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Biennial report
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075940/00004
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Publisher: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1947
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Game protection -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fish culture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fishery management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Wildlife management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: First biennial report covers the period from the time of the organization (of the Commission) July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1936.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000327977
oclc - 01332271
notis - ABV7514
System ID: UF00075940:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida. Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish.|Biennial report of the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
Succeeded by: Florida. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.|Annual report

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BIENNIAL REPORT




GAME

& FRESH WATER FISH

COMMISSION


BIENNIUM ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1948


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J. W. CORBETT
Chairman


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CECIL M. WEBB
Commissioner


MILTON H. BAXLEY
Commissioner


BEN C. MORGAN
Director


LOUIS G. MORRIS
Commissioner


COLEMAN NEWMAN
Assistant Director


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COMMISSION'S

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BEN C. MORGAN
Director
COLEMAN NEWMAN
Assistant Director


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GENERAL ACTIVITIES




DURING 1947-48 the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
made perhaps the greatest progress in Florida conservation his-
tory. The Commission has seen a terrific expansion in man power
and activities, and a streamlining of general policy as well. Until two
years ago, Florida's conservation set-up had ranked fairly well in the
South. However, compared to the states throughout in the north, it
ranked rather low. At present, however, the state's conservation pro-
gram is generally regarded as one of the top ten in the nation. Con-
sidering that many northern states have had full-fledged, comprehen-
sive conservation programs in action for more than two decades, it is
gratifying to see Florida rated along with them.
Two years ago the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission had
less than 200 employees, 170 of them wildlife officers. Despite the
fact that the state had been beset with game and fisheries problems
for years, no technical or biological staff had ever been organized.
Conservation education and public relations had not been developed
to any extent. Law enforcement was not what it should have been.
Today the Commission has a total of 291 employees, 228 of whom are
wildlife officers; 40 are biologists, technicians or specialists in other
fields, and 23 are general administrative employees or laborers.
Staff expansion was not the only signs of progress during the past
biennium. A few of the more prominent steps taken by the Commis-
sion was the setting up of a fisheries investigation program, the
establishment of game survey and game restoration projects and a
land acquisition program, the appointment of a new director and
assistant director, the creation of a division of information and
education, purchase of uniforms for wildlife officers, purchase of
vehicles and other equipment for the law enforcement branch, estab-
lishment of a state-wide quail survey and trapping program, heavy
restocking of deer and turkey, formulating a plan whereby cattlemen
in southwest Florida would open their rangelands to hunters, the
setting up of a two-way radio communication system for wildlife
officers, the requirement of an oath of office for all wardens, and
the establishment of an annual school for law enforcement officers.
Those are a few of the major steps taken by the Commisison. Con-
solidated and viewed in all their detail, this represents a terrific ex-
pansion program.









Increased Hunting and Fishing Pressure
The reasons for such an advanced program are obvious. At the
end of the war it became apparent the limited facilities of the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission could no longer compete with the
tremendously-increased pressure on our game and fish resources.
The army of hunters and fishermen had mounted with alarming
rapidity. During the fiscal year of 1946-47 more than 168,000 fish-
ing licenses were sold, as compared to slightly over 72,000 in 1942-43.
Hunting pressure had also shown a terrific increase. In four years
hunting license sales went from 65,000 to over 100,000. The figures
continued to climb in 1947-48. During the past fiscal year over 223,000
fishing licenses were sold to break all records. Hunting licenses con-
tinued to run over the 100,000 mark. With this terrific expansion in
hunting and fishing, it was obvious the agency charged with regulat-
ing the sports had to be expanded also.


The above chart shows increased fishing pressure over the past five years.


Economic Value of Wildlife
In addition to this, Florida sportsmen and citizens alike had begun
at last to see the crying need for a comprehensive, long-range wildlife
conservation program. Mr. Average Citizen began to realize that our
game and fish resources possessed economic value as well as rec-
reational value. A survey by a national magazine last year showed
that hunting and fishing was a $4,000,000,000 a year business in the
United States. Figures taken from the Department of Commerce









and the U. S. Fish and.Wildlife Service showed that more than 25,000,-
000 people throughout the nation participated in these too great out-
door sports. The income from the hunting and fishing, it was found,
was one-third larger than the nation's retail gasoline sales and twice
as big as the nation's retail liquor sales. After a lengthy survey, the
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service placed a dollar value stamp on the
various species of wildlife. They found that every pound of bass
caught in our lakes contributed approximately $2.00 to our state
economy. They found it cost the sportsmen more than $100 to kill
a deer, $10 to kill a goose and $5 to kill a duck. All this adds up to a
big business in hunting and fishing.
In Florida, these figures were even more significant. Being pri-
marily a tourist state, one of Florida's greatest attractions is fishing.
A survey by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission last year
indicated that resident, licensed anglers alone spent more than


1942-45 194-A4 1944-45 1945-46 1946-7 1947-48
10.000--
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90,000--





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The sale of hunting licenses has also shown a sharp increase since 1942.


$56,000,000 for fresh water fishing. Taking these facts-increased
hunting and fishing pressure, and the new found economic importance
of the two outdoor sports-into consideration the Commission, the
sportsmen and the people realize that a more streamlined conserva-
tion program had to be established.










LICENSE SALES BY COUNTIES
1947-1948 1947-1948


FISHING


Resident
Alachua .................... 4737
Baker .......................... 768
Bay .............................. 5843
Bradford ...- ............. 994
Brevard .....------................. 996
Broward .................... 2974
Calhoun ................. 1826
Charlotte ................... 321
Citrus .......................... 2345
Clay ............................ 1063
Collier ........................ 232
Columbia .................. 1114
Dade ...................... 4918
DeSoto .................. 1235
Dixie .......................... 240
Duval ....................... 16176
Escambia .................. 5719
Flagler ..--......---.. .. 173
Franklin .................... 329
Gadsden .................... 2393
Gilchrist .................... 501
Glades ...................... 661
Gulf .......................... 1365
Hamilton .................. 224
Hardee ........----............--. 1430
Hendry ..................-- 1766
Hernando ............-- 1224
Highlands ................ 2574
Hillsborough ............ 15379
Holmes ...................--. 1340
Indian River ............ 777
Jackson ...................... 1495
Jefferson .................. 466
Lafayette .................. 568


Non-Resident
634
20
974
104
524
901
4696
171
3208
146
57
195
423
109
102
465
269
35
512
2994
20
311
2097
422
89
742
156
1022
377
2447
182
1157
741
35


HUNTING
Resident Non-Resident
3615 14
574 5
1563 20
471 9
1279 17
774 4
875 41
275 58
1101 68
779 5
186
1148 12
3252 9
702 5
821 13
6520 32
4160 8
372 2
487 10
2426 6
628 4
172 4
820 28
542 12
821 3
563 4
1144 4
639 8
5850 16
832 27
396 8
2124 31
727 147
529 1


Organization
The Commission itself was reorganized and revamped in the spring
of 1947. A new director was hired to replace Dr. I. N. Kennedy, who
had resigned. The salary of the new director was set at $8,500 a year
in order to attract and keep a man of high caliber. A new budget was
approved and the entire Commission reorganized on a departmental
basis.
Today the Commission is separated into 7 divisions which func-
tion directly under the supervision of the director. The policy and
rules and regulations of the Commission are formulated by five non-
salaried Commissioners-one from each conservation district. The
divisions that make up the Commission are Accounting Division,
the Fish Management Division, Game Management Division, Law
Enforcement Division, Division of Information and Education, Legal
and Investigating Division and the Public Relations Division.


* 10 *









LICENSE SALES BY COUNTIES


Lake ....................... 4096
Lee ............................. 1475
Leon ............................ 3424
Levy ........................... 852
Liberty ................ 561
Madison .................... 632
Manatee ................... 1929
Marion ................. 5253
Martin ...................... 621
Monroe .................... 9
Nassau ..................... 360
Okaloosa ....... ...... 1178
Okeechobee ......... 1224
Orange .................... 11232
Osceola ...................... 1235
Palm Beach ........... 4819
Pasco ....................... 2018
Pinellas ................... 5442
Polk ........................... 10796
Putnam ...................... 1465
St. Johns .................. 643
St. Lucie ................. 1034
Santa Rosa .............. 1075
Sarasota ................. 1385
Seminole .................. 2471
Sumter ...................... 2228
Suwannee ............... 1209
Taylor ....................... 590
Union ....................... 301
Volusia ....... ............... 3833
Wakulla ................... 774
Walton ..................... 805
Washington ............. 1377

TOTAL ................160,512


4884
471
3028
177
393
168
298
5086
438
5
175
666
777
3402
718
760
251
695
1776
998
131
215
265
290
439
672
51
411
19
1240
1573
1869
3951

62,629


2343
992
3445
1894
539
756
953
4103
245
36
1240
2229
305
3133
747
1696
1121
1597
5494
1877
2147
552
1763
808
1192
1492
1157
a1407
823
3579
922
1357
681

99,262


37
19
245
19
16
27
5
78
8
2
8
48
2
33
8
6
9
15
10
12
6
5
8
9
7
22
13
14

16
107
38
17

1,526


The Accounting Division consists of four employees to keep an
account of all the receipts and disbursements plus the maintaining of
statistical records.
The Fish Management Division is divided into two sections, the
Fish Culture Section, which has charge of all artificial propagation
and restocking activities, and the Fisheries Investigation Section under
which population surveys, rough fish control studies and similar
scientific projects are carried out.
The Game Management Division, which is largely supported
through federal aid funds, under the Pittman-Robertson Act, has
charge of setting up game surveys, game restoration projects and
a land acquisition program.
The Law Enforcement Division, of course, is the biggest and per-
haps the most important of them all. It is charged with; the enforce-
ment of all rules and regulations put into effect by the Commission.


* 11 *









The Division of Information and Education is charged with the
handling of all relations with the press, the preparation of all Com-
mission publications, the administration of a visual education program
and the setting up of wildlife exhibits at fairs and exposition.
The Legal Division handles all the Commission's legal matters
plus special investigations in certain law enforcement situations.
The Public Relations Division consists of two men whose general
objectives fall under the Division of Information and Education but
who are administratively separate.

Increased Expenditure
This tremendous expansion program has, of course, cost money.
During the fiscal year of 1947-48 Commission operating budget ran
slightly over a million dollars as compared to $321,000 three years
before. This year the operating budget is over $1,500,000. Much of
this capital outlay, however, has gone into the purchase of equip-
ment and will represent both increased efficiency and economy in
the long run. Much of it has also gone into the purchase or lease of
lands for public hunting.
This is one of the most serious problems confronting Florida.
While hunting pressure has increased, the acreage of valuable hunt-
ing land has decreased. It is estimated that more than 75% of Flor-
ida's best game territory is posted against public hunting. The solu-
tion of this problem is one of the top projects of the Commission.
During the past biennium the agency has purchased 52,000 acres of
land to be used for public shooting, and leased 110,000 more. Through
arrangement with the U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Air Force and the
Florida Forest Service and by lease and outright purchase, the Com-
mission has now made available some 2,106,956 acres of public shoot-
ing area. Below is a list of the areas owned by or under a cooperative
wildlife management agreement with the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission.
PUBLIC HUNTING AREAS
Area Location Acres Owned By
Eglin Field ................ West Florida ......450,000 U. S. Government
Apalachicola National Forest West Florida ......638,217 (Air Force)
Osceola National Forest ... Northeast Florida ..161,814 U. S. Forest Service
Ocala National Forest ..... U. S. Forest Service
Gulf Hammock Wildlife Central Florida ....441,925 U. S. Forest Service
Management Area ......
Charlotte County Wildlife Levy County .......110,000 Robinson Land & Lum-
Management Area ....... Charlotte County 61,000 ber Co.
Palm Beach County Wild-
life Management Area .. Palm Beach County 52,000 Game & Fresh Water
Blackwater State Forest ... West Florida ......182,000 Fish Comm.
Game & Fresh Water
Fish Comm.
TOTAL ................ 2,106,956 Florida Forest & Park
Service

All of the above areas except two owned by the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission are now open to public hunting. The Charlotte
County Area is being used to produce quail for restocking other parts


* 12 *








of the state. The Palm Beach County Area has only recently been pur-
chased and will be protected from hunting for five years to permit
game populations to build up. On all the areas listed a portion is set
aside as a breeding ground.

