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COMMISSION OF GAME AND
FRESH WATER FISH
STATE OF FLORIDA
December 31, 1938
I. N. KENNEDY
March 15, 1939.
Dr. Fred G. Garner, Chairman,
Commi.sson of Game and Fresh Water Fish,
State of Florida.
I am submitting herewith the report of the work of the State
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, for the conserva-
tion of Florida's wildlife resources, during the biennium clos-
ing December 31st, 1938.
COMMISSION OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
FRED G. GARNER, 1st Congressional District,
THOMPSON S. BAKER, 2nd Congressional District,
W. LAMAR GAMMION, 3rd Congressional District,
HERBERT L. SCHALLER, 4th Congressional District,
JOHN S. CLARDY, 5th Congressional District,
FRED G. GARNER, Chairman
I. N. KENNEDY, Executive Secretary
Executive Office, State Capitol,
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
March 15, 1939.
To His Excellency,
Fred Preston Cone,
Governor of the State of Florida.
I have the honor of transmitting herewith the biennial report
of work that has been done for the conservation of Florida's
wildlife resources, as directed by the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish during the period closing December 31st,
Chairman of the Commission.
Florida-America's Greatest Black Bass Fishing Grounds.
Florida as an outdoor State needs no introduction. With her
30.000 lakes and numberless streams together with her vast
woodlands to offer as refuge or habitats of both waters and
woods, she is known the world over. Nature in the beginning
endowed us with an abundant supply of resources from her
overflowing storehouse. As is expected, man's habitation of the
land and the development which followed has made a vast dif-
ference. The task before us at this time is one of working out
a program of wildlife conservation which will keep step with
economic development. Much progress has been made, but the
greater portion of the work still remains to be done if we are to
reach that common point where development and the conser-
vation of natural resources work hand in hand each aiding the
CONSERVATION OF FLORIDA'S NATIVE WILDLIFE
The organization for wildlife conservation work in Florida
might be likened to that under which big corporations maintain-
ing wholesale and retail divisions operate. The native wildlife
of the state is the capital stock of the business. The Legisla-
ture, the body chosen by the electorate of the State, determines
policies under which the work is to be developed. The Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish formulates and directs
the work in harmony with these policies. It is thus the legis-
lative and administrative branches of the government, dealing
with the State as a whole, operates as the wholesale division of
the business of wildlife conservation in Florida.
The retail branch of wildlife conservation work, though not
as definitely organized as the wholesale, renders a service with-
out which the work can make no progress. This division con-
sists of individual citizens, social and civic organizations, press,
radio, schools, clubs and county and municipal government.
Work in the conservation field as carried on by the State
and cooperating agencies through the calendar years of 1937
and 1938 is briefly outlined in this report.
Work of the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish is
financed by the administration of the laws affecting birds,
mammals and fresh water fish, and regulating hunting, fishing,
trapping. The amount of revenue available from the sale of
8 BIENNIAL REPORT
licenses under these laws limits to some extent the scope and
progress of the work.
Funds produced from such sources during the two fiscal years
closing respectively June 30, 1937 and June 30, 1938, were:
A detailed financial statement showing receipts and disburse-
ments for these two fiscal years is given on pages 44 through
47. A similar statement covering receipts and disbursements
July 1, 1938 through December 31, 1938, the first six months
of the fiscal year which opens July 1, 1938, is added as a matter
of information. It will be found on pages 48 and 49.
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 9
DIVISION OF FLORIDA'S WILDLIFE DOLLAR
The following diagram shows the general division of funds
for administration and the various lines of work carried on
under the direction of the Commission during the two years
of the biennium ended June 30, 1938.
Administration, Salaries and
Office and Administrative Ex-
Field Equipment ----------
Game Propagation _________
July 1,1936, to
June 30, 1937
July 1,1937, to
June 30, 1938
SOURCES OF REVENUE DURING BIENNIUM ENDING
JUNE 30, 1938
CLASSIFIED LIST OF LICENSES SOLD BY COUNTY JUDGES
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30th, 1937
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30th, 1938
Resident State _-- $2.00 10,348 $20,696.00 13,190 $26,380.00
Non-Resident State 5.00 4,388 21,940.00 4,955 24,775.00
-1.50 6,254 9,381.00 8,588 12,882.00
County ------------3.00 133 399.00 16 48.00
ton County ------- 25.00 6 150.00 1 25.00
AL_ ----------- ------- 21,129 $52,566.00 26,750 $64,110.00
Series I-Resident County----
Series J-Resident County,
Other than Home----------
Series K-Resident State __---
Series I-Non-Resident ------
Series M-Non-Resident 10-
Day Trip -----------------
Series M-1-Non-Resident 3,000
Acre Owner_ --------------
Alien Licenses ----------
Series N-Resident----------- $3.00 1,969 $ 5,907.00 1,547 $ 4,6 1.00
SeriesO-Non-ResidentCounty 25.00 4 100.00 3 75.00
Series P-Resident State ----- 25.00 14 350.00 11 275.00
Series Q-Resident Other than
Home County------------ 10.00 53 530.00 29 290.00
TOTAL ------ 2,040 $ 6,887.00 1,590 $ 5,281.00
TOTAL SALES BY COUNTY
JUDGES Y COUNTY ---------74,672 $180,810.00 84,033 201,958.00
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
All business at stated periods pauses to take stock of what
is on hand and balance its books; to check the soundness of
policies upon which programs of work are based and formulate
plans for the future. Let us then consider our capital stock-
the present status of the wildlife with which we must work in
carrying on our conservation program.
The Federal Government has just released a report of deer
and other big game in America. Florida is accredited with
25,000 deer. A recent close check by counties of the deer popu-
lation of Florida made by the field force of the Commission
of Game and Fresh Water Fish show the number of deer as
16,908. It is believed that this is approximately correct.
Breaking this number down further we find that Manatee,
Suwannee, Escambia and Alachua Counties report no deer;
IIardee County, once supporting a good deer population re-
ports two, these having been placed in the State Breeding
Grounds by the Commission in an effort to rebuild the supply;
Holmes and Washington Counties have but four deer each; ten
counties report fifteen or less; twenty-three counties report
having fifty or less; twenty-nine counties report less than a
Dixie, Okaloosa and Marion Counties report 1,500 each. These,
with Collier County are the best stocked counties in the State.
The facts shown by the check just made on the deer population
of Florida gives cause for great concern. This State has a
range which would support approximately 2,000,000 deer but
the necessary breeding stock is lacking.
Were breeding stock of deer on the market and funds avail-
able for purchase, restocking might be accomplished by this
means. Neither are to be had. If our deer population for the
future is to be rebuilt commensurate with the range at hand
greater protection must be given. This can be accomplished
by a shortened season and a reduced bag together with com-
plete protection for the doe deer and a greater protection for
the immature buck.
In considering further protection for our present supply of
deer and a program for rebuilding this deer population, Florida
is confronted with another problem of great concern.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board, in its tick eradication
program, has reported that the cattle fever tick in this State
can not be eradicated due to the fact that deer in the area were
infested with the fever tick. A claim was made that it was
necessary to reduce the number of deer in these areas in order
for tick eradication work to be carried to a successful conclusion.
With this situation in mind, the 1937 Legislature passed cer-
tain local laws permitting the slaughter of deer by the Live
Stock Sanitary Board in sections of Glades, Highlands, Osceola
and Orange Counties. The laws affecting these counties
granted to the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish the
right to have a representative present when the deer were re-
moved by slaughter or otherwise, and to keep a record of deer
The record shows a total of 647 deer killed. This together
with the 363 previously reported by the Live Stock Sanitary
Board as having been killed, brings the total to 1010.
There is no inclination on the part of the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish to impede the eradication of ticks
in Florida. In view of the great depletion of the supply of
deer in Florida woods it would seem that the necessity for con-
tinuing this slaughter of deer should be established beyond a
doubt before this program is continued or any enlargement of
the program is agreed to.
