake and Putnam Counties
includes 296,000 acres with a National Game Refuge of 78,000
acres in the central portion. Three resident game wardens are
employed by the State. The well known supervised deer hunt
was held again in 1945 and 1946 during the month of December.
In 1946 a record number of 3,931 hunters paid for permits
to hunt, although the number of deer checked out of the eleven
checking stations was the least since 1943. The following table









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 41


summarizes pertinent statistics relative to the hunt for 1945
and 1946:
1945 1946
Number of permits issued 3,368 3,931
Number of deer killed 338 322
Number of arrests 0 3
In 1945, 38 per cent of the deer killed were spike bucks
and in 1946, 36 per cent. Each year there were 35 illegally
killed doe deer picked up by game wardens and Forest officers.
About half of them were salvaged and turned over to non-profit
institutions for food. It is known that a large number of deer
are killed but not checked out through the checking stations.
Some are consumed in the hunt camps on the forest and others
are taken out under the fence and across the Oklawaha and St.
Johns Rivers. No effective means has been found to stop this
illegal traffic of game.
Most of the deer killed were in good condition. In 1945.
80 per cent were classified as in good or better condition. 19',.
fair and 1'{ poor. while in 1946, 921" were classified as good or
better, 6% fair and 2% poor. Three deer in 1945 reflected screw
worm condition and one in 1946. Some few deer had ticks.
Despite the fact that the condition of the deer are indicated
to be good and the record of hunter take has not increased.
there is a marked reduction in the size of the deer herd. This
became evident in 1945 and was more noticeable in 1946. The
factors contributing to this reduction in the herd are not defi-
nitely known, and will require a careful study. A change in the
management plan will, no doubt, be in order.
Small game killed and checked out during the hunt on the
Ocala were as follows:
1945 1946
Squirrel 544 680
Duck 16 70
Quail ... 2 24
The area was open for trapping of fur bearing animals.
but due to low price of fur only a few raccoon were taken.

Osceola ,Management Area
This area of 107,000 acres in Columbia and Baker Counties
remained closed to all forms of hunting in 1945 and 1946. It is
hoped that the deer population will be sufficient by the end of
1947 to permit a small hunt. Law enforcement has been good
this past year.
J. B. DAHL








BIENNIAL REPORT


CHOCTAWHATCHEE NATIONAL FOREST

(Eglin Field Military Reservation)

For the first time since the beginning of the War a super-
vised hunt was conducted in the Choctawhatchee National Forest
through cooperation with the Military Authorities there and
the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission in December of
1946.

During this hunt 4,060 Resident Hunting Permits were sold
at a price of $1.00 each. 44 Non-resident Permits, costing $5.00
each were sold. The $4,280.00 collected in this manner is to be
spent by the Federal Government to restock the area with quail
and turkey and to plant food for deer, turkey and quail. There
were 540 buck deer taken and 35 doe deer were found dead.

There were a total of 21 arrests made during the hunt.
4 for killing doe deer, 4 for possession of doe deer, 1 for attempt-
ing to take deer, 3 for hunting within the Breeding Ground and
10 for having unplugged guns within the forest area.

Choctawhatchee National Forest comprises approximately
347,000 acres of land located in Walton, Okaloosa and Santa
Rosa Counties.

The hunt was conducted by 12 Conservation Officers repre-
senting the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and 14
Forest Patrol Officers representing the Military Authorities
There were no accidents during the period of the hunt.
It is estimated that a population of 2,000 deer still remain
in the Forest.

FEDERAL FISH HATCHERY
Fish produced at the Federal Fish Hatchery at Welaka,
Florida, are distributed by the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission's specially constructed fish tank truck. When all
applications for fish filed with the Federal hatchery have been
filled, the remainder of fish on hand are turned over to the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to be used to fill ap-
plications for fish filed with them.