Restocking
More than $100,000 has been set aside in the current operating
budget for restocking purposes. Restocking, though not the answer
to all of our wildlife problems, is an important and necessary part
of any long range conservation plan. During the past two years im-
portant restocking projects have been carried out for quail, deer and
turkey, and, of course, for bass and bream and other species of game
fish. In 1947 31,075 quail were purchased from Mexico at $2.00 each
and released in shot-out areas over the state. In 1948, however, the
Mexican government clamped an embargo on quail and none could be
imported for restocking. As a substitute the Commission launched a
state wide quail trapping program whereby birds would be taken
from citrus groves, suburban areas and other places inaccessible to
hunters and transplanted in sections where the quail population is low.
Under this plan land owners on whose property quail are trapped will
be paid 50 cents a bird. Trapping is under the supervision of Com-
mission biologists and wildlife officers. It is estimated that more than
100,000 birds can be obtained in this manner.
During the biennium 474 white tail deer have been imported from
Wisconsin and released throughout the state. Thirty-five of these deer
were released in 1947 and 439 in 1948. The deer cost $90 a piece.
Two hundred of them were purchased out of Game Commission funds.
The remainder were purchased from funds received from the Live-
stock Sanitary Board as a reimbursement for the more than 9,000
deer slaughtered during the tick eradication program several years
ago. The Commission plans to continue restocking deer habitats at
the rate of about 200 a year.
In 1947 337 half-wild turkeys were also purchased by the Com-
mission for restocking purposes. Biologists, however, have questioned
the effectiveness of restocking with semi-tame turkeys. Instead, this
year the Commission plans to trap wild birds from overstocked sec-
tions of the State and move them to sparsely populated areas.
During the calendar years 1947-48, the Fish Management Divi-
sion released 9,376,000 fingerling fish in waters throughout the state.
These fish were produced at a cost of $5.34 per thousand at the Com-
mission's three hatcheries-Winter Haven, Wewachitchka and Holt.
A total of 194 bodies of water were restocked with fish in 1947 and
a total of 171 waters received fingerlings in 1948.


L









Scientific Research
In spite of the comparatively short time the Game and Fish Com-
mission's research program has been in effect, a great deal has been
accomplished. Scientific investigation is recognized as one of the
fundamentals in wildlife and fish conservation. Until two years ago
there has been little or none in Florida. During the report period,
however, there have been numerous important surveys and studies
made of Florida's wildlife and fisheries.
In the fisheries division, individual lake studies have been made
in 13 counties in addition to spot surveys throughout the State and
the two long range, comprehensive research programs now under way
on Lake Okeechobee and St. Johns River.
In the game management division there has been a quail research
and development program instituted in Charlotte County. A state
wide census of deer and turkey population and a state wide water
fowl restoration program has been launched and in North Florida
a project has been started to develop farm game habitat. In 1949 a
state wide quail census will get underway.
These various research programs have already begun to con-
tribute toward wiser and better game and fish management. Many
pre-conceived ideas have been contradicted and many new ideas de-
veloped. It was found, for instance, that controlled burning and
limited grazing is an aid to quail production in the southern part of
the state. It was also found that considerably too much emphasis has
been placed on predator control and restocking. Through scientific
wildlife investigation, the commission has now learned habitat im-
provement and protection is the best medicine for a sick game supply.
In fisheries, biologists found that in many cases the state's problem
was one of too many fish instead of not enough. Biological surveys in
practically every section of the state indicated that over-population
rather than scarcity was the reason for poor fishing. It was found
that a body of water would support only a certain poundage of fish
and that in many waters fish were too numerous to allow any number
to reach a legal size. For this reason in 1948 the Commission abolished
all legal size limits on fresh water fish. It also removed closed seasons
except in a few local areas. Biological investigation had proven that
it was useless to close a season in an effort to protect spawning fish,
since it was found fish in Florida waters spawn virtually every month
out of the year. Findings like these will help the Commission pursue
a wise path toward effective game and fish restoration.

Commercial Fishing
One of the most controversial subjects with which the Commis-
sion has had to deal during this report period was the netting of


* 14 *









game fish on Lake Oketchobee and St. Johns River. These two bodies
of water were closed to netting in 1946 by the Commission. Commer-
cial fishermen appealed the matter to the State Supreme Court which
early in 1947 upheld the authority of the Commission. In the 1947
session of the legislature a total of five bills were passed designed to
allow the resumption of netting on the two bodies. In the course of
time all five of these legislative acts were found to be unconstitutional
and the Supreme Court once again affirmed the right of the Com-
mission to regulate fishing on Lake Okeechobee and the St. Johns
River.
Meanwhile the fish management division had begun investigation
on the two bodies of water to determine definitely whether or not
commercial netting was detrimental to fish supplies. The research
program on the two bodies was outlined to cover a two to five year
period. At the same time the Commission had agreed to allow com-
mercial netters, under a special permit system, to take catfish and
other rough fish by means of traps and pound nets. Early in 1948
the Commission appointed a 14-man committee to study the situation
on the two lakes and make recommendations. The committee recom-
mended that the Commission enlarge its biological staff in order to
shorten the survey. Acting on the recommendation of the committee
the Commission granted additional funds to the fish management
division, and adopted a plan whereby commercial netters could par-
ticipate in the scientific survey. Under this program at least prelimi-
nary answers to the controversial commercial fishing question are
expected to be available some time in 1949.
Illegal fish traps confiscated by wildlife officers.


* 15 *








U. S. Forest Wildlife Management Areas
The Wildlife Management Areas established on the Apalachicola,
Ocala and Osceola National Forests are operated under the terms of a
cooperative agreement between the Commission of Game and Fresh
Water Fish and the U. S. Forest Service. Game management plans
for the areas are prepared stipulating seasons, bag limits, stocking
plans and law enforcement organization. Beginning in 1948, special
management rules for the management areas were incorporated in the
Wildlife Code of the State of Florida.

Apalachicola Forest
During 1947 and 1948 the Apalachicola Forest management area
remained closed to the hunting of deer, squirrel and game birds, since
these populations have not been adequate for general hunting. How-
ever, during this recovery period, the management area is in effect a
breeding ground and has improved hunting in open season areas ad-
jacent to it.
Bear hunts were conducted in 1947 and 1948. The 1947 hunts
consisted of six hunts of three days each. A total of 89 bear hunters
bagged three bear. The same system of hunts was conducted in 1948.
The 35 bear hunters failed to bag a bear, due, primarily, to failure
on the part of the dogs used.

These nets were taken from fresh water lakes in Okaloosa County.


*16 *









Osceola Forest
This management area hass remained closed to all hunting during
1947 and 1948. The deer population is increasing and each year better
hunting is reported in adjacent areas. A bear hunt in 1949 is under
consideration.
Many improvements in the boundaries and administration of the
Florida National Forests Cooperative Wildlife Management Areas
are under consideration. Constructive criticisms are being received
from the hunters in increasing numbers each year, indicating a grow-
ing realization on the part of the hunter that these facilities are for
them to use and enjoy in a manner which will produce an annual
game crop.

Ocala Forest
Florida employs three wildlife officers who are regularly assigned
to the Ocala management area and adjacent territory. The 10th and
11th Annual Ocala Hunts were conducted in 1947 and 1948, respective-
ly. A record number of 3957 hunters participated in 1947. The follow-
ing is a summary of the 1947 and 1948 hunts:
1947 1948
Adult Hunters (over 18 years old) ........3550 3477
Youths ..................... ........ ............... 407 345
Total .......... ..... .. ....................... 3957 3822
Legal Deer Kill
Spike Buck .. .................................. 155 56
3 points or more ................................... 219 231
Unknown ......................................... 8 0
Total ....................... ...... 382 287

Crippling losses (legal bucks) ............ 8 13
Illegal and dog killed deer
Does salvaged ................................. 13 20
Does not salvaged ...................... 13 25
Illegal Bucks salvaged .......... ................ 10
Illegal Bucks not salvaged .......-... ...... 7
Total known losses ............................ 3-1 75
Arrests ..........................-. ............ ...... 10 5
Convictions ................... ....................... 4 3

The 1948 Hunt was the first one under the spike law; which
partly accounts for 95 less legal deer being killed in 1948. However,
many hunters moved outside the management area after the third to
fifth day and got their buck, without having to turn their permit in.
At least 20 of the deer losses were due to being chased or caught by
dogs. Spike bucks represented 42% of the 1947 kill. The 1948 legal
deer kill was classified by condition groups as follows: Excellent-
23%; Good 50%; Fair-24%; Poor-3%.

17









Salvage deer were turned over to non-profit institutions for use
on their menus. The legal kill record for 1948 is complete; the losses
are nearly complete. About 387% of the hunters in 1948 have reported
their kill of other game, which is shown below in comparison to 1947
reports, which were very incomplete:
Species 1947 1948
Squirrels ................................ ................ 440 1134
Quail ................................ -- .. .......... 81 54
Bear .............. ... ... ...... .................. 1 2
W aterfowl .......- .......................-....... 11 57
Furbearers ........................ ....... .. ....No season 19
O their ... ............ ......................... ....... ..N o season 20
There was one non-fatal gun accident in 1948; none in 1947. One
hunter died of a heart attack while hunting each year.
No trapping permits were issued in either 1947 or 1948, indicating
the present lack of interest in harvesting furbearers.























Wildlife officers net stranded fish from a South Florida drainage ditch for
removal to deep water.

Florida Wildlife Federation
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has made a great
deal of progress during the past two years. Much of it could not have
been accomplished without the help of the Florida Wildlife Federation
and other sportsmens' clubs in the state. The Federation and its able
president, Ralph G. Cooksey, originally recommended many of the
most successful innovations put into effect by the Commission. It was
the Federation that first recommended a division of information and

18 *









education. Other recommendations made by the organization including
uniforming of the officers, uniform hunting seasons and a study of
the state's pollution problem. The Wildlife Federation was reorgan-
ized in November 1946 after having been virtually dormant for some
time. Ralph Cooksey, prominent St. Petersburg businessman was
elected its first president and has been re-elected each succeeding:
year.
In 1947, shortly after the Federation's reorganization, it boasted
23 clubs and a total membership of 6,000. Today it has a total of 66
affiliates with an active membership of over 16,000. Federation offi-
cials have been instrumental in forming many of these new clubs.
It has in its 2 years of progress established an educational service
which works closely with the Commission's Division of Information
and Education. To date the Federation has prepared two free booklets
on conservation activities and has in the mill several more. In addition,
it offers a free speaker service to every sportsmen's club in the state.
Through its activities more and more sportsmen are finding that a
united front is the strongest weapon against the forces that would
exploit our wildlife resources.

Trapping
There is considerable trapping in Florida, but generally speaking
fur sales cannot be considered economically important in the overall
game and fish picture. There is a total of 11 licensed fur dealers
throughout the state. During the trapping season of 1946-47 these
dealers handled a gross volume of 9,908 furs. Raccoon pelts con-
stituted the heaviest fur traffic. A total of 5,400 were shipped out
of the state. Next in volume was alligator hides with a total of
1,711 handled. In addition, dealers handled 446 otter furs, 195
opossum hides, 104 mink, 76 fox, 62 skunk, 13 wildcat and 5 civit cats.
During the 1947-48 season fur-dealing slumped considerably. Only
4,320 hides were handled during that period. 2,219 of these were rac-
coon and 476 alligator. The remainder was made up of other species.
These figures, of course, do not include furs shipped out of the state
by individual trappers.

Future Plans
The commission has made much progress in the past two years,
but it hopes to make even more as time goes by. For one thing, it
hopes to develop Florida into the wild turkey capitol of America. At
present we have about 35,000 birds in the state, a population second
only to Texas. This, however, is only a fraction of the population that
can be developed. Biologists estimate there are more than 8,000,000
acres of top-flight turkey range in Florida. Beginning this year, the
commission will start restocking these various areas at the rate of


* 19 *









about 300 wild-trapped turkeys per year. With such restocking and
added protection, game technicians feel that within 15 years the state
can boast a turkey population of more than 150,000 and support an
annual kill of at least 30,000. If this is accomplished, Florida will
soon be to the turkey hunters what the Dakotas are to the pheasant
hunters.
The same situation exists relative to deer. According to a census
taken last year, Florida now has about 32,000 whitetails. By judicious
restocking and careful protection, biologists say the number can be
increased to at least 400,000 in a period of from 10 to 15 years. This
would compare favorably to stocks in such deer-hunting meccas as
Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin.
The commission hopes within the next few years to establish a
permanent training school for would-be wildlife officers. Rookie of-
ficers would be given at least six weeks intensive training and exami-
nations before being allowed to take the field.
Next year the commission hopes to embark seriously on a state-
wide hyacinth eradication program. This problem is fast becoming
a terrific detriment to fresh water fishing. If it is not controlled, it
could very well, within a few years, virtually destroy the vast fish
resources the state has labored so long to preserve. Hyacinth eradica-
tion will necessarily be a widespread and expensive proposition, cost-
ing at least a half-million dollars a year. It can not be carried on unless
a new source of revenue is found; however, it is hoped that the next
session of legislature will see fit to consider possible revenues to
carry out this important work.
The commission also hopes to continue and expand its scientific
research program. Within a period of five years it is hoped that care-
ful study can be made of virtually every fresh water body in the state
in an effort to improve sports fishing. More and more study will be
devoted to quail, dove and waterfowl. From these studies will come
the solution to our wildlife problems.
A vastly more expanded conservation education program will be
activated. More work will be done in the schools in an effort to train
the sportsmen of tomorrow in the ways of conservation. Text books
will be prepared and visual educational facilities will be explored to
the fullest. All this will cost money; perhaps a great deal of money.
However, every modern sportsman knows that the dollars spent for
conservation today are buying a priceless heritage for the generation
of tomorrow.


