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Biennial report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075940/00001
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Publisher: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1936
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Game protection -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fish culture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fishery management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Wildlife management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: First biennial report covers the period from the time of the organization (of the Commission) July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1936.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000327977
oclc - 01332271
notis - ABV7514
System ID: UF00075940:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida. Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish.|Biennial report of the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
Succeeded by: Florida. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.|Annual report

Full Text

















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FLORIDA

Biennial Report


COMMISSION OF GAME AND
FRESH WATER FISH

BIENNIUM ENDING
December 31, 1936




















I. N. KENNEDY
Executive Secretary
Tallajassee, Florida


I









-191
)1\3 -'


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SUBMITTING REPORT


Tallahassee, Florida,
February 15, 1937.


To
Honorable Henry Wiesenfeld, Chairman,
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish,
State of Florida.
Sir:
I herewith submit the report of the work of the State Com-
mission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, for the conservation
of Florida's wildlife resources, during the biennium closing
December 31, 1936.
Respectfully yours,



Executive Secretary.
Executive Secretary.

















FLORIDA

COMMISSION OF GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


F. G. GARNER, 1st Congressional District,
Winter Haven

HENRY WIESENFELD, 2nd Congressional District,
Jacksonville

GEORGE L. HENDERSON, 3rd Congressional District,
Tallahassee

HERBERT L. SCHALLER, 4th Congressional District,
Miami

HARRY L. McDONALD, 5th Congressional District,
Orlando





HENRY WIESENFELD, Chairman
I. N. KENNEDY, Executive Secretary
Executive Offices, State Capitol,
Tallahassee




















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Tallahassee, Florida, March 1, 1937.

To His Excellency,
Fred Preston Cone,
Governor of the State of Florida.
Sir:
I have the honor of transmitting herewith, the biennial re-
port of work that has been done for the conservation of Flor-
ida's wildlife resources, as directed by the Commission of
Game and Fresh Water Fish during the period intervening
from the time of the organization of the Commission, July 1,
1935 and the close of the Biennium, December 31, 1936.
Respectfully submitted,


Chairman of the Commission.















I
i~.


"Out Fishin' "










PART I

FOREWORD


Florida is preeminently an outdoor State. Not only do its
climate and its many natural resources make it a good place
in which to live but these, with other outdoor physical re-
sources, -furnish the basis for much of the development and
wealth which has made the Florida of today possible.
These resources are utilized almost as they came from the
hand of the Creator. With the exception of mineral deposits,
they may be retained or renewed by wise handling, or, abused,
exploited, they may be seriously depleted and finally lost.
Even climate and beaches are affected by the operations which
man carries on. The relation of these natural resources to
Florida's future prosperity give a very great importance to
the Conservation of Natural Resources in this State.
Florida's wildlife resources have many values. They may
be classified as aesthetic, recreational, economic, which, though
separated here, are closely interrelated. The appeal of deep
woods, the clear flowing streams, of the still waters of the blue
lakes is a large part of the appeal that leads the angler to put
his fisherman's luck to the test. With equal force the yellow-
ing fields of autumn, the red and gold of the woodland, the
intelligent work of a well trained pointer or setter is as large
a part of the picture in the true sportsman's eye as is the num-
ber of birds that fill his bag.
For that reason pictured Florida, sold to the world, presents
the myriads of stately waterbirds, egrets in their bridal plum-
age, herons-blue, white, green, the exquisite roseate spoon-
bill, the picturesque ibis-close kinsman of the sacred ibis of
Egypt, the rusty alligator burdened with his years, the in-
quiisitive raccoon, the sleepy opossum, as well as the bounding
buck, the graceful doe and the spotted fawn, the whirring
covey of bobwhites and the regal wild turkey of Florida-a
dwindling remnant of a lordly race. This dual appeal of the
aesthetic and recreational gives rise to the third value, the
Economic, for outdoor Florida with its conscious sparkle of
wildlife, fish, game and non-game birds and mammals, to be
found in their rich habitat in the open and under Florida's
matchless climate, brings annually to the State the tourist
business, estimated to produce an annual revenue of more than
$200,000,000.00 Were Florida's wildlife judged alone by the
dollar yardstick here were reason sufficient to preserve it.








BIENNIAL REPORT


ADDITIONAL VALUES

Additional values briefly cited would be:
1. The supply of food that goes direct to the table of the
man who takes it.
2. The commercial fishing industry with its varied lines of
operation, valued at from $6,000,000.00 to $20,000,000.00.
3. The fur and trapping industry, valued at from $500,-
000.00 to $1,000,000.00 annually.
4. The value of birds to the truck crops, groves and forests
of Florida, as destroyers of insect pests and their de-
struction of insects that are carriers of disease germs.
5. The character building power of life in the open.
Men who grow up loving the out-of-doors, knowing its laws
of life, close to nature are not often far from Nature's God.
Yearly the numbers who go on the gipsy trail increase. Perma-
nent returns are measured in terms of interest and joy found
in a knowledge of the wild and the life habits of its denizens,
their beauty and worth to men who hunt with sharp eyes,
field glasses and cameras. No State has more to offer to the
outdoor-minded than has Florida.
The preservation for visitors and residents of these values,
the rebuilding where depleted, is entirely within the reach
of the possible. It needs unprejudiced consideration, wise
planning, and efficient execution to make the possibility a
reality. It is worthy of such.

REPORT
With title to wildlife vested in the State, this agency alone
has the right to regulate the taking, method of taking, posses-
sion and disposition of wildlife, (with the, exception of migra-
tory bird life), or to withhold such. This is the basis for game
legislation. Protective legislation for wildlife is a develop-
ment of comparatively modern times. Florida's first Game
Law was written in 1828. First laws were general in their
application. Local Game Laws are a development almost en-
tirely of the past twenty-five years. They -are indicative of
the awakening of the people to the decline in the wildlife sup-
ply and the need of protection if it was to be saved.
States usually have built their conservation program along
three well defined lines: Protection, Propagation, Education.
Florida has followed this plan. The report that follows gives
a brief account of this work in Florida during the eighteen








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


months that ended December 31st, 1936, the period during
which the State Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish
has functioned as such.
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish Created
One June 8th, 1935, the Governor of Florida signed a Bill
which, by amending Chapter 13644, Acts of 1929, created the
State Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish. It vested
in the newly created Commission all duties, powers and re-
sponsibilities, so far as they relate to the game and non-game
birds, animals, fresh water fish found in Florida, which had
previously been vested in other agencies.
The Act creating the Commission provided that it should
consist of five persons appointed by the Governor, one from
each Congressional District, to serve "for a period of four
years, EXCEPT that in appointing the first membership of the
Commission, one shall be appointed for a term of one year, two
for a term of two years, one for a term of three years and one
for the full term of four years. At the expiration of the sev-
eral terms of office of said members each successor shall be
appointed for a full term of four years. No member shall be
appointed to the Commission unless he shall be informed on
the subject of wildlife, conservation and restoration."
Commission Appointed
Under the law the following members were appointed:
For term of ONE year, C. G. Magruder, Orlando, 5th
District.
For term of TWO years, Henry Wiesenfeld, Jacksonville 2nd
District.
For term of TWO years, George L. Henderson, Tallahassee,
3rd District.
For term of THREE years, H. L. Schaller, Miami, 4th
District.
For term of FOUR years, F. G. Garner, Winter Haven, 1st
District.
Commissioners serve without pay. It is required that quar-
terly meetings be held at Tallahassee. Called meetings are
permitted. Expense allowance for each Commissioner is
limited to $300.00 each year.

ORGANIZATION
At its first meeting in Tallahassee, June 25th, 1936, Mr.
Henry Wiesenfeld was made Chairman of the Commission; Dr.
I. N. Kennedy was elected Executive Secretary. Authority








BIENNIAL REPORT


was given him to name for appointment or for removal, with
the consent of the Commissioner of each respective District,
the five Chief Officers of the five Congressional Districts. The
following were named:
P. L. Lilly, Winter Haven, 1st District.
*B. F. Mizell, Gainesville, 2nd District.
J. P. Anthony, Apalachicola, 3rd District.
Newton Lewis, Miami, 4th District.
James A. Black, Pine Castle, 5th District.
*Resigned to accept appointment of Motor Vehicle Commissioner.
C. E. Clarke, Jr., Jacksonville, appointed to succeed him.
Two Superintendents of Fish Hatcheries.
Chief Officers were authorized to recommend to the Execu-
tive Secretary for appointment or for removal the County Con-
servation Officers for their respective Districts. To complete
organization, the budget approved at the initial meeting of the
Commission, provided for the following:
Office Staff
Secretary-Stenographer ........................... .... Mrs. J. P. Koscielny
Director Education ..............................Miss Sarah W. Partridge
Bookkeeper-Auditor ................. ..................... Mr. C. R. Phillips
Rewards Offered
One further expense was authorized at this initial meeting
-a cash reward of $100.00 for information that would lead to
the arrest and conviction of any party or parties found guilty
of taking deer, turkey or quail illegally (Said reward not
available to law enforcement officers). At the August meet-
ing this was amended to provide a $25.00 reward for informa-
tion that would lead to arrest and conviction of any one selling
black bass. During the eighteen months of operation covered
by this report there were eleven claimants to whom rewards
were paid, nine for the $100.00 reward, two for the $25.00
reward. Results in quickened interest on the part of the pub-
lic in this feature of law enforcement, which tended to focus
attention on law violations and win for law enforcement-
stronger support, have justified the continuance of the offer.
With organization complete the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish set itself about the task of conserving and
rebuilding the wildfire resources of Florida. How the Commis-
sion has operated, what has been accomplished, and the pro-
gram for future development is the subject of this report.













-gj~e


"Pals"









BIENNIAL REPORT


HOW THE COMMISSION HAS OPERATED

Finances
The Game Law provides that the sole source of revenue for
the conservation of game and non-game birds, animals and
fresh water fish in Florida shall come from the sale of li-
censes for hunting, fishing, trapping, boats-for-hire, fresh
water fish dealers, guides, game farm operators and fur
dealers.
While limiting revenue to that produced by the administra-
tion of the law, the Act of 1935 also provides that "The funds
resulting from the administration of this law shall constitute
the State Game Fund, and shall be used in carrying out the
provisions thereof and for no other purpose."
Florida has an area nearly as large as the New England
States; a wildlife that attracts; a climate that makes it de-
lightful to go into the woods and fields 365 days in the year,
thereby necessitating the guarding of wildlife 365 days in a
year if this priceless heritage shall be safe from the scoff-laws
who are found among those who go into the open.
District Budgets
When the Commission began operations, July 1st, 1935, there
was but $29,369.54 in the State Game Fund, and no consid-
erable increase in prospect until the sale of hunting licenses for
the general hunting season, which would open November 20th
following. The Commission established as its policy "Opera-
tion within the limits of the funds in hand." Lack of revenue,
always a limiting factor in this big field, necessarily curtailed
operations until funds could be secured from licenses sold. In
budgeting for immediate operations the Chief Conservation Of-
ficers of each of the Five Districts were given salaries of
$150.00 a month each, with an expense account of the same
sum; staff employees, three in number, were placed upon the
same salary basis; an allotment of $1,000.00 to each of the Five
Districts for salary and travel of County Conservation Offi-
cers was made, each man to furnish and operate a car.
On this basis 46 men were employed, most of them at an
average of $100.00 per month to cover salary and travel. As
revenue increased monthly allotments have been increased.
During the last quarter of 1936, they averaged $2,000.00 per
district, the number of men was raised to 80 (including extra
men for the open hunting season) and salaries plus travel aver-
aged $125.00 per month.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


In the interest of fair practice and efficiency in service, the
Commission plans, as revenue will warrant, to increase
amounts allotted for County Officers until such amounts shall
be commensurate with the service demanded. It further plans
to expand its educational program and undertake the neces-
sary work in restocking.
Revenue
During the first fiscal year under the Commission, revenues
from the sale of Hunting, Fishing and Trapping licenses
totaled $144,400.00 and from Commercial licenses, $5,620.80,
giving a grand total of $150,020.80. During the last six
months for which this report is made, closing December 31st,
1936, revenues, which included the heavy sales of the hunting
season, yielded for hunting, fishing and trapping licenses, $124,-
584.00, and for Commercial licenses, $3,766.50-or a grand
total for that period of $128,350.50. It is estimated that rev-
enue for the remainder of this fiscal year, closing June 30th,
1937 will bring the total to $170,000.00.