MISCELLANEOUS
During the period covered by this report it became neces-









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


sary for the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to hold
the following meetings:


Date
January 29, 1945
March 29, 1945
April 12, 1945-
May 10, 1945
June 18, 1945
July 9, 1945-- -
September 17, 1945 -
October 12, 1945 --
January 7, 1946
March 4, 1946
April 4, 1946
July 11, 1946
August 8, 1946 --
August 29, 1946
October 8, 1946_


Place
Tampa
Gainesville
-Jacksonville
--- -Tallahassee
West Palm Beach
--Tallahassee
Orlando
Jacksonville
Tallahassee
Jacksonville
-Jacksonville
---- Ocala
-Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Jacksonville


HUNTING ACCIDENTS
Among reports compiled by the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission is one having to do with accidents due directly to
hunting. During 1944-45 there were 38 accidents. 22 of these
were of a minor nature, 8 were serious and 8 were fatal. In
1945-46 there were 44 accidents. Of this number 21 were minor,
8 serious and 15 were fatal.

EDUCATION AND PUBLICITY
Florida Game and Fish
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission is glad to
report that "Florida Game and Fish" the Commission's monthly
magazine, is again being published. Publication of the maga-
zine was brought to a close when the editor entered the Armed
Services. During the war period it was impossible to find a
person to fill the position of editor and publication did not begin
again until May of 1946.
This magazine is available to anyone wishing to receive it.
There is no subscription fee. Simply address a postcard to the
Commission requesting that your name be placed on the monthly
mailing list and the magazine will be sent to you.
The magazine is a monthly report of the activities of the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. Included also are








BIENNIAL REPORT


articles of a technical nature and reports covering the activities
of other conservation organizations, both Federal and from
other States. The publication also carries a monthly list of all
arrests and convictions for violations of the game laws.

MOVING PICTURES
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has added two
more short reels to its moving picture supply. One of these has
to do with Sunfish and the other with Wild Animals of North
America.
The film, "Our Heritage" continued to be much in demand
in spite of the fact that it is now several years old. During the
two year period for which this report is made, the film has been
shown in Wyoming, Illinois, Louisiana, South Carolina, Mon-
tana, Michigan and Ohio, and in every section of the State of
Florida.

FAIR EXHIBITS
The Commission is again participating in various Fairs over
the State. In February of 1946 an exhibit was placed in the
State Fair at Tampa, Florida. We expect to have an exhibit in
Tampa again in February of 1947. Exhibits were also placed
in Pensacola and in Melbourne.


44






SOURCES OF REVENUE DURING BIENNIUM ENDING
JUNE 30, 1946
Classified List of Licenses Sold by County Judges


FISHING LICENSES
Series A -Resident State...... ............
Series B -Non-Resident State.......... .. .
Series C-Non-Resident 10-Day Trip ..........

Total . . . .


HUNTING LICENSES
Series I-Resident County.........
Series J-Resident County, Other Than Home ...
Series K-Resident State ...... .........
Series L- Non-Resident.. ..............
Series M- Non-Resident 10-Day Trip1...
Series M-1-Non-Resident 3000 Acre Owner.

Total..


Series N
Series 0
Series P
Series Q


TRAPPING LICENSES
-Resident. .
-Non-lesident (County ..
Resident State . .
Hlesident Other than Home Coiunty


Total ....


FICS'AL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1945


Price



$ -1.00
5.00
2.00


$ 1.00
3.00
5.00
25.00
*10.00
10 00


No. Issued Amount


73,282
9,898
9,001

92,181


37,536
455
29,623
258
481
13

68,366


N 3.00 1,446
25.00
25.00 11
10.00 23

.. 1,480


$ 73,282.00
49,490.00
18,002.00

$ 140,774 00



8 37,536.00
1,365 00
148,115.00
6,450.00
4,810.00
130.00

8 198,4060.00



8 4.338.00

275. 00
230.00

8 4,843.00


FIS( Al Y'EAlAt NDIN(I
JUNE 30, 1946


Price



8 1.75
7.00
2.00


1.75
4.00
7.00
26.00
11.00
11 00


$ 3.00
25.00
25.00
10.00


No, Issued


59,020
4,877
20,792

84,689



42,529
516
32,185
356
714
17

76,317



1.408
2
26
23

1,459


Amount



S 103,285.00
34,139.00
41,584.00

$ 179,008.00



.$74,425.75
2,064.00
225,295.00
9,256.00
7,854.00
187.00

8 319,081.75



8 4,224.00
50.00
650.00
230.00

8 5,154.00


SCORES EVNEDUIGINIU -NING


1-1-


I








BIENNIAL REPORT


GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH COMMISSION

STATEMENT OF
July 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945
RECEIPTS