* 20 *


I







GAME
MANAGEMENT
DIVISION


0. EARL FRYE, JR.
Chief Wildlife Biologist















GAME MANAGEMENT



HE past two years were marked by the greatest period of prog-
ress in wildlife management in the history of conservation in
Florida. Three major factors combined to bring this about: (1) The
Constitutional Amendment of 1942, which enabled the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission to proceed in wildlife restoration
with a minimum of political interference. (2) The demand backed
by sportsmen for sound wildlife management practices to procure
better hunting on the ever decreasing hunting territory for the ever
increasing army of hunters. (3) The increase in the Federal Aid
(Pittman-Robertson) appropriation which made funds available for
a constructive research, development and land acquisition program.
This period has witnessed an increase in employment of men
trained in the science of wildlife management; a greater emphasis
on sound wildlife management practices such as habitat improve-
ment; the enlargement of the research program designed to diagnose
the basic causes for game shortages and to work out methods for
remedying such shortages; and a great increase in the amount of
land acquired for development as public hunting areas. At the same
time there has been a decrease in such popular, but generally un-
productive, so called conservation measures as hap-hazard restock-
ing and predator control.
There is a gradual, almost reluctant, acceptance of a realistic
viewpoint toward wildlife management; a realization that wildlife
management is not simply restocking with game, employment of ad-
ditional game wardens, or setting of hunting seasons, but instead is
a tremendous complexity of biological, human, and economic
relationships.
Florida has definitely passed through the "save what we have
left", politically run, phase of wildlife management and is headed
toward a progressive program that will result in an increased har-
vestable surplus of game for the Florida sportsman.
The most important game birds and mammals of Florida are
the bobwhite quail, the white tailed deer, the wild turkey, the several
breeds of wild ducks and geese, the mourning dove and the grey
squirrel. These animals will be taken up individually in the following
discussion with brief remarks as to the steps that have been taken
toward their management. The Federal Aid projects mentioned in
the foregoing discussion will be treated in detail under the report
of Federal Aid activities.
23 *









Quail
There are three primary clear cut factors that have been oper-
ating to reduce quail in Florida in recent years. These are: (1) The
increased mechanized "clean" farming in farming areas. The first
farming operations in Florida with their small fields, rail fences
and general crops resulted in the production of ideal quail habitat.
With the advent of mechanized equipment the fields were enlarged,
fence rows cleaned out, and large acreages planted to one cash crop
such as cotton, and quail decreased. (2) The growing of dense stands
of unburned slash pine for pulpwood in north and west Florida.
The paper mills in Florida have caused a demand for enormous
quantities of young pine for pulpwood. This has resulted in the
growth, largely through fire protection, of dense stands of slash
pine and a heavy understory of wiregrass and other vegetation that
combine to produce very poor quail habitat. (3) The disking of tre-
mendous acreages of formerly good quail territory in south Florida
for improved pasture. Here the removal of palmetto cover has
resulted in complete elimination of quail from such areas. Quail
must have cover to survive.
Unfortunately for quail, these practices are all of great impor-
tance to the economy of the state and cannot therefore be sacrificed
for the welfare of quail. On the other hand, there are minor modi-
fications of all three practices that can result in substantial benefits
to quail if sufficient inducement can be found to influence the
landowner to apply the remedial measures.
The importance of overhunting of quail has been greatly over-
emphasized. Because of the distribution of areas such as dense
woodlands or citrus groves where the birds are comparatively safe
from the hunter, and the fact that quail hunting becomes no longer
worthwhile long before all breeding stock is eliminated from a
large area, quail have rarely been reduced to such an extent that
they cannot build up to the carrying capacity of the land within
two normal years. The problem of quail management in the state
is clearly, then, one of increasing the carrying capacity of the land
through habitat improvement.
On the other hand, it is believed that in certain areas, such as
the open flatwoods of south Florida where birds are particularly
vulnerable to overshooting, quail are reduced every year below the
normal breeding population of the area. Under such conditions
careful restocking with wild quail is believed to be worthwhile.
Following this thought 31,075 Mexican quail were imported at
a cost of approximately $2.00 each in the spring of 1947 and released
throughout the state. No birds could be purchased in 1948 due to
a ruling against shipping of quail from Mexico.
During the past two years a number of quail have been trapped
from various breeding grounds and urban areas by wildlife officers,
notably in south Florida, and released in open territory. With the
exception of 2,083 trapped from the Charlotte County Game Man-

24 *





























I~r. waw'qy~i
a-


Nov..


Wild quail feed under a trap near Welaka. Extensive quail trapping is
now being carried out throughout the state.

agement area in 1947, no accurate record of the number of birds
so handled is available. In consideration of this background a proj-
ect was begun in the summer of 1948 under the leadership of a
trained biologist to organize a statewide quail trapping program
to utilize birds now "going to waste" on breeding grounds and in
urban areas. Careful records are being kept of the success of this
project to determine if the results justify the expenditure of funds
in trapping these birds.
In addition to the quail restocking efforts three Federal Aid
projects dealing specifically with quail, were carried out or were
started during the past two years. These projects are discussed
in the portion of this report dealing with Federal Aid activities.

Deer
The situation with regard to deer is entirely different from that
outlined for quail. Whereas the primary factor that can increase
quail in Florida is habitat improvement, the primary deer manage-
ment procedure is protection against overhunting. There is a tremen-
dous amount of satisfactory deer habitat in Florida that is now
underpopulated. On such areas deer can be increased tremendously,
Pimply by protection against overhunting and judicious restocking.
One important illegal hunting practice that has helped decimate
the Florida deer population has been that of "jacklighting" deer at
right. In using this method the hunter blinds the deer with a bright
light and is able to approach within easy gunshot range. A recent
ruling by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission making
25 *









illegal the possession of a light and gun at night for the obvious
purpose of molesting game has gone, and will continue to go, a long
way toward stamping out this completely unsportsmanlike practice:
The deer population in Florida has shown a definite increase in
the past few years due to three major factors: (1) Better enforce-
ment of game laws; (2) The posting of large tracts of land by cattle-
men and other private interests. (3) The general movement of home-
steaders from rural areas, particularly in the ranching areas of
south Florida.
The Florida deer population suffered a tremendous blow during
the deer slaughtering tick eradication campaign of 1939 to 1944.
During this period an official total of 9,478 deer were slaughtered in
Orange, Osceola, Glades, Highlands, Hendry and Gollier Counties.
Since 1942 Florida has made extensive efforts to replace these deer.
In the spring of 1947, 35 deer were released in the Ocala National
Forest. This represented a decrease from previous years since the
money which had previously been made available for deer purchase
by the Livestock Sanitary Board was used by them to control a new
outbreak of the Texas fever tick in Florida. In the spring of 1948
a total of 439 deer were purchased, at a cost of $90.00 each, for re-
stocking purposes. Of this total 239 were bought with Livestock
Sanitary Board funds and the remaining 200 were bought with
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission funds. These animals
were released in various places over the state, particularly in those
counties where deer were slaughtered during the tick eradication
campaign.
The deer released in the past two years were purchased from
Wisconsin and as yet no conclusive information has been obtained
relative to their survival in the entirely different habitat offered by
Florida.
Beginning with the 1948 release all deer were tagged with num-
bered aluminum ear tags in an effort to determine their survival
after release in Florida.

Turkey
As with deer, the immediate problems of turkey management in
Florida are protection from man and the restocking of key areas.
The recently completed Florida deer and turkey survey indicates
that Florida probably has more good turkey habitat and more turkey
than any state except Texas. At the same time it has shown that
much of the turkey habitat is underpopulated.
Florida has recently completed plans for a long range turkey
restoration program under the direction of a trained biologist.
This program is based largely on the establishment of key restora-
tion and management areas over the state. Such areas will be re-
stocked with wild-trapped, native Florida turkeys where necessary.
Arrangements are being made to trap turkeys on several areas over
the state, particularly on lands in Glades County belonging to Lykes
Brothers, Incorporated.
26 *








The two Federal Aid research projects mentioned in the discus-
sion of deer, also dealt with turkey. As a general rule factors in-
fluencing one species are important to the other.
During the period covered by this report the game commission
purchased 337 half wild turkeys which were liberated in Marion,
Lake, Osceola, Seminole, Orange, Volusia, St. Johns, Putnam, and
Brevard Counties. The Commission is aware of the fact that the
half wild turkey is a poor substitute for the native wild trapped
bird for restocking purposes, but felt that in the absence of a readily
available stock of wild birds this action might be justified. In other
states extensive studies on the survival of half wild turkeys have
been conducted, and it has been found that only under the most
careful protection from overhunting have these birds been able to
survive. Many of the claims of success made by advocates of the
use of domestic turkeys in Florida seem to be without foundation.
It appears that most of the increase in turkeys on areas restocked
with tame birds can be attributed to the remaining wild stock that
was given an opportunity to increase as a result of the protection
from overhunting that accompanied the restocking efforts. There
is no doubt that semi-domestic turkeys can be raised under semi-
domestic conditions but the end result is a half wild barnyard fowl
that has lost much of its true sporting value and is unable to cope
with heavy hunting pressure.

FEDERAL AID ALLOTMENTS FOR 1944-48

$148,949.46

I
$111,340.94
m W




S$31,285,61I


11,061.79 $11,435.08

1941 1945 1946 1947 1948
The above chart shows federal aid receipts over a five-year period.


* 27 *









Waterfowl
Duck and goose hunting in Florida is not the important sport
that it is in some of the states to the north. Only a comparatively
small percentage of the tremendous amount of water area in Florida
is good waterfowl habitat. The Lake Okeechobee marsh is the out-
standing waterfowl habitat in the state.
Waterfowl hunting in Florida is dependent largely upon the
continental waterfowl population and, as it now stands, there is
little that Florida can do to increase waterfowl other than supply
good wintering areas. Florida is unique among states, however, in
that it possesses one excellent game duck, the Florida Duck or
Florida Mallard, that breeds in the state and remains in the state
throughout the year. If a suitable method for increasing this duck
can be found it offers excellent possibilities for supplying duck hunt-
ing to the Florida sportsman.
One Federal Aid project was begun in 1948 to inventory and
classify waterfowl habitats and populations within the state. This
was done with the specific idea of discovering means of improving
waterfowl habitat and thereby possibly increasing the size of the
wintering waterfowl population. Another specific objective of this
project is the investigation of possible means for increasing the
Florida Duck.

Mourning Dove
As with waterfowl the Mourning Dove is classified as a migra-
tory bird and comes under the jurisdiction of federal game agencies.
It is most important as a game bird in the corn and peanut farming
areas of the state. The dove population throughout the country has
steadily decreased during recent years. Because of this decrease,
and because of the yearly controversy concerning dove seasons and
the general lack of knowledge of dove movements and life history,
a coordinated study of the mourning dove is being planned for the
southeastern states. Florida's participation in this study was ap-
proved by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission but as yet
a qualified man to direct the work in Florida has not been found.
One of the specific objectives of this study is the acquisition of
knowledge concerning movements of the dove for use as a back-
ground for a more equitable and satisfactory arrangement of dove
hunting seasons.