WHAT HOPE FOR DEER IN FLORIDA
Thirty-five years ago the deer of Pennsylvania had been shot
down to an estimated 50. Today the Federal Government
credits the State with 750,000 deer. The State brought from
other states a limited number of deer for breeding stock. Pro-
tection through inviolate refuges, abundant browse and cover
from second growth on cut-over lands, a hunting season of but
a few days, a season's bag of one buck with branched antlers,
and no dogs allowed for hunting deer made possible this great
increase. For several years the annual kill in Pennsylvania has
numbered from 25,000 to 40,000 deer.
Florida has a woodland that could support a million deer,
and as seed stock a herd of 16,908. This is far in excess of that
with which Pennsylvania rebuilt. When first mated a young
doe will generally give birth to a single fawn, after that, under
wise management, there will often be two. Were the season
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 13
shortened to a few days, bag reduced to one buck deer, dogs
eliminated and the law prohibiting the killing of doe deer made
enforceable, the future of deer in Florida would be assured.
Fairly dealt with they could be brought back in numbers in
Florida before many years had passed. What Pennsylvania
has done Florida can do.
POPULATION CURVE IN DEER UNDER DIFFERING
In the light of present knowledge of wildlife habits and han-
dling of different species of game, the hope for the future of
Florida's herd of deer rests in the wise management of the
Aldo Leopold, well known authority on game management,
in his work entitled "Game Management" (1933), offers a
striking graph showing the sensitivity of population curve in
deer. He charts year by year, through periods of ten years,
the assumed increase from twenty-four pairs of mature deer
where the herd exists under varying conditions.
Except for figures shown in Section 1, which are based on
actual increases in the herd as known in deer country where
no hunting was allowed, it is general knowledge of the fluctua-
tion of the deer population under varying conditions which lies
back of the assumed increases in population shown in Sections
2, 3, 4 and 5. In interpreting this chart in terms of Florida
the deer population of 16,000 or 8,000 pairs is used as the basic
herd. The increases shown are proportionate to those given
for twenty-four pairs in the chart offered by Mr. Leopold.
Wh!le Mr. Leopold does not suggest the length of the hunting
season allowed in Sections 2, 3, 4 and 5, he limits the deer taken
to a certain proportion of the herd. This might occur in long
season or a short one.
Due to the killing of spike-bucks in Florida there is probably
a scarcity of mature bucks in the Florida herd. To allow for
the effect of this or other unfavorable factors that might affect
increases in the herd in the State an estimate of the increase in
the herd, based on 50% of increases shown by Mr Leopold is
TEN YEAR PERIOD RECORD WITH TWENTY-FOUR
PAIR OF DEER
No. 1. Following a ten year closed period with no removal
from the herd of bucks or does, and does bearing at the rate
of 100%, the herd would number 2,200 at the end of the period.
Forecast of increase is based on records of herd management
in good deer territory.
No. 2. After a closed season of four years, followed by six
years of hunting during which 1/2 of the bucks are removed
yearly, and doe deer protected and bearing at the rate of 100%,
the herd will number 1,750.
No. 3. With no closed season 1/2 does and 1/2 bucks taken each
year, remaining does bearing at the rate of 100%, at the end
of ten years herd will number 90.
No. 4. A closed season for four years, at the end of which
herd would number 200. Followed by six years during which
1/4 of bucks and 1s of does and yearlings and 1/2 fawns are
killed annually. (This represents hunting where taking of
bucks only, including spike-bucks, is legal, and 1/s of does and
yearlings and 1/2 fawns are illegally killed.) If does bear at
the rate of 100% the herd would number 390 at the end of ten
years. This is a gain of 190 during six years through which
the herd was hunted.
No. 5. Existing under same conditions as in No. 4, closed for
four years and open six, except that after the fifth year 1/2 of
the does are barren, the herd at the end of ten years would
number slightly less than at the end of the four year closed
season when they numbered 195.
As applied to Florida with her herd of 16,000 or 8,000 pairs,
based on Mr. Leopold's chart, we would find the following:
No. 1. Under closed season for ten years the herd would in-
crease to 733,333.
No. 2. With a closed season of four years, followed by an
open season of six years during which 1/2 of mature bucks in
the herd were taken each year, and does bearing at the rate of
100%, the total herd would number 292,666.
No. 3. With a fixed open season during the entire ten years
when 1/2 does and 1/2 bucks are taken annually and the remaining
does bearing at the rate of 100%, the herd at the end of the
period will number 30,000. It might be noted that conditions
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 15
in Florida today are such that even this slight increase through
a period of ten years cannot be expected. Florida's herd of
16,000 deer is steadily declining.
No. 4. A closed season of four years, at the end of which the
herd would number 66,666, followed by a period of six years
during which 1/4 of the bucks, 1/ of the does and yearlings and
1/2 of the fawns are killed yearly. This represents hunting
where taking of bucks only, including spike-bucks is legal and
allows for some law violations. If doe deer bear at the rate of
100% the herd at the end of ten years would number 66,666.
No. 5. Were the herd developed under conditions cited in the
paragraph above, except that after the fifth year 50% of the
does were barren, at the end of the first four years during
which the area had been closed, it would number 66,666. At
the end of the following six years, which would close the ten
year period, the herd would have dropped to 65,000.
The rapid decline in the deer herd in Florida in the recent
years point to the fact that conditions under which deer now
exist are less favorable than those given in Sections 4 and 5.
Unless immediate steps are taken to halt this decline, practical
extinction is inevitable.
The Florida Wildlife Federation and the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish urge that the Florida law pro-
hibiting the killing of doe deer be amended to require a hunter
to leave marks of sex identification upon the deer until the
areas has been checked by a Conservation Officer.
Florida's report on wild turkey is not much more encourag-
ing than that on deer. The State is one of the few in which
the choice wild bronze turkey is still found in any numbers, but
its numbers have been greatly depleted.
When the census was made by counties of deer in Florida, it
was also made of turkeys and flocks of turkeys. The total in
the State was 12,286 with an estimate of a possible 1,216 flocks.
In the census just made five counties reported no turkeys and
eight counties failed to give the number of flocks within their
areas. This is a vast drop in the supply of wild turkey when
compared with their abundance of fifteen years ago.
To supply the demand of hunters for turkeys to shoot, Florida
in very recent years has purchased half-wild stock to place in
16 BIENNIAL REPORT
breeding grounds for propogation purposes. Increase from this
breeding stock not only supplied birds for hunting but has
lifted a part of the pressure of guns from the native stock.
It may be possible in time to build flocks of turkeys of these
half-breeds in sufficient numbers in Florida to make turkey
hunting what it once was in the State, but it will be at the cost
of the priceless pure bronze stock which the State holds as a
What policy is to be followed in this matter must be definitely
decided at an early date-are we to increase our supply by
restocking or are we to give more protection to the bronze stock
which we now have, thus permitting nature to restock in its
The Florida Wildlife Federation and the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish recommend that the season on
wild turkey close December 31st as does the season on deer.
Though hunted more extensively than turkey and deer in
Florida, quail were found in great abundance throughout the
State as recently as twenty-five years ago. While the amount
of food and cover will determine abundance where there is suf-
ficient seed stock, it is possible to reduce seed stock of quail in
any area to that extent that the increase from season to season
is not commensurate with the carrying capacity of the land. A
check of the steady decline in Florida's quail supply over a
period of twenty-five years will sustain this fact. Original
abundance twenty-five years ago made them generally available
for the home table throughout the State, and a stimulus to
hunting for those who found their pleasure afield. Abundance
was such that a day in the field anywhere in Florida with good
dogs produced fifteen coveys of these choice birds, and it was not
unusual to claim an excess above this of from five to ten coveys.
Fifteen years ago ten or twelve coveys a day was the the
average with a bag limit of twenty birds accounted a practical
certainty. Ten years ago ten coveys was looked upon as a good
find, six or seven as average and a bag limit of fifteen birds
good luck. Today except in very spotted areas or on private
preserves men must content themselves with four or five coveys
and the bag limit of fifteen, when secured, has made the local
press as news.