BIENNIAL REPORT


SUMMARIZED STATEMENT

A summarized statement for the fiscal year closing June
30th, 1936, and for the period extending from that date to
December 31st, 1936, follows:

CLASSIFIED LIST OF LICENSES SOLD BY COUNTY JUDGES.


Fiscal Year Eniding June :30, 19):(;
Fishing Licenses:
I'rice No
Iss


Series A-Resident State........2.00
Series B,-Non-Resid. State... 5.00
Series (-Non-Resident-
3 D ay Trip ........ ............... 1.50
Series I)D-Special Non-
Resident County ................. .00


Total ..


4.


June 30. 1!9:3( to I)ec. 31. 1936


l11h.' A(lmount
ued
i28 .$15.25(i.00
443 17.475.00

10 6.159.00

(5 1915.00


Nullber
Issued
3.1 (9)
1.1591

1.7N-4


Amount

1 6.338.00
5.705.00

2.676.0)


..................... ...... 1 .212 $3 ,085.00 0.112 S14, .00


Hunting Licenses:
Series I-Resident countyy ...... 00.
Series .J-Resident County.
Other than H om e ........................ .
Series K-Resident State ....... 5(.00
Series L--Non-Resident ............. 25.00
Series M--Non-Resident
10 D ay Trip .............. .............. .0
Series Ml-1-Non-Resident
3,000 Acre Owner ........................10.00

T otal............ .............. ....... ..........
I*rice

Trapping Licenses:
Series N-Resident ...................0..I:.10
Series Q-Resident Other
than Home County ..................10.00
Series P--Resident State.......25.00
Series 0--Non-Resi. County 25.00(

T o ta l ........... ...... ................ ........ .........


29!.4,(; 82!9.48(.00 29.718 .29.71S.00


455
12.:(107
147


1.3(15.00 377 1.131.00
(;1.835..(0 13 845 69.225.00
3.-(75.00 113 2.825.00


373 3,730.00 224 2.240.00


15 150,(00

.....42,843 $100.241.00
Numltr Amlount
Issued


1,43:

51
7


........ 1 4!)!)


11 110.00

44,288 $105.249.00
Nu1ll1er Almount
Issued


S 4.314.00 1.322 S 3.!(i6.00


510.00
17500
75..0(0

8 5.074.00


2(1 200.00
11 275.00
1 25.00

1.3(i0 4.52.00(


Total Sales by County .Inwles
Commercial Licenses:


51.70) $124.584.00


Retail Fish Dealers ....
Wholesale Fish IDealer
Commercial Boat
Boat for Hire ...........
Wholesale Fur Dealer
Local Fur Dealer ..........
Game Farm License ...
Guide License ......................


June 30. 193(6
... ..................$1.685.X00
.. ............... 1,100.00
..... ..... ... 280.30
..... 1.120.50
& Agent 1,205.00
.... .. ..... 110.00
............. .. ........ 70 .0 0
50.00


Grand Total ..


December 31. 19)36(
$ 775.00
600.00
145.00
741.00
1.220.00
120.00
45.00
$ 5.620.80 120.00 $ 3,766.50

$150.020.80 $128,350.50


7,
;I,


.. i5.5NsI $144.400.00









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


"End of a Perfect Day"

VESTED RIGHTS BASIS OF STATE GAME LEGISLATION
In the United States the title to wildlife rests in the States,
each in its respective area. It was derived, it was said, from
those inherent rights of the Thirteen Colonies to which they
laid claim when they won their independence from England.
Of greater moment, perhaps, is that theory which lies back of
our Federal System of Government which allows to the Na-
tional Government only such powers as have been delegated
by the States through the Constitution of the United States,
and reserves to the States all powers not expressly forbidden
them by the Constitution. Having vested rights to wildlife a
State has powers to regulate and control the taking of wildlife
within its legal bounds, irrespective of the land upon which
it is found. This right of ownership and police power for the
protection of animal life, as well as the authority over birds,
animals and fish legally killed within its confines, and the con-
sequent power to follow such property into whatever hands it
may pass, has been affirmed by the Supreme Court of States
and by the United States Supreme Court. It is upon these
vested rights that the regulations for taking wildlife, the re-
quirement of license for taking, the fixing of cost of license.
the regulation of bag and season, the manner of taking and the
disposition of that which is taken, is exercised by Florida.
The specious argument that game belongs to the land and
land belongs to the owner, therefore game belongs to the
owner of the land, has no foundation in fact in America.
For our purpose it is enough that we know that the title to
wild life is vested in the State; that courts uphold the right









BIENNIAL REPORT


of a State to regulate the taking and disposition of wildlife
within its respective bounds, (other than of migratory wild-
life), irrespective of the ownership of the land upon which it
is found and that upon this right is based the right of a State
to require the purchase of a license for taking game within
its area.
LICENSE FOR TAKING OR FOR TRAFFICKING IN
FLORIDA WILDLIFE
The requirement that one purchase a license before taking
game, fish or fur-bearing animals in Florida differs from all
other taxes levied by the State in that it is a price paid for
the privi ege to take, (within limit of season and bag) what
belongs to the people as a whole; or, in case of licenses sold
for fish dealers, guides, boats-for-hire, trappers, fur-dealers, it
is a price paid for the privilege to take or traffic in a com-
modity that belongs to the people as a whole, or to operate
in a field that involves the taking of such a commodity.
No one pays such a tax except the man who wishes to pur-
chase the privilege to take or deal in what belongs to all. Ex-
cept in those cases where one is exempt from purchase. It is
only by purchase of this privilege that his action becomes legal.
Residents of Florida of 65 years of age and children under
15 years of age are exempt from purchasing hunting, fishing
and trapping licenses.
What a Hunting License Provides
Nowhere, perhaps, is so much offered for so small cost as is
offered in Florida to those buying a hunting license. The
hunting, while not up to that of two decades ago, is good,
To the man or child exempt from hunting license, or to the
purchaser of a resident-hunting license at $1.00; a County-
other-than-that-of-resident at $3.00; a State-resident at $5.00;
Non-resident-ten consecutive days, for $10.00; Non-resident-
special County (owning and paying taxes on 3,000 acres of
land within the County) at $10.00; a non-resident State .at
$25.00; Florida places a season's limit on game taken (day bag
limits at all times to be observed) of the following: buck deer,
2; wild turkey, 5; quail, 200; mourning doves, 200; squirrel,
200; ducks, 200; geese, 200; or any other species of game. A
season's bag of 200 of all species combined (the present limit
on deer and turkey to be observed or reduced) would be li-
beral, and a far safer policy with respect to Florida's future
Supply of game. Revenue from hunting licenses is not suffi-
cient to provide researches needed in wildlife management
and funds for re-stocking, needed to supplement native seed
stock if good hunting is to be maintained.








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 17

Game Census
A census of game taken from season to season is needed. The
law requires that such be made through the filing with county
judges by applicants for hunting licenses, (at the time applica-
tion for license is made) of the bag taken in the previous
season. The law provides that a person failing to make such a
report shall be denied license. The law for a number of
seasons had been "honored in the breach." After the close
of the 1935-36 seasons a ca'l was made upon County Judges
for such a report for persons purchasing licenses through their
respective officers. Forty-eight counties responded.
Returns showed that those purchasing licenses for 1935-36 and
reporting for the previous year had killed 463,113 quail; 270,-
174 doves; 131,358 squirrels; 44,134 ducks; 229 geese; 2,516
wild turkey; 1,761 deer. A conservative estimate of game
killed during the season for which the report was made, it
is believed, would be double the amount. The value would be
not less than $2,000,000. Those who purchased hunting li-
censes during the year for which returns were made paid to
the State $94,445.00. From the sum paid, protection and re-
stocking of game, and in part fish, had to be provided.
Bag Limits and Seasons
The matter of over-liberal bag limits and long open seasons
on game demand consideration if Florida is to retain Ihe good
hunting for which the State has been noted. Closely linked
with this is the need for a better understanding of good prac-
tices in farming areas on the one hand, of wildlife needs in the
forests on the. other, and the application of approved methods
in the handling of both, if Florida's wildlife resources are not
to be further needlessly depleted. These will be more fully
discussed in the paragraph devoted to "Rebuilding Wildlife."

FLORIDA'S GAME AND FUR BEARING ANIMALS
Florida's Game Laws list as game animals but two species-
deer and squirrel. To sportsmen the deer found in Florida
are commonly known as the "White-Tail" or "Virginia White-
Tail." Scientists recognize among the Florida deer the three
sub-species, the Louisianian, the Floridian and the Island Deer
of the Florida Keys. Interesting biologically because chara'
teristic of Florida wildlife, Florida should see that these
species are not lost or strains mixed. Squirrel in Florida
classed as game are the Fox Squirrel, ranging in color from
grey, sometimes tinged with clay color, to black and the Flor-
ida Grey Squirrel.