Balance on Hand July 1, 1944 $
Hunting Licenses .
Fishing Licenses 1
Trapping -- --- ---
U. S. Forest Permits
Commercial Licenses
Retail Fish Dealers .--.
Wholesale Fish Dealers
Commercial Boat
Boat for Hire
Game Farm Licenses-
Wholesale Fur Dealers and
Agents
Local Fur Dealers
Guide Licenses
Court Costs-
Miscellaneous
Confiscated Boats. Nets and
Motors
Confiscated Fish
Sale of Old Equipment.-
Confiscated Furs and Hides
Previous Year's Licenses
Cancelled Warrant Account
Refunds


98,406.00
38,166.00
4,843.00
3,851.84

5,210.00
1,700.00
661.70
3,442.00
100.00

1,015.00
70.00
130.00
3,791.37
4,289.23

564.25
225.80
860.50
4.55
3,880.00
495.69
82.19


$235,056.43


341,415.00
3,851.84


12.328.70







13.615.70 371.789.12

577.88 577.88


?606,45..55


DISBURSEMENTS
Administration
Office Salaries
Traveling Director
Traveling Commissioners
Miscellaneous
Office Supplies ._
Postage, Telephone
and Telegraph-
Printing and Stationery


$ 12,059.31 $
1,414.23
2,032.16
1,175.72
351.76


1,679.43
4,323.91









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Premium on Bonds
Field Expense
Salaries Conservation
Officers --
Traveling Conservation
Officers - -
Telephone and Telegraph
Expense Chief Conserva-
tion Officers .- -- - ..
Premium on Bonds
Legal Advertising --
Legal Expense
Miscellaneous Field
Premium Compensation Ins.
Equipment Purchased-- -
Maintenance of Equipment
Restocking ---- ---
Rewards --- -
Hatcheries
Blackwater Game Farm and
Hatchery
Salaries ---
Labor
Supplies ----------
Express and Telegrams ------
Feed ----
Fertilizer and Seed
Gas and Oil -
Insurance -------
Repairs to Equipment
Truck Repairs ---
Wewahitchka Hatchery
Salaries


Labor --. --...
Supplies ......
Gas and Oil
Improvements
Insurance --..-----
Winter- Haven Hatchery
Salaries --
Labor -- ---
Traveling ------
Repairs to Equipment
Supplies .......-- ------
Truck Operation ---


35.00 23,071.52


105,371.14

90,658.38


179.76
520.00
244.24
625.00
2,693.40
1,367.62
2,842.32
1,274.45
4,526.65
300.00



1,800.00
1,490.91
56.03
8.09
173.05
108.27
593.37
215.58
None
848.10

320.00
16.00
2.75
12.45
343.80
74.25


210.602.96













5,293.40






769.25


3,427.67
422.85
367.07
398.10
232.72
504.28









48 BIENNIAL REPORT


Gas and Oil .. 539.96
Insurance on Truck ..........---- 63.30
Drainage Tax ----- .. 75.05
Bounty on Predator Animals 1,911.50
Bounty on Gar Fish -----. 192.25
Publicity and Education
Salaries -300.00
Relief of E. L. Smith
( Acts 1939) - 300.00
Pittman-Robertson
Expenditures 73,995.16
Refunds -- ----306.30
Cash Account
Balance in State Treasury 261,918.60
Balance in Lewis State Bank 27,825.61
Less Hendry County Deer
Restocking Fund
Reserve --- -- 4,575.00
Less County Judge's Credit 97.00


6,031.00

2,103.75


300.00 248,171.88




73,601.46 73,601.46


289,744.21



4,672.00 285,072.21

$606,845.55


GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH COMMISSION
STATEMENT OF
July 1, 1945 to June 30, 1946
RECEIPTS


Balance on Hand July 1, 1945 $
Hunting Licenses ...------ 319,067.75
Fishing Licenses-- --- 178,718.25
Trapping Licenses ---- 5,154.00
Alien Hunting Licenses--- 50.00
U. S. Forest Permits --- 7,982.32


Corn mercial Licenses
Retail Fish Dealers--
Wholesale Fish Dealers ---
Commercial Boat Licenses-
Boat for Hire -
Game Farm Licenses ----
Wholesale Fur Dealers and
Agents .- .
Local Fur Dealers
Guide Licenses