While seasonal conditions of breeding and rearing time affect
the abundance of a year, and in some areas the carrying capa-
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
Conservation Officer Releasing
city of land is less, there has been no change in carrying capa-
city consistent with the steady decline in the supply of quail
and no unfavorable seasons continued through many years to
account for steady decline, generally accepted to mean that
decline is due to insufficient seed stock, the result of overshoot-
ing. Florida's hunting season, November 20th to February 15th
-87 days with a day's bag of 15 and possession of 30, a season's
limit of 200 and 60,000 hunters in the field would uphold this
The number of quail taken in Florida annually by hunters,
as tabulated from the report of game killed in the previous
season which hunters are required to file when purchasing
hunting license, is appalling. This "game census," never com-
plete as it is not universally required of hunters, is extremely
conservative. How great a toll is taken in a year is shown in
the report from the following four counties:
A lach u a ................................................. .............. ....37 ,700
B radford ..................................................................... .... 6,665
C itru s ........................................................................... ... 9 ,288
C olu m bia .............................................. ................. ......10 ,805
18 BIENNIAL REPORT
No game can stand up under such slaughter. Florida's sup-
ply is not holding up. Florida's sportsmen are becoming
alarmed over the decrease in quail in the State. They would
be even more so were a complete census of the quail for a single
season obtainable. The following excerpts from a letter from a
leading citizen and sportsman of Putnam County received late
in February of 1939 is typical of many that are reaching the
"We should have only one dozen instead of fifteen
quail, a completely closed season on turkey for at least
one year-better two years, a fifty dollar fine for every
doe deer that is killed.
"Ban from the woods any gun that carries more than
three shells, and better two. With automatic and pump
guns being used we soon won't have any quail left.
Every year they are becoming scarcer. I have failed
to kill the limit any time this season and I am con-
sidered a good shot and have a good dog. Something
must be done quickly if we have any game left.
"The hunting and fishing business is one of our
State's greatest assets, if protected properly. It is
what we promise our visitors for their pleasure and
money. We should see that they are not disappointed
and they will not only come again but bring others.
The responsibilities are ours."
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, while mak-
ing recommendation for Legislative action which will help
remedy this situation, is not standing idle awaiting this action.
During the past two years a restocking program has been car-
ried on which consisted of trapping quail in overstocked areas
and releasing them in areas where the supply was not so abund-
ant but where cover was sufficient to support an additional
number. In 1938 the number of quail taken out of the wild from
state breeding grounds and released in shot-over areas totalled
8,545. The number taken in 1937 approximated this. Had
these been purchased from a breeder they would have cost in
round numbers $33,000.00.
Restocking by this method has its value but it cannot pos-
sibly halt the steady decline in the supply of quail. This can
only come through reduction in the hunting season, strictly
observed limits on bag and possession and favorable conditions
under which these choice birds live.
The Wildlife Federation of this State and the Commission
of Game and Fresh Water Fish are recommending that the
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 19
open season for taking quail which opens November 20th, close
January 31st and that hunting be permitted only on specified
days of each week.
During the past several years the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish has been experimenting with the Chukar
Partridge, a splendid bird imported from India. While this
experiment is still in its rudimentary stage, the Commission
feels that this bird will eventually find a place in the wildlife
of this State.
The mourning dove is a resident and migratory bird in
Florida. Regulations for taking doves as fixed by the Fed-
eral government is a matter of concern to Florida and other
States for doves in the past few seasons begin to show a decline
throughout its whole range.
The practice of shooting over baited fields prohibited by the
State and Federal Government has been side-stepped by many
hunters by planting fields to grain for the purpose of attract-
ing doves to the area. Here men with guns stationed about
in the area often take too heavy a toll of these birds. "Plant-
ing is difficult to control as it may be included in any legiti-
mate farm program. The dove might be protected in spite of it
were shooting within several hundred feet of fields where grain
has been planted during the six months prior to the opening of
the season prohibited. Such a measure would leave hunting
on an equal footing for all and work a hardship on none.
Further protection would be provided were possession limited
to the bag of a single day. It is difficult to check a bag where
possession of two days' limit is allowed.
Wild ducks in American reached their zero hour in 1933 when
the continental flock estimated at high peak to have exceeded
300,000,000 dropped to a low of 35,000,000. This drop in sup-
ply came from over shooting the worst of which was done over
baited areas where 90% of the birds killed each season were
estimated to have been killed by 25% of the licensed hunters
in America. As a result of prohibiting the shooting over baited
areas, the reflooding of drained breeding grounds, requirement
that guns used in duck shooting be plugged to a 3-shell capacity,
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
that the use of other than man power in propelling boats to and
on shooting areas, ducks in the 1938-39 season show an encourag-
An increase is noted in the supply of wild geese that come
to Florida to winter on the St. Marks reservation and adjacent
territory, the only region in the State to which they come in
numbers. It is comprised of the southeastern part of Frank-
lin County, the entire southern coastal area of Wakulla and
Jefferson Counties and extending into Taylor County.
The Federal Government has had not only the support of the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish in maintaining
this fine project, but the cooperation of the sportsmen of the
immediate area. They recognize the need for protection of bird.
The St. Marks refuge for wild life has twice been increased
beyond its original 26,000 acres by purchase of land until
it now has an area of 81,000. The last acquisition of 21,000
acres was made in 1938. This embraces practically all of the
territory where wild geese winter in Florida. The last area,
however, remained open for goose shooting during the season
of 1938 and Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson, Chief of the United States
Bureau of Biological Survey, states that this area will remain
open to hunters.
COOT, RAILS OR MARSH HENS
The coot which is both a resident and a migratory bird has
only been listed as a game bird since 1932. They are not con-
sidered very desirable as food and for this reason it seems a
poor exhibition of sportsmanship that the coot is now greatly
reduced in numbers.
Unlike the coot, the rail or marsh hen is considered a choice
food. This bird has been killed in such numbers until only a
remnant remains. If marsh hens are hunted in other states as
hard as they are hunted in Florida their extermination can be
but a matter of a few years.
The decrease in the fur-bearers of the State has been so great
during the past ten years that despite the fact that the demand
for pelts has been steady, there is a drop in the number of li-
censes purchased for trapping from 7,658 to 1,499 in 1935, to
2,040 during the year 1936-37, and 1,590 in 1';7..;'.
The raccoon, Florida's chief fur-bearer, has practically dis-
appeared in some sections of Florida. In all sections the sup-
ply is greatly depleted. While the extensive cutting away of
woodland near the homes of men and the draining of areas in
and about which the raccoon lives have affected the supply
to some extent, the long season for trapping which allows the
female raccoon carrying unborn young to be taken is the chief
cause of loss in numbers.
Florida faces the problem of saving the raccoon as a fur-
bearer. A shortened trapping season is strongly urged by the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish. Unless better
protection is given this fur-bearer may be checked as "on the
Florida protected the otter from 1927 to 1932 during which
time none were legally taken. This closed season halted de-
cline and rebuilt the supply but these valuable animals again
The black bear in Florida, listed as a fur-bearer, is without
protection. The entire number in the State given in a recent
report by the Federal Government was 300. Were the bear
placed on the list of protected animals, the season closed for
two years to allow an increase beyond 300 then opened to hunt-
ing for a few days each year this animal could be brought back
in sufficient numbers to make it a feature of interest in the
Also listed as unprotected in this State is the alligator. Due
to extensive traffic in alligator hides this animal has entirely
disappeared from many of the streams of the State and is
found in limited numbers in others. This traffic should be
halted and sufficient protection provided to assure needed seed
stock. The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish recom-
mend a closed season.
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
"Dead Lakes". 80 Square Miles of Good Fishing,
An Expansion of the Chipola River.
A more encouraging report can be made of the status of fresh
water fish in Florida than has been made of game and fur-
bearers of the State.
