<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Letter of transmittal
 Summary of report
 Financial statement
 Establishment of fish hatcheri...
 Experimental fish cultural...
 Violations, arrests and convic...
 Operation of boats
 Resources of the sea
 Fish census taken
 Conservation of shell fish
 The oyster
 Oyster, filled with pearls
 Use of automobile
 Sponge industry
 Raw and canned shrimp
 Crayfish and crabs


FLAG



... Biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075939/00007
 Material Information
Title: ... Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Shell Fish Division
Florida -- Shell Fish Commission
Publisher: T.J. Appleyard
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Creation Date: 1925
Publication Date: <1915>-
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Shellfish trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fisheries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aquaculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1913/1914)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with 10th (1931/1932)?
General Note: Third and fourth issues called reports of the Florida Shell Fish Commission.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001750196
oclc - 45623059
notis - AJG3100
lccn - sn 00229152
System ID: UF00075939:00007

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 6
    Summary of report
        Page 7
    Financial statement
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Establishment of fish hatcheries
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Experimental fish cultural work
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Violations, arrests and convictions
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Operation of boats
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Resources of the sea
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Fish census taken
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Conservation of shell fish
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    The oyster
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Oyster, filled with pearls
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Use of automobile
        Page 93
    Sponge industry
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Raw and canned shrimp
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Crayfish and crabs
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
Full Text



























LIBRARY
OF THE

UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Class- ..... ..--...---..

Book ___G6__G...


v, vlawtRN PRINTNIa omio: o927 8--1577











SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT

Shell Fish Division

OF THE

Department of Agriculture

OF THE

State of Florida


FOR THE YEARS 1925-1926


IJ APPLEvaRD, IN TALLAHASsEF, FLORIID A



*




































































ST. MARKS LIGHT, WHICH HAS BEEN A GUIDE TO THE FISH-
ING FLEET SINCE EIGHTEEN THIRTY.

















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL



I)epartment of Agriculture, State of Florida,

Commissioner's Office

Shell Fish Division.

To His Excellency,
John W. Martin,
Governor of the State of Florida.

Sir:

We have the honor to submit herewith the Biennial Re-
port of the Shell Fish Division, of the Department of Agri-
culture, for the years 1925 and 1926.

Respectfully submitted,

T. R. HODGES,
Shell Fish Commissioner.

NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.












SUMMARY OF REPORT



PROPERTY AND CREDITS ACQUIRE)

January 1st, 1925-December 31st, 1926.

Cash in Treasury ........................ $ 18,631.02
(ash in Bank to be Deposited in Treasury
January 1st, 1927 ....................... 5,211.94
Cash deposited in General Revenue Fund..... 14,368.45
Balance in Special Shell Fish Planting Fund.. 14,092.62
Balance in Fish Hatchery Fund ............. 7,526.67
Balance in Two Cent Planting Fund ......... 2,732.14
Balance in Three Cent Planting Fund ........ 6,292.19
Fish Hatchery Property Acquired ........... 37,856.42
Fish Hatchery Equipment Acquired ......... 3,295.26
Boats and other Property Acquired .......... 5,906.43
Office Equipment Acquired ................. 1,287.25
Replanting Oyster Bars-Two Cent Planting
Fund ......... ... .......... ......... 3,087.26
Replanting Oyster Bars-Special Shell Fish
Planting Fund .......................... 35,907.38

$156,195.03












FINANCIAL STATEMENT

SHELL FISH FUND

RECEIPTS

January 1st, 1925-December 31st, 1925.

FISH INDUSTRY.

Fish dealers' licenses ............ $17,595.00
Fish boat licenses ................ 8,917.05
Alien boat licenses ............... 560.00
Alien fishing licenses ............. 1,915.00
Excess net tags .................. 17.00
Purse seines .................... 250.00 $29,254.05


SHELL FISH INDUSTRY.

Oyster dealers' licenses ........... $ 4,260.00
Lease, rents and fees ............. 709.00
Alien oystering licenses .......... 370.00
Sale measures and tags .......... 26.30 5,365.30


Two CENT PRIVILEGE TAX.

Two Cent Planting Fund .........$ 1,988.35 $ 1,988.35


THREE CENT PRIVILEGE TAX.

Three Cent Privilege Tax (credit on
loan) ...................... $ 1,799.27 $ 1,799.27


SPONGE INDUSTRY.

Sponge boat licenses .............$ 162.30 $ 162.30












AM ISCEI .ANEOUS.