Squirrel
Of the two species of squirrel listed as game animals in Florida
the cat or grey squirrel far outclasses the fox squirrel in numbers,
popularity, and quality as a game animal. Fox squirrels are gen-
erally shot incidentally by persons hunting other game.
There appears to be very little that can be done at this stage to
benefit squirrels in Florida other than to properly regulate their
hunting.
28 *









The Federal Aid Program
For the past two years much of the financial load of Florida's
wildlife management program has been carried by the United
States government under a federal aid program.
In 1937 the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, commonly
called the Pittman-Robertson Act, was approved by Congress. This
bill provided that funds realized from an excise tax on sporting
arms and ammunition be apportioned to the states for use in wildlife
restoration work, according to their area and their annual sale of
hunting licenses. The state must match each three dollars of federal
money received with one dollar of state money.
This money is to be spent by the state either on research, de-
velopment, land acquisition or maintenance of projects, with a small
percentage of the total fund set aside for administration. All ex-
penditures must be approved by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
the trustee of the federal aid fund.
Inasmuch as personnel as well as projects must be approved by
the Fish and Wildlife Service, the bill was designed particularly to
act as a stimulus to state game departments for beginning a pro-
gressive wildlife research and management program under the di-
rection of scientifically trained men. *
Due to a modification of the act, which permitted the entire
years' revenue to be apportioned to the states, Florida's federal aid
allotment was increased from $31,285.61 in 1946 to $111,340.94 in
1947 to $148,949.46 in 1948.
Here are some of the projects undertaken under federal aid funds.


Charlotte County Quail Investigation
In January of 1946 a trained biologist was employed to study
quail on the Charlotte County Game Management Area. The study
was designed specifically to develop methods for increasing quail
on the Charlotte County Area and generally to develop methods
comparable with cattle raising for increasing quail in South Florida
flatwoods.
Charlotte County research has been directed along several major
lines of investigation: food habits of Charlotte County quail;
weather, shooting pressure, and other factors influencing the
quail population in Charlotte County; the sex and age composition
of the Charlotte County quail populations; the effect of burning,
grazing and disking on vegetation and the quail population; and
experimental quail food plantings.
To date no plant has been found, with the possible exception
of one or two native species, whose planting as quail food appears
to be a practicable quail management procedure in South Florida
Flatwoods. The best method of increasing quail food in Charlotte


* 29 a








County appears to be the stimulation of native quail foods by the
proper use of fire, grazing and disking. Judicious burning is defi-
nitely beneficial to quail and indications are that winter grazing
will also improve quail habitat in flatwoods areas.
Disking has been shown to greatly increase quail food plants
on ungrazed areas the first year following disking. On areas not
protected from grazing cattle seek out disked places and destroy
most of the quail food plants. The planned management of quail
on the Charlotte County area revolves primarily around winter
grazing, controlled burning and removal of cattle during the quail
food growing season.






















Newly released deer browse in a protected area.

During the spring and summer of 1948 an experiment with arti-
ficial feeding of wild quail was conducted. Results of this study
appear to justify an enlargement of the experiment to investigate
the possibility that artificial feeding by means of automatic feeders
may be the most effective means of increasing quail food on the
Charlotte County Area.
Since the beginning of the Charlotte County study, analysis
has been made of the crop contents of more than 1,600 quail. Most
of these birds were obtained from hunting lodges in Charlotte
County. In addition, 5,924 quail have been examined for sex and
age. Information resulting from the latter study is extremely useful
in evaluating breeding success as correlated with weather, hunting
pressure, and other factors. The results of the three year Charlotte
County Quail Investigation will be published in 1949.
30 *









Charlotte County Quail Project
This project is designed to put into effect management practices
developed through the Charlotte County investigation project. The
primary activities of the project have been controlled burning,
disking, quail food planting, and maintenance of roads, bridges
and other installations on the Charlotte County Game Management
Area. Two equipment sheds have been constructed from lumber
salvaged from old Army installations on the Area. More than $600
has been realized from the sale of scrap metal, mostly bomb cases
left on the Area by the Army.
In the spring of 1947, 2,083 quail were trapped from the Charlotte
County Area for restocking other parts of the State.
Grazing rights on the Area are leased to the Babcock Florida
Company at the rate of 100 an acre.

Coordination Project
The Coordination Project is designed to serve as a medium for
liaison between the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission and to furnish immediate super-
vision of federal aid projects. One particular responsibility of the
coordinator is the preparation of plans and reports for all federal
aid projects.

Florida Deer and Turkey Survey
Florida with its 22,000,000 acres of forest lands, large uninhab-
ited areas, and mild climate, offers unusual opportunities for pro-
duction of deer and turkey. It is doubtful that any other southern
state has the amount of deer and turkey habitat that is found in
Florida. This is due, to a large extent, to the generally good dis-
tribution of different types of cover over the state. Almost every
area of pine flatwoods is broken up by cypress ponds, cabbage and
oak hammocks, or heavily forested stream bottoms. Almost every
area of rolling sand hills is broken by lakes surrounded with cy-
press, bayheads, or oak hammocks. Many of the prairie lands of
south central Florida have occasional cabbage palm or oak ham-
mocks. In the cypress swamps of the Everglades there are ridges of
slight elevation where grow pines, palmetto, oaks, and tropical
broad-leaved trees. Even some of the sawgrass marshlands of
extreme south Florida are dotted with frequent islands of bay,
myrtle, holly and fern that offer some haven for deer.
In spite of the wealth of good deer and turkey habitat, popu-
lations of these species in Florida are low largely because of un-
controlled and indiscriminate persecution by man.
The state-wide deer and turkey survey, completed June 1948,
revealed an estimated deer population of 32,466 in 63 counties. Only
four counties do not have deer. There are 10 counties with a popu-
lation of 1,000 or more: 13 counties with from 500 to 999; 7 counties

31 *









with from 250 to 499; 16 counties have from 100 to 249; and 17
counties have from 1 to 99. There are no forest areas of 100,000
acres or more that do not have a remnant of a deer herd. The
counties without deer are devoted to agriculture and are divided
into small rural ownerships.
The turkey population in the spring of 1948 was estimated to
be 26,854. There are 7 counties with a population of 1,000 or more;
9 counties with 500 to 999; 16 counties with 250 to 499; 12 counties
with 100 to 249; 18 counties with 1 to 99; and 5 without a population.
The deer and turkey range has been divided into two classi-
fications-"good" and "habitable". "Good" habitat is that type of
range that will support a desirable population for the entire year.
"Habitable" habitat is that type of range that maintains only a
very small population throughout all season. In this classification
will fall areas that support a desirable amount of game for only
short periods of time and then, due to a decrease in food or cover,
or both, this population is forced to move elsewhere.
Florida has 14,209,000 acres of good deer range and 9,436,200
acres designated as habitable; 14,309,000 acres of good turkey
habitat and 8,727,400 acres designated as habitable. Very little of
the total forest game habitat in the state is desirable for only one
of the two species.
A county-by-county tabulation of the survey is listed on page 35.


A wildlife border of bicolor lespedeza in North Florida.


C, ?'' Cl


* 32 *









Farm Game Habitat Restoration
The present project was begun in June 1947. Its specific objec-
tive is the improvement of agricultural land for quail, primarily
through the planting of field borders to quail foods. A total of
159 plantings were made in 17 North Florida counties with Soil
Conservation Service Districts cooperating. Plantings averaged ap-
proximately one-third acre and in the majority of instances con-
sisted of Bicolor and Sericea Lespedeza. Some plantings were made
in open woods and consisted of Bicolor only. Plantings of several
other plants were made for the purpose of learning species adaptable
to types of soil that did not prove suitable for Bicolor and Sericea.
Bicolor plantings were made from 1-year old seedlings and involved
the use of 100,000 seedlings. Plantings of other species were made
from seed.
The type and number of plantings made in each county are
shown by the following table:

TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANTINGS


County Bicolor Sericea
Alachua ............... 4 5
Columbia ......... 2 1
Escambia .............. 5 2
Gadsden ............... 4 3
Gilchrist ................ 2 0
Holmes .......... 1 1
Jackson .................. 9 6
Jefferson ................ 8 2
Leon ..................... 5 0
Madison ................ 1 1
Marion .................... 5 3
Okaloosa ................ 6 6
Putnam ....... ......... 1 0
Santa Rosa ............ 3 4
Suwannee ............. 3 3
Walton .................. 9 2
Washington ........... 4 3

Total ..................71 42


Kobe Korean
Lespedeza Lespedeza Sesbania
1 0 1
0 0 0
2 0 0
2 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
2 0 0
5 1 2
0 0 1
0 0 1
2 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 1
1 0 1

16 2 10


P'tridge Florida
Pea Beggarweed Total
0 1 12
0 0 3
1 1 11
1 0 12
1 0 3
0 0 2
0 2 19
0 0 18
0 0 6
0 0 3
1 1 12
1 0 14
0 0 1
2 2 13
0 0 6
0 0 12
3 1 13

10 8 159


In addition to these plantings seed and seedling blocks of partridge
pea, Florida beggarweed and Thunbergii Lespedeza were established
at the West Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in Santa Rosa
County. These consisted of one-half acre seed blocks each of Florida
beggarweed and partridge pea and a 1-acre seed block and 3-acre
seedling blocks of Thunbergii Lespedeza. Seed and seedlings har-
vested from these plantings will be used in future development
work in North Florida.
Heretofore little interest has been shown by the majority of
landowners regarding the planting of wildlife field borders and
food strips for quail. Landowners could see no immediate cash
return or economic value to quail and were unwilling to expend

33 *








time and effort in improving food and cover conditions for them;
instead habitats were destroyed and converted into cropland for
the production of cash crops. Also until recently the presence or
absence of quail has been of little interest to agencies cooperating
with and advising the farmer. Therefore, lack of interest has largely
been the result of lack of education in a conservative, balanced
system of land use. Under present practices of wise land use, em-
phasis is placed upon the importance of wildlife as a product of
the land that should be conserved and managed. On almost every
farm the Soil Conservation Service classified a portion of the land
as wildlife land and recommends that it be developed as such.
With management progressing along such sound lines and the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission furnishing planting ma-
terial for the development of farm game lands, conditions will
surely improve. Although interest is still at a low level on the
average farm, the picture brightens every year. More landowners,
especially those who derive some recreation from hunting, are in-
quiring as to how they can improve their lands for quail. In 1949
the Commission expects to distribute 1,000,000 bicolor seedlings,
ten times the number distributed this year.

Palm Beach County Land Acquisition
In 1947 the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission received
option on 50,000 acres of land in Palm Beach County at $5.00 per
acre. Its purchase is to be extended over a period of five years. In
1947, $58,304.40 of the Federal Aid Fund was allocated to land
purchase under the Palm Beach County land acquisition project.
The entire 50,000 acre tract is being fenced and will be man-
aged primarily for the production of turkey, deer, and quail for
public shooting.

Gulf Hammock Deer and Turkey Survey
The present project, begun in February, 1948, is designed to
furnish information for management of deer and turkey on the
Gulf Hammock Game Management Area. Emphasis is being placed
on studies of deer and turkey habitat, particularly with regard to
the effects of lumbering and other activities of man on vegetation,
and the consequent effect on deer and turkey. Also emphasized
in the project are counts of deer and turkey and studies of phases
of their behavior and life history essential to a well organized
management program. Information is being gathered relative to the
history of the area to serve as background for determining future
management practices.
The Gulf Hammock tract is predominantly calcareous hammock,
which makes up about 60% of the total area. Marsh comprises
about 20%, flatwoods 10% and cultivated or abandoned fields
about 1% of the area. The remainder is made up of ponds, cypress
swamps, cutover lands, and more or less indeterminate mixtures
of the different types.
.34 *











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A wild turkey going to roost in North Florida. A census last year revealed
that the state contains 35,000 turkeys.

The economy of the region was in the past, and is at the present,
based largely upon logging and lumbering operations. Due to the
rocky nature of the soil and to poor drainage, farming has been
of little importance. Free ranging cattle and hogs have played,
and continue to play, an important part in the economy of the
inhabitants. In the past considerable dependence has been placed
upon the game of the region both for sale and for food. Two mar-
ket hunters in the 1880's accounted for over 1100 deer in a period
of nine months.
Studies completed to date indicate that overhunting is the factor
at present limiting the deer population. Hunting is also of impor-
tance to the turkey population but there is one habitat deficiency,
insufficient open grass areas, that may outweigh hunting pressure.
With these facts in mind the management program for Gulf Ham-
mock will revolve around protection of both deer and turkey from
excessive hunting and the establishment of grassy clearings for
turkey.
"1 36.













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V


An osprey flies to its nest on the scenic, cypress-
studded Wakulla River.


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TOP-Thousands of kids line a
lake bank, awaiting the start of
the Orlando Fishathon.


BOTTOM Bass fishing on the
famous Dead Lakes of Northeast
Florida.


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Cane-pole fishing against a striking backdrop of gum
and bay trees along the St. Marks River.

















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)L


Closeup of two baby
water turkeys in their
nest.


A shaded, cypress-lined waterway through Dead Lakes.