BIENNIAL REPORT


A Comparison
Florida law provides for a season on deer, except where
modified by local law, of 42 days, November 10th, to Decem-
ber 31st, a daily bag limit of one (buck only) and a season's
bag of two. Those interested in preserving deer in numbers
in Florida might be interested in comparing Florida seasons
and bags with those of other States. There are 12 States that
show no open season on deer. Nine of these evidently have
lost their supply since they list no deer. 26 States have a
shorter, much shorter season than does Florida. Of this num-
ber Missouri with the boasted hunting of the Ozarks has but
3 open days on deer, and needless to add, a season's bag limit
of one buck, and that one must have 4 or more points to one
antler. The State of Pennsylvania, bare of deer some thirty
years ago, now boasting the greatest supply of deer found in
any one State in America, added 2 days to the hunting season
on deer for 1936-37, giving a season of 12 days. The season's
bag is one buck with two or more points to one antler. Min-
nesota, land of forests dotted over with 10,000 lakes offers
deer hunting for a season of 10 days in alternate years. Non-
residents pay $50.25 for a big game license, and $25.00 for the
privilege of hunting small game in Minnesota. Bag limit on
deer is one a season. Mississippi, latest of the States to estab-
lish a Game Commission, offers hunting on deer for 10 days
a season, bucks only, season's bag limit of one, non-resident
license $25.25, and is open in 22 counties only, the remainder
of the counties being closed to deer hunting. Incidentally

.~C-


Breaking Camp in the Everglades









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Mississippi is closed on bear and allows the killing of but one
turkey, and that a gobbler a season. Many of the States, boast-
ing of the long seasons, have had to close a number of coun-
ties to deer hunting. Exceptions to this are Louisiana and
Alabama.
Deer Problem in Florida
While these matters are of general interest, Florida's con-
cern is with the deer problem in Florida. There is no one
familiar with deer hunting in Florida for the past two decades
but knows that there has been a marked decrease in deer in
Florida in that period of time. This is attributable to several
facts. Good roads have opened up the once natural sanc-
tuaries of wildlife and the almost universal possession of cars
has brought them within easy access of all who wish to hunt.
The building of truck trails and fire lanes into the heart of
the deep woods by the Forestry Service has completed the
job. Where in the past a camp hunt was an event of the
hunting season for a favored few among sportsmen, they are
week-end events for the many. A law limiting camp hunts
to one a season and requiring that notice be given the local
Conservation Officer when and where this would be taken
would facilitate conservation of wildlife in such areas, par-
ticularly the conservation of deer and turkey. Another factor
in the reduction of the number of deer is the illegal killing of
the doe deer. Due to climatic conditions deer breed early in
Florida. For that reason, and because upon the supply of
doe deer depends the future of deer in Florida, a law has been
upon Florida statute books for a number of years forbidding
the killing of doe deer.
Enforcement and observance of this law is better than in
past years but not perfect. The number of arrests for this
offense increased in the season just closed over the seasons
previous. The Legislature of 1937 will be asked to enact a
statute requiring the marks identifying sex of a deer shall
be retained upon the carcass for inspection.
A Menace to Deer
Another factor menaces deer in the lower part of the penin-
sula. In highly localized areas in this section the work of tick
eradication has not been completed. Representatives of the
State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the U. S. Bureau of
Animal Industry directing the work, claim that failure to
eradicate the tick is due to infestation of deer in these re-
stricted areas which are used in common by deer and cattle.
The vegetation here, it is claimed, is too dense to make it
possible to get the cattle out for systematic dipping or to run








BIENNIAL REPORT


the cattle through the area regularly and let them gather up
the ticks, the cattle being a preferred "host" by the tick.
That deer carry the Texas fever tick in the areas has been
shown by examination of carcasses of deer killed in the two
State Breeding Grounds opened by the Commission of Game
and Fresh Water Fish for the killing of deer, November 20th
to December 31st, 1936, in compliance with the urgent request
of the State and Federal agencies directing the tick eradica-
tion. Examination of the carcasses made by a representative
of the U. S. Bureau of Entemology showed that approximately
40% of the deer killed in these areas were carrying the pest,
some having but a slight infestation, others showing a heavy
infestation. Sixty per cent of the carcasses were tick free.
























"Hope of the Future"

If deer should by chance be eliminated from these areas it
would mean a drastic reduction in breeding stock in the penin-
sular part of Florida. This emphasizes again the need for
strict enforcement and observation of the law forbidding the
killing of doe deer; the need for passage of the law requir-
ing hunters to leave upon the carcass marks of sex for iden-
tification; possibly the enactment of a law that would prohibit









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


the hunting of deer with dogs; limiting the kill to bucks with
pronged antlers, and the reduction in length of season and
bag limit, a measure other States have found necessary.
Such measures as these which Florida can provide from
within, rather than a chance of "restocking" with imported
stock is the only method that can be depended upon. Restock-
ing, while theoretically plausible, is but little more than a
theory. Seed stock is not to be had in the market except in
most limited numbers and at prohibitive prices. No county
in Florida is so well stocked with deer as to be willing to
restock a depleted area in some other county. "Safety of
breeding stock first" is the only sure way out. What mea-
sures the Legislature will provide for the better protection of
deer cannot be forecast.
Closed Season Needed on Fox Squirrel
Though Florida has two species of squirrel, the grey squirrel
and the fox squirrel, only the grey are numerous. For this
reason a closed season on Florida Fox Squirrel was declared
in 1927 expiring in November 20, 1932. This should be
renewed.

STATUS OF GAME BIRDS IN FLORIDA
Florida's three principal native game birds are bobwhite
quail, wild turkey and mourning dove. The number of the
last named is greatly augmented each season by the migrants
ihat come down each winter from colder regions lying north
of Florida. The principal migratory game birds are ducks,
wild geese and Wilsons snipe. Coot are shot to some extent
since the Federal Government placed them on the "game bird"
list, though nowhere in Florida are they esteemed as more than
a target. Florida is fortunate in yet having a fair supply
of breeding stock of native game birds, which, assuming that
S the carrying capacity of the land (cover and feed) is yet suf-
ficient, reduces the problem of maintaining a full supply of
these birds to one of conservative shooting or surcease from
shooting, when and where needed.
Favorite among the game birds of the State with Florida
sportsmen is the bobwhite quail which, with the exception of a
restricted area in the far southwestern part of the peninsula
and reaching up to near the southern shore of Lake Okeecho-
bee, where overflowed lands make nesting and feed uncertain,
nests throughout the State. The history of bobwhite in Flor-
ida, dating back to the time of the development of farms and
plantations planted to grain and other food crops, showed, as
in other States, an increase in the quail population coincident









22 1 BIENNIAL REPORT

to the increase in the acreage in farm lands. Under continued
and heavy shooting quail are not as abundant as formerly,
though Florida yet offers some of the best to be found in any
State. The breeding season of 1936 was generally favorable
over the State (heavy rains and flooded areas in Collier, Glades,
Hendry and Lee Counties late in the season, with a heavy loss
of game offering the exception* and average shooting for the
1936-37 season, with sufficient brood stock for the 1937 season
resulted. There is a growing sentiment among sportsmen that
favors a shortened season on bobwhite in many parts of Flor-
ida. This has found expression in local laws restricting hunt-
ing on certain days during the season in Marion and Citrus
Counties.
Wild Turkey
No species of game bird so generally distributed over the
continent as the wild turkey has taken heavier loss. Once
found in all sections, and within the bounds of nearly all
States, today there are but fourteen of the forty-eight states
that have the wild turkey left. Some of these are closed to
turkey shooting; most of them, under a short season, limit bags
to one or two birds a season; some further restrict these bags
to gobblers. Florida has been fortunate in retaining a fair
supply of this choice bird, and in holding the true bronze
species; but Florida today stands at the cross roads in-so-far
as the supply of wild turkey is concerned. No species of game
in the State, unless it has been deer, has suffered as heavy loss
through the opening up of natural wildlife sanctuaries by the
building of good roads, and in later years the building of fire
lanes and truck trails. These have brought within easy gun
range those remote hammocks and -swamps and low-lying
swampy areas in pine land and prairie in which these birds and
deer found refuge; where they bred and reared their young.
The State as yet has made no provision for additional pro-
tection by reduction in open season and bag limit to overcome
this additional hazard. Florida must choose, and choose now,
between a quick rebuilding, by giving the hardy seed stock
that yet remains adequate protection to permit it to rebuild, or
by introduction in numbers of imported stock to produce a
mixed strain to take the place of the choice bronze of the
Florida woods. What is done in the next few years in Flor-
ida will write the future of the Florida Wild Turkey.
Doves
The abundance of weed seeds throughout the State supple-
mented by grain and peanut fields in Florida yield abundant
feed for the Carolina or Mourning dove which breeds through-









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 23

out the State, over a period that has recorded fledgling as early
as April 10th (near Pensacola) and as late as October 16th (at
Talahassee). The supply of doves in Florida is largely in-
creased during winter months by migrants from Northern
States. Until the last two hunting seasons there seemed to be
no decrease in their numbers. The decrease noted throughout
the country in the last two years, however, has registered here,
though they are yet found in all parts of Florida. The Fed.-
eral Regulations of 1935-36, which opened a large part of
Florida for dove shooting two months in advance of the regu-
lar hunting season in the State jeopardized all game in the
area affected. Causing much confusion and brought a strong
protest from the Commission and from sportsmen's clubs over
the State, the regulation was abated after ten days operation.
Prior to the fixing by the Federal Government of the dove
season for 1936-37, Florida was permitted to submit recom-
mendations respecting the season and confusion was avoided.
WILD DUCKS AND GEESE
The supply of wild ducks and geese in Florida, (with the
exception of the nesting wood duck and the few blue-winged
teal that nest in the State and the native Florida duck, a true
Mallard) have reflected the heavy loss in the continental sup-
ply that has come in the past two decades. Ducks breeding in
Florida, under closed seasons and restricted shooting have
shown an increase, particularly the wood duck.
The St. Marks Refuge for Migratory Birds, 36,000 acres
located in the heart of the goose shooting grounds in Florida
has afforded needed protection for these birds which come in
numbers to winter there.
Without discussing reasons that lie back of the terrible de-
cline in the continental supply of ducks and geese, Florida
recognizes that man's part in taking them as game is the only
factor responsible for the decline over which man has ab-
solute control. Florida reduced the day bag limit on ducks
from 25 to 15 and prohibited the shooting of ducks over baited
areas many years prior to reduction in bag limit and the stop-
ping of shooting over baited areas by the Federal Goverment.
Florida sporstmen today, coming to look with increased favor
upon the suggestion of a closed season on ducks, and the many
who do not hunt, interested in the saving of the birds, are
ready to support a Federal Regulation providing a closed
season on ducks and geese.
Better Protection for Birds and Mammals
For the better protection needed by birds and mammals if
this feature of Florida's wildlife is to be maintained in any-









BIENNIAL REPORT


thing like its abundance of two decades ago, there must be a
reduction in the numbers annually taken, restocking must be
speeded up as rapid y as finances will permit. Those suffi-
ciently interested in conservation to place active work back of
it will present to the Legislature of 1937 a suggested program
to secure this.

FUR BEARING ANIMALS
Florida law lists as fur-bearing anima's the raccoon, musk-
rat, mink, otter, beaver, civet cat, skunk, red and grey fox,
bear, panther and opossum. The season for taking fur-bear-
ing animals in Florida is December 1st to March 1st. No
protection of bag limit on fur-bearing animals is fixed, the only
protection given other than that found in breeding grounds,
being that of license required, season, and the regulation of
method of taking.
The Bear
The bear has disappeared from many parts of Florida where
it was once found. This, in part, is due to the change of use
of land in the area; in part, because on an often unfounded
charge, that the bear was troubling live stock, bear have
been killed. Many States have added greatly to the interest
in the life of the woods by protecting their bear. Florida
might do this with profit.
Number Trappers Decline as Fur-Bearers Decrease
The drop in the number of trappers licensed in Florida dur-
ing the past ten years-from 7,381 sold in 1927 to 1,560 for
the season of 1935-36-is highly significant. It indicates, and
correct y so, that there has been a great decrease in the num-
ber of fur-bearers over that period of time. The following let-
ter from a licensed fur buyer of Clay County written when
submitting his report of pelts bought during the current
season is thought provoking:
"Please let me make a suggestion. I think the trap-
ping season too long. December 1st to February 1st
would be better for all concerned.
1. During February, the furs become un-prime and
greatly reduced in value.
2. Most females caught in February are full of
young and destroyed.
I believe two months would be more profitable to
all concerned than the three months.
Respectfully submitted."