7,460.00
1,900.00
1,014.40
4,420.50
145.00

1,005.00
90.00
190.00


$284,576.52


510,972.32


16,224.90









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 49


Court Costs..-- -------- -
Miscellaneous -- -------
Confiscated Boats, Nets and
Motors
Confiscated Fish ----
Confiscated Furs and Hides
Sale of Old Equipment
Previous Year's Licenses
Refunds ------- -----
Pittman-Robertson


9,725.68
2,995.72

283.45
88.83
29.95
2,193.58
2,608.00
57.80
23,905.62


13,093.68
29.95
2,193.58

2,665.80 545,180.23
23,905.62 23,905.62

$853,662.37


DISBURSEMENTS
Administration
Office Salaries --
Attorney's Salary
Traveling Director-
Traveling Attorney -----
Traveling Commissioners --
Miscellaneous
Office Supplies ---- -
Postage, Telephone,
Telegraph
Printing and Stationery --
Premium on Bonds ...........--
Legal Expense- -----.
Field Expense


Salaries, Conservation
Officers ---- -- ----
Traveling, Conservation
Officers ---------
Tel. & Tel. Chief
Conservation Officers -
Premium on Bonds .----
Legal Advertising------
Miscellaneous Field -----
Premium on Compensation
Insurance ---------
Equipment Purchases..--........
Maintenaice of Equipment--...
Restocking ..--------
Rewards ...----------


$ 16,052.83 $
2,300.00
1,941.88
91.59
1,121.30
4,076.97
599.91

2,585.92
7,016.71
42.55
635.90


179,645.29

147,562.83

664.39
1,185.00
463.87
1,491.26

1,147.04
8,962.12
2,231.75
29,533.61
250.00


36,465.56


373,137.16








BIENNIAL REPORT


Hatcheries
Blackwater Game Farm and
Hatchery
Salaries
Labor .--..--- ...
Supplies -.----------.
Express and Telegrams ......
Feed --- ---
Fertilizer and Seed- --. .
Gas and Oil --- .........
Repairs to Equipment ..----
Truck and Equipment ........
Truck Repairs--
Insurance
Restocking -----
Wewahitchka Hatchery
Labor .. ....-.
Improvements ---
Insurance
Electricity
Supplies -----
Winter Haven Hatchery


Salaries
Labor
Traveling
Supplies
Truck Repairs
Ga- -nd 00l


Insurance on Truck
Power and Lights ..-...
Pumping Water and
Equipment ....- .
Publicity and Education
Salaries -----
Traveling -
Fair Expense
Moving Picture- ....-
Charlotte Game Management
Area
Salary, Game Technician
Traveling, Game Technician
Labor .... .
Seed and Fertilizer --
Land Cultivation -
Miscellaneous


2,100.00
1,590.10
186.13
1.02
49.85
95.92
516.04
830.00
2,225.00
252.51
139.58
86.68

45.00
236.68
74.25
2.00


8,072.83


1.20 359.13


4,804.46
165.00
---- 471.72
516.29
---- 622.71
43050~r


29.65
56.46


1,063.91 8,160.70


548.00
699.03
359.34
256.95


1,116.13
952.91
356.50
139.98
1,320.00
352.93


2,049.79


50









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 51


Truck Repairs
Gas and Oil----
Equipment ---.
Taxes on Land ----
Removing Wood --
Land Purchase-


Hyacinth Control
Salary --- ---. 375.00
Traveling --- --- 400.00
Removing Hyacinth --..- 1,000.00
Refunds ---- 18.00
Bounty on Predator Animals 33,856.50
Bounty on Garfish 7,019.25


CASH ACCOUNT
Balance in State Treasury
Due from County Judge's
Less Hendry County Deer
Restocking Fund --..-
Less Cancelled Warrant
Account--- -