-'. F









Palm Beach County Fencing
This project was designed to fence the land purchased under
the Palm Beach County Land Acquisition Project.
Advertisements for bids on the fence construction were pub-
lished and a contract let to the low bidder, Mr. D. W. Rowell of
Indiantown, Florida. The contract price for the fence construction,
including cutting of posts, is $199.00 per mile. The total estimated
cost of thirty two miles of fence is $11,793.76. Work was begun
on the fencing project in the summer of 1948 and to date posts
are set for more than 20 miles of the fence.

Florida Waterfowl Survey
This project is designed as an inventory of waterfowl habitat
and populations throughout the state. Information resulting from
it will serve as a background for a constructive waterfowl man-


A flock of coots on a lake in the St. Marks Refuge.







^--"- -- --- .- .

- ".-'r--- -- "- = p -. *


.. -
4W5


Yz 41 *










agement program. Among its particular aims are the development
of techniques for waterfowl habitat improvement and investigation
of possible methods for increasing the Florida Duck.
The bulk of the work has been concerned with waterfowl habitat
investigations, with particular emphasis on food plant distribu-
tion and abundance. In the investigations, which have been con-
ducted on about 90 areas, water quality tests are made, the type
of substratum, physical characters of the shore, and the amount
of water level fluctuation are noted. Submerged and emergent
vegetation is recorded as to species, relative abundance, and, where
possible, limiting factors. The knowledge of plant succession,
growth requirements, and limiting factors to be derived from the
accumulation of such data is necessary to any sound waterfowl
management program. This is especially true in the South, where
waterfowl management is very largely habitat management, i.e. water
and plant manipulations.
Throughout the work so far, it has been apparent that over the
state as a whole good food plants are not abundant. This seems to
be the most widespread limiting factor of the various waterfowl
areas. Another limiting factor in some cases is the density of the
vegetation. In some places it is so thick that it is of very little value
to ducks. On the other hand, there are several large areas in the
state which are quite good. In them the numbers of wintering water-
fowl will be dependent on the continental population rather than on
local conditions. In this connection it must be remembered that the
continental population this fall and winter (1948) is expected to be


This wildlife border of lespedeza provides food and cover for quail.














S, 7. -.o .


42 -'










low again, about equal to that of last year. The state's two resident
species, the wood duck and the Florida Duck, seem to have had a
reasonably good breeding season. Even so, the total population of
the Florida Duck, as determined by an airplane inventory, is smaller
than was hoped. The State population is figured at 18,000 to 20,000
birds. At present its range is not great, and continued drainage of
marshes will further restrict it. Maintenance of proper habitat is
essential if this bird is to remain an important game species.
With the management techniques now at hand, those areas in the
state most susceptible of development are the brackish marshes on
both coasts, such as those on Merritt's Island. Impoundments in this
type make good duck areas. Similar techniques could be employed
on parts of certain rivers such as the Myakka and the Guano, and
in parts of the lower Everglades. In addition, most inland water areas
where the levels can be controlled have possibilities.
Gulf Hammock Fencing Project
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and the Robinson
Land & Lumber Company of Alabama have worked out an agreement
whereby control of the wildlife on approximately 110,000 acres in
the Gulf Hammock region will be turned over to the Commission for
25 years for management for public hunting. In exchange the Com-
mission has agreed to fence the area and to furnish six permanent
wildlife officers to patrol it and assist in the protection of the prop-
erty against trespassers, timber theft, and general abuse.
The Gulf Hammock Fencing Project is designed to handle the cost
of the fencing operation. An advertisement for bidders on this fenc-
ing job was published. All bids received were so high that it was de-
cided to construct the fence with labor employed by the Commission


Mallard; and wood ducks at play on Lake Apopka.
a r a


S43 *









rather than to let a contract for its construction. The estimated cost
of the forty five miles of fence needed is $19,842.68. Work was begun
on this fence in the summer of 1948.

Deer and Turkey Restoration
Upon the completion of the Florida Deer and Turkey Survey the
leader of the survey was appointed leader of the present project.
This project is designed to administer and develop the several deer
and turkey restoration areas scattered over the state. An important
part of the project is the trapping of native wild turkey and deer
for restocking purposes. The provisions of the Pittman-Robertson
Act require that deer and turkey trapped or purchased with Federal
Aid funds be released only on lands that will be protected from hunting
for at least five years. With this in mind, deer and turkey handled
under the present project will be released only on specified manage-
ment areas.
Areas set aside for restocking include the Apalachicola National
Forest, the Hardee County Game Management Area and the Palm
Beach County Game Management Area.
It is believed that 200 deer a year for the next five years will
restock all desirable ranges. The restoration of turkey will take longer.
Probably 200 turkeys a year for the next eight years will be required
for the turkey restocking program.
The acreage seriously needing restocking with either deer or tur-
key is relatively small-approximately 2,480,000 acres of turkey range
and 2,712,000 acres of deer range.


* 44 *


5_--









FISH
MANAGEMENT
DIVISION


JOHN F. DEQUINE
Chief Fisheries Biologist













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FISH MANAGEMENT



T HE Fish Management Department was set up late in 1946
for the purpose of making a scientific analysis of Florida's
fresh-water fishes, with the aim of producing better sport fishing
and making maximum utilization of our fish resources. The de-
partment has expanded during the two years of operation until it
includes the activities of twenty-six employees. Operations are
under way in many phases of fish management.
The various divisions and the organization plan is shown in
the figure on the opposite page. For a complete report on the
activities of the Fish Management Department, it is necessary to
describe these by the individual project names. For convenience
all of the hatches are grouped together.


Fish Culture and Distribution
The table on page 55 shows the production and distribution
of fish for the calendar years, and the distribution of fish by
counties.
In addition to fish cultural activities, the personnel and equip-
ment of the fish hatcheries have been active in other projects.
Among these are the exhibition of live fish in aquarium displays
at various county fairs, the state fair and other events. The loca-
tions of these displays put on in 1947-48 are listed below:

1947
Tampa State Fair
Orange County Fair
Lake County Sportsmen's Exposition, Eustis
Convention of Outdoor Writers of America at St. Petersburg
Pensacola Interstate Fair
Leon County Fair, Tallahassee
1948
Tampa State Fair
Orange County Fair, Orlando
Lake County Sportsmen's Exposition, Eustis
Jackson County Fair, Marianna
Pensacola Interstate Fair
Leon County Fair, Tallahassee
Gadsden County Fair, Quincy
Bay County Fair, Panama City
Northeast Florida State Fair, Jacksonville
i 47









Another activity which has demanded personnel and equip-
ment has been the various "Fishathons." These have been held
in St. Petersburg, Tampa, Orlando and Miami. Plans are in the
making for expansion of this activity during the coming year,
as well as for the establishment of permanent fishing lakes for
children.

St. John's River Fisheries Survey
In June 1947, a survey of the St. Johns River was initiated
with the following aims-to determine:
1. Standing fish population, and inter-relationship between
species.
2. Potential annual yield of food and game fishes to determine
amounts which can be taken without damage to seed stock.
3. Effect of various types of fishing gear on game and food
fishes, with emphasis on determining proper equipment
for use by commercial fishermen to harvest the annual
crop of food fishes and control rough fish.
4. Formulation of enforceable regulations benefiting spawning
conditions and habitat for both game and food fishes.
5. Accurate records of catches by sports fishermen.
Although this project has been under way for over a year,
it is not expected that it will be completed for several years. It
is hoped, however, that tentative recommendations can be made
for the management for this body of water by June, 1949. Exten-
sive studies of the effect of wire traps, pound nets and shad and
herring seines used under certain conditions determined that
these types of fishing gear could be used by commercial fisher-
men to harvest catfish, rough fish and shad and herring with
little or no damage to the game fishes. These operations are at
present being conducted under a permit system. The results of
these studies are summarized elsewhere.
Seven seining crews are operating between Volusia Bar and
Jacksonville removing rough fish and making studies of the total
"fish populations of the St. Johns River. Each commercial fishing
crew is accompanied by a fisheries technician or biologist in the
employ of this Commission. It is expected that the survey will
determine the proper place of commercial fishing activities in
this body of water so that these activities may continue to control
rough fish. A number of fish have been tagged in this area, but
additional time is necessary to obtain results from the tagging.

Lake Okeechobee Fisheries Survey
Some preliminary work was done in Lake Okeechobee during
1947, but it was not until August, 1948, that this project got under
way. The objectives of this survey are similar to those outlined
for the St. Johns River. Seven commercial fishing crews, each
48 *

























































The end of a perfect day for these two boys and
their dog.

































TOP-Fishing for bream on the
banks of the beautiful Ochlocko-
nee River.


BOTTOM-One of Florida's big
bass bites off more than he can
chew.


























































This big, bronze beauty was hooked along the shores
of Lake Okeechobee, great-grandpappy of Florida
lakes.















A typical South Flor-
ida bobwhite. The
quail is Florida's fore-
most game bird.


Hunting plantation style in the Old South atmosphere
of North Florida.








accompanied by a fisheries technician or biologist are now oper-
ating in Lake Okeechobee for the purpose of gathering informa-
tion on the fish population and controlling rough fish. Prelimi-
nary studies have shown that wire traps and pound nets are used
under certain conditions do not have a harmful effect upon the
game fish population. These are now being used under a permit
system. A large scale fish tagging program is expected to start
early in 1949.

Rough Fish Control Studies
A complete unit has recently been set up and is now operating
under this title. It has long been desirable to find the effect of
competition from so-called rough fish on the game fish popu-
lations in many of our waters. The aims of this work are many
fold:
1. To remove as many undesirable rough fish from our
waters as possible.
2. To make food habit studies of both rough fish and game
fish to determine their place in the fish population.
3. To make comparative studies of fish populations in dif-
ferent bodies of water to determine relative amounts of
various species present and to apply corrective meas-
ures if possible.
4. To obtain accurate data on life history, age and growth,
reproduction and other biological activities of our native
fishes.
It is expected that this work will expand in the future and
will eventually cover most of the larger fishing waters in the
state. Lakes in which preliminary work has been done so far
include:


Name of Waters County
Lake Beauclair .......................Lake
Lake Dora ..............................Lake
Lake Eustis ................................Lake
Lake Harris ................................Lake
Lake Griffin ..........................Lake


Name of Waters County
Newnan's Lake ..................Alachua
Lake Tohopekaliga ............Osceloa
Lake Apopka ....Lake and Orange
Lake Istokpoga ..............Highlands


Miscellaneous Biological Activities
A. TAGGING:
Over 3500 game fish and a number of catfish have been tagged
in different waters throughout the state. These fish have been
tagged in most cases on the upper left jaw with a Monel metal
tag. Each fish is weighed and measured and each tag has a
different number. Fishermen have been requested to return
tags from all tagged fish caught in order that we may learn
more of the migration, growth and abundance of our game
fishes. Posters have been placed in conspicuous locations around
the waters in which tagged fish have been released. Waters in which
53 *








tagged fish have been released are: Lake Dora, Lake Eustis, Lake
Beauclair, Lake Griffin, Dead Lakes, Oklawaha River, Lake George,
Lake Apopka, Lake Maggiore in Pinellas County, Lake Silver in Polk
County.
Early results from our fish tagging indicate that only a
small percentage of the available adult fish population is being
taken by the sport fishermen. No definite conclusions have been
arrived at from these studies up to the present time.

B. INDIVIDUAL LAKE STUDIES:
In addition to the lakes mentioned above, a number of smaller
lakes have been surveyed and recommendations made for man-
agement. These lakes are too numerous to list here, but include
several in Duval, Orange, Lake, Polk, Pinellas, Alachua, Leon,
Citrus, Sarasota and other counties:

C. COOPERATION WITH FEDERAL AGENCIES:
The Fish Management Department has also participated in
a number of activities with various agencies of the Federal Gov-
ernment. Close cooperation has been had with the Soil Conserva-
tion Service in the management of smaller lakes and ponds. The
Department also has worked with representatives of the U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service in making fish and wildlife surveys
for the south Florida water control program, the Jim Woodruff
Dam and others.

D. POLLUTION INVESTIGATIONS:
The Department has made a number of investigations of pol-
lution reports in various parts of the state and has cooperated
with other state agencies on several pollution studies. In several
cases it has been possible to minimize pollution of streams
through the cooperation of the offender. Studies are at present
under way to determine how pollution may be avoided from the
pulp and paper industries and the phosphate mining industry.