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


This fellow asks your protection. He deserves it.

Revenue to State Decreases
In 1927-28 revenue to the State from trapping and fur deal-
ers' licenses was $40,890.00; in 1935-36 it was $6,389.00. To
maintain the full wildlife picture in F'orida, as well as for
economic reasons, fur-bearers should be saved. Once lost,
these species of animals will be irreplaceable. There is no
breeding stock for purchase.
Muskrats
The Commission has made some investigations during the
year just closed regarding the adaptability to Florida of the
muskrat of commerce (Ondatra zibethica) as distinguished
from the round-tai'ed muskrat native to the Florida Ever-
glades. The fact that many of the grasses upon which the
flat-tailed muskrat feeds in Louisiana and other States are
found in Florida, and that climatic conditions in Louisiana and
Florida are, in many respects, similar, suggests that it would
be possible to establish the muskrat in this State. Though re-
search as to the extent of areas in which plants adapted as
feed for these mammals, exists in Florida would add needed
information, the outlook was sufficiency promising to lead the
Commission to secure a few of these fur-bearers from Louisiana








BIENNIAL REPORT


Ir


Conservation Officers' Training School





















Conservation Officers' Training School


Ib 0]






GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 27
Camp Roosevelt, March 15, 16, 1937

E lialg~pf Il


Camp Roosevelt, March 8, 9, 1937
I AilaAr









BIENNIAL REPORT


and release them. If they thrive this will be further developed
to help the trapping industry of the State.
The Alligator
Not among the "fur-bearers" but hunted for its hide and for
the "souvenir trade" is the Florida alligator. The traffic in
these, once a big item in trade, is negligible. Public opinion is
demanding a closed season on all traffic in the alligator, which
possesses not only considerable trade value but is an added
value as an attraction in Florida waters where the tropical
setting without the alligator loses an interesting feature if the
" gator" is lost.
Rebuilding Wildlife
Research tends to show that, if the required breeding stock
is on hand, the limiting factors in the supply of wildlife, that
may reasonably be expected on an area, are sufficient and
suitable cover and feed. Once this fact is fully grasped, it
will simplify the plan for rebuilding the supply of wildlife in
Florida. Emphasis will fall upon development of good cover
and an abundance of feed rather than upon many other prac-
tices that have been tried out in years past, such as over-stock-
ing on lands already sufficiently stocked, exhaustive predator
campaigns, and similar practices, the wisdom of which the Re-
search Committee of the Wildlife Institute has recently chal-
lenged. Those leading the movement of wildlife conservation
and rebuilding stress the importance of the cover and feed
program.
Wildlife and the Soil Conservation Program
At no time has there been such an opportunity to increase
"carrying capacity" of agricultural lands as there is today.
This rare chance comes through the development of the Soil
Conservation Program of the Federal Government. Lands,
thousands of acres of lands, that are being retired from cul-
tivation under this program are being planted to soil build-
ing crops such as lespedeza, beggar weed, cowpeas and other
legumes. These afford the best of feed for upland game birds,
particularly for that favorite of the sportsman, the bobwhite
quail. Were these rebuilt lands, where needed, restocked with
quail from the State Breeding Grounds and protected until the
game population became abundant, it would be a long step
forward in rebuilding wildlife in Florida. Incidentally it
would enhance the value of every farm where bobwhite was
brought back in numbers. Increased values would be found
in the value of this bird as an insect destroyer on the farm, of
the increased interest that he would lend to life on the farm


i








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


and the economic value of the increased game. Where these
lands are fenced, the possibility of leasing shooting privileges
is open to the farmer. In lands where the farmer would under-
take to cooperate wih the State in keeping such lands open
to publ.e hunting ( limited to a safe margin) it might be pos-
sible to secure some reduction of taxes on such lands, in line
with abatements allowed on timber lands that are being rebuilt.
Wildlife and the Forestry Program
Those interested in maintaining Florida's wildlife resources
realize that the reforestation program holds much that will im-
prove the wildlife habitat, and some features that lessen its
value. In the first category would fall the replanting of
forests; in the second, the cutting of fire lanes and wagon
trails into the heart of natural wildlife sanctuaries, making
these more readily accessible to the hunter, the poacher.
Should the policy of leasing of grazing privileges to cattle own-
ers, sometimes proposed, become general, the extermination of
wildlife on these lands, such as has followed the practice in the
West, would be inevitable. The carrying capacity of the land
will not support both in numbers. No one who knows the
values to Florida of an abundant wildlife, values that in this
State where thousands of visitors come each year attracted by
life in the open, and where the good hunting, picturesque plum-
age birds, good fishing and other sports of the open spaces,
stack high when measured by the dollar yard stick, would wish
to see the barren "game lands" of the West reproduced here.
Before policies are determined every phase of the program
needs careful consideration with a view to equitable
adjustment.

STATE BREEDING GROUNDS
Florida has long since recognized the need for wildlife
breeding grounds. The fast development of the State, the
opening up of areas once far distant from the lines of general
travel has increased the need for these if wildlife is to be
preserved. The limited finances available for conservation of
wi dlife in Florida, the extensive area to be served made the
purchase or leasing of lands for breeding grounds and refuges
impractical. In 1927 the State Legislature authorized the
closing of selected areas by Executive Order to the taking of
wildlife. At the present time Florida has 65 such breeding
grounds. Fourteen of these have been established during the
eighteen months covered by this report. These are supple-
mented by the Federal Preserves in the Ocala Forest Preserve,
100,000 acres, closed by Legislative Act; the St. Marks Migra-








BIENNIAL REPORT


tory Bird Refuge, 36,000 acres, purchased by the Federal Gov-
ernment and a number of smaller refuges owned by the Fed-
eral Government for the protection of migratory plumage
birds. State Breeding Grounds closed by legislative action
number sixteen.
These wildlife preserves not only prove an effectual means
of preserving seed stock of game birds and animals, but of
other mammals and non-game birds. In many of them the
rare plumage birds, the beautiful egrets, herons of differing
species, the picturesque water turkey, and the pelican and the
rare and beautiful roseate spoonbill winter or nest here.
In all parts of Florida, in woodland, swamp and about the
streets and gardens of towns and cities the myriads of perching
birds reasonably safe from sling-shot and gun, sing while they
carry on their ceaseless warfare against the insect pests of
man and crops. To these are added the hundreds of shore
birds that bring to the miles of Florida beaches a characteris-
tic feature of constant interest.
Breeding grounds, preserves, city sanctrtries, mean the
preservation of this interesting and valuable feature of wild-
life.
RESTOCKING
Restocking of game in Florida has been carried on by taking
from State Breeding Grounds surplus quail and transferring
them to depleted areas in those counties from which the birds
are taken. This, in so far as Florida is concerned, is the most
efficient method of restocking this choice bird. The rearing
of birds in the breeding grounds under natural conditions, and
without penning them, gives not only native stock adapted to
conditions in the open, but gives birds at a minimum cost of
warden service for the protection of the area. It is possible
and highly desirous for each county in Florida to have within
its bounds breeding ground created by order of the States
Chief Executive.
During 1936 and up to the time in 1937 when this report was
put on the presses, Florida had taken from State Breeding
Grounds and distributed to depleted areas 4,550 bobwhite
quail.
Over the same period of time, the Commission had purchased
and distributed 1,200 quail, 301 turkeys from domestic bronze
crossed with wild stock and 418 wild guineas from Cuba.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


GAME FISH OF FRESH AND BRACKISH WATERS
Florida's more than 30,000 lakes and overlacing network of
clear streams not only provide excellent crappie, bream, perch
and pickerel fishing, but they afford the world's greatest black
bass fishing grounds.
The fishing of the "inland angler" for fresh water species,
is supplemented by the fishing in coastal waters, bays and
bayous, canals and far upstream for species of fish which the
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries has classified as "Game Fish of the
Brackish Waters." Among these are channel bass or redfish,
snook or roballo, tarpon and, on limited waters, striped bass
or rock fish, equally at home in outside and inside waters; and,
when fished for in streams and canals, to be legally taken only
by those licensed to fish in fresh waters of the State.
Fishing License
The cost for a resident State fishing license is $2.00; non-
resident State, $5.00; non-resident, 3-day trip, $1.50. Residents
of a county are exempt from buying license to fish in the
waters of the county of residence and in the border waters of
the county. These exemptions made help cut revenue below
that needed for operation of fish hatcheries and to pay the


Spillway, Winter Haven Hatchery-Superintendent's House in Rear









BIENNIAL REPORT


proportionate cost for conservation officers service for guard-
ing the fish in lakes and streams.
Supply vs. Demand
With continuous and widespread propaganda from within
and without the Seate, stressing the va ues of outdoor life, the
fine fishing found in Florida waters, the recreation for tour-
ists from other States, the promoted fishing contests, the soul-
quieting and health-building values of angling, there has been
a constant increase in the numbers who go to Florida waters
to find these promised returns. Florida's problem is that of
maintaining supply for the increasing demands of sport fish-
ing. It is an ever-present, many sided problem. Hand in
hand with this increased fishing is the desire, the tendency, to
make it all "Free," to be taken without the cost of license, to
be taken without limit. Hence, Florida maintains an open
fishing season throughout the year in these waters, except in
those far seeing counties that avail themselves of a provision
of the law which permits them to secure for the protection of
their fresh water fishing a closed season during a part of the
spawning season. Scarcely more than a dozen counties avail
themselves of this provision. Other protection provided is
a very liberal bag limit on all species, a limit on possession
and regulations for transportation and sa'e, and the Black
Bass Law. In 1935 black bass were taken from the list of
species that might be sold in Florida or shipped from the State
to be sold, a far reaching measure for the conservation of this
choice game fish.
Significance of Black Bass Law of 1935
When the Florida Legislature of 1935 passed the Black Bass
Law it stopped the sale to the wholesaler at a few cents a
pound of a fish easily worth a dollar a pound to the people
of Florida. The passage of the Black Bass Law by the Legis-
lature wrote "For Angler's Only" above every rendezvous in
Florida's 30,000 lakes and numerous streams, of that premier
game fish of which Henshaw wrote, "Inch for inch and pound
for pound the games fish that swims." It nade him safe for
all time, unless, indeed, his fighting spirit up he strikes the
tantalizing lure deftly placed under some nearby lilly-pad or
into his deep retreat below the jutting bank of lake or stream-
strikes, and as he sometimes does, loses in his game fight. It
meant the writing of the name of Florida in the column of
thirty-eight States and the District of Columbia that have
made it illegal to sell Black Bass regardless of where taken.
It meant nation-wide advertising of the best kind for Flor-
ida. It meant the underwriting of the future of sport-fishing











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


"For Anglers Only"


in lake and stream for boys and girls in Florida, who crowd
hard upon the heels of the old-timers of today. It pledged
faith with the future that here was one attraction of Florida's
great outdoors, one source of wholesome recreation, which the
State had determined should never grow less. It meant that
the Legislature of Florida had written upon the statute books
of the State one of its greatest conservation laws.
Bass of Lake Okeechobee
When the Legislature of 1935 enacted the Black Bass Bill,
which prohibited the sale, barter, exchange or the shipment
into or out of the State for sale, of black bass, it repealed inso-
far as black bass were concerned, the clause of the Acts of
1925 which declared the waters of Lake Okeechobee to be salt,
returning black bass in Lake Okeechobee to the protection
afforded by laws regulating the taking of fish from the fresh
waters of the State.