Sale boat "Ocean Queen "....... $
Refund on telegrams .............
Refund on bond ......... .......
Certified copy oyster lease ........
Recording fee oyster lease ........
Confiscated fish ............... .


1,600.00
1.98
3.93
3.00
2.00
28.44


$ 1,639.35


Total receipts ................. $.40,208.62
Balance in Shell Fish Fund from
last report .................... 14,416.21
Collections December 1924, entered
in January, 1925 .............. 6,368.49
Balance in Two Cent Planting Fund
last report .................... 2,175.06
Balance in Three Cent Privilege
Tax Fund last report ........... 2,149.56

$65,317.94












SHELL FISH FUND

EXPENDITURES.

January 1st, 1925-December 31st, 1925.


Office property ................ $
Postage .....................
Office supplies and expense.......
Telephone and telegrams .........
Freight and express .............
Deputy Patrolman and Inspection
Service ......................
Boats and boat property..........
Repair to boats, etc. .............
Rent and operation boats .........
Attorney's fees, etc...............
Two Cent Planting Fund.........
Paid General Revenue .......... ]
Transferred to Fish Hatchery Fund

Balance in Two Cent Planting Fund
Balance in Three Cent Planting
Fund (credit on loan) ..........
Balance in Shell Fish Fund........


108.00
100.00
745.95
60.39
15.78

1,529.52
1,747.32
467.54
1,087.85
2,731.59
3,087.26
14,368.45
16,540.10


$42,589.75

1,350.88

4,296.59
17,080.72

$65,317.94












BUDGET APPROPRIATION

RECEIPTS.

Balance in Fund January 1st, 1925 $12,630.89

EXPENDITURES.

January 1st, 1925-June 30th, 1925.

Salary Commissioner ............ $ 1,750.04
Traveling expenses Commissioner. 625.52
Salary Clerk-Bookkeeper ......... 900.00
Salary Secretary to Commissioner. 900.00
Postage ........................ 125.00
Printing, stationery, etc........... 517.71
Salary (3) Patrolmen and Inspectors 2,242.90
Traveling expenses Deputies...... 604.05
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector .................... 684.61
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector ..................... 379.37
Salary (2) Deputy Patrolmen and
Inspectors .................... 282.78
Salary (2) Deputy Patrolmen and
Inspectors .................... 101.67
Salary Chief Engineer .......... 1,200.00
Salary Cook .................... 300.00
Salary Seaman .................. 301.66
Salary Seaman .................. 295.00
Rent, purchase, operation and con-
tingent expenses ofl boats ....... 485.20
Refund, leases, licenses, legal and
miscellaneous expenses ......... 590.86
Balance absorbed by General Revenue 344.52 $12,630.89












SHELL FISH FUND

RECEIPTS.

January 1st, 1926-December 31st, 1926.

FISH INDUSTRY.

Fish dealers' licenses ............. $26,265.95
Fish boat licenses ................ 8,424.00
Alien boat licenses ............... 1,310.00
Alien fishing licenses ............. 2,280.00
Excess net tags .................. 35 00
Purse seines .................... 175.00 $38,489.95


SHELL FISH INDUSTRY.

Oyster dealers' licenses .......... .$ 5,845.00
Canning factory licenses ......... 50.00
Alien oystering licenses .......... 75.00
Lease, rents and fees............. 1.094.50 $ 7,064.50


Two CENT PRIVILEGE TAX.

Two Cent Planting Fund .......... $ 1,621.08 $1,621.08


THREE CENT PRIVILEGE TAX.

Three Cent Privilege Tax (credit on
loan) ............... .. ....... $ 2,332.86 $ 2,332.86


SPONGE INDUSTRY.


Sponge boat licenses ............. $ 295.20


$ 295.20










13

MISCELLANEOUS.

Sale of gasoline stove............ $ 18.00
Sale of leads, corks and lines...... 265.00
Sale of gravel at Welaka ......... 132.00
Sale of confiscated fish ........... 528.57
Recording transfer oyster lease.... 4.50 $ 948.07

Total receipts ................... $50,751.66
Balance in Shell Fish Fund last
report ........................ 17,080.72
Balance in Two Cent Planting Fund 1,350.88
Balance in Three Cent Privilege
Tax Fund .................... 4,296.59

$73,479.85












SHELL FISH FUND

EXPENDITURES.

January 1st, 1926-December 31st, 1926.