E. WEED CONTROL:
Control of hyacinths is a necessary part of fish management
in Florida. The department's activities in this field have been
limited (with a few local exceptions) to testing the toxicity of
several types of chemical hyacinth killers, and advising clubs
and other organizations on this work. The butyl ester of 2,4
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2-4D) was found to have no apparent
effect on bass, bream and catfish in amounts sufficient to kill
hyacinths. (Fig. No. 10) It is recommended, however, that spray-
ing be limited to fall and winter in order to avoid oxygen de-
pletion of the waters brought about by the rapid decomposition
of the hyacinths in warm weather.
54 *









DISTRIBUTION OF FISH BY COUNTIES


District Winter Haven
1st ......... 207,500
2nd .......... 42.000
3rd ........
4th .......... 31,000
5th ......... 261,500
TOTALS .... 542,000


District Winter Haven
1st ............ 204,000
2nd ....... 56,500
3rd ..........
4th .......... 8,000
5th .......... 124,900
TOTALS .... 393,400


Blackwater Wewahitchka Welaka Totals
207,500
802,500 844,500
2,993,500 280,600 40,000 3,314,100
31,000
261,500
3,796,000 280,600 40,000 4,658,600

1948 SEASON
Blackwater Wewahitchka Totals


182,000
3,987,200

20,000
4,189,200


1946
Total No. Fish Distributed ..........4,508,975
Total No. of Waters Stocked ........ 129


136,300


136,300
1947
4,658,600
194


204,000
238,500
4,123.500
8,000
144,900
4,718,900
1948
4,718,900
171


FISH DISTRIBUTION BY HATCHERY AND COUNTY
1947 1948
Bass Bream Bass Bream
Alachua ............... ............ ............ ............ 25,000
Baker ............. ...
Bay ......... ......... ............ 115.000 ............ 373,000
Bradford ............. 11,000 100,000 6,000 ............
Brevard ................ 8,000 ........................
Broward .............. 8,000 ............ 4,000 4,000
Calhoun ................ .......... ........... 1,000 16,000
Charlotte ..........................
Citrus .................. 41,500 .......... 20,000
Clay .................... 13,000 ............ 29,000 35,000
Collier ................. 15,000 .................................
Columbia ............ 10,000 90,000 ............ 18,000
D ade ...................... ........................
D eSoto .................. ............ 6,000......................
Dixie .............. ........... .......................
Duval .................. ............ 125,000 12,000 28,000
Escambia ............. ............ 462,000 800 1,353,000
Flagler .......... ......................
Gadsden ............... ............ 355,000 ............ 169,200
Gilchrist ........... .....
G lades ........ .... ....................
Gulf ...................... 50,000 200,000* ............ 100,000
H am ilton ............. ...................................
H ardee .... ..... ... ............ ..................................
H endry ........... ............ ..........................
H ernando .............. ..............................
Highlands ........... 11,000 ............ 44,000 .....
Hillsborough ........ 45,000 ............ 36,000 ............
Holm es .................. ........... 220,000 500 ............
Indian R iver ....... ............ ...............................
555









FISH DISTRIBUTION BY HATCHERY AND COUNTY

Bass Bream Bass Bream
Jackson ................ 20,000 694,000 ............ 410,500
Jeffferson ........... ............ 220,000 75,000 232,000
Lafayette .......... 8,000 ............ ............
Lake ...................... 31,500 ........... 2,000 ............
Lee ....................................
Leon .......---------............... ............ 30,600 ............ 110,000
Levy ..................... ............ 70,000 ............ 40,000
Liberty ...........----- ............
Madison ............. ............ 118,000 8,000 ............
Manatee .............. 16,000 ............
Marion .................. 33,500 32,000 17,000 ............
M artin .................. .........
Monroe .................. ................
Nassau .................. ............ 70,000 ............
Okaloosa .............. ............ 146,000 ............ 430,000
Okeechobee .................
Orange ................. 30,000 ........... 20,000 ............
Osceola ................ 12,000 ........... 7,600
Palm Beach ........ 8,000 ............ ............
Pasco .................... 14,500 6,000 5,000 ............
Pinellas ................ 13,000
Pinellas ............... 13,000 -........................ ............
Polk ........................ 89,000 7,000 85,500 33,500
Putnam ................ ........... ........... 16,000 20,000
St. Johns ............. 26,500 ...................................
St. Lucie .............. ..........
Santa Rosa ........ 15,000 580,000 ............ 574,000
Sarasota ................... ............
Seminole .............. 21,500 ............ 3,000 ..........
Sumter ................. 22,000 ............ 23,000 ..........
Suwannee ............ ............ 121,000 ............
Taylor .................. .......... 40,000 ........... 18000
Union ................... ............ ..... 1,500 18,000
Volusia ................ 3,000 ........... 16,300 .........
W akulla ......... ........................
Walton .................. 5,000 180,000 1,000
Washington ........ ............ ............ ............ 252,500
TOTAL ............ 587,000 4,071,600 434,000 4,244,700
*Some crappie included with bream.


















56 *









Results of Initial Fisheries Investigations

A. CLOSED SEASONS
Since the fall of 1946, the regulations concerning the taking
of fresh water game fish by sport fishermen have been under
analysis. In January, 1948, recommendations were made to the
Commission that a closed season on fresh water fish was un-
necessary in Florida, for the following reasons:
1. Research in Florida and other southern states has
proven that it is not necessary that all adult fish
spawn in order to insure reproduction. A single pair of
bass reproduce enough young to adequately stock
60-600 acres of water. A pair of bluegills or shell-
crackers spawn enough to supply 10-170 acres. Ponds
and lakes subjected to extremely heaving fishing pres-
sure during "spawning seasons" have continued to pro-
duce huge crops of young fish over many years.
2. Tagging studies in Florida and other southern states
show that the sport fisherman is catching only from 3
to 25% of the available game fish populations. The re-
maining 75 to 97% apparently die without ever being
taken by a fisherman.
3. In order to be effective, a "closed season" in Florida
would have to cover at least 5 months of the year. Bass
spawned almost continuously at the Winter Haven
Hatchery during the period from December, 1946 to
May 1947. Other observations have noted mature roe in
female bass and spawning activities almost every month
of the year, with the possible exceptions of late July
and August. Bluegills and shellcrackers spawned contin-
uously in western Florida from April to October in
hatchery ponds and in lakes open to fishing. Bass and
bream have spawned successfully in Florida lakes dur-
ing open seasons in the past and there is no reason to
believe that they will not continue to do so in the future.
4. Further experiments have shown that even heavy hook
and line fishing cannot damage a fish population, al-
though it may make poor fishing temporarily.
5. It has been found that a body of water will only pro-
duce a definite weight of fish of given species, in much
the same way that a pasture will support a definite
weight of livestock. Removal of certain numbers of fish
allows the remaining individuals to grow faster, as
growth of our warm water game fishes is dependent
upon the amount of food available.
On the basis of this evidence, the Commission eliminated the
closed season in all but 10 counties in western Florida. In October
1948, after further evidence was at hand, the closed season
57 *









was abandoned, except for Dead Lakes in Gulf and Calhoun
Counties, Lake Wimico in Gulf County and Merritt's Pond and
Ochessee Pond in Jackson County.
B. SIZE LIMITS:
Another regulation restricting success of sports fishermen
was the 12-inch size limit on black bass. This too was subjected
to careful analysis and found unnecessary as a conservation
measure in Florida. No biologically sound reasons were found
for its continuance, and a number of sound facts indicated its
removal. These reasons were:
1. The results of the tagging studies mentioned above,
showing that only a small percentage of the available
game fish were being caught.
2. Experiments conducted at the Alabama Agricultural
Experiment Station found that from 75-95% of bass
and bream hooked deeply enough to draw blood died
within two weeks after being carefully released.
3. A number of ponds and lakes in Florida were found to
be overcrowded with bass; i.e., having so many indi-
vidual bass that the available food supply would not
allow any to reach "legal" size, and the restriction
kept fishermen from relieving the overcrowded
condition.
4. It is not necessary for bass in Florida to reach a length
of 12 inches before spawning. One-year-old bass 8-10
inches long spawned successfully in hatchery ponds this
year. Biologists in Alabama found that bass would
spawn there at one year if they weighed 6 ounces or
over.
5. Evidence gathered from preliminary studies of our fish
populations indicates that competition for food, and not
reproduction, is the chief limiting factor affecting our
game fishes.
6. There appears to be a new race of black bass, closely
related to the smallmouth in a number of north Florida
streams which do not reach a large size, and although
reports have indicated a maximum size of 3 pounds for
this bass, the average size is about 10-11 inches.

C. EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL FISHING
The effects of various types of commercial fishing gear on
game fish populations have been studied. This work has been
carried on in Lake Okeechobee, Lake George and the St. Johns
River, Lake Istokpoga and a few other waters.
The studies completed to date are those made in the St. Johns
River during February, March and April, 1948, on wire traps,
pound nets, and short haul seines used during the shad and
herring runs. The results of these studies are summarized here.
58 *





























FIsh tor stairs and exhibits are furnished by the Fish Management Division.

WIRE CATFISH TRAPS
One series of 50 wire catfish traps was used for a total of
1,930 trap days (one trap in water for 24 hours constitutes one
trap day). This is equivalent to keeping one trap under obser-
vation for over 5 years. This series of traps was baited with
herring and other rough fish, as is done in normal trapping
operations. The results were as follows:
Total catfish taken ..............5,225 lbs.
Total game fish..................... 359 lbs. or 6.4% of all fish
Average catfish per trap day .................. 2.7 lbs.
Average game fish per trap day ................ 0.18 lbs.
Average No. game fish per trap day........ 1.6 fish

During the trapping experiment, three small bream were
found dead. Game fish taken included Bluegill, Shellcracker,
Redbreast, and Crappie. No bass were taken. In view of the evi-
dence that less than 7% of the catch, amounting to 1.6 game
fish was taken from each trap each day, and the extremely low
mortality of the game fish, it is not felt that the use of wire
catfish traps baited with herring and rough fish is detrimental
to the supply of game fish in the St. Johns River.
Another series of wire traps was baited with cut bluegill
and crappie for 52 trap days to determine whether this bait
would effectively catch catfish. The results are as follows:
Total catfish taken .......................... .... 2.55 lbs.
Total game fish taken ............................ 6.86 Ibs.
Average catfish per trap day .................... 0.05 lbs.
Average game fish per trap day ............... 0.13 lbs.
Average No. game fish per trap day ........ 0.36 fish
59 *

































These hatchery-raised fingerlings are being collected for release in an under-
populated lake or stream.

Comparison of the catches of the two series of traps proves
definitely that wire traps baited with cut bluegill and crappie
are not effective in catching catfish or game fish. The commer-
cial fisherman, like the sport fisherman, must use the best pos-
sible bait for a successful catch. The opinion (expressed by many
sportsmen) that trap fishermen use game fish to bait their traps
does not appear to be valid in the face of the evidence given
above, which shows that the rough fish bait produces more than
50 times as much catfish as does game fish bait.

POUND NETS
A series of five pound nets was used for a total of 88 net days,
baited with herring and rough fish.
Total catfish taken ...................4,688 lbs.
Total game fish taken ............ 276 lbs. or 6.9% of all fish
Average catfish per net day ........53.27 lbs.
Average game fish per net day .... 3.13 lbs.
Average No. Game fish per net day 6.48 fish
All game fish, including one black bass were returned to the
water alive. Again the game fish amounted to less than 7% of
the catch, and it was demonstrated that all game fish could be
released alive. On this evidence, it is not considered that the use
of pound nets is detrimental to the supply of game fish in the
St. Johns River.


60 0







SHAD AND HERRING SEINE OPERATIONS
Seventeen shad and herring seine hauls were observed and
the catch recorded as follows:


Total Catch
Non-game fish ..............................1,601 Ibs.
(includes white shad, herring,
catfish, gizzard shad and gar-
fish)
G am e fish ........................................ 84 Ibs.
(includes bluegill, red breast,
shellcracker and crappie)


Percent of Total
95.0%


5.0%


As these seine hauls are made in swift waters not usually
inhabited by game fish, the low catch of game fish was to be
expected. No bass were taken in these operations. As all game
fish can easily be returned alive, it is not felt that shad and
herring seine hauls as now operated will be detrimental to the
supply of game fish in the St. Johns River.


BASS


BRfAM


CRAPPIf CATf 1ti OTtifRS

<-] ^t^


47.9% 23.2%


74%. 12.3%


The above chart shows the percentage breakdown of fish taken by Florida's
fresh water anglers.