In 1935 Florida enacted a law that removed black bass from
the list of fresh water fish that might be sold in Florida or
shipped out of the State for sale. This same law prohibited
transportation of such bass except when carried as personal
baggage by a man licensed to take them and limited the num-
ber that could be taken to twelve fish.
The stopping of traffic of black bass has been far reaching
in its effect. In 1937 further protection was provided black
bass by closing the fresh waters of Florida from March 15 to
May 20, inclusive. No legislative enactment could provide great-
er protection for this choice game fish.
For a number of years the law has prohibited the taking of
game and food species of fresh water fish until they are large
enough to have spawned at least once before being taken. This
is provided for by fixing the legal minimum length at which
they may be caught.
Legislation closing fresh waters to fishing during the spawn-
ing season of crappie, blue gills and other species of bream is
greatly needed. Only the closed season suggested would make
it possible to enforce this law with any degree of efficiency.
Florida's fish hatcheries maintained at Winter Haven and
Wewahitchka have supplemented with bass of fingerling size
those waters to which they have been released.
During the biennium 1,182,500 fingerling have been placed
in lakes and streams in forty-four counties.
In cooperation with the United States Bureau of Fisheries
40,000 fingerling were transported by the Commission from the
Welaka Hatchery, now federally owned, and placed in lakes
and streams throughout the State.
Fish from the Welaka Hatchery have been distributed by the
United States Bureau of Fisheries in Federal Rehabilitation
areas in Florida, further augmenting the supply.
Since the transfer of the Welaka Hatchery to the Federal
Government, a cooperative plan has been worked out between
the Federal Bureau of Fisheries and the University of Florida
whereby the fish and quail hatchery. at Welaka can be used as
an observation and training project for students from the Uni-
versity who wish to elect such work as a part of their course
The Federal Government at the present has completed and
is stocking a fresh water fish hatchery in Jackson County on
a small stream which flows into the Chipola River. It is ex-
pected that this will be an efficient producing plant. Florida
will be in line for a share of the fish from this hatchery.
The output from these State and Federal Iatcheries has been
greatly supplemented by the large number of brood bass taken
from lakes and streams with lowered water levels and trans-
ported to nearby waters whose depth offered a place of safety
for these fish that would have otherwise perished.
The cooperation of organized sportsmen and of public offi-
cials in this work has been exceptionally fine and has greatly
LAKE IAMONIA DAM
An outstanding example of conservation work with fish is
the dam recently constructed by the Board of County Com-
missioners of Leon County across one arm of Lake Iamonia. The
basins of many of Florida's large lakes were formed by the
sinking of the limestone which underlies the surface. It is not
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 25
Earth Dam. 1100 Feet Long, 20 Feet High, Holding Waters of
Lake lamonia, Leon County.
unusual for a lake of this type under certain conditions to dis-
appear at the lowest point of the basin through a small opening
that allows the water to flow into underground waters. Sev-
eral of the large lakes of such formation in the Tallahassee re-
gion have emptied themselves into underground streams or
basins within the past ten years. When a lake of this type
disappears, it is generally supposed that it will refill in one or
two years. Events may not always follow this course. Lake
lamonia, twelve miles in length and from one to two miles in
width, has according to reports of those whose homes have been
in that immediate section for many years, emptied its waters
four times within the last sixty years. This lake has in its
northern extremity a very large limestone basin or sink near
which lie two or three similar but smaller sinks. When the
lake is at high level the water at the large sink is approximately
forty-five feet in depth.
The last two occasions on which Lake lamonia emptied it-
self was 1935 and partially in January of 1939. When it was
known that the lake was on its way out, the County Commis-
sioners of Leon County got busy. They hurriedly erected a
dam that separated the basin with its sink from the greater por-
tion of the lake lying west of it. This dam of earth is 1,100
feet long, 20 feet high, 96 feet wide at the base and 12 feet
wide on top.
Progress on the work was rapid and it was possible to hold
back waters covering an area of approximately sixty acres.
When the basin was emptying the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish called the superintendent of the State Fish
Hatchery at Winter Haven to direct the seining of the basin.
With the assistance of several of the Conservation Officers, ap-
proximately 40,000 or more bass and bream were removed from
the basin and used in restocking what remained of Lake lamonia
above the dam and a number of nearby lakes and streams.
The surface area of Lake lamonia has since been increased by
heavy rainfall. This lake provides not only fine fishing waters
but is an excellent duck lake in winter months.
The saving of Lake lamonia and salvaging of the fish from
the basin, quickly done at a moderate cost should make these
waters safe for some time to come.
WILDLIFE BREEDING GROUNDS
Filling the need in game restocking in practically the same
manner in which the Fish Hatcheries serve in restocking our
fish supply, is the Wildlife Breeding Ground. Under authori-
zation given to the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
in Sections 4 and 7 of Chapter 13644, Acts of 1929, to close
to hunting, trapping and fishing, with the consent of the Gov-
ernor, selected areas for wildlife breeding grounds, the Com-
mission is maintaining in Florida today 137 closed areas. In
addition to these there are eleven wildlife breeding grounds
closed by legislative act, giving a total of 148. While the State
does not have sufficient revenue to adequately police these areas,
Conservation Officers make every effort to protect them. Citi-
zens of Florida living in or adjacent to wildlife preserves have
gradually come to appreciate their worth. The increase in wild
life in and about these breeding grounds has convinced them
of the values of these areas.
Courts throughout Florida view with little tolerance invasion
of these areas by a hunter or trapper. As a result wildlife
breeding grounds in Florida are proving an effective agency
for maintaining and upbuilding wildlife in the State.
In selecting such areas the Commission uses the best game
land that can be found and those best stocked. From time to
time the Commission transfers as breeding stock the surplus
of game in these State Breeding Grounds, placing it in shot out
areas where it is greatly needed. During the two years of 1937
and 1938 Florida placed 500 turkeys from half-wild stock in 21
breeding grounds of the State where they made a good increase.
From the surplus of quail in breeding grounds 17,090 have
been taken during this same period and distributed to depleted
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 27
COOPERATION WITH STATE FOREST SERVICE
While taking stock and considering present methods, the co-
operation rendered by the State Forest Service should not be
overlooked. This Service since its organization has been co-
operative in conservation of fish, birds and mammals found
within the areas in which the work of the organization is car-
ried on. State parks and forests are made wildlife breeding
grounds and the foresters are appointed as honorary conserva-
tion officers with authorization to enforce all laws pertaining
to conservation of such wild life in Florida. This service has
been of great value in saving the wildlife in such areas.
The total number of State Forests and Parks closed as breed-
ing grounds is 11.
COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT WITH FEDERAL
Another mile stone in the conservation program was the co-
operative agreement with the Federal Forest Service made pos-
sible by an act of the Legislature of 1937. Under this agree-
ment, the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish and the
National Forestry Service has set up in the Ocala National
Forest, the Osceola National Forest and the Apalachicola Na-
tional Forest in Liberty County a program which provides for
reduced seasons and bag limits in the territory within the areas,
control of predators found in excessive numbers, the breeding
of game, the planting of stock from national forests of other
states, the replenishing of lakes and streams from Federal Fish
Hatcheries and the development of projects in these fields.
Federal officers are deputized to enforce State game laws in
these forests. The Federal agencies have provided living quar-
ters for special Conservation Officers placed in the area by the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish.
FLORIDA'S FIRST SUPERVISED DEER HUNT
It was under this cooperative agreement with the Federal
Forest Service that Florida held its first supervised dear hunt
within the Ocala National Forest during the season of 1938-39.
In preparing for the hunt training schools were held for con-
servation officers and foresters to familiarize them with every
detail for handling the hunt. Eleven checking stations were
established in the forest and where it was practical to provide
such, they were equipped with telephones.
Breakfast on Game Management Area. Apalachicola National Forest,
a Project Developed Cooperatively by the U. S. National Forest
Service and Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish.
The management area was divided in patrol zones and offi-
cers were assigned to specific areas.