34 BIENNIAL REPORT







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GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 35

FISH HATCHERIES
When the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish en-
tered upon its work it found three fresh water fish hatcheries
in operation. The oldest and largest was at Welaka on the
St. Johns River, established in 1925; the second at Winter
Haven, established in 1929; the third at Wewahitchka begun
in 1933 had not been completed. The plant at Welaka repre-
sented an investment on the part of the State over a period of
10 years, of $151,374.93, inclusive of cost of operation, and
an investment of federal funds (FERA, CWA, WPA) some-
what in excess of $200,000.00, during 1933-35.
Welaka Hatchery Leased
The Welaka Hatchery, through the large investment of fed-
eral money, had been expanded to provide an electrically
equipped quail farm, a small but well built aquarium, a modern
shad hatchery and a deer park. The cost of operation ex-
ceeded any possible expenditure from the State Game Fund,
which is derived from sale of hunting, fishing, trapping, guide
and boats for hire licenses, supplemented by a small fund paid
for services of officers in cases where arrests result, in con-
viction. The total amount of the cost of operation was ap-
proximately $16,000.00 a year. The problem of completing
and operating these hatcheries was among those that pressed
for immediate attention when the Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish took over the work and found in the State
Game Fund $29,000.00 upon which to operate and no ap-
preciable increase in sight until December.
Negotiations for the leasing of the Welaka Hatchery and
Game Farm to the Federal Government (initiated before the
Commission became responsible for the operation of the prop-
erty) were looked upon with favor. In the meeting held at
Orlando, August 12th, 1935, Messers Leffleman, Denham and
State Senator Pannil representatives of the Federal Rehabilita-
tion Administration, appeared before the Commission, bring-
ing with them a proposed lease for the plan. Mr. Leffleman
stated that fish would be hatched and held until of legal
minimum length and released, the major portion to Florida
waters on federally owned lands in the State; and birds from
the quail hatchery would be largely used on federally owned
lands in Florida for restocking purposes. The lease as it was
presented was signed by the Commission.
It was not until early in December that the Welaka Hatchery
and Game Farm was finally taken over by the Federal Gov-
ernment. Up to that date cost of operation, which had been
greatly reduced, was paid by the State from the State Game









BIENNIAL REPORT


Winter Haven Black Bass Brood Lake


Fund. Final disposition of this matter will be made by the
1937 Legislature when Florida will be asked to deed the
Welaka Fish Hatchery and Game Farm to the Federal
Government.
Winter Haven Hatchery
The Winter Haven Hatchery which has been a consistent
producer since its comp etion in 1929, and at minimum cost,
completed during summer months 1935 distribution of fin-
gerling bass for the season. 286,500 were released in the
following Florida Counties:
A lachua .......................................25,000 H illsboro .................................26.000
Marion ....................................... 12,000 Palm Beach ... ......... 8,000
Manatee ....................................13,000 Flagler ..................15,000
O range .......................................22,000 H ighlands .......... ............... 10 000
P olk .......................... ............... 59,000 L ake ................... ............ 52,500
Citrus ......................................29,000 B radford .................................15 000
The brood lake at the hatchery was conditioned for recep-
tion of brood stock for the following season and was stocked
during winter months with 3,000 brood bass. The output for
1936 was close to a million. The cost of operation of this
hatchery July 1st, 1935 to June 30th, 1936, was $3,769.20. By
December 31st, 1936, the Winter Haven hatchery had been
conditioned and stocked with 2,900 brood bass for 1937
production.
Wewahitchka Fish Hatchery
The Wewahitchka Fish Hatchery begun in 1933 was com-
pleted in 1936. The citizens of Gulf County, in which the
hatchery is located are loyal in their support of this enter-









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 37


WEWAHITCHKA HATCHERY































2


. Taking Fingerling. 2. Brood Lake. 3. Ready to Deliver
1. Taking Fingerling. 2. Brood Lake. 3. Ready to Deliver


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BIENNIAL REPORT


prise. They made it the one county-wide project requested
from the Works Progress Administration. The cost of erect-
ing the plant was borne by this federal agency, the lands in-
volved, and some buildings on the grounds being offered as
an offset. The property has been deeded to the State. Some
production was obtained from Wewahitchka in 1935 and some
in 1936, totalling a possible 200,000 fingerling bass. The
hatchery is now complete and maximum production is to be ex-
pected from this plant.
DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICTS AND COUNTIES FROM
WINTER HAVEN AND WEWAHITCHKA HATCHERIES
DURING 1936
Total by Districts


First D district .................. .................. ........................
Second D district ..............................................................
Third D district ...... ..........................................
F ourth D district ..............................................................
Fifth D district ...................................................................


372,100
243,000
89,200
14,000
315,000


T otal................................ ............... 033,300
1936
Total by Counties
FISH DELIVERED FROM
WINTER HAVEN AND WEWAHITCHKA HATCHERIES


Alachua .......................
B ak er ...... .......................
B a y .......................................
Bradford ..........................
Broward .......................
C itrus ....... ..................
Clay ...............................
Columbia .....................
DeSoto .........................
D uval .................................
Escambia ...........................
Flagler ........................
G adsden .............................
G u lf ...... .............
Hamilton .....................
Hardee .......................
Hernando .....................
Highlands ........................
Hillsborough ...............


11,000
19,000
6.000
77,000
8,000
56,000
42,000
11,000
100
23,000
7.000
14,000
18,000
38,200
30,500
11.000
12,000
12,000
83,000


Jackson ..............................
Jefferson ........................
L a k e ......................................
L eo n ....... .............. ............
Levy .......................................
M anatee ..............................
M arion .................................
Orange ...............................
Osceola ...... ..................
Palm Beach ..................
Pasco ...........................
Pinellas ...........................
Polk ....................................
Putnam ........................
Sem inole ....................
Suwannee .......................
Volusia .......................
W akulla ........ ...........


Total .........................1,033.300


3,000
12,000
68,500
16.200
13,500
7,000
19,000
93,500
12,000
6.000
14,000
28,000
205,000
18,000
26,000
4.000
8,000
800








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


Seining of Lakes for Rough Fish and to Reduce Sunfiah
Other Than Bass
The fact that waters, like land, has a limited carrying capac-
ity for life, dependent upon sanitation, food and cover, led to
a series of experiments in reducing, by seining, in certain
waters of the State, rough fish and competing species of sun-
fish, such as bream, perch, to improve conditions in these
waters for black bass. This has been carried on in Florida for
a period of years. Results have hardly seemed to justify con-
linuance of this policy. In 1936 it was ordered stopped in
most of the lakes in which it has been tried.














Florida "Shell-Crackers"
Striped Bass
The possibility of developing striped bass in Florida waters
in sufficient numbers to make them of interest to more than a
few anglers is worthy of consideration. Striped Bass or Rock
Fish, (Roccus Lineatus), a species of game fish found in great-
ly restricted areas on the upper East Coast and more abundant-
ly on the Gulf Coast from the mouth of the St. Marks River
west are prized by those who know their haunts. The present
a possibility for further propagation.
Their appearance in numbers below the falls at the power
dam on the Ocklocknee River in recent times, and the excellent
sport which they afford the angler, has lead the Commission
to plan some investigations into the possibility of propagation
without detriment to other well established game species of
fish. It is a well known fact that the "Striper" now afford-
ing one of California's chief game species of fish were trans-
planted from the East. Prized there and in North Carolina
both for commerce and sport, they are adapted to artificial
hatching in shad jars, from which they emerge in 36 hours in








BIENNIAL REPORT


water 70 degrees F. The size of the roe found in the striped
bass, a fish classed as one of the largest and one of the best
of American fresh water, spiny rayed fishes, makes the yield
of eggs from a single fish large. That Striped bass are native
in the waters where found suggests the feasibility of further
propagation.
Stream Pollution
While in some sections the drainage of city sewerage and
the dump from phosphate mines is detrimental to fish and has
created a problem that should be remedied if possible, Flor-
ida's problem of stream and lake pollution is largely one of



















0


Black Bass-From a Florida Stream









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 41

prevention. With the prospect for immediate erection of
manufacturing plants in different sections of the State, con-
sideration should be given the establishment of a sound policy
that will guard the rights of Florida in wildlife resources.
The Problem
Though Florida's fresh-water fishing far surpasses what may
be found in many other sections, and its abundance and easy
access to a 1 bring many to Florida to enjoy this sport, none
who fished it two decades ago will claim that it is as good as
was that short period back. Florida's problem is to bring
it back to its original abundance. Sufficient brook stock, sani-
tary waters, a proper habitat with abundant food, are the
needed factors for the successful solution of the problem.
Florida has the brood stock; the pollution problem is not
yet acute in Florida's lakes and streams, and everywhere food
to support the desired fish population seems abundant. The
problem then resolves itself into one of management. Sum-
marized, the following is offered as the basis for the needed
program:
1. A state-wide law providing for a closed season during
spawning time, when, undisturbed, fish may spawn, de-
fend their young until ready to push them out on their
own. This will be sought from the Legislature.
2. Retaining of fish in lakes and streams until large enough
to have spawned at least one time before being taken.
Strict observance and enforcement of the law providing
a minimum legal length at which the different species
may be taken.
3'. Maintenance of established hatcheries.
4. Sufficient revenue from sport fishing in Florida to main-
tain hatcheries and provide for proportionate part of
cost of warden service for protecting lakes and streams.
5. Prevention of pollution of streams and lakes, correction
where possible to secure this.
6. Reduction in bag limits on all species of fresh water fish.

LAW ENFORCEMENT DIVISION
The Five Chief Conservation Officers, one in each of the Five
Congressional Districts, stand as sub-heads of the law enforce-
ment divisions of the work. The men selected for these posi-
tions when the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish was
organized were men who had previous experience as Con-
servation Officers of Florida. Three of the five had been in
the service for eight years or more, three were District Offi-








42 BIENNIAL REPORT

cers under the State Board of Conservation. Two of these are
no longer in the service.
Florida has placed the entire enforcement division in uni-
forms. This has proven a wise move. The uniform commands
respect.
Men with knowledge of wildlife, its habitat, the ways of the
woods and of those who go into the woods to hunt and who are
fearless, have been chosen. While instructed to enforce the
law without fear or favor, these men are depended upon to
secure law enforcement, as far as possible, without resort to
the courts. When cases must be taken to court they are in-
structed to leave nothing undone to secure a vigorous prose-
cution. Under the provision of the Commission that each Dis-
trict Officer should recommend for employment or removal-the
county officers who would work under them, it has.been pos-
sible to build a strong, unified division of law enforcement in
each District, the whole organization operating directly under
the Commission.
The record for the period covered by this report, July 1st,
1935, to December 31st, 1936, shows: Arrests 764; Convic-
tions 517; Acquittals 75; Pending 172. Cooperation of Courts
in the matter of prosecuting law violators has been the best
that has ever been secured.
To increase the efficiency of the force, the Commission has
arranged for the holding of two officers training schools, to
be held under the auspices of the University of Florida at
Camp Roosevelt.

