<%BANNER%>
Biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075940/00003
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Publisher: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1940
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Game protection -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fish culture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fishery management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Wildlife management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: First biennial report covers the period from the time of the organization (of the Commission) July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1936.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000327977
oclc - 01332271
notis - ABV7514
System ID: UF00075940:00003
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida. Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish.|Biennial report of the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
Succeeded by: Florida. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.|Annual report

Full Text




ell, K:


`LJ


























1939-40











/2ienucici RIep

COMMISSION OF GAME AND
FRESH WATER FISH
of the

STATE OF FLORIDA


BIENNIUM ENDING
December 31, 1940


I. N. KENNEDY
Executive Secretary
Tallahassee, Florida


L










C,"
d)~~


L 1


























4 Tallahassee, Florida
3 March 15, 1941

/ W. Lamar Gammon, Chairman
X Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
State of Florida

S Sir:
I am submitting herewith the report of the work of the State
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish for the conserva-
tion of Florida's wildlife resources during the biennium closing
December 31, 1940.
SRespectfully yours,




I. N. KENNEDY,
A Executive Secretary






.. ... -.. : : ..
-. ..: *" .* :
,.. ... ....*

., ;.'^.
..**. .. .* .




124147


L















GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH

STATE OF FLORIDA


FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT:
L. G. BRUCE, Bartow, appointed November 1, 1939,
with term expiring June 30, 1943; succeeding
Dr. F. G. Garner, Winter Haven.

SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT:
THOMPSON S. BAKER, Jacksonville; appointed
July 26, 1937, with term expiring June 30, 1941.

THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT:
W. LAMAR GAMMON, Marianna, Chairman; ap-
pointed June 30, 1937, with term expiring
June 30, 1941

FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT:
INMAN W. WEEKS, Pahokee; appointed June 20,
1939, with term expiring June 30, 1942;
succeeding H. L. Schaller, Miami.

FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT:
JOHN S. CLARDY, Ocala; appointed March 28, 1938,
with term expiring June 30, 1940; Reappointed
September 27, 1940, with term expiring
June 30, 1944.



W. LAMAlA.GADiMMON .01airman
I. N. KENNEDY, lzkexeutive:Sre'tty.

.. ::
io 6 "


















2eleo%4 ji T4aalmi1al


Tallahassee, Florida
March 15, 1941

To His Excellency
Spessard L. Holland
Governor of the State of Florida

Sir:
I have the honor of transmitting herewith the biennial report
of work that has been done for the conservation of Florida's
wildlife resources, as directed by the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish during the period closing December 31, 1940.

Respectfully submitted,



W. LAMAR GAMMON,
Chairman












































GAME AND FISH


The above was by far the best-liked cover photograph used
during the first year of the Commission's new publication.)

















9.*dwldcicio


Since 1935, the year in which it was created by the Legisla-
ture, the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has been
the branch of the government of the State of Florida charged
with care of Florida's wildlife, and the administration of the
State's laws affecting the game and fresh water fish within its
boundaries.
The Commission consists of five members, who, as required
by law, are "well-informed on the subject of wildlife, conser-
vation and restoration." They are appointed by the Governor
for four-year staggered terms, one from each of the five con-
gressional districts of the State.
Acting in an administrative capacity for the Commission is
the Executive Secretary, selected and employed by the Com-
mission.
The Commission is represented in each district by a Chief
Conservation Officer, to whom the Conservation Officers in
that district are primarily responsible, and who supervises all
of the Commission's work in that district, whether it be en-
forcement, restocking, or investigation.
In the field the Commission has regularly just over 100 Con-
servation Officers, at least one to each County, with additional
officers distributed where hunting, fishing or trapping is heav-
iest.
The Commission's income is derived from the sale of hunt-
ing, fishing, trapping, boats for hire, guides' and other licenses
to residents and non-residents. No additional funds are given
to the Commission for operation; and, on the other hand, the
Commission has sole use of these funds. As population, inter-
, est in the out-of-doors, and enforcement have progressed, so
has the Commission's income. During the first fiscal year of its
existence, the Commission's revenue amounted to $151,936.67.
In the latest fiscal year for which a report is available, July 1,
1939, to June 30, 1940, the total revenue amounted to $227,-
590.82, an increase of 50 per cent in a five-year period.






^ ^











8 BIENNIAL REPORT


This revenue is expended as shown in the accompanying dia-
gram, which represents one dollar of revenue, for the fiscal year
1939-1940, and the percentage of that dollar used for the vari-
ous divisions of the Commission's activity.


HOW THE WILDLIFE DOLLAR IS SPENT


Administration ............................. 81/2%
E n force en t .......................... .... ............................ .................. .
H a tch e r ies ........................................ ................... ................ 4 /
G am e T ech n ician ................................................. ................. 1
E d u cation .............. ... ... .................................... 1/2%

100%











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 9



LICENSES

As the Commission's income is derived from the sale of li-
censes, it is of interest to note the various types of licenses is-
sued by the Commission under authorization of the laws of the
State as enacted by the Legislature.
These licenses are sold by County Judges, in most instances,
with a small fee being authorized by law to compensate the
Judge for clerical expense. A few licenses, as indicated, are
sold directly by the Executive Secretary at his office at Talla-
hassee.
Exempt from purchase of hunting, fishing and trapping li-
censes are residents 65 years of age and over, and children
under 15 years of age.
Licenses are as follows, with the County Judge's fee included:

GAME

Series I-Resident County Game ..................................$ 1.25
Series J-Resident, Other than Home County ............ 3.25
Series K-Resident, State ..-..................... ................. 5.50
Series L--Non-Resident, State ........................................ 25.50
Series M-Non-Resident 10-day continuous .............. 10.50
Series M-1-Non-Resident County, Owners of and
paying taxes on 3000 acres of land ........................ 10.50
Series Y-Guide; Required for guiding hunting par-
ties. Guides may not take game or carry rifle or
shotgun while conducting party. Issued from office
of Commission, Tallahassee ..................................... 10.50
Report of Game killed in previous season must be filed with
County Judge when applying for hunting license. Failure
to file data on blank form attached to application is cause
for refusal of license.
Alien Hunting-Issued from office of Commission,
Tallahassee .................................... .................... ... 50.00

FISHING

Series A-Resident State, Fresh Water*....................$ 2.25
Series B-Non-Resident State, Fresh Water .............. 5.50
Series C-Non-Resident, 10-day Continuous Fishing,
Fresh-W ater .............................................................. 2.25
Special Non-Resident License required in Washing-
ton County ...... ................. .. ..................... 25.00
*License not required of residents to fish in county of resi-
dence or border waters of county.












BIENNIAL REPORT


TRAPPING
Series N-Resident County .............. ...........-......... $ 3.25
Series O-Non-Resident County ............... ............ 25.50
Series P- Resident State .......................................... 25.50
Series Q-Resident of County Other than Home ...... 10.50
Series R-Non-Resident State ..................... .......... 100.50

COMMERCIAL LICENSES
(Issued from Office of Commission, Tallahassee)
FRESH-WATER FISH DEALERS
Series U-Resident retail. May sell to consumer or
dealer. .............. ... ............ ........................ ............. $ 5.00
Series V-Resident Wholesale, (to sell or ship by
half-barrel, barrel or in bulk) ...................................... 50.00
Non-Resident or Alien, (to sell to consumer or
wholesaler.) .......................... ........ ........... 50.00
Non-Resident Wholesale (to sell or ship in half-
barrel, barrel or bulk) ........... ...... ..... ........... 500.00

COMMERCIAL BOATS
Series X-Resident, fish boat twenty feet long, five
foot beam and under .. ...............................$ 1.00
Ten cents for each additional foot in length or
beam.
Non-Resident, fish boat ............. ............... ............ 10.00

BOATS FOR HIRE
Series W-Required for each boat rented for hunt-
ing, or fishing in fresh waters:
18 feet length -................................... ....$.. $ 2.50
19-21 feet length ........... .... ..... ... .......... .. 4.00
21-25 feet length ............... .. ..... ..... ....... 15.00
Over 25 feet length ~.......-......... .......... .. ...... .. 25.00

DEALERS IN ALLIGATOR SKINS AND GREEN OR DRIED FURS (SKINS)
Series S-Resident local dealer or buyer (must not
solicit by mail, advertise, travel to buy or employ
agents to buy) ............................ ............. .. ..$ 10.00
Series T-1-Resident State Dealer or Buyer ............... 100.00
Series T-2-Agent for licensed "Resident State
Dealer or Buyer" -- ...-.---... .. ..........-........... ...... 5.00

GAME FARM
Series Z-For operating privately owned Game Farms $5.00









TAe
ammid dia 'd

Repoad
















kiudal Wi*a*





The wildlife of Florida today stands at the crossroads-that
same decisive point that has come, or will come, in the history
of every natural resource-and an understanding of the prob-
lems is essential to their solution.
Last of the frontier states-so have the writers called Flor-
ida. But even the last of frontiers reaches a point where it
no longer is a frontier, when it becomes absorbed in the onward
surge of civilization. And thus it is with the wildlife of the
State.
The wildlife-both game and non-game-of the State has
been declared to be the property of the State; and at the same
time is recognized as among the valuable natural resources of
which the supply is limited and the value, whether recreational,
economic or aesthetic, is tremendous.
It is from the standpoint of conserving or protecting the
State's property, and at the same time enjoying its use, that
the problem must be attacked.
Florida has about 30,000 fresh water lakes, far more than any
other state in the Union. Once teeming with black bass, bream,
speckled perch-the game fish of the State-the inroads of
resident and non-resident anglers have made fish conservation
an important issue. For the present fishing problem is seen to
be more acute when it is realized that it is added to the inroads
formerly made by commercial bass fishermen. No longer can
black bass be sold in the State, thanks to legislation passed in
1935; but many lakes and streams have failed to recover from
the slaughter of bass and the destruction of feeding and spawn-
ing beds of those days. In many lakes and streams roughfish
and predatory fish, turtles, snakes gained such an ascendancy
that now Nature must be aided to overcome the devastating
effects of man's former thoughtlessness.
The same story holds true, with, of course, minor variations,
when it comes to consideration of Florida's game. Once plen-
tiful, apparently inexhaustible, the State's wildlife is now seen,
even by the most casual observer, to be feeling the effect of
constant hunting today as well as the thoughtless, careless,
wanton slaughter of years gone by.
And, of course, just as much as the effects of hunting, the
supply of game is affected by the changes in land use. Thous-
ands and thousands of acres of land have been cleared for


L











14 BIENNIAL REPORT


building of new towns and cities that have sprung up; thous-
ands and thousands more acres have been cleared for agricul-
tural purposes; land has been drained for farming or for mos-
quito control; roads have been cut through almost inaccessible
forests and thus have driven the game back even deeper. No
longer do the natural refuges exist in profusion as they once
did.
Yet, at the same time, the number of hunters has increased,
and even with constantly stricter enforcement of game laws
regulating bag limits and seasons, the actual legal toll of game
taken is tremendous.
When a sportsman buys his hunting license, he reports on the
game he killed during the previous hunting season. Obviously
these figures are not 100 per cent accurate, depending, as they
do, on memory, and on the fact that many hunters may not
purchase licenses regularly, year after year. But in the main
they can be taken as an indication of the trend in taking game,
and the figures show that a heavy toll is being taken, which un-
doubtedly is more than nature can successfully replace each
year without adequate protection and a policy of restoration.
Following is the table of game taken during the seasons of
1937-38 and 1938-39, as shown by reports made-when hunting
licenses for the following year were purchased:

YEAR Quail Dove Ducks Squirrel Geese Deer Turkey

1937-38.. 776,460 501,232 56,531 232,463 747 1773 3139
1938-39.. 735,690 479,214 97,969 199,612 534 1539 2727

As these figures are incomplete for reasons given above, and
because some Counties failed to make the required report (18
counties in 1937-1938 and 20 counties in 1938-1939 are miss-
ing), it is believed that the :.rgr.-. should be increased by about
one-fourth to give an accurate picture of the actual game taken.