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish detailed
for a limited period nine Conservation Officers to the area to
assist the regular officers employed in the areas in getting the
hunt under way. The Chief Conservation Officer in the Fifth
District in which the Forest is located was in attendance as
often as was possible.
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 29
Hunters participating in the hunt in the Ocala National
Forest were required to secure a special permit costing $2.00
which was not valid unless accompanied by the proper hunting
Hunters could purchase but one permit and were limited to
one buck deer each. Mutilation of a deer to destroy marks of
sex was prohibited and it was required that deer must be
.checked before they could be removed from the forest and be-
fore dismemberment if division was made in camp. Hunters
were checked in and out of the forest.
When entering the area a red arm band was given to each
hunter. This band was to be surrendered when a deer had been
killed. If the hunter wished to remain in the area longer he
was issued a white band to indicate his right to remain but to
show he was not permitted to use fire-arms.
Hunters camping within the area were required to use desig-
nated camping grounds. The use of dogs was limited to three
at any one time by a party. It was required that dogs wear a
tag showing name of his owner and the number of his owner's
Cars were subject to inspection when leaving the area.
These regulations appeared on the back of the permits and a
hunter purchasing a permit was required to sign a statement
that he had read and understood same. This hunt, in one of
the best deer areas in the State of Florida, was participated in
by 1,144 men from 32 of the 67 counties of Florida and by hunt-
ers from eight States other than Florida.
Under close checking it showed that in the open area of
197,000 acres only 124 legal deer were killed. One buck deer
was the limit fixed for a hunter. But 10.8 of the 1,144 men
hunting secured a buck.
Of the deer killed 68 were in the northern part of the forest
on an area of 137,000 acres, that means an average of one deer
taken to every 2,000 acres. In the southern part of the area of
60,000 acres, 56 deer were killed, or an average of one deer to
every 1,000 acres.
The following tabulation of bucks killed as reported by the
United States Forest Service which shows the number taken
on each of the eighteen hunting days, the total number and the
number of antler points on each buck taken is of special interest.
It was submitted with the report of the hunt prepared by the
United States Forest Service.
30 BIENNIAL REPORT
TABULATION OF LEGAL BUCKS KILLED
NUMBER OF ANTLER POINTS
Dates T tal
Killed Killed I I I
*Large buck, antlers shed.
**Includes buck fawns.
An analysis of this tabulation shows how many young bucks
are being killed.
Mr. E. E. Ripper, Wildlife Assistant, United States Forest
Service, in reporting the hunt, points to the killing of 59 deer
in the first. two hunting days of the open season and but 65
deer in the remaining 16 days, as evidence of the depleted con-
dition of the deer herd in the forest.
"The total number of buck fawns killed is not
known. Two were checked at one of the stations. The
proportion of spike bucks killed, 43%, is high and
from the standpoints of good management and efficient
utilization, is unsatisfactory. With few exceptions
spike bucks are immature animals and the heads can
scarcely be considered as satisfactory trophies.
"The antlers of several bucks were damaged or en-
tirely broken off. A few of these cases were the re-
sult of damage with buckshot. The others were older
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 31
breaks, the result of fighting during breeding season in
October. The antlers of most of the mature deer were
relatively small, both in diameter and spread, as a re-
sult of the sterile, mineral-deficient soil of most of the
Mr. Ripper states further, in preparing the report of the
hunt which was approved by Mr. Frank A. Albert, Forest
"This initial regulated hunt has proven that the
present status of the refuge must be maintained for the
next several years. The deer herd on the balance of
the management area is far below carrying capacity
and must be built up through a period of restricted
utilization. If the refuge, which contains the nucleus
of the herd is hunted in the immediate future, this pe-
riod of recovery will be increased considerable. Hunt-
ing the refuge in the near future will be considered a
breach of faith by all parties concerned and interested
He also states:
"That the management of an area hunted by dogs
must differ from that of one still-hunted. Under aver-
age conditions a deer flushed in still hunting is dis-
turbed but little and does not move a great distance.
In contrast a dogged deer is thoroughly disturbed and
may move a considerable distance. The chances of the
deer in an area being exterminated by hunting with
dogs are very high unless a portion of the area is nat-
urally impenetrable or protected as a refuge. Other-
wise the herd will be driven about, scattered widely,
and decimated very rapidly."
PLANS FOR THE FUTURE
After having taken stock of the material on hand with which
the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish must work,
it is well at this point to give thought to plans for future de-
velopment of our Conservation Program in Florida.
The Legislature of 1937 seemed strongly in favor of better
conservation of wildlife. There were some 60 bills passed re-
garding game and fresh water fish, most of them definitely in
the interest of better conservation. There were six general bills
enacted affecting the work of the Commission of Game and
32 BIENNIAL REPORT
"Believe It or Not"-A Breafast of Angle Worms for Friend Black
Bass of Crooked Lake, Eustis, Florida, Where He Frequently
Feeds from the Hand of Good Neighbor Nelson.
Fresh Water Fish. Three of these were to complete the trans-
fer of the Welaka Fish Hatchery to the Federal Government,
a step that was taken because of lack of sufficient funds to
operate this hatchery. The fourth measure authorized the co-
operation by the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
with the U. S. Forestry Service. The fifth measure prohibited
the carrying of fire arms within the national Forests without
a special permit from the Chief Forester in charge. And last,
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 33
but by no means least was the general measure which provided
a closed season on black bass during a part of the spawning
time. These measures have already been discussed.
Among measures greatly needed which were lost during the
1937 session was a bill that would have required hunters to
leave marks of sex identification on the carcass of deer killed
until the deer could be checked by a Conservation Officer. An-
other measure would have required the Commission of Game
and Fresh Water Fish to furnish each resident in a County an
identification certificate whereby it would be possible for Conser-
vation Officers to prevent residents of one County from fishing
in another County without license or to prevent non-residents
from fishing without license. The protection of the fast dis-
appearing alligator was sought but this bill was also lost.
While a great deal has already been accomplished, much more
remains to be done.
PITTMAN ROBERTSON ACT
Possibly the most forward step in conservation was the pas-
sage of the Pittman-Robertson Act by Congress during 1937.
This Act authorizes the Federal Government to appropriate
revenue not to exceed the annual income from the ten per cent
excise tax on arms and ammunition used for sporting purposes
to aid in a wildlife restoration program. During the present
fiscal year there was included in the budget for the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture the amount of $1,000,000 with which
to begin work under the Pittman-Robertson Act. It is expected
that the general revenue from this sum in the years following
will approximate not less than $3,250,000 annually. This rev-
enue will be apportioned among the States on a basis of the
total area of the State and the number of hunting licenses sold.
FLORIDA'S PITTMAN-ROBERTSON PROJECT
Under the provisions of the Pittman-Robertson Act, the Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish of the State of Florida
is permitted to avail itself of funds allocated to Florida pro-
vided certain requirements are met.
Only those States which by legislative act provide that all
revenue from the sale of hunting licenses by the State shall be
wholly used for wildlife protection and restoration may parti-
cipate in the revenue provided under the Pittman-Robertson
34 BIENNIAL REPORT
Section 13, Chapter 13644, Acts of 1929, as amended by Sec-
tion 2, Chapter 17016, Acts of 1935, provides that the State
Game Fund shall be used in carrying out the provisions of the
Florida law regarding conservation of wildlife and "for no
It is further required that the funds received from Pittman-
Robertson funds be supplemented by additional amount from
the State, equal to one-third the revenue received from Federal
Florida's first apportionment under the $1,000,000 provided
for beginning this work was $12,239.49. To this the State
added $4,079.83 to initiate projects under this Act. When the
full amount of tax derived under the provisions of the Pittman-
Robertson Act is made available, it is expected that Florida
will receive a total of approximately $39,000 from the Federal
Government, to which the State will add approximately $13,000.