EDUCATION
Knowledge lies back of well directed action. It usually wins
support for worthy programs. These facts have led States to
make provision in conservation programs for educational work.
Florida keeps step with her Sister States in this matter. The
report follows:
1. Compilation of Law
The first work undertaken after the Commission began
operations was checking measures enacted by the 1935 session
of the Legislature against those in effect and the compilation
of the Game Laws of the State, for which there was a pressing
need. These laws were summarized for convenience of those
whom they affected and the summary printed in leaflet form,
later to be followed by a second summary giving only the hunt-
ing laws.


I









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


2. Magazine
A well illustrated monthly magazine "Outdoor Florida"
was edited through 1936, by this division of work. It was
published without cost to the Commission, other than oc-
casional trips to the field for material, or in connection with
the printing of the publication, which was done by Florida
Grower Press, Tampa, as an expression of interest in con-
servation of wildlife resources in Florida and in the hope that
out of the publication, in time, might grow a sport magazine
for Florida. "Outdoor Florida" carried the story of Flor-
ida's wildlife, the work of the State for its conservation and
featured hunting, fishing and other outdoor events of interest
to the sportsmen.
3. Section in Sportsmen's Guide
"Sport Fislhng in Florida," an illustrated section of thirty-
two pages in a 50,000 issue of a guide book for sportsmen to
the Southeastern States, was prepared. Information has
reached the Commission from the editors of the guide book
that the first issue of the publication was purchased by the
Illinois Central Railroad and distributed in the territory which
it serves.
4. Sport Fishing Folder
"Florida Sport Fishing," a two-color folder on this subject
was prepared and 15,000 copies printed. These have been
highly appreciated by the Florida cities and towns featuring
the sport fishing of their respective sections.
5. Lecture in University Extension Course
A lecture on the work of the Commission, Florida's game
animals and the fish of Florida's fresh waters-supplementing
a series of lectures on Florida birds given by Dr. A. H. Hadley
of the University of Florida as a part of the extension course
for teachers preparing to teach conservation in the schools--
was given in this course to teachers in eight counties.
6. Exhibits
Assistance was given with the wildlife exhibits at the Win-
ter Haven Orange Festival and the State Fair in 1936.
7. Press and Publicity
Articles for press and other publications have come from
this division. The press of the state has been liberal with its
space for news regarding Florida's wildlife, and strong in
its support of conservation.









BIENNIAL REPORT


8. Bulletin for Schools
In conformity with an Act passed by the 1935 session of the
Legislature requiring teachers to teach the natural resources
of Florida and their conservation throughout the school system
of the State, a bulletin is in process of preparation now for use
in this work. This is one of the greatest opportunities ever
offered or providing information regarding the wildlife of the
State, its value and its need of conservation.

COOPERATION
At no time have sportsmen been as interested in organiz-
ing for conservation, nor more actively interested in promoting
the conservation program. The Civic organizations, women's
clubs, chambers of commerce, State Chamber of Commerce and
State Junior Chamber of Commerce are standing squarely back
of Florida's conservation program, while the press of the
State, instant in season and out of season, is lending strong
support all along the line.
So strong had sentiment grown among these various agencies
that when President Roosevelt called in February, 1936 for the
meeting in Washington of all interested in Conservation, Flor-
ida was not only ready to send representatives, but ready to
follow the suggested plan, born of this movement, namely:
that in each State all organizations interested in conservation
of natural resources, particularly in wildlife resources, should
get together, work out a plan adapted to the needs of their
respective State, pool their efforts and put it in effect.
The organization of the Florida Conservation Council re-
sulted. Outstanding citizens were chosen to man it. Peter
G. Ward, of Jacksonville, deeply interested in conservation
and an able worker, was made president. Thirty-two organiza-
tions in Florida signified their willingness to operate under this
plan. Today this group has in preparation a legislative pro-
gram which they will propose to the Legislature, soon to meet,
for the better conservation of wildlife in Florida. Results
come from the efforts of all, but to that tireless worker, David
M. Newell, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Coun-
cil, and nationally known sportsman and writer, who has
given unstintingly of time and effort, and with no remunera-
t;on other than the returns in the better conservation of wild-
life for which he, and those who have ably supported him in
this work, hope, special appreciation is due.
The calling of the Wildlife Conference was not all that the
Federal Government has done during the biennium to promote








GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 45

the conservation of wildlife in the States which the Commis-
sion recognizes and for which it is grateful. Cooperation of
constituted agencies of the Federal Government dealing with
wildlife has been at all times readily available and whole-
heartedly given. Particular mention is made of that extended
by the United States Bureau of Biological Survey and the
United States Bureau of Fisheries.
Consideration given rehabilitation of wildlife in Federal
Resettlement Projects, and in the soil conservation program
are worthy of special mention and commendation.
The Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish is keenly
conscious of the effort involved in the cooperation given by the
many agencies mentioned, and the extent to which such co-
operation has made possible results for which the Commission
has worked. This cooperation is appreciated. Its continuance
is needed if the objective of the work is to be attained, namely
the rebuilding and conservation of Florida's wildlife resources.
With such help, whole-heartedly given, this objective can be
reached. It is to this the Commission looks forward.





4.7 I















PART II





SUMMARIZED REPORT OF COMMISSION MEETINGS
July 1st, 1935 to December 31st, 1936
During the eighteen months and five days for which this re-
port is made, June 25th, 1935, to December 31st, 1936, twelve
meetings have been held at the following places.
Tallahassee-June 25th, 1935.
Orlando-August 12th, 1935.
Tallahassee-September 23rd, 1935.
Tallahassee-December 17th, 1936.
Jacksonville-January 20th, 1936.
Tallahassee-April 6th, 1936.
Tallahassee-June 26th, 1936.
Winter Haven-July 20th, 1936.
Orlando-October 19th, 1936.
Naples-November 7th, 1936.
A brief but significant report of the problems given special
attention by the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish at
its regular and called meetings follows.








BIENNIAL REPORT


Tallahassee, June 25, 1935: This the first meeting of the
Commissioners appointed from the five Congressional Districts
of Florida as members of the State Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish, created by the 1935 session of the Legisia-
ture, was devoted to organization, consideration of finances and
the making of pans for carrying on the work. Since this is
fully reported on pages 9 and 10 of this report it will not be
repeated here.
Orlando, August 12th, 1935: With July sale of licenses re-
ported it was felt that the budget for County Conservation
Officers could be raised a little. The Commission voted to
raise each of the five districts from $1,000.00 per district to
$1,100.00 for September, $1,200.00 for October and November.
The Executive Secretary was instructed to arrange under
the Workmen's Compensation Law for protection for em-
ployees.
Representatives of the Federal Rehabilitation Administra-
tion, including the late State Senator William Pannil,
presented a proposed lease for the Welala Fish Hatchery
which, after due consideration, was signed by the Commis-
sion. This hatchery has been so expanded by the expenditure
of FERA, CWA and WPA funds as to be too costly for the
Commission to operate on funds available.
The Pinel!as County Commissioners offered to pay for a
County Conservation Officer until December 1st, and after that
date to pay $50.00 a month toward this cost, the Commission
to assume the remainder. This was agreed to.
Tallahassee, September 23rd, 1935: Reports of receipts and
expenditures as of August 31st, showed that receipts from all
sources totaled for July and August $6,597.02; expense for the
same period, $17,856.63. The difference was absorbed by mon-
ies in the State Game Fund when operations started, July 1st,
1935.
Estimated operating expense for September, October, No-
vember was $27,000.00. It was estimated that the needed
$8,391.34 above the funds on hand would be produced by
receipts for the period and would make possible a general in-
crease of $400.00 per district for October, November and De-
cember which was authorized.
The Executive Secretary reported 24,000 fishing licenses, 50,-
000 hunting licenses printed and supplies mailed to County
Judges. He also reported 1,000 copies of the game and fish
laws printed and 25,000 summaries of the law.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


The offer of the Florida Grower Press relative to publishing
a magazine sponsored by the Commission was considered. The
Executive Secretary and Commissioner Garner were author-
ized to handle the matter.
Insurance on the oxygen-tank truck was ordered taken out.
Deeds to the caretakers house and garage, Winter Haven Fish
Hatchery, were reported as cleared.
Gulf County presented a claim for $4,722.27 asked for reim-
bursement for purchase by the County of site for Wewahitchka
Hatchery. The Executive Secretary was requested to meet
with Commissioners for conference on matter.
The Federal Government having delayed taking over opera-
tion of Welaka Hatchery and Game Farm, $17.01 per day for
salaries and cost of operation was authorized until transfer
was made. (Transfer not completed until December.)
Dr. J. V. Knapp, representing the State Live Stock Sanitary
Board requested cooperation in tick eradication by reduction
of deer in restricted areas where deer were infested and served
as carriers. Chairman Wiensenfeld called attention to the
law fixing open season-November 20th to December 31st, and
Commission requested Dr. Knapp and the Executive Secretary
to confer with the Attorney General on the matter.
Tallahassee, December 17th, 1935: Inquiry from Chief of
U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey relative to possibility of
setting up in Florida a Cooperative Wildlife Research and
Game Management unit to be financed in part by Survey, in
part by Commission and in part by Florida State College of
Agriculture was considered and action deferred, as finances
were not available.
Leesburg Chamber of Commerce was notified that seining
of Lake Griffin had served its purpose and seining was ordered
stopped.
Each Commissioner was authorized to withdraw from any
County in his respective district where support of game law
enforcement by courts was not .given, the reward offered for
information leading to arrest and conviction of party or par-
ties for taking deer, quail and turkey illegally or for selling
black bass. Action was taken on notice that conviction of
violator for killing doe deer had brought penalty of but $10.00
fine and cost.
Executive Secretary was instructed to contest law exempt-
ing residents of Suwannee County from payment of license to
hunt in said county. Law later declared unconstitutional.
Consideration was given offer of Florida Grower Press to
publish without cost to State a magazine under auspices of
Commission, provided Commission would furnish material of