Sports Fishing Catch Records
At the end of the fiscal years 1946-47 and 1947-48, question-
naires were distributed to license-buying fishermen, requesting
that they report their catch for that year. Returns were received
from almost every county in the state. The catch records given
here are based on these returns.
(- G I


9.2%


f









FISH CAUGHT BY LICENSED FISHERMEN


Year ending
Species June 30, 1947
Bass ................. ...... .......................11,240,928
Bream ............................................ 6,516,669
Crappie ........................ ............... 1,498,948
Catfish ......................... ..................... 3,970,749
Other ........................... ................... 3,005,124
Total .............................................26,232,418
No. of fishing trips ........................... 3,970,054

AVERAGE LICENSED FISHERMAN'S
Year ending
Species June 30, 1947
B ass ....................................79.8
Bream ..................................41.4
Crappie .............................. 8.9
Catfish ...............................28.7
Others .................................20.5
Total .............................179.3

No. of Trips ................... 23.8


Year ending
June 30, 1948
22,226,629
7,584,149
4,117,311
2,913,369
2,985,700
39,737,158
5,042,987

CATCH
Year ending
June 30,1948
78.1
35.4
14.8
13.0
10.5

151.8

22.6


While these figures may not be statistically accurate, it is
believed that they give a fairly reliable representation of the
catch by licensed fishermen. They do indicate that the number
of fishermen is increasing steadily, and that the average indi-
vidual fisherman fared better in 1947 than he did in 1948, while
the total catch of all fishermen increased in 1948.
Unfortunately, no method has yet been found to estimate the
number of unlicensed fishermen nor their catch for the year.
If this data could be obtained the total catch would undoubtedly
be greatly increased, possibly doubled.

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS
Several papers have been published contributing to knowl-
edge of the scientific management of fresh-water fish in Florida.
Some of these are available in mimeographed form, and are
listed below.
1. A Prelimiary Report on catches by Wire Traps, Pound Nets,
and Shad and Herring Haul Seines in the St. Johns River
(Condensed).
2. Florida's Fresh-Water Fisheries Problems and Program. Pre-
sented at the meeting of the American Fisheries Society at
Atlantic City, N. J., September 14, 1948.
3. Preliminary Studies on Adult Fish Populations in Some Large
Florida Lakes, Presented at the second annual Southeastern
Fisheries and Wildlife Conference at Lexington, Kentucky,
Nov. 2, 1948.


* 62 *










LAW

ENFORCEMENT

DIVISION


JOHN SwIFT'. -_. .Chief, First District
LESTER MIKELL .... Chief, Second District
FRANCIS VILLAR ---... Chief, Third District
CURTIs WRIGHT. ----, Chief, Fourth District
C. J. FINLEY_- -- Chief, Fifth District












LAW ENFORCEMENT




PERHAPS the most important branch of the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission is the law enforcement division. The
men of this division are charged with upholding game and fish laws
in all of Florida's 67 counties. It is their duty to guard 39,000,000
acres of woods and waters. Even with the present record size of the
division, each wildlife officer is responsible for an average of 170,000
acres. Taking into consideration the difficult terrain that makes up
Florida, it is easy to see the mammoth task faced by the commission's
officers. The commission has made a great deal of progress in all
fields, but some of its most notable steps have been taken in the field
of law enforcement. In January 1947, the commission employed 171
officers. Today it employes 228 plus 2 special investigators. Two
years ago these men operated with very meager equipment. All used
their own cars, many of which were in bad state of repair. There was
a shortage of boats, a shortage of marsh buggies, and virtually none
of the equipment which was on hand was in tip-top condition. Today
these men operate with a total of 124 state-owned jeeps or jeep trucks,
160 outboard motor boats, 150 horse and boat trailers, 4 air-propelled
boats, 9 power boats and 2 airplanes.
The caliber of the men has improved along with the size of the
force. The deadwood has, in most instances, been weeded out of the
ranks. Many men, it was found, were not qualified to perform the
duties of a wildlife officer. Many had received their jobs solely
through political patronage and made no effort to earn the salaries
they received. Such men were discharged. They were replaced by
younger men who not only knew the woods but possessed the intelli-
gence and integrity necessary to do a good enforcement job. To attract
such men, salaries have been raised. In January 1947, the average
salary for wildlife officers was $123.00 a month. Today it is $166.00.

Operating Budget
This expansion, of course, has entailed a considerably increased
budget. During the current fiscal year, more than 57 per cent of the
commission's total operating budget will be devoted to law enforcement.
In dollars and cents the amount will total $846,911.00. This is ap-
portioned to the various districts for salaries, maintenance, and the
acquisition of equipment. Below is a breakdown of the current budget
by districts:
64 *


























-- -


A "flying warden" poses beside his plane. The Commission now operates
two observation planes in the Okeechobee-Glades area. Ultimately it plans
to have a plane operating in each district.

ENFORCEMENT BUDGET BY DISTRICTS
DISTRICT NUMBER OF OFFICERS OPERATING BUDGET
First 50 $169,862.62
Second 55 $175,000.00
Third 51 $196,609.37
Fourth 26 $134,189.05
Fifth 46 $171,250.00
TOTAL 228 $846,911.04

Administration and Personnel
The law enforcement division is under the direct supervision of
the commission director. Each district, in turn, is supervised by a
chief wildlife officer and an assistant. These men work closely with
the director and the district commissioner. A tentative plan for the
future has been outlined whereby a rank system will be instituted.
The proposed system, which it is hoped will be put into effect within
the next year, would provide in addition to district chiefs such sub-
ranks as captains, lieutenants and sergeants, each having direct super-
vision over a given number of men.
In past years, wildlife officers carried no mark of distinction other
than a badge. In 1947, however, the commission supplied each man
on the force with two attractive dress uniforms complete with insignia.
Men still work in the field without uniforms. However, they are re-
quired to be properly uniformed when appearing in court or taking
part in any other public meeting. The acquisition of uniforms has
not only added dignity to the enforcement branch but has been a very
noticeable morale booster for the men themselves.









Arrests and Convictions
As the size of the force increased and its efficiency improved,
arrests and convictions of game law violations mounted. During the
past two years a total of 5,357 persons were apprehended for game and
fish law violations. Of these some 91 per cent were convicted in court.
The remainder were either acquitted or their cases nolle pressed.
This conviction record is slightly above average of other southern
states. However, it is lower than in many of the northern states where
unified conservation programs have been in effect for years.
Fishing violations accounted for the greatest number of arrests.
About 68 per cent of all cases dealt with non-observance of fresh water
fishing rules. Slightly over 30 per cent were for infraction of game
laws. The remaining arrests were made for miscellaneous offenses.
Fishing without a license was the greatest single offense; 1,994 per-
sons were arrested for failure to have fresh water fishing licenses.
Hunting without a license accounted for 323 arrests. Taking game
during the closed season was responsible for 221 cases. Other oft-com-
mitted offenses were possession of undersize fish (a rule that has now
been abolished), exceeding the bag limit on fish, fishing in closed
season, fishing with nets, fishing with too many poles, hunting dur-
ing the closed season, shooting from state roads, hunting on closed
days, and possession of a gun and dog in a closed area. Below is a
list of the offenses and the number of arrests for each:

GAME AND FISH LAW VIOLATIONS
Fishing without a license ............................ ...........-..... 1994
Possession of undersized fish .................... ....................... 614
Exceeding bag limit on fish ....................... ........... .......- 331
Hunting without a license ...................... ...... ...... .............. 323
Taking game closed season .............................. ....... ........... 221
Hunting closed season .................. ...... ... .... .............. 172
Hunting closed day ........................................... ................. 153
Fishing with cast nets & possession of seines ................... 145
Shooting from and across Road No. 26, 25, 84, 41, 94, 27 ...... 131
Fishing with too many poles ........................ .... ...... ....... 123
Fishing closed season ..................... --.......- .....-- .. .......... 120
Possession of gun and dog, closed area ..................................... 111
Hunting unplugged gun .......................... ... ......... ........... 104
Fishing with traps and baskets ............................................ 92
Hunting closed area .......................................................... 88
Hunting with light .................... .....-.-.-..................... 85
Gigging fish ........................................................ ... 55
Shooting fish ............................................ .......... .................. 50
Attempting to take and taking doe deer ............................. 44
Taking dove in baited area ................ ...................... 36
Fishing closed waters .............. ..................... .............. 31
Attempting to take non-game birds ...................................... 30
Selling gam e fish ....................... ............... ....... ...... ... 28
Fishing closed area ....................... ........... ............ ... ..- 27
Taking deer closed season ................. .. ................ ................ 23
Possession alligator hides closed season ................................. 22
Shooting ducks, marsh hens, from motor boat ................... 21
Exceeding bag limit on marsh hens, coots, quail, squirrel, and
ducks ................ ..... ............................................ ......... 21
66 "










Possession of fur bearing animals closed season .....--..-......... 21
Dynam iting fish ..........:.......................................---...-....- .. .... 13
Fishing with goldfish and bream for bait ................................ 11
Taking undersize alligators ................................... ............. 11
Fishing with more than 25 hooks on trotline ............................ 9
Taking alligators closed season ...................................------ 9
Trapping closed season ........................... ................................ 8
H hunting after sunset .................................................................... 7
M molesting gam e .................................... .............. .................... 7
Trapping without a license ...................................- ............... 5
Offering to sell fresh water fish ............................................... 4
Fishing commercially without a license ........................................ 4
Securing license under false pretense ........................................ 4
T rapping quail ................................................. ............................... 4
Transporting fish ........................................................ 3
Renting boats without a license .................................................... 3
Possession alligator closed area .............................................. 3
Selling bait without a license ....----................. .. ............... 2
Attempting to take fish with light .......................................... 2
Placing lime in water to kill fish ......................-...-- ................ 2
Taking turkey hens .............................. ... ........2............ ....... 2
Shipping game out of state ........................................................ 2
Removing sex identification of deer ........................................ 2
Failing check deer before leaving Ocala National Forest ........ 2
Entering forest without a permit ...........................................- 2
Sale of undersized alligator hides ................................................ 1
Selling hides and furs without a license .................................... 1
Trapping closed area .................................................................... 1
K killing pheasants .............................................. ....................... 1
Guiding without a license ................................................ ........ 1
Hunting improper license ................................................. .. 1
Fire hunting ............................................................ ........... .......... 1
Shooting quail on ground ........................................................... 1
Carrying rifle without a permit ................................................ 1
Possession of gun in boat ............................................................... 1
Buying fresh water fish ............................................................. 1
Lending fishing license .................................... ................... ...... 1
Attem pting to buy bass ........................... ............................ 1
Transferring and altering license ............................ .............. 1
Fishing for bass with trotline .................................................... 1
R existing arrest .... .. .. .. ................................................. 1

T otal ................................................. ................................... 5357


Equipment
Perhaps the most imporatnt single step in improving the efficiency
of the law enforcement division was the acquisition of superior equip-
ment. In the past many officers were forced to operate boats which
could not compare with speed boats employed by violators. All used
their own automobiles, which in many instances were not equipped
to travel on rough woods trails. There were not enough swamp bug-
gies to patrol the Glades. In fact, in the more remote regions of the
State there was no method of performing efficient patrol duty. To
correct this situation, the commission last year purchased two observa-
tion planes. The patrol aircraft are stationed at Plant City and Ft.
Pierce. They do daily duty over the impenetrable marshlands which
67 *


































Wildlife Officers receive instructions at this year's Gainesville school. The
commission hopes to instigate a regular six-week training school for its
wardens.

cover that section of the state. To facilitate the enforcement problem
even further, a statewide communications network is now underway.
Sites for 25 automatic and manual relay stations have been established
throughout the state. Jeeps, airplanes, and marsh buggies will be
equipped with these two-way radios. With this set-up, airborne wild-
life officers who spot suspicious activities from the air will be able
to radio information to ground vehicles in 100-mile area. This should
go a long way toward correcting what has long been a rugged en-
forcement situation.

School for Wardens
In addition to their routine enforcement duties, wildlife officers
are also encouraged to attend sportsmen's club meetings and de-
liver short talks to student and civic groups. The officer force is
regarded as the commission's frontier of public relations. To better
equip the men for all their duties, regular annual schools for wardens
have been instituted. In 1947 two 3-day schools were held in Talla-
hassee and Orlando. In 1948 a 6-day short course for the officers
was held at the University of Florida. The instructors at the session
included college professors, wildlife specialists, public relations spe-
cialists and well-known law enforcement officers. The course included

8 (;









such subjects as necessary qualifications for wildlife officers, legal
powers of the officers, court room demeanor, wildlife management,
arrest procedure, preparation of cases, fish management problems,
public relations and other important phases of game warden work.
At the end of the course, the men were given written examinations
on the subject matter. The grade average on the tests was in the low
90's and nearly 25 per cent received perfect scores.
Even more elaborate plans are being made for this year's school.
Under present plans the course will be lengthened and given to smaller
groups. It is hoped that instructors in many phases will be supplied
by the University of Florida and its general extension service.
Wildlife officers are on duty 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The
only "days off" they actually receive are two weeks annual vacation.
The men actually average 10 to 18 working hours a day. They are
required to submit an arrest, a conviction and a general activities
report to the commission once a week.
As of December 31, 1948, Florida claimed the largest conservation
enforcement staff in the South. With newer and more streamlined
plans, improved equipment, and higher salaries, it is hoped that the
staff may also soon become the most efficient.