In addition to the requirements mentioned above a State must
also definitely assent by legislative act to the provisions of the
Pittman-Robertson Act. The Act permits the Governor of the
State to give such assent until such time as the Legislature of
the State shall be in session. Florida's Governor has given
The general scope of the Pittman-Robertson Act allows the
purchase of land for wildlife restoration purposes, development
of research projects, establishment of wildlife management
areas, surveys of breeding stock of game and fur-bearers on
hand, purchase of needed breeding stock, and other projects in
harmony with the general purpose of the Act, "wildlife res-
Since none of the Federal funds available from an excise
tax are derived from a tax on fishing equipment, none of the
Pittman-Robertson funds may be devoted to restoration of fish.
Florida has submitted a Preliminary Project Proposal for a
Research Project which has been approved by the Federal Gov-
ernment. This Preliminary Proposal plans to cover a period of
five years during which wildlife management areas will be set
up in each Congressional District within the State where a full
time wildlife technician will carry on a well planned program
of wildlife restoration.
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish is looking
forward with much hope to great results from the Florida
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
LAW ENFORCEMENT DIVISION
As was shown in the chart showing expenditure of the funds
derived from the sale of licenses, by far the major division of
conservation in Florida is the Law Enforcement Division.
Florida is divided into Five Congressional Districts. From
each of these Congressional Districts a Commissioner is ap-
pointed to serve without remuneration. In each District also
is a Chief Conservation Officer who is primarily responsible
for the enforcement of our game and fish laws within his Dis-
trict. Under his guidance and instruction are the several Con-
servation Officers who serve in the field.
THE CONSERVATION OFFICER
At the present time Florida has a total of 108 Conservation
Officers working full time. These men have been carefully
selected and trained for the work which they carry on.
All Conservation Officers are required to submit a weekly
report of his activities. This report contains a daily record of
territory covered and number of miles traveled together with
the number of arrests made, licenses checked and a detailed
statement of all work performed in line of duty each day.
All arrests made are reported to the office on the day they
occur. Blanks are furnished the field force for this purpose.
When the case has been disposed of, a Final Disposition Report
is made to the office showing the amount of fine, if any, and
if not, the final action of the Court. In some of the counties
of this State, the Conservation Officer is immediately presented
with a check covering his costs in the case and this is trans-
mitted to the State Office along with the Final Disposition
Report. In other counties, the cost allowed the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish is paid into the Fine and For-
feiture Fund of the County and paid to the Commission by
warrant from the Clerk.
It would be unfair to our Conservation Officers to refer to
them simply as Law Enforcement Officers. They are more
than this. They are the legally constituted guardians of our
capital stock of wildlife and the salesmen in the business of
Quite often the Conservation Officer is called upon to appear
on conservation programs of various organizations. Just how
good a salesman he is, will be shown by the increase of interest
in matters pertaining to conservation in his immediate territory.
36 BIENNIAL REPORT
A Conservation Officer is not permitted to work a stated num-
ber of hours per day. Quite often in times of drought or unpre-
cedented rains, he is called upon to remain out all night rescu-
ing fish from low waters and transplanting them either to the
Hatcheries or to other bodies of water or watching over other
species of wildlife which have been forced to foreign territory
by the flooded condition of their natural habitat.
He is called on numbers of occasions to leave his own home
territory and assist some fellow officer in another district when
conditions demand such action. A Conservation Officer must
first of all be a Gentleman. He is required to conduct himself
as such at home and in the field, in the court room and in the
club. He must know the laws and how to enforce them. He
must know the habits and haunts of all wildlife and how to
protect them in times of danger. Our Conservation Officers
are furnished standard uniforms of forestry green, together
with identification badges, hats and boots. The use of these
uniforms has gone a long way toward creating a better appre-
ciation by the public of the work being done by these officers.
These men need the help of the general public if the work
of Conservation is to be properly carried on. The Commission
of Game and Fresh Water Fish urges you to get acquainted with
this body of men and cooperate with them in every way. You
will find them eager to work with you.
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR CONSERVATION OFFICERS
As a part of the Conservation program in Florida, the Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish each year conducts a
school for its Conservation Officers. These schools have been
held through the cooperation of the Extension Division of the
University of Florida and are filling a long felt need in this
field work. The programs give special consideration to field
problems of the officers. Those versed in handling such prob-
lems in conservation and kindred fields of work are secured as
instructors. During the last school, Honorable I. T. Quinn,
formerly Conservation Commissioner for the State of Alabama,
but now holding an important position with the National Wild-
life Federation, was the principal speaker. It was during the
last school that the first manual for Conservation Officers was
prepared and presented. The manual was printed shortly after-
ward and is furnished to each officer employed in the field .
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 37
38 BIENNIAL REPORT
It is hoped that the continuation of these yearly schools will
better prepare our Conservation Officers for the work before
them and also help to enlighten the general public as to the
problems with which they are confronted.
CASES IN COURT
During the first year of the biennium which this report
covers, there were 581 arrests made for various game law vio-
lations. Of this number 385 were convicted, 57 acquitted and
139 left pending. During the second year of the biennium there
were 781 arrests, 516 convictions, 82 acquittals and 183 cases
In many states amounts levied as fines for law violations are
allocated to the State Game Fund to be expended to replace
the wild life illegally taken. In Florida the fine goes into the
county fine and forfeiture fund.
Under the Florida law the arresting fees allowed for the
service of Conservation Officers in cases of law violations are
comparable to those allowed the Sheriff's force. Revenue from
this source goes into the State Game Fund. The total amount
during the biennium was $5,017.57.
The work of an officer is not judged by the number of ar-
rests which he makes but rather by cooperation in law observ-
ance and enforcement which is given in his respective area and
also by the per cent of convictions.
There is a strong spirit of cooperation among the members
of the law enforcement division and in a great number of
Counties in the State the relationship existing between the men
of this division and the county enforcement officers of their re-
spective counties is very gratifying. A stronger support of
enforcement of conservation law is given by the courts of Florida
than in former years as is shown by the extent of the penalty
the courts place upon law violators. This is the strongest pos-
sible endorsement of the enforcement work of the Conservation
Knowledge of wild life is recognized in every State as the
fundamental basis upon which work for conservation of wild-
life must be built. For this reason conservation education is
receiving in every State increased emphasis as an important
branch of work to be developed and sustained in branches of
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
government directing wildlife conservation. Florida has con-
sistently maintained such a division of work since the work was
undertaken in 1925.
Members of the Commission, the Executive Secretary and the
Conservation Officers hold a strategic place in the development
of this program. Their constant contact with the public opens
the way for fine service in this field. The Florida organization
has been active along this line.
Chapter 17030, Acts of 1935, Laws of Florida, requires the
Commission to prepare material on conservation of wild life to
be submitted to the State Department of Public Instruction to
be considered for publication by that Department for use in
schools. During 1938 the education division of the Commission
of Game and Fresh Water Fish prepared material for a bul-
letin on Conservation of Wildlife Resources in Florida which
has been printed. This bulletin has been placed in libraries in
public schools as research material and is available to teachers
upon request to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Other material of educational value to those interested in
conservation is a compilation of laws affecting wildlife in Flor-
ida and a summary of these prepared in leaflet form. Another
leaflet summarizing all hunting regulations effective in Florida
was printed just prior to the opening of the hunting season. A
folder "Florida Sport Fishing" illustrated and printed in two
colors is also available to the public. This folder has been used
to great extent by Chambers of Commerce in Florida both as
information regarding sport fishing in inland waters and as
Of special value along education lines with the general pub-
lic, is the contact which has been maintained with various civic
organizations and clubs throughout the State. A series of ar-
ticles issued through the columns of the Florida Club Woman,
a special conservation program prepared for the Florida Fed-
eration of Garden Clubs and meeting with prize winning boys
and girls connected with 4-II Club work have contributed to
In addition to the above, numerous invitations to appear at
luncheon meetings and meetings of County Fish and Game or-
ganizations have been accepted. These have afforded excellent
opportunities for educational work by means of advising these
organizations of the work carried on by the Commission.
Sixty in Possession, as Fixed by Florida Law. Section 36, Chapter
13644, Acts of 1929. Supply in Lakes and Streams Cannot
Hold Up Under This Drain.