Thus it can be seen that more than a million Bob-white quail
were taken in each of the two hunting seasons-a drain on the
quail population that calls for serious thought and considera-
tion.

In the former of the two seasons considered there were 55,-
693 licensed hunters (including both resident and non-resident)
and in the latter there were 57,925 hunters. The number of
hunters continues to increase, and they will hope to continue
to find game in the same abundance.




I,










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 15


As a necessary step toward better protection for wildlife, and
more efficient enforcement of the present regulations, the Com-
mission definitely recommends that all laws affecting game be
.Si,t... ii..-, to correct the present patch--work of local and spe-
cial laws which are conflicting and misleading to the hunter,
and difficult to enforce adequately.
It is this condition as well as the increase in number of hun-
ters that the Commission, conservationists and sportsmen of
the State have to face and to take into consideration in shaping
policies for present and future action in restoration, and in
recommendations to the Legislature for laws affecting wildlife.

CATTLE-FEVER TICK ERADICATION PROGRAM
The Legislatures of 1937 and 1939 authorized the State Live
Stock Sanitary Board to kill deer in sections in Orange, Osceola,
Hendry, Highlands, Glades and Collier Counties, on the basis
of the Board's report that the cattle-fever tick in this State
could not be eradicated without killing the deer, as many of
the deer in the area were infested with the tick.
Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian and Secretary to the
Live Stock Sanitary Board, has given the following figures on
the number of deer which have been killed in the program
authorized by the Legislatures:
There have been killed in the deer reduction program, auth-
orized by the Legislatures of 1937 and 1939, deer as follows:
Orange and Osceola Counties .......................................731 deer
B revard C ou n ty ....................................................... ............ 6 d eer
H ighlands County ............................................. .... 126 deer
Glades County ....... ............................... .. ................. 10 deer
The deer reduction program has been completed in the above
areas and the foregoing figures comprise all deer to be killed.
The deer reduction program is in process in Collier County,
and the Live Stock Sanitary Board reported shortly after the
close of the biennium that it had records of 2786 deer killed.
During the first six months of the program, 37 per cent, it was
reported by the Board, of the deer killed in Collier County
showed infestation with cattle fever ticks.

STATUS OF FLORIDA'S WILDLIFE
A survey of the present wildlife, both game and non-game, in
Florida, shows that while the trend over the past several dec-
ades has been toward serious reduction, this trend has been
slowed down, stopped, and even reversed dmuing the biennium
which has just closed.










16 BIENNIAL REPORT


A review of the situation, by species, follows, and is based on
reports of Conservation Officers and reports from other trained
and qualified observers:

DEER
Two years ago a close check by counties of the State made
by the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish showed that
there were 16,908 deer in the State.
A similar check, just made, indicates that the number of white-
tailed deer in Florida is now 16,169. In this report, gains in
Walton, Santa Rosa and Okaloosa Counties, where deer have
been given additional protection on the Eglin Field Military
Reservation and the Blackwater River State Forest; and gains
in several other areas, due to added protection; have partially
offset the heavy reduction in Collier County, where, according
to the foregoing figures from the State Live Stock Sanitary
Board, 2786 deer have already been killed. The total reduc-
tion in the entire State is slightly less than 800 deer, as the
deer killed in the tick eradication program in other Counties
was practically complete at the beginning of the two-year per-
iod now being reported.
The game management program on the various National
Forests, especially Ocala, is one of the most hopeful and prom-
ising signs of eventual restoration of deer in not only those
areas, but in territory surrounding those areas.
The enactment in 1939 of the law by the Legislature which
requires that hunters leave on the deer carcass marks of sex
for identification, thus further protecting doe deer, has result-
ed in better protection for the white-tails, according to reports
from the field.

TURKEY
Only a small reduction in wild turkey in Florida-one of
the few States in the Union where the native wild bronze tur-
key is found in any considerable number-has been noted dur-
ing the past two years. Slight gains in some areas have been
offset, according to observers, by the fact that hunters in the
tick eradication program in Collier County at times killed tur-
keys as well as deer. But, on the whole, Florida's turkey out-
look is no worse than it was two years ago, and with the added
protection of a shorter season should, in time, be increased
somewhat. The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
recommends that the season on turkey be shortened to coincide
with the deer season, November 20 to December 31.


B. F. Kerr's three dogs are intent on their job, and paid his snap-shooting no
heed. He took the picture in Leon County.










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 17


QUAIL
Bob-white quail, so far as number of hunters is concerned,
is undoubtedly Florida's principal game, and, as such, has been
given probably greater attention than other species. Figures
given in game kill censuses, as compiled by the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish, indicate that more than a mil-
lion quail are killed annually during the hunting season, a drain
on this resource which taxes Nature to replace.
Quail, of course, are merely a by-product of land which is
used for other purposes, and the welfare of the bird is depend-
ent upon what use is made of the land. Therefore, the success
of public hunting is directly affected where the trends in land
use destroy or reduce quail environment.
In Florida there are three land-use trends which are more or
less rapidly reducing quail environment and which must be
recognized in any quail restoration program:
1. Farmlands
So-called clean farming is becoming more wide-spread in the
farming sections of the State, eliminating food and cover areas
which formerly produced quail. Until food and shelter areas
are maintained on or near these farms, quail populations will
continue to be low in these areas.
2. Forest Lands
The acreage in forest lands under organized fire protection is
increasing. As a result of the elimination of fire from pine

N Alt



7!:~~, :










BIENNIAL REPORT


woods the ground vegetation becomes rank, choking out essen-
tial quail food plants and in other ways produces areas unfit
for the production of quail. Since the piney woods provide a
large part of the quail hunting territory in Florida, the suc-
cess of hunting may be expected to decline. It is not the intent
here to leave the impression that owners of timber lands should
burn their woods. Contrarily, this is simply a statement of
an existing condition and its effect on the production of quail.

3. Grazing Lands

The increased interest in producing high grade beef in Flor-
ida has resulted in the development and rapid extension of im-
proved pastures. Over extensive areas of South Florida quail
are able to survive in rather large numbers because of the ex-
istence of palmetto clumps which provide an abundance of
well-distributed cover and the fact that vegetation on the native
ranges was kept open by fires and comparatively light grazing.
Cover is conspicuously reduced or eliminated as is food on im-
proved pastures. The end result, dependent on how wide-spread
livestock developments become, will be drastic reductions in
quail environment.
Florida is the last of the pioneer states and the history of
the pioneer period in other states indicates that during this
period game is quite plentiful. We are now in a development
stage and increased, more productive use of the land for greater
cash income may be expected to change entirely the wildlife
picture and formerly favorable game environments will conse-
quently become non-productive.
It is obvious that the basic problem concerning the mainten-
ance of good quail shooting hinges on land use. Once this
thought is clearly fixed in mind it should be likewise obvious
that simply game legislation and the wholesale release of arti-
ficially propagated or even wild-trapped quail is not the solu-
tion, though there is considerable room for improvement in the
former. The approach to the problem is very difficult, for its
solution depends on the widescale practicing of quail manage-
ment by the landowner. Public shooting grounds will not en-
tirely solve the problem for quail, for no state could finance the
management of enough land to supply the growing army of
hunters with good quail shooting, since it requires about 10,000
acres of land managed primarily for quail to produce a sus-
tained, shootable crop of 1000 birds. In all probability public
shooting grounds would solve the problem as far as other spe-
cies of game are concerned.


L I










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


SQUIRREL
Despite heavy shooting of squirrels every season, Florida's
gray or "cat" squirrels apparently are holding their own, but
there is a steadily diminishing number of fox squirrels. Many
conservationists have urged removal of fox squirrels from the
list of game animals, a closed season for several years, or at
least a reduction in the present bag limit of 15 a day, and 200
in a season. A closed season which lasted from 1927 to 1932
produced only temporary benefits in increasing their number.

MOURNING DOVES
The mourning dove, while it comes under Federal regulations
as a migratory bird, in Florida is both migratory and resident,
although the larger number are migratory. Its popularity as a
game bird is constantly on the increase, and Federal officers
and State Conservation Officers unite in their efforts to pro-
tect it.
In January of 1940 unusual cold weather throughout the
South caused the deaths of thousands and thousands of mourn-
ing doves in the States to the north of Florida, not only through
freezing, but also through the fact that as snow covered grounds
which were ordinarily not covered, food was scarce, and many
birds died of starvation.
This reduction of the dove populations was apparent in the
dove season in the fall of 1940, and is expected to continue ap-
parent for several seasons. Anticipating this, Federal authori-
ties in 1940 reduced the bag limit from 15 to 12 as a step to-
ward restoring the reduced populations.

MIGRATORY WATERFOWL
A survey made by Conservation Officers of the Commission
of Game and Fresh Water Fish in connection with agents of
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service immediately after
the 1940 waterfowl season indicated that there had been little
or no State-wide change in their numbers. Eight reports
showed an increase, eight reports, a decrease, and eight reports
showed the same number as in the previous year.
The Fish and Wildlife Service, and its predecessor Federal
agency, the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, in recent years
has shortened seasons, reduced bag limits, and provided addi-
tional refuges in order to build up the numbers of waterfowl
throughout the Nation. From a low of 30,000,000 ducks and










20 BIENNIAL REPORT


geese in 1934, their numbers have climbed, according to 1939-
1940 estimates, to 65,000,000, and a further increase is expect-
ed to be shown in the January, 1941, inventory by the Fish and
Wildlife Service.
Numbers of Canada geese are estimated to have remained
the same, and for that reason the bag limit was reduced by the
Federal agency from five in 1938-1939 to four in 1939-1940 and
to three in 1940-41. Additional land has been added to the St.
Marks National Wildlife Refuge, chief wintering place of
Canada geese; and additional provisions are now being made
there to increase the water area for geese and other migratory
waterfowl.
The migratory waterfowl season in the Southern Area was
lengthened by 15 days to include the months of November and
December. This did not interfere with the heaviest duck con-
centration, nor break up mated pairs, according to statements
made by scientists of the Fish and Wildlife Service.