379,428.09
790.21


1,775.00
18.00

40,875.75 478,678.01


380,218.30


4,575.00

658.94 5,233.94 374,984.36

$853,662.37


110.88
193.73
90.00
1,736.03
.---- 144.00
1,251.00


7,764.09













4lrenda ot f947-48

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMMEDIATE GAME RESEARCH
AND MANAGEMENT WORK IN FLORIDA
0. E. FRYE, JR.-Wildlife Biologist
No attempt is made here to discuss all the wildlife work
which would be desirable for Florida. A few brief suggestions
are made for work that appears feasible with the funds and
personnel that should be available in the next two years. These
suggestions concern only research and management work on
the three most important non-migratory game species in the
state-the bobwhite quail, the wild turkey, and the white
tailed deer.
Not discussed are the equally important administrative and
educational phases of the conservation program other than to
emphasize the crying need for better enforcement of game
regulations and an active educational program.
There are of course different problems associated with
each of the three mentioned species, but for immediate prac-
tical purposes the problems of deer and turkey management
appear identical, in contrast to those of quail management.
Quail, largely because of their smaller size and consequent
decreased "meat" value, are much less likely than deer and
turkey to be totally exterminated from a given locality. As a
result there are few areas of suitable quail habitat in the state
where some breeding stock is not present.
This is not believed to be true of deer and turkey. There
are apparently many areas of suitable deer and turkey habitat
now completely unpopulated with these species because of
overshooting.
Basically, then, the primary problems of quail management
are habitat improvement and protection, with emphasis on habi-
tat improvement; whereas the primary problems of deer and
turkey management are restocking and protection, with em-
phasis on protection. Protection refers in all cases to protec-
tion from man.
The present policy of restocking quail over the state is
possibly only a temporary measure to bolster the quail popula-
tion until a sound habitat improvement plan can be worked out








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


and applied; although there are indications that annual releases
of quail may be a worthwhile permanent conservation measure in
open flatwoods areas where the birds are particularly vulnerable
to overshooting.

Methods of improving quail habitats on farms have been
worked out for several southeastern states. These methods or
minor modifications of them can probably be applied to much
of the farming area of north and central Florida. Beginnings
should be made in the near future on an active game farm
program for the state-possibly built around a number of
farmer-sportsman cooperative agreements.

As yet no practicable quail management plan has been
found for the large cattle ranching areas, particularly in the
southern half of the state. Because of this the Charlotte
County Quail Project was begun. It is at present the primary
game research and management project in Florida. A brief
description of the work that has been done and that will be
done in the next two years is given in the discussion of the
Charlotte County Quail Project on page 38.

In addition to the Charlotte County project, studies will
be made-through banding of all birds released-of the value
of the quail restocking program; particularly of the compara-
tive survival of native and Mexican birds.

The only wildlife biologist employed by the state of Florida
is engaged in the previously discussed quail investigations.
Within the next two years every effort should be made to em-
ploy at least three more trained biologists-one to work with
deer, one with turkey, and the other with quail.

The primary duties of the quail biologist should be the
instigation of a quail management program in the northern part
of the state and a statewide survey of quail habitats. The sur-
vey should take the form of a quail census made during the
fall and winter on the different types of territory occurring
in Florida.

The first duty of the deer and turkey biologists should be
a statewide survey of deer and turkey habitats. Immediately
upon coinpletion of this survey a program of transplanting deer
and turkey in suitable and adequately protected areas should be
begun.

As far as possible, wild trapped native stock should be used
in this program.








54 BIENNIAL REPORT


Research projects on turkey and deer in Florida are defi-
nitely needed and should ordinarily precede the suggested
management program; but in view of the fact that there are
such strong indications that the absence of deer and turkey
from many Florida areas is due primarily to overshooting, it
appears that an immediate carefully planned stocking program
based only on the experience of other states is justifiable.
In their monthly meeting of January 27, the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission agreed to set aside $25,000 to
be used in the study of Florida's wildlife through the writer's
program. $5,000 of this appropriation will be used for the deer
and turkey project with Pitman-Robertson funds to match this
amount, and $20,000 will be spent for the study of the quail
situation.

OUTLINE OF FISHERIES WORK FOR 1947
JOHN F. DEQUINE, Fisheries Bioligist
1. Office of Chief Fisheries Biologist
Chief Fisheries Biologist's duties will comprise supervision,
planning, and administration of all fish hatcheries, biological
investigation and other activities relating to fisheries problems,
in addition to consultation with clubs and other interested groups
in undertaking of rearing ponds or other related projects.