PRIZE ESSAY CONTEST
Of particular note is the prize essay contest sponsored by the
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish as a part of the
program for observance of Wildlife Restoration Week.
This contest offered an opportunity for boys and girls in both
Junior and Senior High Schools of the State to prepare papers
on subjects submitted to them.
Study outlines were prepared by the education division of
the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish and offered
along with a list of available reference material to assist the
students wishing to submit essays.
The Department of Public Instruction cooperated heartily
and assisted in making plans for the final judging of essays
submitted. The prize winners were announced just prior to
the time for holding the school for Conservation Officers in
Gainesville and in addition to receiving the offered prizes, the
winners were given a trip to Gainesville where presentation of
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
the various prizes was an outstanding feature of the school
The following boys and girls were prize winners:
Miss Catherine Pomeroy, St. Petersburg High School, St.
Miss Sadie Gerald, Williston High School, Williston, Florida.
Miss Elizabeth Stroup, St. Cloud High School, St. Cloud,
Mr. Jerry Finklestein, Duncan U. Fletcher High School,
Jacksonville Beach, Florida.
Miss Iilda Fay Van Deinse, Orlando High School, Orlando,
Mr. Kenneth H. Tuttle, Hernando High School, Brooksville,
Mr. Carl Gilley, Williston High School, Williston, Florida.
Mr. Charles Whitehurst, Bay County High School, Panama
Mr. Lee Scott, Mainland High School, Daytona Beach, Florida.
During the past year the Commission of Game and Fresh
Water Fish has had prepared a motion picture depicting the
wildlife of Florida woods and waters. This reel, prepared by a
well known sportsman and sportswriter will go a long way
toward informing the public along conservation lines. It is
planned to use this film not only in community and club meet-
ings but to offer it to the schools of Florida. The Commission
has also purchased a movie projector to be used at points where
such equipment is not already available.
Since its organization in 1935 the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish has been represented each season at a num-
ber of fairs in the State. It is through this medium that a
great deal of educational work has been done.
FLORIDA WILDLIFE FEDERATION
Another forward step in Conservation has been made with
the organization in Florida of a State sportsmen's federation.
The Florida Wildlife Federation as it stands today has affili-
ated with it twenty-four sportsmen's organizations. It is ex-
42 BIENNIAL REPORT
pected that many others will become affiliated with this State
Federation within a short time.
Mr. Fred C. Collins of Daytona Beach is President of the
Florida Wildlife Federation. Mr. Merlin Mitchell of Orlando is
Executive Secretary of the Organization and maintains head-
quarters offices in Orlando.
WILDLIFE RESTORATION WEEK
The week of March 20th to 26th, 1938 was set aside by Procla-
mation by the President of the United States as National Wild-
life Week. In keeping with the President's request for coop-
eration in this movement, the Governor of Florida issued a
similar proclamation declaring the week of March 20th to 26th
as Florida Wildlife Week, and calling for its proper observance.
Dr. F. G. Garner, Chairman of the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish, was made Chairman of the Wildlife Resto-
ration Week program in Florida, with Mr. Merlin Mitchell,
Executive Secretary of the Florida Wildlife Federation, as
With the full cooperation of the Conservation Officers a pro-
gram for the sale of wildlife restoration stamps was carried on.
When records of this work were completed a very creditable
showing had been made in this State.
Other features of the observance of Wildlife Week in Florida
were programs on conservation made possible through the var-
ious civic organizations of the State, the full cooperation of both
press and radio and the widespread interest in matters pertain-
ing to conservation evidenced in every section of the State. The
success of this first observance of Wildlife Week leads us to
believe that much can be accomplished in the future by the
continued observance of Wildlife Week.
CHANGES IN PERSONNEL OF THE COMMISSION OF
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
June 30th, 1937, upon the expiration of the term of Honor-
able George L. Ienderson, Commissioner of the Third Con-
gressional District, Honorable W. Lamar Gammon, of Mari-
anna, was appointed to succeed him.
July 26th, 1937, Honorable Henry Wiesenfeld, Chairman and
Commissioner of the Second Congressional District, whose term
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 43
expired, was succeeded by Honorable Thompson S. Baker of
March 28th, 1938, Honorable John S. Clardy was appointed to
fill the unexpired term of Honorable H. L. McDonald.
SUMMARY OF MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION
The law requires the Commission of Game and Fresh Water
Fish to meet quarterly at the State Capital and permits called
meetings to be held in other parts of the State. In 1937 Quar-
terly meetings were held on March 22nd, June 21st, September
20th and December 20th. During this year called meetings were
held on January 16th, April 17th, July 26th, August 18th and
During 1938 regular quarterly meetings were held on March
28th, June 13th, September 19th and December 19th, with called
meetings on January 24th, July 25th and November 4th.
44 BIENNIAL REPORT
COMMISSION OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1937
Balance on hand June 30th, 1935 ------------__-------- $49,176.66
Hunting Licenses_ _----_ $121,063.00
Fishing Licenses --------_ 52,298.50
Trapping Licenses --------- 6,875.00
Alien Hunting Licenses_____--- 50.00
Retail Fish Dealers ---------- 1,945.00
Wholesale Fish Dealers ------- 1,250.00
Commercial Boats ------------ 262.00
Boats for Hire ---------- 1,531.50
Wholesale Fur Dealers-Agents 1,485.00
Local Fur Dealers ------------ 150.00
Game Farm Licenses --------- 90.00
Guide Licenses_------- 120.00
Court Costs ------------------ 1,982.12
Confiscated Nets and Boats___ 678.00
Confiscated Fish ------ 18.93
Confiscated Furs and Hides___ 96.25
Sale of Old Truck at Hatchery 25.00
Previous Year's Licenses--------- 2,821.50 2,821.50 192,741.80
Florida Bird Life------------- 102.00 102.00 102.00
TOTAL ------- --- -------- ---- _-_____$-242,020.46
Office Salaries---------------- 7,785.00
Traveling Executive Secretary__ 1,148.65
Traveling Commissioners ----. 1,140.01
Office Supplies --___---- 395.38
Postage, Telephone, Telegrams 994.14
Printing and Stationery-------- 2,440.97
Premium on Bonds..---------_ 10.00
Delegates to Convention ------ 88.95
Salaries of Conservation Officers 80,419.94
Traveling Expense of Conserva-
tion Officers --------------- 58,061.58
Legal Expense --------------- 793.24
Miscellaneous -------- 2,124.81
Premium on Compensation
Purchase and Maintenance of
Rewards Paid--------- -- 970.00
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 45
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1937
MAGAZINE AND EDUCATION:
Salaries-------------------- $ 2,758.26
Miscellaneous ---------------- 62.14
Salaries -------------------- 2,100.00
Light and Power-------- 75.02
Truck Hire_ ---------------- 60.00
Gasoline and Oil ------------- 177.99
WINTER HAVEN HATCHERY:
Traveling ---- 381.07
Labor--- -------- 1,622.00
Supplies ---------------- 209.57
Truck Operations -_ --- 401.03
Truck Purchase ------------ 685.92
Gasoline and Oil ------------- 877.80
Insurance on Truck -- 167.80
Fair Expense----------- 61.30 61.30 $179,257.99
Refunds_ ------------- 10.00 10.00
Remittance Florida Bird Life 97.84 97.84
Balance in State Treasury ---- 47,719.16
Balance in Lewis State Bank-__ 12,113.27
Due from County Judges -__-- 2,822.20
TOTAL --------- ----------- $242,020.46
COMMISSION OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1937 to June 30, 1938
Balance on Hand June 30th, 1937 -------------------_-_ $62,651. 6
Hunting Licenses------------- $131,844.00
Fishing Licenses- ---- __62,316.50
Trapping Licenses-----------_ 5,112.00
Retail Fish Dealer ----- 1,970.00
Wholesale Fish Dealer .-------. 800.00
Commercial Boats ---__..---- 278.00
Boats for Hire .--------- 1,791.50
Wholesale Fur Dealers and
Agents ------------------- 925.00
Local Fur Dealers------------- 110.00
Game Farms __-------- 85.00
Guides --------------------- 50.00