MIGRATORY BIRD SEASON
In 1939 and 1940 the open season for taking migratory water-
fowl under Federal regulations did not coincide with the open-
ing of the State's hunting season, a situation which created
possible confusion in the minds of sportsmen, and difficulties
of interpretation on the parts of enforcement officers and the
courts. For that reason, the Commission of Game and Fresh
Water Fish suggested to those counties not bordering on the
Gulf of Mexico (by statute, counties which do border on the
Gulf observe the Federal rather than the State season for tak-
ing migratory waterfowl) that resolutions be adopted by Coun-
ty Commissioners opening the counties to the taking of migra-
tory birds to allow sportsmen full advantage of the lengthened
Federal season.
In 1939 the migratory bird season, under Federal regulation,
opened November 15, five days before the general State hunt-
ing season, November 20. All Counties bordering on the Gulf
of Mexico, except Charlotte, where the season opens December
1, opened on the Federal date by statute. All other counties
opened November 15, except Baker, Calhoun, and Marion,
where County Commissioners decided not to extend the season;
and Bradford, Flagler, Hendry, Jackson, Liberty, Osceola,
Putnam, Sumter, Volusia and Washington, where no action
was taken, thus automatically establishing the State season as
the migratory bird season.
The Federal regulations extended the migratory waterfowl
season in 1940 from 45 to 60 days, starting November 2. County











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 21


Commissioners in most non-Gulf border counties again adopted
resolutions setting the opening of the "duck season" to coin-
cide with Federal regulations, with the exceptions of Marion,
Putnam and Sumter, where Commissioners voted to adhere to
the State opening date of November 20; and Baker, Calhoun,
Holmes and Liberty Counties, where County Commissioners
took no action.
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS
Fur-bearing animals in Florida are generally considered to
be holding their own. In fact, low prices for pelts for several
years kept reducing the number of trappers, as indicated by
the sale of trapping licenses, to a low of 709 licenses sold for
the 1938-1939 season. When the prices on furs rose, however,
the sale of such licenses increased to 1049 for the 1939-1940
season, and the sale of licenses for the 1940-1941 season, from
incomplete returns, was expected to show a 50 percent increase
over the preceding year.
* 0 RACCOON
Throughout the State the most popular fur-bearing animal
among the trappers is the raccoon, largely because of the num-
ber of 'coons to be found in the various wooded areas. Appar-
ently the 'coon is maintaining the same level, but a change in
season is recommended by the Commission, to start the trapping
season two weeks earlier-November 20; and to end it, also,
two weeks earlier-February 15. This will give the same length
trapping season, but will protect the 'coons during the mating
period.
* 0 OTTER
The Florida otter's pelt is by far the most valuable of that
of any of the fur-bearers trapped in this State. Despite its
resultant popularity with trappers, it is at least holding its
own. Since its mating and gestation period is similar to that
of the raccoon, the Commission recommends that the trapping
season for this water-frequenter be the same as that recom-
mended for the 'coon, from November 20 to February 15.
* BLACKBEAR
It has been estimated that there about 300 blackbears in
Florida. The bear is protected in one County, Volusia; but
though listed as a fur-bearer on the statute books of Florida, is
extended no protection in other counties. To preserve this
interesting and valuable mammal from extinction, the Con-
mission recommends that the blackbear be placed under the
game laws of the State, with an open season to coincide with
the open season on deer, November 20 to December 31.


i










22 BIENNIAL REPORT


* OPOSSUM
Florida still has a plentiful supply of the opossum, North
America's only marsupial. While its fur is not of very high
grade, it is comparatively easy to take, but is sufficiently pro-
lific to withstand the drain of trapping.
@ 0 FOX
Many game authorities challenge the accusation that the gray
fox, Florida's representative of the vulpine family, deserves
his reputation as a voracious predator. Though listed as a
fur bearer, it is without legal protection.
ALLIGATOR
The alligator, representative of Florida's distinctive wildlife
in the minds of many who have never been to this State, has
had little legal protection through the years until recently.
Most of the local laws extending protection to alligators were
adopted by the 1939 Legislature.
At present, the alligator is protected at all times in the fol-
lowing counties: Broward, Calhoun, Charlotte, Dade, Indian
River, Levy, Martin, Orange, Palm Beach and St. Lucie. They
also are protected in Silver River, Ocklawaha River, Lake Weir
and Little Lake Weir in Marion County, and in Tomoka River
in Volusia County. In Lee County alligators may be taken
only during the open season, November 20 to February 20, and
provided they are more than 30 inches long.
FISH
Florida's two outstanding laws affecting fish, adopted in
1935 and 1937, have continued to show results in the protec-
tion and conservation of this resource which is valuable both
from an economic and an aesthetic standpoint.
In 1935 a law was enacted which prohibited the sale of black
bass, and in 1937 further protection was provided by closing
the fresh waters of the State to taking black bass for 66 days,
from March 15 through May 19.
Local laws in 1939 nullified the beneficial effects of this law
in some sections by voiding the closed season in the fresh waters
of Lafayette, Glades, IIendry and Okeechobee Counties. The
western portion of Lake Okeechobee is included in Glades and
IIendry Counties, and is thus open to the taking of black bass
the year 'round, as is the southeastern portion of the Lake,
which in the same year was designated by a local law as a
"breeding ground" for fish.
In other Counties, however, a definite conservation attitude
has come into existence, and each year County Commissioners










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 23


in several Counties close the waters of their Counties to all
fresh water fishing, as permitted by law, for a 60-day period
approximating the closed period on black bass, which also ap-
proximates the spawning period of all Florida's fresh water
fish.
Legislation closing all fresh waters of the State to all fishing
during the spawning period is recommended and urged by the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, as a necessary
step in the conservation of Florida's great out-of-doors attrac-
tion. In addition, a reduced bag limit on all species of fresh
water fish is recommended.


Conservation Officers with illegal net captured in Florida lake.

























3n lemoriam


THIS space is dedicated to those three Conserva-
tion Officers of the Commission oC Game and
Fresh Water Fish whose deaths occurred during the
1938-1939 Biennial Period. In recognition of their
years of service to the conservation of their State's
wildlife, tribute is hereby paid:
J. A. Perryman, Inverness, who died August 28,
1939.
S. L. Smith, St. Cloud, whose death occurred July
22, 1940.
A. A. Dnrden, Starke, who passed away ?1.,~I. 16.
1940.


I ~












The Qomm&iie%


4c1.dieS

LAW ENFORCEMENT

More than 80 per cent of the revenue of the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish is used for law enforcement, con-
sisting mainly of the salaries of Conservation Officers and their
expenses.
During the biennium, the average number of Conservation
Officers employed by the Commission was 110, the number fluc-
tuating to a certain extent due to seasonal demands.
Conservation Officers do not receive fees for making arrests,
but the law provides, however, that the Commission of Game
and Fresh Water Fish shall be allowed for making arrests the
same fees as Sheriffs, fixed by law, and, with mileage, includ-
ed in court costs.

THE CONSERVATION OFFICER
Men who occupy the post of Conservation Officer are selected
on a basis of their knowledge of wildlife, of the territory which
they will cover, and their good judgment and training.
In each district at frequent intervals, the member of the
Commission and the Chief Conservation Officer for that dis-
trict hold meetings or conferences of all the Conservation Of-
ficers in that particular district. At these conferences the
problems of enforcement are discussed and ideas exchanged,
resulting in better mutual understanding and more complete
cooperation among the members of the law enforcement group.
In addition to law enforcement, of course, the Conservation
Officers are representatives of the Commission in attending
meetings of conservation and civic groups, and in making con-
tacts with educators and pupils in the schools of the State.

ARRESTS AND CONVICTIONS
The accompanying table of violations gives an indication of
the varied types of illegal acts and activities for which law-
breakers were arrested during the two-year period.
The mere number of arrests, of course, is not a complete
picture of this phase of the Commission's work, for arrests
without convictions mean very little.
As the second portion of the qe.e~n.o~nri i' g .table shows, the
proportion of conviction..ts4a.cO'iets:**'hab..en .*iJi ; r the two
year period. A close." sti'S-.:o the figures ffev ,i )hat there

-* .* .' *..
.* i.. ... "*.... .. .*
..-. ...........
!


I I










26 BIENNIAL REPORT


has been an increase in the percentage of convictions to ar-
rests during each of the three periods shown. This increase
can be attributed to two major factors: the cooperation of the
County Judges of the State in adhering strictly to the law in
sentencing violators; and the steady increase in efficiency of
Conservation Officers in making arrests.
For the whole biennium the total number of arrests was
1397, but of these 133 cases are still pending, so that there were,
during the two years, 1264 cases completed. Of these 1264
cases, 1123 resulted in convictions, a percentage of 88.8 per
cent. During the first six months of 1939, the percentage was
81.1 per cent; for the fiscal year from July 1, 1939 to June 30,
1940, the percentage of convictions was 87.6 per cent; and dur-
ing the last six months of the biennium the percentage soared
to 95.7 per cent.

RE-STOCKING
The Commission's program of restoration and re-stocking
includes the trapping of quail in game breeding grounds, the
purchase of quail for release, raising quail at the new Black-
water River Game and Fish Propagation Area, hatching and
rearing fish at the Commission's two hatcheries at Winter
Haven and Wewahitchka, and rearing fish at the Blackwater
River Area. In addition, quantities of fish reared at the Fed-
eral hatcheries at Marianna and Welaka are turned over to the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish for distribution.
GAME BREEDING GROUNDS AND REFUGES
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has well
over two million acres of game breeding grounds and refuges
under its jurisdiction, and they are playing a major part in
the program of protection and restoration.
A game breeding ground is a privately-owned area, closed
to hunting by agreement between the Commission of Game
and Fresh Water Fish and the owners for periods of five years
or longer, or by legislative enactment. It is not exempt from
payment of taxes.
The purpose of these game breeding grounds is to provide
havens for wildlife, to take the place of the natural havens that
animals and birds had in the days before the onrush of civiliza-
tion put farms, roads and cities in the former wooded areas.
In'them game can breed unmolested, and as the maximum
carrying capacity -of J.T brejling ground is reached, the game
has a ten n'y fp "l'pill oter :' *4to0 rounding open shooting
territory' : ..: *.
: ,:: .. .....
** :* *.. .
S: .'. *.. : .. .... *










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


VIOLATION REPORT


6
VIOLATION


FISH AND FISHING:
Fishing without a license...............
Possession of undersized fish............
Taking fish by striking with iron.......
Fishing on bream bed .................
Fishing during closed season...........
Selling fish in closed county ...........
Netting in fresh waters ...............
Transporting black bass...............
Dynamiting fish ......................
Shooting fish ..........................
Exceeding bag limit on fish............
Selling fish without license ........... .
Taking bass with gig................
Taking bass during closed season........
Selling black bass ....................
Fishing in closed waters ...............
Illegal possession of seine and fish......
Fishing with basket ..................