BIENNIAL REPORT


sufficient reader interest and photographs illustrating, to war-
rant publication. Offer was accepted and Director of Edu-
cation instructed to prepare material and edit magazine. (Cost
of $50.00 per month for field expense of Director was allowed.)
Jacksonville, January 20th, 1936: The budget for coming
six months was fixed. The total $85,420.00 (contingent upon
available revenue) was as follows: Administration-$7.000.00;
Five Chief Conservation Officers (salary and travel)-$9,-
000.00; County Conservation Officers-First District-$11,-
250.00, Second District-$12,420.00, Third District-$11,160.00,
Fourth District-$8,490.00 (only nine counties in the Fourth
District), Fifth-$10,050.00, Fish Iatcheries (Winter Haven
and Welaka) $4,300.00, Fairs-$300.00, Field Equipment
(motors, boats, trailers)--$1,000.00, Restocking game-$10,-
000.00; authorization was given for trip for Chairman of Com-
mission, Commissioner from the First District and the Execu-
tive Secretary to attend Wildlife Conference, February 2nd-
7th, called by President of United States. Chief Officer of
Second District, C. E. C'arke, Jr., (who is Chairman of Con-
servation Committee U. S. Junior ('hl!,il..- of Commerce, and
who represented that organization in organizing the Confer-
ence and promoting organization of State Conservation Coun-
cils) also attended, going at Federal expense.
First copy of OUTDOOR FLORIDA reported in circulation
and well received. Publishers, pleased with copy submitted,
had printed 7,500 copies instead of 2,000 agreed to.
Tallahassee, April 6th, 1936: Executive Secretary reported
on Washington Wildlife Conference where he delivered paper
"Fluctuations in Population of Bobwhite Quail in the South."
Secretary also reported an invitation from General Exten-
sion Division of University of Florida to deliver a lecture (one
of a series of twelve) to be given in eight counties to classes
of teachers taking extension course in Conservation of Flor-
ida's Natural Resources in preparation for teaching in Florida
schools. This was assigned Division of Education and was
given by Sarah W. Partridge, in charge of educational pro-
gram of Commission.
He reported progress in taking. of quail from breeding
grounds for restocking areas that had been overshot.
Granting of Scientific Permits for taking Florida wildlife
was discussed. One was denied, two granted.
Purchase of truck for Winter Haven Fish Hatchery was
authorized.
Tallahassee, June 26th, 1936: Renewal of two scientific per-
mits was granted and three permits to trap certain predatory









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


animals on three Federal Land Utilization Projects, for in-
-formation in research program of wildlife management, and
four permits for bird-banding on request of President Florida
Audubon Society.
Financial report showed revenue for period, July 1st, 1935
to June 25th, 1936 to be $143,317.17 which with .2.1,:';'-i .i4
(balance transferred to State Game Fund from Conservation
Board, July 1st, 1935) total $172,688.71. Disbursements due-
ing that period-$120,324.03. Balance on hand-$52,362.68.
This would maintain operations during summer months when
incoming revenue is small.
This was last meeting of Commission in which C. G. Mag-
ruder participated as a member of the Commission. He had
held the one year appointment provided -for by Jaw for the
first Commission, that terms of Commissioners might expire at
different dates. Mr. Magruder's year in office had been one
of enthusiastic, tireless effort which had advanced the con-
servation program not only in District Five but throughout the
State. Mr. H1. L. MacDonald of Orlando was appointed to
succeed Mr. Magruder.
Winter Haven, July 20th, 1936: Executive Secretary re-
ported that during the first year of operation of Commission
fourteen State Game Breeding Grounds had been added to
those already existing; that number of County Conservation
Officers now totaled 70; Honorary Commissioners, appointed
on recommendation of Commissioner of respective district of
residence, numbered 420; that line of demarcation between
salt and fresh waters had been set on request of Board of
County Commissioners of Flagler County in Pellicer Creek;
and in St. Lucie County for north fork of St. Lucie River at
request of St. Lucie Board concurred in by Board of Martin
County; that Mr. Frank A. Albert, Supervisor of U. S. Forest
Service in Florida, had been given permit to remove garfish
from waters in Ocala and Osceola National Forests; that more
than 1,100 quail had been trapped from breeding grounds and
released, most of them in the First and Fifth Districts; that a
few turkeys purchased had gone, largely to the Fourth Dis-
Irict; that, to date, bass fingerling had been placed as fol-
lows: First District-260,000, Second District-168,500, Third
District- 19,000, Fourth District--8,000 (all that were re-
quested by the Fourth District), Fifth-174,000, Total--
629,500. This total, all from Winter Haven Hatchery, was
to reach a million before the close of 1936 season. Executive
Secretary reported that due to fact that WPA work at
Wewahitchka Hatchery had been in process for many months.
and hatchery at this point was in its infancy, production there









52 BIENNIAL REPORT

would not be great; also that survey showed heavy loss of
deer, turkey and quail in Lee, Glades, Collier and Hendry
Counties due to unprecedented rainfall (Counties later order-
ed closed to all shooting for current season December 31st) ;
request was made that funds be budgeted for biennial report,
to be prepared by Educational Division and come from press
in time to submit to members of Legislature prior to convening
of 1937 Session; and for funds for publishing two color folder
"Florida Sport Fishing", which Educational Division was
completing (the attractive cover for folder, work of staff artist
of State Planning Board); also reported mimeographed bul-
letin on Birds of Florida (11 pages) had been prepared; also
that with cooperation of State Planning Board, a map showing
State and Federal Breeding Grounds and Refuges, was ready
for printing.
Law Enforcement Division report for fiscal year was sub-
mitted:
Arrests Convictions Aquittals Pending
1st District ..................... 50 29 5 16
2nd District .................. 85 51 6 28
3rd District .................. 146 100 4 42
4th District ..................... 83 64 5 14
5th District ................... 99 86 3 1T

463 330 23 110
Commission ordered all Scientific Permits issued "Valid
until Recalled" be recalled and any further permit issued be
"for one year from date issued." Two applications for per-
mits were granted.
Reported that State Supreme Court had declared uncon-
stitutional St. Johns County Law providing for open deer
season in summer.
Honorary Commissions requested by Mr. Frank L. Albert,
U. S. Forestry Supervisor, were given certain employees of
the U. S. Forest Service.
Dr. F. D. McKenney, U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, and
loaned by the Bureau to U. S. Bureau of Animal Husbandry,
was given permit to take twelve buck deer in designated State
Breeding Grounds for study of cattle fever tick. Arrange-
ments were made for a Conservation Officer to accompany Dr.
McKenney on trip to secure specimens, carcasses of deer to
be destroyed as soon as they had served their purpose.
Uniforms for Conservation Officers were authorized to be
purchased by Commission.
Salaries of Chief Conservation Officers were increased from
$150.00 to $175.00 per month.









GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 53

Tallahassee, September 28th, 1936. Executive Secretary re-
ported that three additional Game Breeding Grounds, one in
LaFayette County, one in Orange County, one in Flagler Coun-
ty, had been established since last meeting of Commission;
also that distribution of fingerling bass from hatcheries was
complete, approximately one million, and hatcheries were be-
ing conditioned for reception of brood bass for following
season. Financial statement showed receipts from all sources,
July 1st, 1936 to September 26th, 1936 totaled $10,983.42, that
disbursements totaled $25,916.23, and cash on hand $34,243.23,
with September, October and November bills to be met before
returns from sale of general hunting licenses would become
available.
First among the visitors to the meeting to be heard was one
of the members of the Board of Commissioners of Gulf County
and the Attorney for the Board, who presented a claim for
$4,722.00 which, it was stated, the county had paid on author-
ization of Mr. George W. Davis, Conservation Commissioner,
as purchase price for lands on which Wewahitchka Hatchery
was built. Commission instructed Executive Secretary to
meet with the Board to confer on matter.
Senator J. J. Parrish made plea against killing of deer and
young turkeys in preserves by range riders of Tick Eradica-
tion agencies.
Delegation from Highlands County, representing cattle own-
ers of section, asked that breeding grounds in southern part
of County be opened for hunting on account of deer being
infested with ticks making it difficult to complete work of
tick eradication. On recommendation of Dr. F. G. Garner,
Commissioner of the First District, this was agreed to,-and
also the opening of Glades County breeding ground, which
Dr. Garner stated the Board of County Commissioners had
requested.
Dr. T. W. Cole, representing the U. S. Bureau of Animal
Industry in its work in Florida, discussed the program of tick
eradication in Florida, the effect of tick infested deer upon
it in highly restricted areas, endorsed the report previously
made by Dr. McKenney and submitted a written proposition
to the Commission regarding cooperative agreement between
Commission and Federal and State Agencies directing tick
eradication in Florida.
A representative of the Tosohatchee Game Preserve in Orange
County (privately owned) asked that sportsmen be heard be-
fore final action was taken in matter of killing deer, and, at
suggestion of Commissioner H. L. McDonald, hearing in Or..
lando, October 19th, was announced.
The late Senator William Pannil asked that the swamp
section of Hernando State Breeding Ground be opened for







BIENNIAL REPORT


hunting during the coming season to satisfy demands of local
people. The matter was referred to Commissioner Garner in
whose District this County lies.
A request from the U. S. Biological Survey that certain Keys
lying at the southern part of Florida be made bird refuges
was referred to Commissioner H. L. Schaller, and on his rec-
ommendation this was done.
Mr. W. M. Dunson of the Welaka Fish Hatchery and Game
Farm, representing Dr. Hartman of the Federal Rehabilita-
tion Administration, came before the Commission to ask for
an option on the property for the Federal Government, stating
that unless such was given, the development at Welaka would
cease. The option was granted, subject to final action by the
State Legislature. The request that the Rehabilitation Au-
ministration be given right to "improve, remove, alter or de-
molish or to complete construction of existing buildings, struc-
tures, works or improvement upon buildings situate upon said
premises, and to engage in construction of such buildings,
structures, works or improvements thereon as may be desired
to accomplish its objects and purposes was agreed to.
Orlando, October 19th, 1936. At this meeting, called that
sportsmen might be heard regarding "tick on deer on cattle
problem," the Commission was represented by Chairman
Wiesenfeld, Commissioners McDonald, Schaller, Garner, and
Executive Secretary Kennedy, Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veter.i
narian and directing the State Tick Eradication work, ana
Dr. T. W. Cole of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry. Dr.
J. V. Knapp, represented State and Federal agencies.
After full discussion of matter it was agreed that, on proviso
in Resolution that the State Live Stock Sanitary Board agree
to pay $25.00 for each deer killed in State Breeding Grounds
open to shooting of deer on account of tick infestation (to
a number not to exceed 1,000) in event U. S. Bureau of Animal
Industry failed to secure payment of obligation, the Com-
mission would permit the taking of deer in the fixed areas
opened, November 20th to December 31st; and that in privately
owned preserves the Commission would act as intermediary
between Live Stock Board and Preserve owners.
Naples, November 7th, 1936. A called meeting was held at
Naples on request that sportsmen and cattle owners of Collier
County within which lay the section of the breeding ground
which would be opened for shooting of deer because of tick
infestation, be heard on the action of the Commission opening
these tick infested areas.
Those representatives of the Commission who served at Or-
lando also sat at Naples.
The Live Stock Sanitary Board and the U. S. Bureau of
Animal Industry, the Collier County Commissioners and the
interested group of cattle men and sportsmen attended.