Court Costs------------------ 3,035.45
Confiscated Nets and Boats --- 202.32
Confiscated Furs-------------- 4.75
Sale of Old Equipment ------- 80.05
Previous Year's Licenses-------__ 376.50
Refund from Florida Power-Light
Company for Power Line 1,200.00
Sale of Florida Bird Books --- 18.00
TOTAL __--------- -- -_ _I_--_ _.___- _$272,853.70
Office Salaries ----_ __- $ 9,005.84
Traveling, Executive Secretary- 1,158.35
Traveling, Commissioners -___. 1,238.69
Delegates to Conventi n----- 343.20
Special Expense- ------------ 186.00
Miscellaneous ----_----------- 1,088.64
Office Supplies ---------------- 320.56
Postage. Telephone and
Telegraph _---------- 1,140.02
Printing and Stationery ----. __ 2,655.55
Premium on Bonds.----------- 620.00
Fair Expense __--------- 224.77
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 47
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1937 to June 30, 1938
Salaries Conservation Officers-- $100,066.65
Traveling, Conservation Officers 69, 98.75
Legal Expense---------------- 474.45
Miscellaneous --------- 1, 08.74
Premium on Com ensation
Insurance ..._----- ----- 1,584.67
Equipment Pur hased ----- 3,929.78
Maintenance of Equipment---- 607.49
Wild Life Restoration Week -- 449.16
School of Instruction ---------- 530.82
Movin Pictures ---------- 750.00
Special Expense, Welaka ----- 519.74 519.74
Salaries ____----------------- 2,208.45
Labor --------------------- 3'.00
Light and Power ------------ 5t.18
Supplies_- --------- 71.95
Truck Hire ----------- 8.00
Gas and Oil__-------- 198.40
WINTER HAVEN HATCHERY:
Salaries __--- ----------- 1,500.00
Traveling -------------------- 419.62
Labor -_--------- 1,638.00
Supplies ----------- 195.87
Truck Operations ------ 398.75
Gas and Oil_ -------- 925.12
Insurance on Truck ---------- 170.80
Remittance for Florida Bird Books 17.14
Refund -_-- -_-. 00
23.14 $213,039. 8
Balance in State Treasury ----- 49,679.78
Balance in Lewis State Bank -_ 9,732.54
Due from County Judges ---_. 402.00
TOTAL ---- _------- --- -- ------- $272,853.70
COMMISSION OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1938 to December 31, 1938
Balance on hand ,une 30th, 1938- ----------------------- $59,814.32
Huntin Licenses------- $110,266.00
Fishing Licenses ---------- 20,412.00
Trapping Licenses -------------- 638.00
Retail Fish Dealer------ 775.00
Wholesale Fish Dealer .------- 250.00
Commercial Boat _------ 92.00
Boat f r Hire---- ------ 639.00
Wholesale Fur Dealers-Agents 375.00
Local Fur Dealer------ 90.00
Game Farm_ 55.00
Alien License-------- 100.00
U.S. Forest Permits ---------- 1,400.00
Court Costs---------- 1,619.31
Confiscated Nets------ 25.00
Confiscated Furs and Hidei --.- 1.35
Previ u: Year's Licenses ------ 2,757.00
TOTAL ------ -- --$199,388.98
Office Salaries--------- 4,600.00
Traveling, Executive Secretary 505.00
Traveling, Commissioners------ 506.18
Special Expense---------- 80.00
Office Supplies-------- 197.20
Postage, Telephone, and
Printing and Stationery-------- 1,763.05
Premium n Bonds ---------- 3 0.00
Salaries, Conservation Officers_ 52,136.89
Traveling. Conservation Officers 29,180.09
Legal Expense------ 65.00
Premium on Compensation
Maintenance of Equipment ---- 558.61
Rewards Paid---------------- 525.00
Restocking ---------- 450.00
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
July 1, 1938 to December 31. 1938
Salaries -------------_--- 900.00
Miscellaneous_ ______ 200.48
Moving Pictures.------------- 350.00
Salaries ---------------- 1,067.50
Labor ---------- 212.75
Light ind Power __-___--- 17.50
Truck Hire --------------. 78.32
Equipment Purchased------- 15.00
Gas and Oil-------------- 89.55
Winter Haven Hat hery-
Salaries ------------------ 750.00
Travelin ---------------- 138.60
Labor---_ --------------- 1,056.25
Truck Operation ----------- 299.28
Gas and Oil--------- 328.15
Balance in State Treasury ---- 53,159.20
Balance in Lewis State Bank_ __ 44,976.70
Due from County Judges ------ 132.50
TOTAL ----------------- ------------ ------------ $199,388.98
Bass Waters Awaiting You in Florida.
GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 51
This report would not be complete were it not to pay a final
tribute to the men who have served with this Department and
have now gone to their reward. During the biennium closing
December 31st, 1938, the following State Conservation Officers
crossed the Great Divide passing into the beyond:
J. II. Girardeau, Jefferson County, June 20, 1937.
Will C. Smith, Madison County, September 5, 1937.
D. A. McCombs, Santa Rosa County, October 26, 1938.
H. K. Chitty, Iolmes County, April 7, 1938.
Men of this service are pickets at the outposts, on guard,
alone, protecting the helpless, advancing a cause-Conservation
of Wildlife. "The good men do lives after them."
Introduction ......................... ........ ... ......................... .............- 7
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish................................ 4
Letters of Transm ittal ...... ..................................................... ............... 3, 5
Conservation of Florida's Native Wildlife ......................... ............. 7
F inan ces ....................- ................................. ............................ 7
Division of Florida's Wildlife Dollar .................. ........................... 9
Taking Stock ......................................... ......... .... ... ..... 11
D eer ..... ........... ...... ...................................... 11
W ild T urkey .................................. ...... ................... .............. 15
Q u ail ......... .................................................. .............................. 16
Chukar Partridge ............................................... ....................... 19
D ove .......................... ...... ............. ....... ................ 19
W ild D uck ....................................... ........ ........ ...................... 19
W ild G eese ............................ ................ .... ......... ............ 21
Coot, Rails or Marsh Hens ........-- ................................. 21
R accoon ..... .. .........-.... .-.....- ....--............. ... 22
O tter .......................... ........ ....... .......-- .... ....---- 22
B lack B ear ..................................................... ..... 22
T he A alligator .......................... ....................... ....... 22
F ish ............................ ............ .................................. ................ 23
Fish H atcheries ......................... ........... .... ........... ...... 24
Lake lam onia Dam ............................. ....................... 24
Wildlife Breeding Grounds ......................... .-......- ..-...----.... 26
Cooperation with State Forest Service ............................. ........... 27
Cooperative Agreement with Federal Forest Service............................ 27
Florida's First Supervised Deer Hunt ................................... 27
Plans for the Future ............................................... ..... ..... ............. 31
Pittman-Robertson Act ....-......--.. ............ .............. 33
Florida's Pittman-Robertson Project ...........................--- ....... 33
Law Enforcement Division .......................... ........ ............... 35
The Conservation Officer .......................... ..... ..-..........-... 35
Training School for Conservation Officers............................. 36
Cases in Court ............ ..... ......... .................. ........... 38
Education ............................... ... .... ...... ....... ........ ..........- 38
Education M material ........................................ ....... ................ 39
Prize Essay Contest ..- .................... ......... ..... ............ 40
M oving P picture ............................................. ......... 41
F air E exhibits .................................... ...................................... 41
Florida Wildlife Federation .................................... ................ 41
W wildlife Restoration W eek ....................................... .......................... 42
Changes in Personnel of the Commission of Game and Fresh
W ater Fish .... ................................... .... ...... .... ----........ 42
Summary of Meetings of the Commission ............................................. 43
Financial Statem cents ...... ...... ........... ... ......... ..... ............. .... 44
In M em oriam ......................................... ....... ---... ........- 51