HUNTING AND GAME:
Hunting without license................
Taking doves over baited area..........
Taking game during closed season......
Hunting in breeding grounds...........
Possession of game during closed season..
Discharging firearms on road No. 27....
Discharging firearms on Tamiami Trail..
Shooting on State Road No. 26........
Hunting on closed days ...............
Hunting deer with headlight............
Taking non-game birds ...............
Running deer with loose dog...........
Exceeding bag limit on game birds......
Hunting during closed season...........
Killing non-game birds ................
Killing doves after sunset ..............
Taking migratory game birds with rifle..
Taking migratory game birds from auto-
mobile.............................
Possession of firearms in National Forest
Possession of deer with sex removed.....
Possession of gun in breeding ground...


I II III
SMonths 12 Months 6 Months
1/1/39- 7/1/39- 7/1/40-
6/30/39 6/30/40 12/31/40


120
57

3


33
2
2
19
14
15
5
17
9





43
11

45
67

36

6
4


13
18
10
11
3

7
3
8


i












28 BIENNIAL REPORT



VIOLATION REPORT (Continued)


I II III
6 Months 12 Months 6 Months
VIOLATION 1/1/39- 7/1/39- 7/1/40-
6/30/39 6/30/40 12/31/40

Taking migratory non-game birds....... .... .... 14
Taking water fowl from power boat .... .... .... 7
Possession of wood duck ............... .... .... 2
Hunting with improper license.......... .... ... 2
Transporting more than two days bag of
quail. ............................ .... .... 1
Fraudulently obtaining hunting license.. .... .... 2
Killing doe deer....................... .... 6 2
Failing to check deer .................. .... .... 4

TRAPPING
Trapping without license. ............... 6 16 7
Trapping during closed season.......... 2 7 22
Trapping fish......................... 7 11 .
Trapping in breeding grounds........... .... 2 ..
Trapping in National Forest............ .... 7 3
Trapping quail. ....................... .... .... 3
Setting traps improperly .............. .... ... 2

MISCELLANEOUS
Selling quail.......................... 5 .. .
Renting boats without licenses.......... .... 3 4
Selling alligator hides in closed county... .... 3 ....
Killing alligators in closed county ....... ... ... 1
Possession and selling alligator hides in
closed counties. ...................... .... .... 1
Making false statement to obtain license. .... .... 1

TOTAL ARRESTS ................ 277 637 483

215 527 381
Convictions Convictions Convictions

DISPOSITION J 50 74 17
SUMMARY ) Acquittals Acquittals Acquittals

S 12 36 85
[ Pending Pending Pending


Quail trapped on breeding ground in Charlotte County for release in open shot->-
over territory.


I _










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 29


In the case of quail, which do not travel far, birds are trap-
ped by conservation officers each year, and released in pairs
in shot-over open territory immediately after the close of the
hunting season, so that the birds may propagate and form
coveys during the spring and summer.
This quail-trapping and restocking program is the backbone
of the Commission's restoration activity. It permits the release
of wild birds, already acclimated to the food and cover types
of the region, and habituated to seek shelter from predators.
At the end of the 1939-1940 hunting season, 7640 quail, which
had been trapped in game breeding grounds, were released in
pairs in nearby open territory.
As the biennium closed, the Commission had jurisdiction over
136 game breeding grounds, containing, as has been said, well
over 2,000,000 acres. Eighty of these have been closed by
Executive Order of the Commission under Section 4 of the Act
creating the Commission, and are not fenced; fifty-six are
closed under Section 7 of the Act, and are fenced refuges and
breeding grounds. In addition there are 21 game breeding
grounds and refuges which have been set up by Legislative
Acts.
OTHER GAME RE-STOCKING
In addition to the release of wild birds that have been trap-
ped in the game breeding grounds, the Commission each year
has purchased some quail to release in those sections where
the breeding grounds have not produced as many birds as in
other sections. During the biennium, 1467 quail were pur-
chased for release during the closed season.
Another quail re-stocking activity has been inaugurated, us-
ing birds from the Commission's Game and Fish Propagation
Area at Blackwater River State Forest, treated in another sec-
tion of this Report.
FISH HATCHERIES
For years the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
has maintained two fish hatcheries, one at Winter Haven, and
one at Wewahitchka. In addition, when the Blackwater River











b .
: *. .i




























Game and Fish Propagation Area was taken over Jnhul 1, 1949,
the Commission acquired six rearing ponds which have aug-
mented its fish propagation equipment.
The principal production of these first-named hatcheries has
been fingerling largemouth black bass. The Blackwater pro-
duction has consisted largely of bream fingerlings, raised from
fry obtained from the Federal Hatchery at Marianna and from
brood fish in the Blackwater ponds. Some bream and speckled
perch have also been produced at the Commission's two hatch-
eries.
The Winter Haven and Wewahitchka hatcheries in 1939 pro-
duced 1,066,000 fingerling bass which were used in restocking
lakes and streams throughout the State. The 1940 production,
of 601,000 fingerling bass, was smaller due to adverse weather
conditions during the spawning season.
From the Federal hatchery at Marianna during the two-year
period the Commission received 11,572 fingerling bass and 150,-
064 fingerling bream for distribution; and from the Federal
hatchery at Welaka the Commission received 57,415 fingerling
bass for distribution during the biennium.
The first season of production at the Blackwater Fish Propa-
gation Area resulted in 440,600 bream which were used in re-
stocking waters of many different counties.
Each year the Commission receives more applications for fish
for restocking lakes and streams than it is able to fill, but every
effort is made to investigate waters thoroughly and distribute
the fish so that those locations best suited will be restocked.
Federal hatcheries, in addition to restocking waters in Na-
tional Forests and in State Parks, and furnishing fingerlings


Seining Blue Cypress Lake for Roughf:sh and Turtles. >






-* A scene at the Winter Haven Fish Hatchery.


GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 31


to the Commission for distribution, also furnished fish to hatch-
eries operated in several Counties of Florida by the County
Commissioners; and furnished fry to the Commission for rear-
ing at the Blackwater River Fish Propagation Area.

IMPROVING LAKES AND STREAMS
One of the chief activities of the Conservation Officers of
the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish is the transfer
of fish from streams and lakes that are drying up in times of
drought to lakes and streams where there is plenty of water.
Countless thousands of fish have been saved this way, in every
section of the State.
In 1940 Conservation Officers of the Commission supervised
the seining of two favorite fishing spots, Lake Trafford in Col-
lier County, and Blue Cypress Lake in Indian River County
for roughfish, predatory fish and turtles, thus giving the game
fish a chance to increase in numbers. Other lakes have also
been seined by the Commission for the removal of these unde-
sirable species.
During the seining of Lake Trafford, in June and July, 1940,
the Commission sponsored a hyacinth-killing demonstration by
Capt. K. J. Boyd of Tallahassee, who has perfected a spray
which would kill the hyacinths in a lake without damaging
the fish life, and which is repellent to cattle. The familiar
hyacinth has become one of the major problems in fishing
waters of the State, for its rapid spread soon completely covers
the lakes and streams where it abounds.
BLACKWATER RIVER GAME AND FISH PROPAGATION AREA
Probably the outstanding step taken by the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish during the past two years was
the assumption of management and operation of the Black-
water River Game and Fish Propagation Area, known popu-
larly as a game farm. It is located in the northerly portions
of Santa Rosa and Okaloosa Counties, near Holt.




-.Lt -


I





Left: Quail Chicks; Right, Adult Birds in Laying Pen. -


32 BIENNIAL REPORT


This area was originally established by the U. S. Resettle-
ment Administration as part of the Federal Government's pro-
gram of taking over sub-marginal lands. When the Resettle-
ment Administration's work was discontinued, the area was
taken over by the U. S. Soil Conservation Service, which turned
it over, in turn, to the Florida State Forest and Park Service.
The Forest and Park Service retained control of the complete
area under the name of the Blackwater River State Forest,
and at the same time, July 1, 1940, leased the game and fish
propagation area to the Commission of Game and Fresh Water
Fish for administration and operation. The Commission has
retained the same superintendent who was in charge of the
area for the Resettlement Administration and the Soil Con-
servation Service.
On the area, quail, deer, bass and bream will be produced
for state-wide distribution.
QUAIL PRODUCTION
The total production of quail at the Blackwater River Game
Farm during the entire 1940 season was 1674 birds. Of this
number 644 quail were released before July 1, when the Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish took over the plant.
More than five hundred of these were liberated on the Black-
water River State Forest by the adoption system-these were
two- to three-day-old chicks released with wild-trapped, adult
cock birds.
Since July, when the Commission started to operate the
hatchery, 1030 quail were propagated. Of these, 660 were
shipped to the various districts for distribution, 151 were re-
leased on Blackwater River State Forest when the quail yard
was flooded by heavy rains, 19 were used for Fair exhibits, and
200 were held for breeding purposes.








Nis
'p -1 .















The season's average fertility was 87 per cent and the aver-
age percentage of eggs hatched was 80 per cent, indicating that
breeding stock was culled satisfactorily and that incubators
were being handled properly.
The original quail stock at the farm was purchased by the
Resettlement Administration. The equipment consists of four
incubators, five brooder houses, 100 breeding pens and 50 grow-
ing pens.
During the laying season-May through August-eggs are ta-
ken from the breeding pens and placed in the incubators, each of
which has a capacity of 400 eggs. The eggs hatch in 22 days,
and after the rearing season gets under way, a hatch is taken
off each week. The quail chicks are placed in the brooder
houses, where they remain six weeks. Then they are transfer-
red to the growing, or "hardening" pens for another two
weeks, bringing them to two months old, ready for release.
The average number of eggs laid per hen in a season is 85;
the largest hen laying record during the farm's operation is 131.
During the last two weeks of confined life, in the growing
pens, the quail are grouped in numbers of 12 to 15 to form
coveys. The birds, thus artificially grouped, become used to
each other, and are released as entire coveys, for when so lib-
erated they become settled in their new homes more quickly.
While it is expected that the quail hatchery on the game farm
will help maintain the supply of birds for release, the Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish will continue to depend
largely on its policy of trapping wild birds on game breeding
grounds for release on shot-over hunting areas. The wild birds
have proved much more satisfactory than artificially propa-
gated birds, as they are already accustomed to life in the woods.
DEER CORRAL, OR PASTURE
The deer corral of the propagation area occupies approxi-
mately a section of land-640 acres-which is surrounded by


-< Blackwater River Quail Hatchery.