ARREST REPORT FOR BIENNIUM
Total
Arrests Convictions Acquittals Pending
Alachua ... ............ 93 80 11 2
Baker ...................... 30 25 5
Bay ........................ 32 31 1
Bradford .............. 20 20
Brevard ................ 61 58 3
Broward ................ 294 283 8 3
Calhoun ................ 82 50 23 9
Charlotte ................ 41 31 9 1
Citrus .................... 56 55 .... 1
Clay ........................ 35 18 14 3
Collier ...................... 62 55 7
Columbia ................ 28 24 4
Dade ...................... 123 116 6 1
DeSoto .................. 43 22 21
Dixie ...................... 87 66 16
Duval ................... 151 116 23 12
Escambia ................ 49 48 1
Flagler .................. 51 49 2
Franklin .............. 53 52 1
Gadsden ................ 62 58 1 3
Gilchrist ................ 24 22 2
Glades .................... 81 65 11 5
Gulf ...................... 132 103 24 5
Hamilton ................ 22 21 1
Hardee ................. 34 29 3 2
Hendry .................. 58 48 10
Hernando ............. 70 68 2 10
Highlands ............ 72 53 9 10
Hillsborough .......... 120 114 3 3
Holmes .................. 46 41 4 1
69 *










ARREST REPORT FOR
Indian River .......... 4 4
Jackson .......... 145 126
Jefferson ................ 29 25
Lafayette ............... 43 35
Lake ....................... 97 86
Lee ........................... 100 82
Leon ....................... 96 75
Levy .......................... 77 70
Liberty .................. 286 270
Madison ................. 34 29
Manatee ................ 33 30
Marion ................. 99 90
Martin ..................... 39 37
Monroe .................... 18 17
Nassau ................. 289 282
Okaloosa .................. 80 74
Okeechobee ............ 19 15
Orange ................... 71 66
Osceola ................... 30 24
Palm Beach .......... 68 58
Pasco ....................... 88 79
Pinellas .................. 71 71
Polk ......................... 298 274
Putnam ................. 23 21
St. Johns ............ 200 193
St. Lucie ................. 20 20
Santa Rosa ........... 141 135
Sarasota ................ 59 59
Seminole ............... 57 55
Sumter .................... 67 67
Suwannee .............. 53 52
Taylor .................... 95 73
Union ..................... 13 13
Volusia ................. 181 175
Wakula ................... 77 72
Walton .................. 56 47
Washington ........... 94 82

TOTAL ............5357 4804


BIENNIUM

18
4
1
7
17
16
7
13
3
2
9
2
1
5
5
4
5
4
9
9

23
1
7

6




22

5
5
6
12

453


S)70 )







INFORMATION
AND EDUCATION
DIVISION










WILLIAM W. WEEKS
Director, Information-Education












INFORMATION-EDUCATION





THE primary function of the Division of Information and Edu-
cation is to enlighten the people of Florida to the crying need for
wildlife conservation. It has been said that no law or program can
survive without the understanding and cooperation of the people.
This is particularly true in the administration of a conservation
program. The benefits of conservation are somewhat intangible;
consequently, the people are prone to take the matter lightly. The
problem of correcting this general attitude rests largely on this
division.
The division has two lesser functions, but they are more or less
by-products of our main objective. One of these lesser functions is
to keep the citizens of the state informed on the activities of their
wildlife agency. The other is to foster as much out-of-state interest
in our outdoor resources as possible with our limited information
set-up.
At present the division has seven employees-four of whom are
permanent and three temporary. This is exclusive of the administrator
of public relations whose objectives fit under the division's program
but who is administratively separate. The four permanent employees
in the division are: Director-who supervises the overall program,
including press releases, preparation of literature, publication of the
magazine, visual education, production of movies, booking of lec-
turers and staging of exhibitions and special conservation promotion
events.
Assistant director-serves as a general deputy to the director,
plus the handling of writing assignments on press releases and
publications.
Photographer-takes pictures of wildlife and commission activi-
ties for press distribution and use in our own publication. Secretary
and circulation manager-handles the secretarial duties of the office
and serves as circulation clerk for our monthly magazine.
On temporary status are a lecturer and exhibitionist who makes
conservation speeches before clubs, classrooms and civic organizations
throughout the state; a movie cameraman who is doing the pho-
tography for a movie now in production; and a typist who serves
as a circulation assistant during the heavy winter influx of sub-
scription requests for the commission magazine.
The division itself was created in May, 1947. Prior to that time, the
commission had employed one man who edited its house organ and


7 72 *





























A crowd views the commission's new 50-foot portable exhibit. More than
1,500,000 persons viewed its fair displays during the 1948 season.


did some publicity work. During the fiscal year of 1947-48 the new
division was given an operating budget of $39,000. The figure was
raised to $53,000 for the fiscal year of 1948-49.
This represents slightly over 3.5 percent of the total operating
budget, a proportion that is a little above the average for most south-
ern states. However, it compares rather poorly with the seven to
twelve percent share allotted for information and education by
many northern conservation agencies. Under the present budget,
some $20,000 will go for the publication of our new magazine,
FLORIDA WILDLIFE, which is distributed without charge. The re-
mainder will be spent on the building and maintenance of film libraries,
preparation of game and fish literature, dissemination of press and
radio material, salaries and travel expenses.

Information and Publicity
Public information is probably the most important single item in
selling the people on the needs for conservation. Obviously the best
media for the dissemination of such information is through news-
papers and radio. In the 20 months since the inception of the Infor-
mation and Education Division, 217 press releases have been pre-
pared and distributed. By actual clipping return, these releases re-
sulted in 16,400 stories in 157 daily and weekly newspapers in Florida.
The returned clippings of news stories on the state's conservation
activities would fill 75 editions of an average-sized newspaper.
73 *













-J!AiPkHrf Sofrr ISON rF-OF WME.T- 1 AI














... ..a a -

Entrance to the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission exhibit at last
year's Pensacola Fair.
The state's conservation program and its hunting and fishing
resources have also received considerable national publicity. Numerous
feature stories and pictures have gone out on the wires of the
Associated Press and the United Press, and, in addition, feature
stories and pictures of Florida's hunting and fishing have appeared
in such national magazines as SPORTS AFIELD, OUTDOOR LIFE,
FIELD AND STREAM, OUTDOORS, HUNTING & FISHING MAG-
AZINE, THE OUTDOORSMAN and OUTDOOR SPORTSMAN.
Commission Magazine
When the Division of Information and Education was set up, the
commission published a small-sized monthly organ called FLORIDA
GAME AND FISH. It had a circulation of slightly over 1,400. This
publication was dropped and a new monthly magazine, FLORIDA
WILDLIFE, was launched when the division was established. The new
publication was a regular sized magazine employing the use of color
to add to its attractiveness. The magazine was completely redesigned
and its editorial content revamped. The circulation of FLORIDA
WILDLIFE is now more than 13,000 and is growing at the rate of
nearly 1,000 a month. The magazine is distributed free of charge,
but circulation is restricted as much as possible to those interested
in wildlife conservation and the outdoors. Between 30 and 40 percent
of the division's time and money now goes into the production of
this magazine. The prime objective of the publication is to put across
new and valuable conservation ideas and promote, generally, the
wise use of our wildlife resources.

74 F









Movies
The commission now has a 16mm film library containing 16 titles,
with as many as seven prints of some films. These are distributed on
a loan basis to sportsmen clubs, classrooms, civic group, youth organi-
zations and out-of-state audiences.
Commission movies have been shown to 790 audiences totaling
94,800 people during the past 20 months. Of these, 31,000 were class-
room students.
The commission now has in production a movie of its own with a
conservation theme designed specifically for Florida audiences. It
will be released sometime in the spring.

Lectures on Conservation
The commission now has two lecturers, including Dr. I. N. Ken-
nedy, Administrator of Public Relations, who devotes their full time to
this important phase. In addition, other members of the commission
personnel including the director and department heads are on call for
appearances before clubs and organizations.
During the biennium, commission speakers have appeared before
a total of 327 different groups. These included 133 schools, 114 civic
organizations, 57 sportsmen clubs and 23 miscellaneous clubs. The
total audience was estimated at well over 40,000.

Packaging the commission's monthly magazine, FLORIDA WILDLIFE. The
magazine goes to more than 13,000 subscribers in and out of state.


I, 7'. :








Literature
The Information and Education section has filled more than 38,000
requests for literature since it was set up. Thousands of additional
requests had to be turned down because we were unable to supply
the demand.
The division prepared eight new pieces of literature during this
period and now has two more in the production stage. These booklets
and brochures cover various subjects on game and fish and their
management.


Exhibits
One of the most expanded functions of the Information and Educa-
tion Division is the staging of wildlife exhibits at fairs and other
special events. During 1947-48 the commission supplied 14 fairs
throughout the state with live exhibits. These exhibits were viewed
by an estimated 1,500,000 people.
This year a new portable game and fish exhibit was designed and
built to cut down cost and simplify transportation and assembly.
The new exhibit was on display at seven county and regional fairs
during the fall of 1948. It is already scheduled for 23 fairs and expo-
sitions during the next calendar year.
The fish for these exhibits are supplied by the Fish Management
Department, and the wild native animals are usually furnished by
wardens of the law enforcement branch.


Special Promotion
Several special events designed to promote interest in wildlife and
the outdoors have been inaugurated by the division. Last year one
entire day was set aside at the Florida State Fair as Wildlife Con-
servation Day. The commission in cooperation with the Florida Forest
Service and fishing tackle and firearm manufacturers produced a
special one-hour show in front of the fair grandstand to draw atten-
tion to the day. More than 11,000 people witnessed the show, and the
idea was received with favor by both the fair officials and newspapers.
Perhaps the most successful promotion was the so-called "Fish-
athons" which the commission staged in four of Florida's major cities.
These were handled on a cooperative basis with newspapers and con-
servation clubs in St. Petersburg, Tampa, Orlando and Miami. The
Fishathons were simply giant fishing parties for kids in which the
Game Commission stocked lakes with thousands of adult fish; then
furnished poles, lines and bait for the youthful anglers. Prizes for
catches were supplies by the newspapers and local business men. The
commission and its co-sponsors entertained over 20,000 boys and girls
during the four Fishathons.
76 *










ACCOUNTING

DIVISION
BART PEADEN, JR., Auditor



THE Accounting Division is the bookkeeping division of the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission. It is made up of an auditor
and three employees. It is their duty to keep an accurate track of more
than $1,000,000 a year in receipts and disbursements. In addition, the
Accounting Division is responsible for the printing and distribution
of all licenses. It issues all commercial licenses and handles more than
$800,000 each year in license fees. The Division must also keep in-
dividual county records of all arrests and collect costs of same from
each county. It audits and places in line for payment all just bills for
equipment and labor. It acts as the payroll clerk for the nearly 300
employees of the Commission. At regular monthly intervals the auditor
prepares a finance statement with disbursements broken down by
departments and by districts.
The Division is responsible also for the preparation of regular and
special budgets and all requests for purchase approvals. In its files
are kept records of all equipment used by field forces and all supplies
for the field men are mailed through the Accounting Division.

Receipts Increase
With the tremendous increase of receipts and disbursements over
the past five years, more and more work, of course, has been piled
on this Division. For instance, during the fiscal year of 1944-45 the
Commission took in slightly under $372,000. In 1945-46 this was
stepped up to $569,085. The receipts increased in 1946-47 to $833,297.
During the last fiscal year the Commission, for the first time in its
history, collected slightly over a million dollars. This year, on the basis
of receipts for the first 5 months, the estimated income will reach
more than $1,300,000. In other words, in a period of 5 years the rev-
enue derived from the sale of hunting and fishing licenses, the collec-
tion of court costs and other sources has increased nearly a million
dollars. During this fiscal year disbursements will run slightly over
a million-and-a-half dollars, which is more than the anticipated income.
Financially, however, the Commission's position is still very secure.
On the .basis of estimated income and estimated expenditure for this
year the department will have a reserve balance of nearly $400,000 at
the beginning of the next fiscal year. The following pages contain a
complete statement of Commission receipts and expenditures for the
calendar years 1947-48.









00

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