One of the Commission's Fish Transporting Trucks









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


II. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FISH HATCHERIES
The State owned fish hatcheries at Holt, Wewahitchka, and
Eagle Lake will be operated to supply bream and bass finger-
lings for stocking public waters. Some improvement in the
methods used is being made and every effort is anticipated to-
ward obtaining greatest production at reasonable costs. Recon-
struction and repairs to existing structures are now being
arranged.

III. BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION

A. Lake Okeechobee Survey
It will be necessary to employ a full time biologist to obtain
information and data leading to a sound management program
for this lake, the main object of the survey. Most important
facts to be sought in this work will be:

1. Present fish population, and inter-relationship between
present species.
2. Potential annual yield of food and game fishes to de-
termine amounts which can be taken without damage to seed
stock.
3. Effect of various types of fishing gear on game and


Placing Fingerlings In Escambia River








BIENNIAL REPORT


food fishes, with emphasis on determining proper equipment
for use by commercial fishermen to harvest the annual crop of
food fishes and control predatory species.
4. Formulation of enforcible regulations benefiting spawn-
ing conditions and habitat for both game and food fishes, with
emphasis during the first year on the game species.
5. Accurate records of catches by sports fisherman, as a
basis for future comparison.
B. Statewide Water Classification and Special Biological
Problems
This project also would require a full time biologist during
the first year, and some labor and equipment. If satisfactory
results are obtained at the.end of the first year, expansion and
continuation would be set up for subsequent work.
Most important facts to be studied will include:
1. Analysis and classification of lakes and streams through-
out the State as a basis for stocking and other management
recommendations which will result in increased catches by sports
fishermen.
2. Methods and effects of a gar-mudfish control program
on waters with high populations of these species.
3. Determination of the effectiveness of stocking with
hatchery raised fish by tagging and offering rewards for the
return of the tags with the information desired.
4. Gathering of material which will eventually be used in
publication of a descriptive list of all Florida species of fresh
water fish, illustrated with photographs of the more important
fishes with a key to the fishes that can be used by the average
sports fishermen.
C. St. Johns River Surrey
This project, which will also require a full-time biologist,
will concentrate on determining the same factors sought in the
Lake Okeechobee Survey.
IV. NEW HATCHERY CONSTRUCTION
Approval has been obtained from the Commission to locate
and start construction on a new Fish Hatchery, to be located as
near the center of the state as is practicable. A sum of $16,200
has been set up to cover the costs of location and engineering,
and for the beginning of the construction during the year.
Suitable sites are now being inspected and sought for this
hatchery which will be designed to operate as efficiently as
modern hatchery engineering can make it.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 57


FLORIDA WILDLIFE FEDERATION REVEALS
FUTURE PLANS
Seeks $100,000 to Protect State's Wildlife
A plan to raise $100,000 to protect Florida's $100,000,000
wildlife resources, has been presented to the officers and di-
rectors of the Florida Wildlife Federation by Ralph G. Cooksey,
St. Petersburg, President of the Federation. The plan, which in-
cludes enlarging the Federation membership to 50,000, also out-
lines the method by which the money will be raised.
Committees will be formed in each county of Florida under
five district Vice Presidents, with proportionate quotas of the
general fund to raise. Mass meetings and money raising drives
will be staged in each county until the entire amount needed
for the conservation fight ahead is raised.
Cooksey, under instructions from the Federation, named
a committee to go to Tallahassee Monday, January 27th, in the
reorganization meeting of the Florida State Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission.
The committee recommended to the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission that the wages and qualifications of
wardens be raised and that they be uniformed, with the excep-
tion of 10 wardens who will be secret and act as undercover
agents to prevent wildlife poaching.
The 10-point plan recommended by Gooksey consisted of
organizing hunting and fishing clubs in every city and town
in Florida; the distribution of educational material to every
club; obtain enough wardens to protect every one of the 30,000
lakes in Florida; enlist the cooperation of all Junior Chambers
of Commerce, civic clubs, realty boards, women's clubs, fra-
ternal organizations and others; to restock all lands in Florida
with game; aid in training conservation officers; assure the
enforcement of conservation laws; work closely with the state
commissions forestry departments and state parks; to create
more game preserves.