__











34 BIENNIAL REPORT


a 10-foot "hog"-wire fence, estimated to be five and a half
miles long. Within this enclosure located on hilly pine land,
there are several open fields, and 170 acres of swamp land,
through which roam an estimated 50 head of deer. The orig-
inal deer on the area were purchased by the Resettlement Ad-
ministration. The number of deer is not known definitely be-
cause during heavy rains in 1939 a portion of the fence was
washed away, and some of the deer are known to have escaped.
A deer drive will be necessary before an accurate count of the
number of deer now in the corral can be made. Surplus deer
will be released in the depleted areas of the state.
More than 15 acres of the corral were planted in oats, rye
and Augusta vetch during the fall of 1940 to provide winter
forage for the deer. Dry weather retarded planting activities
but good stands of all seed planted were obtained, and the deer
began to concentrate on the food patches.
FISH HATCHERY
The fish hatchery on the area consists of six two-acre ponds,
about five feet deep, supplied with water from Ate's Creek
which flows in front of the game farm. During the Resettle-
ment Administration era a dam was constructed across the
creek, but this dam was washed out August 16, 1939, during
heavy rains. A 23-inch rainfall was measured during an 11-
hour period on that date.
When the Soil Conservation Service took over the Forest and
the game farm, it rebuilt the dam, providing a concrete spill-
way, 100 feet wide and 110 feet long. This dam impounds a
23-acre artificial lake from which water flows to the fish ponds
by gravity.
This dam was not completed until the date the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish took over the area, and such water
as was then in the fish ponds was surface and rain water, hence
the fish production for 1940 was far below what it had been
in the past, or what it is to be expected in the future. A total
of 440,600 fingerlings, of which 15,000 were bass and the re-
mainder bream, were delivered from the Blackwater ponds for
restocking.
All six of the ponds are fertilized to increase their p--oduc-
tiveness. In addition, box-like tanks connected by pipes with
the ponds are used for raising daphnia--a small crustacean,
barely visible to the naked eye, which is an important food for
small bass. From time to time the daphnia are released into
the ponds through the connecting pipes. The small bream are
fed rolled oats.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


COOPERATION

The conservation of Florida's wildlife is sufficiently
complex that just one organization cannot achieve all of
its purposes without coming in contact with other conserva-
tion agencies and interests. For that reason, it is important
that these organizations work together in cooperative harmony,
in order that the common ends of all the groups can be attained.
During the biennium, the Commission of Game and Fresh
Water Fish has worked in cooperation with these other groups,
and, it could also be said that these same groups worked in
harmony with the Commission. But whichever took the in-
itiative in any branch of the general program, the other party
or parties joined in with the common aim in view.
This cooperation has included Federal agencies and branches
of government; other State agencies; and private associations
and groups. All have been most cooperative; and in turn, the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has endeavored to
extend cooperation to all groups which are interested in the
conservation of Florida's and the Nation's wildlife resources.
In this section a detailed report on this cooperation will be
given, with, at this time, an expression of thanks from the Com-
mission to all individuals and groups who have worked with
the Commission on any or all of these projects and endeavors.

U. S. FOREST SERVICE
The Legislature of 1937 enacted a bill which permitted a co-
operative agreement to be entered into by the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish and the Forest Service of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, affecting the Ocala and the Osceola
National Forests, and that part of the Apalachicola Forest in
Liberty County.
This agreement was entered into soon after the enabling leg-
islation was passed, and under it a program has been set up
which includes reduced seasons and bag limits in the territory







Doe
Deer
at
Black-
water
Deer
Corral













36 BIENNIAL REPORT


within the areas, control of predators found in excessive num-
bers, the breeding of game, the planting of stock from National
Forests in other States, the replenishing of lakes and streams
from Federal fish hatcheries, and the development of various
projects in these fields.
Forest Rangers of the U. S. Forest Service are deputized to
enforce State game and fish laws in the National Forests, and
the Forest Service has provided living quarters in the forest
areas for special Conservation Officers assigned to the National
Forest by the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish.
In 1938 the first supervised deer hunt was held in the Ocala
National Forest under this cooperative agreement, and during
the biennium for which this report is made the second and third
of what are expected to be annual hunts were held. In the first
hunt of 1938, 1,144 hunters from 32 of the 67 Counties of
Florida participated, and secured 124 buck deer-the limit be-
ing one to a hunter.
The following tables tell the story of the 1939 and the 1940
controlled hunts. Figures were supplied by the U. S. Forest
Service.












GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 37



PARTICIPATION OF HUNTERS BY COUNTIES AND STATES


M arion...........
D uval............
Lake.............
Volusia...........
Polk .............
Orange ...........
Alachua. .........
Hillsborough. ....


TOP 15 COUNTIES IN 1939

..... 327 Putnam..
..... 176 St. Johns.
..... 154 Seminole.
..... 152 Sumter...
..... 119 Bradford.
. ... 104 Baker.. .
..... 92 Pinellas. .
..... 65


OUT OF STATE HUNTERS from Georgia, Alabama, Michigan,
New York, Indiana and Kentucky....................... 15



ToP 15 COUNTIES IN 1940

M arion................ 399 Putnam ............... 91
Lake.................. 245 Seminole.............. 58
Duval................. 215 Pinellas............... 52
Volusia................ 204 Sumter................ 48
Polk.................. 166 St. Johns.............. 48
Orange................ 147 Baker................. 36
IIillsborough .......... 144 Bradford .............. 23
Alachua................ 96

Forty-seven of 67 counties represented.

OUT OF STATE HUNTERS: Georgia, 10; South Carolina, Missis-
sippi, Illinois, Michigan and Connecticut, 1 each....... Total 15



REPORT ON SMALL GAME TAKEN DURING PERIOD OF HUNT


Gray Fox Migratory
Squirrel Squirrel Quail Waterfowl

1938............ (No hunting was permitted d for game ot her than deer)
1939........ ... 5141 158 316 50
1940 ............ 3268 233 200 30


(These reports lack accuracy, for they are made voluntarily by the hunt-
ers at the checking stations, and are not required.)


-< Ready for a Day's Hunting in the Ocala Game Management Area.


. . .
. . .

. . .











38 BIENNTAL REPORT


TABLE OF ANTLER POINTS ON BUCKS TAKEN IN 1939 AND
1940


POINTS 1939 1940

Spikes. ......................... 113 114
3-Point ........................ 13 14
4-Point ........................ 30 104
5-Point......................... 19 20
6-Point........................ 42 49
7-Point........................ ....... 19
8-Point ....................... 45 57
9-Point............... ....... ........ 12
10-Point....................... 5 8
11-Point....................... 1 2
12-Point........................ 1 1
14-Point ........................ ........


These tables tell some of the story of the hunts, but not.all.
In 1939 there were 1603 hunters, who bagged 303 bucks-ap-
proximately one in every five shooters getting a deer. In 1940,
however, with a very dry season, which handicapped the dogs,
there were 2173 hunters, who bagged 330 bucks, a ratio, this
time, of one hunter in every seven being successful. In both
years, of course, nearly all the hunters were from Florida,
the number of non-residents being 14 in 1939 and 15 in 1940.

The Conservation Officers of the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish are stationed permanently within the limits
of the game management area of the Ocala National Forest.
During the 1939 hunt, nine additional Conservation Officers
were stationed there, and in 1940, the Commission assigned 10
additional men to duty during the duration of the hunt.

The hunt is conducted on the wildlife management area of
the Ocala National Forest, an area which consists of 286,200
acres. This area surrounds the Ocala National Forest Game
Refuge of 78,000 acres, and together with the Refuge comprises
65 per cent of the Forest area. In the Forest boundaries, out-
side of the Wildlife Management Area there are 155,700 acres,
open to regular hunting. In this latter area, during the 1940
deer hunting season, 155 deer were taken under regular State
regulations, showing that the game on the management area is
spreading to outside lands, in accordance with expectations.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


The Ocala National Forest is the only area in the State under
jurisdiction of the U. S. Forest Service where such hunts are
held. It is hoped that in the near future the stock of wildlife
will have been built up enough on the Apalachicola and Osceola
game management areas that similar hunts may be held, if not
for deer, at least for small game.
After a deer is killed on the wildlife management area at
the Ocala National Forest, the successful hunter is through
hunting there for the season. When he leaves the Forest the
checking officer records the kill on the hunter's permit (which he
purchased for two dollars from the Forest Ranger, in addition to
his hunting license) notes the approximate weight of the deer,
its antlers, and any evidence of disease or parasites.


Alligator in Highlands Hammock State Park.

STATE FOREST AND PARK SERVICE
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has main-
tained consistent friendly relations with the Florida State For-
est and Park Service, which has both State Parks and State
Forests under its jurisdiction.
By arrangement with the Forest and Park Service, the Com-
mission has taken over the control and operation of the Black-
water River Game and Fish Propagation Area in the Black-
water River State Forest, and has worked with the Service in
the conservation and propagation of wildlife on the State Park
areas.










-0 BIENNIAL REPORT


For several years the Commission of Game and Fresh Water
Fish and the Florida Forest and Park Service have cooperated
in a program of deer propagation at the Highlands Hammock
State Park, near Sebring, and surplus deer from this park
are to be released, according to present plans, on the new My-
akka River State Park, near Sarasota. Both of these Parks are
designated as game refuges.

One of the forward steps which has been taken has been
the controlled burning agreement which has been entered into
by the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, the Florida
Forest and Park Service and the National Forests of the U. S.
Forest Service, in which a program of controlled burning,
properly studied, supervised and regulated on lands intended
primarily for game production has been approved.

UNITED STATES ARMY
The United States Army and the War Department are not
primarily conservation agencies, and for that reason it is a
little unusual to find them so listed.
But an experiment has been carried out successfully in Flor-
ida, through cooperation of the Army and the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish, which shows conclusively that
all of the Nation's needs and programs, including defense ac-
tivities, can, with thought and care, be included in a conserva-
tion program.
Maj. W. A. Maxwell, commanding officer at Eglin Field Mili-
tary Reservation, which is a practice bombing field in conjunc-
tion with the Army Air Corps Specialized Bombing School, in
cooperation with Army authorities, his staff, and the Commis-
sion of Game and Fresh Water Fish, worked out a program
for the 1940-1941 season which was hailed as a success by all
concerned.
The Eglin Field Military Reservation is the former Chocta-
whatchee National Forest, and until the Army took it over,
was under the control of the U. S. Forest Service. Forestry
practices are still continued, and a stronger emphasis than
ever is being placed on wildlife management, especially predator
control.
During the experiment deer bunting season, in 1941, 1181
deer hunting permits were issued to hunters from 18 counties
by the military authorities, as follows:











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 41


Okaloosa .............. 365 Calhoun ............... 8
Escambia.............. 279 Leon................... 5
Walton................ 212 Duval.................. 4
Santa Rosa............ 179 Washington ............ 4
Bay................... 74 W akulla................ 3
Jackson............... 22 Gulf................... 2
Holmes................ 8
Indian River, Alachua, Taylor, Hillsborough, Columbia, 1 each;
out of state hunters as follows: Alabama, 8; Georgia, 2; Illinois, 1.