PART III










STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

July 1, 1935 to June 30, 1936
July 1, 1936 to December 31, 1936


1










BIENNIAL REPORT


RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

July 1, 1935, to June 30, 1936
RECEIPTS
Funds Transferred from State Board of Conservation .................$ 29,369.54
Hunting Licenses ..............................................$100,241.00
F fishing Licenses ................................................ 39,085.00
Trapping Licenses ......................................... 5,074.00 $144,400.00
COMMERCIAL LICENSES
Retail Fish Dealers .................................... 1,685.00
Wholesale Fish Dealers ........................ 1,100.00
Commercial Boat ........................................ 280.30
B oat for H ire ................................................ 1,120.50
Wholesale Fur Dealers and
Agents ..................................... 1,205.00
Local Fur Dealer ..................................... 110.00
Game Farm License .............. .................... 70.00
Guide License ..................................................... 50.00 5,620.80
MISCELLANEOUS
Court C osts ............................................. ....... 1,562.69
Dividend from Closed Bank ...... 1.68
Confiscated Nets Sold ...................... 231.00
Confiscated Furs and Hides ........... 87.50
Old License .......................................... 33.00 1,915.87 151,936.67
Florida Bird Life ......................... ............. 162.00 162.00 162.00

$181,468.21
DISBURSEMENTS
ADMINISTRATION
Office Salaries ................................................$ 7,320.00
Traveling Expense, Exec. Sec'y...... 1.076.02
Traveling Expense, Commis-
sioners ..................................................... 91.06
Traveling Expense, Wild Life
C on ................................................ 276.11
Miscellaneous Expense .......................... 614.84
Office Supplies ....................................... 326.58
Postage, Telephone and Tele-
graph ........ ................................................ 867.04
Printing and Stationery ........................ 1,894.68
Premium on Bond .................................... 35.00
Legal Expense ................................................ 150.00 13.551.93
FIELD EXPENSE
Salaries Conservation Officers...... 64,776.73
Traveling Expenses Con. Officers 37,867.13
Premium on Compensation
Insurance .................................................. 1,263.00
Purchase and Maintenance of
E quipm ent .......................................................... 1,534.14
Miscellaneous Field Expense ........ 143.61
Special Expense Rewards Paid..... 625.00
Game Conservation on High
W ater ............................ ...... ...... ..... .......... 336.50 106,546.11










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 57


WELAKA HATCHERY


S a la rie s ........... .......... ...... ........................
Truck Operations ......... ................
M isc. S supplies ....................... ................. ....
Power and Lights ..............................
Feed Account ................... .................
Gas and Oil ... .......
Telephone and Telegraph ..................
Labor ............ .. ....
T traveling .........................................

WEWAHITCHKA HATCI IERY


1.966.52
4.87
35.74
288.16
62.21
140.28
39.66
10.00
23.52


Salaries ................................. .......... 1,925.00
L abor ......... ......... ........... .................... 68.00
Light andl Power .......................... 48.80
Supplies ........................... 64.80
Truck Operations ........................ 187.61
G as and O il .................... ................... 407.76
Bass Restocking ......... ......... .......... 234.19

WINTER HAVEN HATCIIEIY


2,570.96


2,936.16


S a la ries ......................... ................
Traveling Expense .......... ...............
L a b o r ............... ..... .. .. ... .. ...... .. ..
S u applies .. ........... .... ...........................
Truck Operations .. .. ............ ......... ...
Gas and O il ... ... ..........
Premium on Truck ................
Special' Expense ......................... ........
R stock in g ............................... ...... ...... ..

EDUCATION
Salary Educational Director .......
Miscellaneous Magazilne .....................
Magazine Traveling ......................
Miscellaneous Fair Expense .......
Fair Expense, Lectures. 0and
T ra veling ............. ................
Refund Old License .................... .....
Remittance Florida Bird Life
B o o k ......... ......... ... ... ............. ................ .....

CASH ACCOUNT
Balance in State Treasury .........
Balance in Lewis State Bank ...
D)ue from County Judges .................


1,200.00
253.90
1.256.00
264.70
119.87
418.09
179.64
77.00
482.91


1,800.00
28.55
172.83
62.23

167.08
48.00

155.59


45,115.99
3,979.17
81.50


3,769.20
482.91


2,230.69 $132,087.96


203.59


49,095.16
81.50


49,380.25

$181,468.21










58 BIENNIAL REPORT


RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

July 1, 1936, to December 31, 1936


RECEIPTS
Balance on Hand June 30, 136 .....................................
Advance from County Judges ............
Hunting Licenses ............. ..........................$105,249.00
Fishing Licenses ................................. 14,809.00
Trapping Licenses ......................... ........ 4,526.00


COMMERCIAL LICENSES
Retail Fish Dealer ................................
Wholesale Fish Dealer .......................
C om m ercial B oat ..........................................
B oat for H ire ....................... ...................
Wholesale Fur Dealers-Agents
Local Fur Dealers .............. ...............
G am e F arm ........................... .......... .........
G u ides ............ ........ .................. ..........

MISCELLANEOUS
C ou rt C osts .................. ............................
Confiscated Nets .....................................
Confiscated Fish ......................................
Confiscated Furs and Hides ............
Sale of Old Truck at Hatchery
Previous Years Licenses ..............
Florida B ird Life ...................................


775.00
600.00
145.00
741.50
1,220.00
120.00
45.00
120.00



1,272.42
530.00
15.50
38.00
25.00
2,055.00
54.00


T O T A L .. ......................... .....


DISBURSEMENTS
ADMINISTRATION
O office Salaries ..........................................
Traveling, Executive Sec'y ...........
Traveling, Commissioners ..................
Miscellaneous ......................................
O office Supplies ................. ........... ......
Post-Tel. and Telegraph ..................
Printing and Stationery ........................
Premium on Bonds ...................................

FIELD EXPENSE
Salaries Con. Officers ........................
Traveling Con. Officers ....................
Legal Expense ...............................
Miscellaneous ................................... ....
Premium on Comp. Insurance ....
Purchase and Maintenance
E qu ipm ent ..............................................
Rewards Paid ...................................... ........
R estockin g ..........................................................


3,720.00
591.35
608.65
402.39
305.62
489.97
1,514.10
10.00



39,949.17
27,642.88
292.75
1,258.63
1,743.94

456.28
525.00
1,099.45


.....................................$ 49,176.60
$ 1,310.75


124,584.00










3,706.50







1,880.92
2,055.00 133,597.17
54.00 54.00

....................................$182,827.83


7,642.08


72,968.10










GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH


EDUCATION


S salaries ................................ .................
T ra v elin g ......................... .................. ......
M iscellan eou s .............. .....................................

WEWAHITCHKA HATCHERY

Salaries ................................. .. ...... .....
Light and Power ................................... ..
S u p p lies ............................. ......... ....... ..... .. .....
T ruck H ire ........................... .... .................
Gasoline and Oil ...............................

WINTER HAVEN IIATCHERY
S a la ries ............................... ....... ....
T traveling .................... ..... ......... ...............
L a b o r .......................................................... .....
Supplies ...................................................
Truck Operations .....................
Gasoline and Oil ....................
Construction ............................. ......


1.108.26
141.71
62.14



1,050.00
37.97
23.05
60.00
177.99



625.00
206.82
924.00
144.16
175.69
488.05
660.94


CASH ACCOUNT
Balance in State Treasury ........... 88,620.03
Balance in Lewis State Bank ...... 7,711.84

T O T A L ............. .. ........ ...............................


1.312.11


1,349.01


3,224.66 86,495.96




96,331.87 96,331.87

............................. ......$182,827.83


1
















4











GAME AND FRESH WATER FISH 61


INDEX
Page
Submitting Report ................... -........ ...-- ... ..- ....... 3
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish ............................. 4
Letter of T ransm ittal ................................ ............. ...... ....
"Out Fishin' .............. ....................... ....... 6
PART I
Page
Foreword ... .................................... 7
Report ..................-.... .......... ............................ .. .. ... 8
Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish Created .................. 9
Commission Appointed ................................ ...... .. 9
Organization ...................... .................. ... ......... ......- .. 9
O office Staff ........................... ... .... .... -..... ........... ....... ......... 10
Rew yards O offered ........... ... ... ........... ............. ... .... ..-.... 1 0
"Pals" ..................................................---- --...................... ........ .. .-- 11
How Commission has Operated ....................... ........ .... ... 12
Finances ................................... ... 12
District Budgets .............. ....... ............... .. ....... 12
Revenue ............................... .......... 13
Licenses Sold ............................. .. .....-- 14
"End of a Perfect Day" ..................... ................ .............. 15
Vested Rights Basis of State Game Legislation ......... ........ .......15
License for Taking or Trafficking in Wildlife .................................... 6
G am e Census ......................- ....... ....... ............ ... ........ 17
Bag Limits and Seasons ............................. ....... ...... ......... 17
Florida's Game and Fur-bearing Animals ................................... .. 17
A Com prison ........................... ..... ..... .. .... ..... .... ..... 18
D eer Problem in Florida ................... ........-...- ...... ........ .- ..... ....... 19
"H ope of the Future" .................. .-..... ................. .... ................. 20
Closed Season on Fox Squirrel Needed ..................... ... ....... 21
Status of Game Birds in Florida .............. ............. .....-.......... ... .... ..... 21
W ild Turkey ..........................-.......................... .... 22
D oves .............................. ...... ..... .... ... ... ... .. .. .... .. ............ 22
W ild Ducks and Geese .......................... ...-.. ....... .................. .... .. 23
Better Protection for Birds and Mammals .................. ..........-.... 23
Fur-Bearing Anim als ................. ............. ..-- .... ....- .....- ...... 24
The Bear ................... ....-......--....................-----............ 24
Number Trappers Decline as Fur-bearers Decrease ................-.- 24
"This Fellow Asks Your Protection" ........ ....... ..... ...........-- 25
Revenue to State Decreases .................-...-.. ............... .................... 25
M uskrats .......... ................. ...................- ..-- ... ..-... ........ ...... .... .... -- 25
Conservation Officers' Training School ................................ 26
T he A alligator ....2.............................. ...... ..- .....- ..... .......- .............. .... 28
Rebuilding W wildlife ----~. ..... ............. .................... 29
Wildlife and Soil Conservation Program .................................. .... 29
State Breeding Grounds ..................................-...... ... .................. 29
R estocking ............... ........................... ........... .... ...... ................ 30
Game Fish of Fresh And Brackish Waters ................................. 31
Fishing License ............................ -... .. ....... .... ... .. ... ....... 31
Supply vs Demand ........................ ......................... ....... ...... 32
Significance of Black Bass Law of 1935 ...... _.......... ......-................... 32
Bass of Lake Okeechobee .......... ... ........... ............. ..-............. 33
"Truck Filled from 'Fingerling Corral'. Ready to Go." .................. 34
F ish H atcheries .................. .................- ..---- ---.....-.--- ------ ------ 35
W elaka H atchery ................. ........ ..... ..... ............-... 35
W inter Haven Hatchery ................... .................................... 36
W ewahitchka Hatchery .........................................................36, 37
Distribution from Winter Haven and Wewahitchka ............... 38










62 BIENNIAL REPORT

INDEX-Continued
Page
Seining of Lakes for Rough Fish and to Reduce Sunfish.................. 39
Striped Bass .................................... .................................................. 39
Stream Pollution ........................ ................. ... .. .............. 40
The Problem .................................. .... ................................... ............ .. 41
Law Enforcement Division ....................................... .......... ........ .... 41
Education- .......................... ............ .......... ............42
Co-operation .......................... ...... ............. .......... ...... 44

PART II
Page
Summarized Report of Commission Meetings
June 25, 1935 to December 31st, 1936 ......................................47-54

PART III
Page
Statement of Receipts and Disbursements
July 1, 1935 to June 30, 1936 ....................... ........................ 56, 57
July 1. 1936 to December 31, 1936 ................. ..................... 58 59

4




































































NL ROSE PRINTING COMPANY, TALLCAASSEE, FLORID*












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