A headquarters office to handle details of carrying out the
program has been set up in St. Petersburg in the Chamber of
Commerce building, where E. C. Wimer, Gulfport, has assumed
the duties of executive director.

Attending the meeting which endorsed the Wildlife Federa-
tion plan and personally endorsing it were E. A. Markham,
Gulfport, Treasurer; George A. Speer, Sanford, Recording Sec-
retary; Porter Lansing, Sanford, District Vice President; Bill








58 BIENNIAL REPORT


Willman, West Palm Beach, District Vice President; 0. E. Frye.
Game and Fresh Water Fish biologist; J. F. DeQuine, Game
and Fresh Water Fish biologist; Frank D. Smoak, Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commissioner; R. B. Norton, Clearwater and
James B. Ober, Miami, Directors; L. G. Bruce, Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commissioner; E. D. Farr, Game and Fresh Water
Fish Attorney; A. S. Houghton, Secretary American Game As-
sociation; Col. Percy M. Hansen, Tampa, Publisher of the Florida
Sportsman; E. C. Wimer, Gulfport, Executive Director and
Ralph G. Cooksey, St. Petersburg, President.
A $100,000.00 Plan with a $100,000,000.00 Annual
Return for Florida
We present herewith the outline of a plan for the Florida
Wildlife Federation and Commercial and Civic Organizations,
based on a working period of ten years, which can and will do
what many of us have been thinking of and planning for, even
before the close of the war.
Using the natural resources Florida now has, and by con-
serving, developing, protecting, and publicizing our fishing,
hunting, and recreational advantages, Florida has unlimited pos-
sibilities for the development of a $100,000,000.00 industry.
NOW is the time to get this plan underway and to provide
the benefits for our people and create additional business and
revenue for the State.
Here's how this can be accomplished-
1. Stimulate and build a wildlife Federation with a member-
ship of 50,000 or better, made up of fishing, hunting and
conservation clubs from every part of the State of Florida;
all working together to restore Florida's game, fish, and
recreational advantages, and enjoy the advantages for years
to come.
2. A $100,000.00 Fund to conserve and develop fish and game,
and to provide better recreational facilities throughout
Florida.
3. An Educational Plan, informing our people of the need of
conservation, the recreational benefits, and the enormous
dollars and cents returns possible on their small individual
investment in this well planned conservation and business
development objective.
4. Make Florida known as the Nation's No. 1 Hunting and
Fishing Paradise. We are blessed with ideal climate; over
30,000 fresh water lakes, streams, rivers and creeks, salt
water bays, bayous, passes, the Gulf, and an ocean with-









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 59


out end. The glades and other natural game refuges, semi-
tropical growth, and beauty unsurpassed, give us ad-
vantages unnumbered. Let's make use of these natural
facilities and resources; give the benefits to our people:
sell them to the world and thereby profit.
5. Work with and enlist the cooperation and support of the
State Chamber, Chambers of Commerce, Junior Chambers,
Civic Clubs, Realty Boards, Women's Clubs, Fraternal
bodies, and other organizations of this State in this $100,-
000,000.00 development or industry, which will benefit every
interior and coastal section of Florida.
6. Propagate game and fish; restock, protect and develop such
all over Florida, using our God-given supply to build from,
and importing and developing other game adaptable to our
particular and superb climate.
7. Aid in the training of conservation officers, properly fitting
them for their work in all its branches, and making possible
compensation which will attract and hold men of experience.
knowledge and integrity.
8. Enforce our conservation laws; create new laws, and amend
present laws so that all will be in keeping with conditions;
provide sane, just and proper protection for game, fish and
the individual sportsman.
9. Closely work with the State Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, the State Conservation Department, the State
Forestry Department, the State Parks, and City organiza-
tions, looking to the betterment of conditions having to do
with our game and fish conservation, recreation and the
sane development of our natural resources.
10. To create more game preserves and to provide hunting
grounds and game for all kinds of hunting for those who
abide by the laws and rules of this State.
Respectfully submitted,
Ralph G. Cooksey, President
FLORIDA WILDLIFE FEDERATION
OFFICES:
Chamber of Commerce Building
Fourth Street & First Avenue, South
St. Petersburg, Florida.




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Edward Griffin
Bill Hendry
Kelly Parker
Randolph Saxon
George T. Sharpe
James M. Shaw
Howard K. Stalls




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