These hunters reported killing 121 buck deer, approximately
one in every 10 hunters being successful. This is a similar pro-
portion to that reported for the same season on the Ocala Na-
tional Forest Game Management Area, although hunting was
permitted every day at the Eglin Field Reservation, and the
Ocala area has a staggered-hunting prohibited Mondays, Wed-
nesdays and Fridays-hunting season.
So far as is known, this is the only military reservation in
the country which is open to the general public for hunting.
Most large military posts, if hunting is allowed at all, permit
only military personnel to enjoy this privilege: Fort Bragg,
North Carolina, and Fort Benning, Georgia, are two where this
is done.
According to Major Maxwell the program used during the
1940-41 season was so successful, and the cooperation extended
by the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish and the
sportsmen was so complete that the same program will be con-
tinued with but minor variations.

U. S. FOREST SERVICE
Another field of cooperation of thle U. S. Forest Service and
the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has been in
the fisheries and developments being conducted on the wild-
life management area of the Ocala National Forest, through
the agreement with the Commission, the Forest Service, and
the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. More than 60 lakes,
totalling 21,000 acres are included in the research and develop-
ment program, and fish management in Florida is reaching a
point which it has never reached before.
The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through cooperative
agreement with the U. S. Forest Service, is charged with re-
sponsibility of conducting the research necessary to determine
the principles upon which the fishery management will be based,
and to act in an advisory capacity in technical management
problems.











42 BIENNIAL REPORT


The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish is charged
with the responsibility of law enforcement and cooperatively
administering the wildlife program with the United States
Forest Service. In addition to these agencies, the Civilian
Conservation Corps has contributed both time and effort to
conducting this research.
Under these agencies, the various lakes were mapped show-
ing contours, vegetation types, types of bottom, open water,
boat landings, etc. With one survey crew working full time
and another working part time, this job alone took over nine
months to complete. After a lake was mapped, seines and gill
nets were selected and operated at proper locations -to deter-
mine roughly the number and species of the fish population.
The seine and net catches were supplemented with observations
made by motor boat and bright lights at night.
Following these projects the Fish and Wildlife Service biolo-
gists investigated food conditions in the different types of vege-
tation, on the different kinds of lake bottoms, made chemical
tests of the water and checked on the number and species of
forage minnows.
Fish stocking was started in the summer of 1938, followed
by more stocking in 1939 and 1940. Each spring test seining,
night observations and other checks were made to evaluate the
survival and amount of growth made by fish planted the pre-
vious year. The results from the first two years of planting
was far above expectations. The first fish stocked in 1938 have
now reached legal size and very marked improvement in catch-
es has resulted where this stocking was done.
It is interesting to note that the 1938 plantings consisted of
only 25,000 bass and 14,000 panfish, distributed in 14 lakes.
Yet, a very marked improvement in fishing has been noted in
spite of the wide distribution. The 1939 stocking consisted of
111,600 bass and 231,000 panfish, but few of these will reach
legal size before the 1941 season is over. The 1940 crop of
fingerling are now being hauled from the fish hatchery at
Welaka, Florida, and distributed in the various lakes and
ponds.
By February 15, the time the fishing season closes on the
Wildlife Management Area, over 2-."Ti,;II fingerling bass 4
inches to 6 inches in length, and 375,400 bream, 3 inches to 5
inches in length, and 82,800 speckled perch will have been
planted. By the end of the 1941 season an average of approxi-
mately 50 bass, bream and speckled perch will have been











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


planted per acre in the waters under management. This will
total over 850,000 and will complete the preliminary stocking
program.
Stocking after 1941 will be based on frequent examinations
of the waters involved, the amount of fishing, and information
still incomplete on the amount of fish an acre of lake water
can support.
No bass were placed in lakes of less than 30 acres. In lakes
where aquatic vegetation was found to be scarce, no bass were
planted unless the lake had an area of at least 100 acres. How-
ever, the small ponds and lakes were stocked with various
species of bream and speckled perch.
Among other activities carried on by the Forest Service dur-
ing the past three years, have been the improvement of boat
landings, roads and approaches leading to the lakes; the in-
stallation of lake name and direction signs; the maintenance
of a field library and outdoor aquarium at the Juniper Springs
Recreation Area, and the removal of over three tons of garfish
from badly infested waters. In addition, the Forest Service
and State Commission personnel have given many talks and
made hundreds of contacts soliciting interest and cooperation
of the general public in the wildlife program.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has carried on
an extensive research program since July, 1938; reared the fish
for stocking purposes, given invaluable assistance and advice
in formulating plans; conducted experiments in twenty small
experimental lakes and ponds at the National Forest. Its most
valuable contribution will be the determination of proper fish
management practices in Florida waters and the demonstration
of those practices.
Since it was believed that the maintenance of good fishing
would be impractical and probably impossible for any great
length of time if regular State regulations were permitted, the
Florida Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, at the sug-
gestion of technicians from all three cooperating agencies,
made further restrictions on creel limits and advanced the be-
ginning of the closed season on bass to February 15. This was
deemed necessary as it was found that during some years a
great majority of the bass were on the spawning beds before
the regular State law closed the season. The following regu-
lations are therefore in effect on the Ocala Wildlife Manage-
ment Area:
Fishing not permitted between F-lrui-ir 15 and May 20.











BIENNIAL REPORT


CREEL LIMITS
B a ss .. ............. .............. ..................... ....... 8
Speckled Perch (Crappie) ..................................... ................. 15
Other sunfish (panfish) bream, such as shell-
cracker, redbreast bream, warmouth, stump-
kn ock ers, etc. ....... ..... ................... ...................... ... .. 15
P ike, jack, pickerel ...................................... ... .... ... 10
Daily creel limit of any and all species ........... 15
These regulations are made specifically for conditions in
the Ocala Wildlife Management Area, where more intensive
stocking and more intensive protection and, we hope, far bet-
ter fishing will occur.


.ud.


Canada Geese at a Wildlife Refuge.


U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
Seven years ago the plight of migratory waterfowl was at-
tracting the attention of conservationists throughout the na-
tion, in fact all over the continent of North America. From
countless hundreds of millions, the number of ducks and geese
had fallen to an estimated 30,000,000, and indications were
that the number would decrease rapidly, until waterfowl were
no longer among the extant species.
It was at this point that the Bureau of Biological Survey,
now incorporated into the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
the State game departments, and the game authorities of Can-










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


ada, Mexico, and other North American countries where mi-
gratory waterfowl touch in their annual migrations combined
forces, and through restrictive legislation were able to handle
the hunting seasons, bag limits, and formulate other rules
which stopped the slaughter and gave the wildfowl a chance to
recuperate through Nature's aid. In addition, the Bureau of
Biological Survey speeded up its program of establishing mi-
gratory waterfowl refuges, now known as National Wildlife
Refuges, until now there are millions of acres of land through-
out the country designed for the sole purpose of furnishing
resting or nesting places for ducks, geese and their relatives.
This program has been so successful that the Federal author-
ities, after conferring with State agencies, lengthened the
waterfowl hunting season from its 1938 and 1939 stretch of 45
days to 60 days in 1940, from November 2 through December
31, inclusive. Duck population increases, according to the
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, made this extension possible.
Mourning dove and Canada goose limits were reduced; duck
limits were kept the same, and possession limits on ducks were
increased.
At present Florida contains 17 National Wildlife Refuges,
containing a total of 105,390 acres. Conservation Officers of
the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish work in close
conjunction with the staff on the larger Refuges in protecting
and conserving wildlife in the areas.
The list of National Wildlife Refuges in the State, the date
of their establishment, the County in which they are located,
and the area which they cover, is on the following page.

FLORIDA WILDLIFE FEDERATION
During the past two-year period, sportsmen and conserva-
tionists of Florida succeeded in completing the establishment of
an organization which seems destined to be one of the greatest
forces for conservation of the State's wildlife.
This is the Florida Wildlife Federation, an organization of
sportsmen's and conservation organizations, with State-wide
scope, and a seriousness and singleness of purpose which augurs
well for its success.
The Federation held its annual convention in Orlando in
1939, and in Tampa in 1940 the growth of the movement was
almost unbelievable. Conservationists, sportsmen, wildlife en-
thusiasts, educators, from all over the State were at the 1940
convention, and gave evidence by their interest and their ef-
forts that they intended to become an increasingly important
factor in the conservation movement. The State Federation












46 BIENNIAL REPORT



NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES IN FLORIDA


NAME


Mantanzas .............
Brevard ................
Pelican Island..........
Key West .............
Great White Heron.....
Matlacha Pass..........
Pine Island.............
Caloosahatchee ........
Island Bay.............
Palma Sola.............
Passage Key............
Ft. DeSoto.............

Indian Key.............
Anclote. ...............

Chinsegut. .............
Cedar Keys............
St. M arks..............


ESTABLISHED


COUNTY


I* I -


August 10, 1927....
October 21, 1925...
March 14, 1903. ....
August 8, 1908.....
October 27, 1938 ...
September 26, 1908.
September 15, 1908.
July 1, 1920 .......
October 23, 1908 ...
September 26, 1908.
October 10, 1905. .
(Executive Order
Pending)........
February 10, 1906..
April 5, 1939 ......

1932. .............
July 16, 1929 .....
October 31, 1931.. .


St. Johns .....
Volusia........
Indian River...
Monroe ..... .
Monroe .......
Lee. ..........
Lee. ..........
Lee. ..........
Charlotte .....
Manatee .....
Manatee .... .

Hillsborough. .
Pinellas. ......
Pinellas and
Pasco.......
Hernando ....
Levy..........
Jefferson,
Taylor and
Wakulla .......


has become affiliated with the National Wildlife Federation,
and is planning to carry out the National organization's pro-
grams and policies.

The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish and the
Florida Wildlife Federation are closely allied by reason of
singleness of purpose, and it is expected that the close coopera-
tion of the two agencies will effect a real forward step in the
progress of wildlife conservation.

Officers for 1940-1941 of the Florida Wildlife Federation
are as follows:

President, Louis Morris, Monticello; Executive Secretary, Joe
M. Carr, Monticello; Treasurer, C. D. Hasbrouck, Tallahassee;
vice presidents (from the five Congressional Districts) : Paul
Henderson, Lakeland; Rhydon Latham, Jacksonville; L. A.
Wesson, Tallahassee; Don McCarthy, Miami Beach; Merlin
Mitchell, Orlando. Headquarters of the Federation have been
established at Monticello.


ACRES


267
12
15
1215
1000
10
31
40
11,100
2
36

421
191

197
2033
379


88,441










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 47


FLORIDA AUDUBON SOCIETY
The oldest conservation organization in the State is the Flor-
ida Audubon Society, which in 1940 completed 40 years of
crusading on behalf of Florida's birdlife. For many years,
according to R. J. Longstreet, editor of the Society's publica-
tion, The Florida Naturalist, and past president of the Society,
the group was the only voice raised in Florida for the protec-
tion of birds and animals. In 1901 through its efforts legisla-
tion was adopted which offered protection to wild birds, whether
game birds or not.
As at present operating, the Florida Audubon Society, co-
operating as always with the National Association of Audubon
Societies, protects many rookeries in various parts of the State,
maintains a lecturer in the public schools; publishes a quarter-
ly magazine devoted to the natural history of Florida, and
"may safely be said to be the most influential conservation
organization in this State and indeed in the entire South."

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUDUBON SOCIETIES
Equally interested with the State group in the protection
of Florida bird-life is the National Association of Audubon
Societies, which has led the fight against the slaughter of plum-
aged birds in years gone by, and has maintained wardens to
study and guard the rookeries of Florida's birds.
Wardens of the Audubon Society hold honorary commis-
missions as Conservation Officers of the Commission of Game
and Fresh Water Fish, and the regular Conservation Officers
of the Commission work with the Audubon wardens in their
protective and investigating work.
Great credit is due the National Audubon Society for its
quiet but effective work in restoring and protecting areas vital
to the existence of Florida's herons, egrets, and other birds.

OTHER COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES
At various times during the past two-year period the Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has cooperated with
other State Departments, including the State Department of
Education, the State Planning Board; with other groups, such
as the Florida Land Use Planning Committee, the U. S. Soil
Conservation Service; the Agricultural Extension Division;
the vocational agricultural teachers of the State; and other
groups and individuals too numerous to mention.
Representatives of the Commission have attended the Na-
tional Wildlife Conferences, both to report on Florida's con-
servation activities, and to bring back ideas as to what is being
accomplished in our sister States.










48 BIENNIAL REPORT


EDUCATION AND PUBLICITY

FLORIDA GAME AND FISH
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish for some
time has felt the need of a publication to enable it to reach
conservationists, sportsmen, and the general public, in some
methodical manner, in order to acquaint them with the prob-
lems and needs of Florida's wildlife, and to let them know of
the activities of the Commission.
Such a publication was started in March, 1940, under the
name of FLORIDA GAME AND FISH. It is a 16-page maga-
zine, 6 by 9 inches in size, published monthly, and containing
illustrated stories, reports and information on the work of the
Commission and its field force, and answers to questions on
wildlife topics.
The popularity of the publication has been most gratifying
to the Commission. Starting with a prepared mailing list of
about 700, the list has grown, by request, to 3000, and names
are added to the mailing list at the rate of about 100 a month.
The magazine goes to every section of the State.
Laudatory comments have been received from State and
County officials, from newspapers, from sportsmen, and from
Federal and State game departments and nationally-known
outdoors writers, all of whom seem to agree that FLORIDA
GAME AND FISH is interesting, informative and valuable.
The Commission hopes to extend its mailing list, month by
month, until all interested sportsmen and conservationists in
the State are reached. The magazine is issued free of charge
as a major activity of the informational and educational pro-
gram of the Commission.






f O w gil-











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 49


4-H WILDLIFE CAMPS
The game technician of the Commission of Game and Fresh
Water Fish was a member of the instructional staff at the two
4-H Club State Wildlife Camps held during the biennium. The
1939 camp was held at Camp Roosevelt at Ocala, and the 1940
camp was held at the regular 4-H camp at Cherry Lake, in
Madison County. Boys from every section of the State, who
had completed their 4-H wildlife investigation project, at-
tended the camp, which was made possible through the spon-
sorship of Mr. Charles Horn, president of the Federal Cart-
ridge Company. The camps were in charge of Mr. R. W. Black-
lock, State Boys Club Director of the Agricultural Extension
Service.
In 1940 a Negro boys wildlife camp was held at Milwaukee
Springs, near Gainesville, with the Commission's game tech-
nician participating in the day's program.















..o




Palm Beach Juniors Seine Drought-Affected Waters.

JUNIOR CONSERVATION GROUPS
In several counties of the State, notably Columbia, Hamilton,
and Palm Beach, junior conservation clubs have been organized
under the sponsorship of Conservation Officers or under the
auspices of adult conservation or wildlife groups. While these
organizations are yet in their infancy, the Commission feels that
they offer a tremendous opportunity for education and build-
ing up future support of the State's conservation program.


-< Columbia County Junior Wildlifers.


___I__ __1__1~__ II__~




















4

-a



"OUR HERITAGE"
One of the features of the Commission's program of infor-
mation and education is the three-reel 16 mm. sound motion
picture, "Our Heritage," filmed for the Commission by David
Newell, noted sportsman and out-of-doors writer. Three prints
of this picture are available at present, and the thousands of
adults and children who have seen and heard its message have
praised it as one of the most effective presentations of Florida's
wildlife and its needs.
The picture has been shown to conservation groups, civic and
service clubs and to schools, both in assemblies and in the
classroom. The Commission has a sound projector and screen
which are loaned to those groups which do not have equipment
available.
Thousands of persons have seen the film and have absorbed,
through the medium of both eye and ear, the story of Florida's
need of conserving its wildlife.
The film does not just teach a lesson. The inclusion of scenes
of a panther hunt and a bobcat hunt, containing thrills for
every lover of the out-of-doors, makes the picture entertaining
as well as instructive, and helps hold the attention of young
and old from start to finish.
STATE FAIR EXHIBITS
Each year the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
presents an exhibit of Florida's wildlife resources at the State
Fair held at Tampa early in February. The Fair Association
has made available to the Commission the major part of a
large permanent building, equipped with 20 small and two
large fish tanks, provided with running water. In these tanks
hundreds of fish, representing most fresh water species, are
displayed for the in formation and education of both residents
and tourists. In adjacent cages, game animals and birds are
jacet cges


Florida State Fair Exhibit, 1941. )





- Boys at a 4-H Wildlife Camp watch the Commission's 16mm sound motion picture.


GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 51


displayed, and mounted representative Florida pond and shore
birds are exhibited in several large glass show cases. The birds,
property of the Fair Association, are made available to the
Commission for its display each year.
OTHER FAIR EXHIBITS
In addition to the exhibit at the State Fair, the Commission
during the biennium participated in several county and sec-
tional fairs and festivals by placing exhibits therein; and at
the close of the two-year period had inaugurated a program of
broadened participation, which would include fairs in every
section of the State. This program is expected to be much fur-
ther expanded in the fair season of the fall, winter and spring
of 1941-1942, as it is one of the best methods of making per-
sonal contacts in conservation information and education.
A novel feature of the Commission's exhibit at several county
fairs was a "quiz board," a device designed and built by the
Commission's game technician. This board displayed 10 ques-
tions on Florida's game and fish laws which could be answered
by pressing a button. If the button for the right answer was











52 BIENNIAL REPORT


The "Quizboard."


pressed, a bell rang; but dead silence greeted an incorrect an-
swer. The questions dealt with bag, season and length limits
and other topics of general interest to sportsmen and conserva-
tionists.
INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS
During the biennium, the Executive Secretary of the Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish has sent out hundreds
and thousands of copies of the Commission's various publica-
tions, in answer to requests from every part of the State, and
to interested persons in other States.
Included in this material have been the following publica-
tions:
Conservation of Florida's Wildlife Resources, a 44-page Flor-
ida School Bulletin, issued in February, 1939, by the State
Department of Education in collaboration with the Commis-
sion of Game and Fresh Water Fish.
Florida Sport Fishing, a two-color, illustrated folder telling
what to fish for and where. A summary of fresh water fish laws
is included in this folder.
Florida Birds, a check-list of birds occurring in the State,
prepared from Arthur H. Howell's masterly Florida Bird Life,
published by the former Department of Game and Fresh Water










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Fish, and considered the authoritative work on Florida orni-
thology.
Laws of Florida Relating to Game, and Non-Game Birds,
Animals and Fresh Water Fish, 1939, which includes all Gen-
eral and Special Laws in effect, including those passed by the
State Legislature at its 1939 session.
Why Do We Have Fish and Game Laws?, a 4-page pamphlet
which explains the reasons behind some of the State's wildlife
legislation.
Summary of State and Federal Hunting Regulations, pub-
lished several months prior to the opening of the hunting sea-
son each year.
Biennial Reports-both of the Biennial Reports made by the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish since its creation in
1935 have been available to the public on request.
Other publications are planned during the years 1941-1943.
WILDLIFE RESTORATION WEEK
In cooperation with the National Wildlife Federation, and
in keeping with the Governor's proclamation of National Wild-
life Restoration Week, March 17-23, 1940, the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish sent material for school programs
and class-room discussions to every white and colored school
in the State. This material was prepared in the office of the
Executive Secretary, and was approved by the office of the
State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The initial issue
of FLORIDA GAME AND FISH, the Commission's monthly
publication, was published in connection with the observance
of 1940's Florida Wildlife Restoration Week.
RADIO PROGRAMS
The Executive Secretary, the game technician, and several
Conservation Officers of the Commission have made radio
broadcasts at different times during the two-year period. One
of these broadcasts was in conjunction with a regular monthly
program of the Future Farmers of America on Station WRUF,
Gainesville, and rebroadcast by means of transcription over six
other Florida stations.
NEWS STORIES AND OTHER PUBLICITY
In February, 1940, the Commission added an information
and education director to its staff to edit the then-projected
publication, FLORIDA GAME AND FISH, to prepare in-
formational materials, and to send news releases to newspapers
of the State. The news releases thus prepared have been used
extensively in both daily and weekly newspapers in every
section of Florida, and have aided in familiarizing the general
public with the work of the Commission. In addition to news
stories, reports for other conservation groups and civic organ-
izations, and speeches for various occasions have been prepared.











BIENNIAL REPORT


Midcellaietoae

MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish during- Ile
biennium held the following quarterly and called meetings.
Budgets for the coming six-months' periods were adopted at
the called meetings. Quarterly meetings, as required by statute,
were held at T1 .1! i .I1


CALLED
QUARTERLY
Date Place

February 6, 1939 Tampa
March 13, 1939
June 26, 1939
July 24, 1939 Pensacola
September 18, 1939
December 11, 1939
February 5, 1940 Miami
April 22, 1940
June 24, 1940
July 20, 1940 Miami
September 9, 1940
December 16, 1940



FEDERAL AID-TO-WILDLIFE
Interest of the Federal government in conservation, which
developed so extensively during the past decade, was exempli-
fied in the passage of the Federal Aid-to-Wildlife Act, also
called the Pittman-Robertson Act, by Congress in 1937. The
Act authorizes an appropriation for a v. 1.1ii .- restoration pro-
gram, with funds provided by the 10 percent excise tax on
sporting arms and ammunition.
The fund is distributed to the States on a basis of area and
number of hunting licenses sold annually. The State game de-
partments contribute one-fourth of the cost of a project; Fed-
eral funds provide the remainder.
At present Florida is one of the four States in the country
which is not participating in this restoration program, the
others being Georgia, Montana and Nevada.










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Plans were made for participation ofl Florida in the program
by the Commission, but the Governor's veto of the required as-
sent legislation, after being passed by the State Legislature in
1939, put a stop to the program, which is expected to be re-
sumed this year.
The Fish and Wildlife Service of the U. S. I)epartment of
the Interior, which administers the program, has ruled that
Florida can still qualify under the Act if the required assent
legislation is passed at tile 1941 session of the i .-. Legislature.
Pending in Congress is the Buck Bill, which would provide
for a similar program of fish restoration, with funds derived
from a tax on fishing tackle. This program would be admin-
istered similarly and in conjunction with the present Federal
Aid-to-Wildlife program.

HUNTING ACCIDENTS
One of the reports that comes into the office of the Executive
Secretary of the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
at the end of each hunting season is the Conservation Officers'
record of the number of hunting accidents, here listed for in-
formation and reference. In the 'i :--1939 hunting season
there were 16 accidents, five of them fatal. Of the others, eight
were minor and three serious.
Tn the 1939-1940 season the number of accidents increased to.
29, of which seven were fatal. Four of the others were serious,
and 18 minor.
















SOURCES OF REVENUE
During Biennium Ending June 30, 1940

CLASSIFIED LIST OF LICENSES SOLD


FISCAL YEAR FISCAL YEAR
Ending June 30, 1939 Ending June 30, 1940
PRICE

Number Number
Issued Amount Issued Amount

FISHING LICENSES
Series A-Resident State....... $2.00 15,315 $30,630.00 16,535 $33,070.00
Series B--Non-Resident State.... 5.00 4,997 24,985.00 5,395 27,015.00
Series C-Non-Resident 3-Day
Trip............... 1.50 8,060 12,090.00 8,913 17,826.00
(Price $2.00 in 1939-40)
TOTAL .......................... 28,372 $67,705.00 30,843 $77,911.00

HUNTING LICENSES
Series I-Resident County....... $1.00 39,686 $39,686.00 38,650 $38,650.00
Series J-Resident County, Other
than Home. ........ 3.00 429 1,287.00 440 1,320.00
Series K--Resident State.,...... 5.00 17,037 85,185.00 17.,157 85,785.00
Series L-Non-Resident ....... 25.00 168 4,200.00 161 4,025.00
Series M-Non-Resident 10-Day
Trip............... 10.00 590 5,900.00 646 6,460.00
Series M-1-Non-Resident 3,000-
Acre Owner........ 10.00 13 130.00 18 180.00
Alien License.................. 50.00 2 100.00 None None

TOTAL........... .......... ....... 57,925 $136,488.00 57,072 $136,420.00

TRAPPING LICENSES
Series N-Resident............ $3.00 698 $ 2,094.00 1,030 $3,090.00
Series O-Non-Resident County.. 25.00 4 100.00 4 100.00
Series P-Resident State........ 25.00 None ............ 1 25.00
Series Q-Resident Other than
Home County....... 10.00 7 70.00 14 140.00
TOTALS ............ ...... ..... 709 $ 2,264.00 1,049 $ 3,355.00

TOTAL LICENSE SALES .......... ...... 87,006 $206,457.00 88,964 $217,686.00


56


BIENNIAL REPORT












GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 57



COMMISSION
OF
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
0
STATEMENT OF
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1939


RECEIPTS
Balance on hand June 30, 1938. $ 59,814.32
Hunting Licenses ............... $136,473.00
Fishing Licenses ................ 67,517.50
Trapping Licenses ............... 2,273.00 $206,263.50

COMMERCIAL LICENSES
Resident Retail Fish Dealers ..... $ 1,900.00
Wholesale Fish Dealers .......... 600.00
Commercial Boat............... 269.30
Boat for Hire.................... 1,599.00
Wholesale Fur Dealers and Agents 595.00
Local Fur Dealer or Buyer ....... 120.00
Game Farm.................... 100.00
Guide ......................... 90.00 $ 5,273.30

MISCELLANEOUS
U.S. Forest Permits. ............. $ 1,128.00
Court Costs .................... 2,721.42
Confiscated Nets. ............... 117.88
Confiscated Furs and Hides...... 1.35
Previous Year's Licenses......... 2,757.00 $ 6,725.65 $218,262.45
Sale of Old Equipment ........... 25.00 25.00 25.00

$278,101.77
DISBURSEMENTS
ADMINISTRATION
Office Salaries................... 9,450.00
Traveling, Executive Secretary... 1,194.45
Traveling, Commissioners ....... 1,385.31
Special Expense. ............... 235.00
Miscellaneous .................. 1,110.94
Office Supplies. ................. 387.90
Postage, Telephone, Telegraph... 1,278.03
Printing and Stationery ......... 2,532.78
Premium on Bonds.............. 540.00
Delegate to Wildlife Conference... 110.05 $ 18,224.46













58 BIENNIAL REPORT


FIELD EXPENSE
Salaries, Conservation Officers....
Traveling, Conservation Officers..
Legal Expense ..................
Miscellaneous Field .............
Premium on Compensation Insur-
ance........................
Equipment Purchased ..........
Maintenance of Equipment.......
Rewards Paid ..................
Restocking.....................
Pittman-Robertson ..............

EDUCATION
Salaries........................
Traveling......................
Miscellaneous. ..................
Moving Picture. ................
Fair Expense ...................

HATCHERIES
Wewahitchka Hatchery-
Payment on Hatchery.........
Salaries.............. .......
Labor.....................
Light and Power ..............
Supplies.....................
Repairs to Equipment.........
Restocking...................
Truck Hire ..................
Equipment Purchased..........
Gas and Oil ..................
Construction .................

Winter Haven Hatchery-
Salaries......................
Traveling....................
Labor.................. .....
Restocking...................
Supplies.....................
Truck Operations. ............
Gas and Oil ..................
Insurance on Trucks...........
Refund......................


$105,311.44
71,364.48
1,072.25
2,257.39

2,359.52
1,132.03
917.02
725.00
3,434.04
421.04


$ 1,800.00
82.40
361.23
1,112.50
768.62



$ 1,000.00
2,177.50
212.75
42.00
120.52
63.79
257.25
194.32
55.95
178.53
58.00


$ 1,500.00
374.20
1,831.25
173.42
433.61
811.58
895.83
85.65
. . ..


188,573.17
421.04







$ 4,124.75















4,360.61


$ 6,105.54 $221,809.57
5.00 5.00


$221,814.57













GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


CASH ACCOUNT
Balance in State Treasury ........ $ 35,451.99
Balance in Lewis State Bank..... 20,361.71
Due from County Judges........ 119.50
Due from Bureau of Biological
Survey for Pittman-Robertson. 354.00 $ 56,287.20 $ 56,287.20

$278,101.77









60 BIENNIAL REPORT



COMMISSION
OF
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


STATEMENT OF
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1st, 1939, to June 30th, 1940


RECEIPTS
Balance on Hand June 30, 1939... $ 56,287.20
Hunting Licenses ............... $136,004.00
Fishing Licenses ................ 77,035.00
Trapping Licenses. .............. 3,314.00
U.S. Forest Permits ............ 1,590.00 $217,943.00

COMMERCIAL LICENSES
Resident Retail Fish Dealers ...$ 1,745.03
Wholesale Fish Dealers .......... 557.23
Commercial Boat............... 260.04
Boat for Hire.................... 1,856.25
Wholesale Fur Dealers and Agents 712.00
Local Fur Dealers .............. 143.28
Game Farm .................... 84.14
Guide......................... 160.00
Miscellaneous .................. 32.00 $ 5,549.97

Court Costs..................... 3,293.25
Sales of Old Equipment.......... 74.00
Confiscated Nets ............... 143.90
Confiscated Fish ................ 7.60
Confiscated Furs and Hides...... 51.60
Previous Years Licenses.......... 425.50
County Judge's Credit........... 102.00 $ 4,097.85 227,590.82

2'...: ^." 1r,2
DISBURSEMENTS
ADMINISTRATION
Office Salaries.................. 9,700.00
Traveling Executive Secretary.... 1,243.80
Traveling Commissioners......... 1,286.97
Delegates to Conventions ........ 182.30
Special Expense................ 20.00
Miscellaneous .................. 1,206.05
Office Supplies ................. 361.09
Postage, Telephone, Telegraph.... 1,268.39
Printing and Stationery .......... 2,999.86
Premium on Bonds.............. 515.00 S 18,783.46




P.-


GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 61




FIELD EXPENSE
Salaries, Conservation Officers. ... $105,950.00
Traveling, Conservation Officers.. 73,845.95
Legal Expense .................. 493.18
Miscellaneous Field ............. 1,847.29
Premium on Compensation In-
surance. ..................... 2,118.65
Equipment Purchased .......... 561.23
Maintenance of Equipment ....... 493.15
Rewards Paid .................. 550.00
Restocking. ................... 648.50 $186,507.95

EDUCATION
Salaries........................ $ 738.72
Traveling .................... .. 35.12
Miscellaneous. ................... 58.23
Moving Pictures ................ 80.73
Fair Expense ................... 71.06 $ 983.86

GAME TECHNICIAN
Salary......................... $ 2,400.00
Traveling...................... 53.59
Auto Maintenance .............. 20.80 2,474.39

HATCHERIES
Wewahitchka Hatchery-
Final Payment on Hatchery. ... $ 2,000.00
Salaries...................... 1,056.75
Labor....................... 41.75
Traveling.................... 25.00
Light and Power .............. 48.50
Supplies..................... 42.37
Truck Hire .................. 72.40
Repairs of Equipment......... 25.00
Equipment Purchased......... 62.05
Gas and Oil ................. 22.27 $ 3,396.09

Winter Haven Hatchery:
Salaries ..................... $ 1,610.00
Traveling.................... 233.78
Labor....................... 1,680.00
Restocking................. 621.00
Supplies............... ...... 218.69
Truck Operations ............. 275.25
Gas and Oil .................. 747.32
Truck Purchased ............. 680.00
Insurance on Truck ........... 96.90 $ 6,162.94 $218,308.69











BIENNIAL REPORT


Relief of E. L. Smith (Acts 1939).. $ 900.00
Refunds....................... 20.66 ............$ 920.66


CASH ACCOUNT
Balance in State Treasury ........ 59,632.64
Balance in Lewis State Bank..... 4,840.98
Due from Bureau of Biological
Survey for Pittman-Robertson. 175.05 $ 64,648.67 $ 64,648.67

$283,878.02


















































































































41