Office supplies and expense ........$ 85.83
Telephone and telegrams ......... 43.65
Freight and express ............. 17.33
Deputy Patrolman and Inspection
Service ....................... 1,679.94
Repairs to boats ................. 1,519.72
Rent, purchase and operation boats. 1,209.10
Transferred to Fish Hatchery Fund 36,056.99 $40,612.56

Balance in Shell Fish Fund. ..... 18,631.02
Balance in Two Cent Planting Fund 2,732.14
Balance in Three Cent Privilege Tax
Fund ........................ 6,292.19
Collections December 1926, included
in distributions ............... 5,211.94

$73,479.85










15

SPECIAL SHELL FISH COMMISSION PLANTING
FUND

RECEIPTS.

By loan to Shell Fish Commission by Act of the
Legislature approved May 19th, 1925, mak-
ing an appropriation of ................... $50,000.00

EXPENDITURES.

Replanting oyster bars and equip-
ment for same ................ $35,907.38
Balance in fund December 31st,
1926 ......................... 14,092.62 $50.000.00












BUIT)(DET APPROPRIATION

RECEIPTS.

By appropriation July 1st, 1925, through June
30th, 1927 ............................. 91,720.00

EXPENDITURES.

July 1st, 1925-December 31st, 1926.

Salary Commissioner ............ 5,999.98
Salary Clerk-Bookkeeper ......... 2,849.98
Salary Secretary to Commissioner. 2,700.00
Salary (3) Patrolmen and Inspec-
tors ......................... 8,089.01
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector ..................... 2,699.99
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector ..................... 2,699.23
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector ..................... 2,700.00
Salary (1) Deputy Paltrolman and
Inspector ..................... 2,697.58
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector .................... 2,670.63
Salary Chief Engineer ........... 3,600.00
Salary Cook .................... 1,058.14
Salary Seaman .................. 1,080.00
Salary Seaman .................. 1,063.17
Traveling Expenses Commissioner. .1,804.85
Traveling Expenses Deputies...... 8,789.55
Postage ........................ 1,000.00
Printing, stationery and other ex-
penses ....................... 2,703.91










17

Rent, purchase, operation and con-
tingent expenses of boats....... 16,100.37
Refund, leases, licenses, legal and
miscellaneous expenses ......... 1,460.87
Balance absorbed by General Revenue 86.23 $71,853.49

Balance in fund December 31st, 1926 $19,866.51


S. F.-2












FISH HATCHERY FUND

RECEIPTS.

Amount transferred from Shell Fish Fund to
Fish Hatchery Fund in accordance with Sec-
tion 9, Chapter 10123, Acts of 1925, during
year 1925 .............................. $16,540.10
Amount transferred from Shell Fish Fund to
Fish Hatchery Fund in accordance with Sec-
tion 9, Chapter 10123, Acts of 1925, during
year 1926 .................... ........... 36,056.99

$52,597.09

EXPENDITURES.

Experimental work and operations.$ 3,918.74
Hatchery equipment acquired ..... 3,295.26
Cost of constructing Hatchery No.
1, No. 2 and No. 3.............. 37,856.42
Balance in Fish Hatchery Fund
December 31st, 1926 ........... 7,526.67


$52.597.09




















































- =


-- w.


FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH HATCHERY NUMBER TWO.












ESTABLISHMENT OF FISH HATCHERIES

The Florida Legislature of 1925, in their wisdom, realized
the importance of establishing fish hatcheries and author-
ized the State Shell Fish Commissioner to establish such
hatcheries and provided for an advisory commission of
three to be appointed by the Governor. Governor Martin
very wisely appointed three good men to advise and assist
the Department in the selection of proper sites and con-
struction. This Commission has given every assistance and
co-operation possible. The Commission is composed of
Hon. F. D. Fant, Jacksonville; Hon. E. W. Fowler, Pensa-
cola, and Hon. G. J. L. Smith, Moore Haven, Florida.
This move for conservation was sponsored by the com-
mercial fish dealers of the State, the establishment of fish
hatcheries being one of the chief provisions of the salt
water fish bill that was drawn by the legislative committee
of the Southern Fisheries Association, and this same bill
provided for an increase of taxation on wholesale fish deal-
ers in order to provide the necessary funds for the estab-
lishment of salt and fresh water hatcheries. No one realizes
more fully the importance of increasing the supply of fish
than does the wholesale fish dealer, for on sufficient supply
depends his business.
True conservation means the building up of the natural
resource which is to be conserved and the protection of the
immature during its growth. Crops do not grow without
the planting of seed and the same rule may be applied to
the fishing industry. The waters must be replenished by
artificial propagation and the small species properly pro-
tected while they are growing to maturity.
Transformed from unsightly ponds to beautiful mirrored
lakes as if touched by the magic wand of some inhabitant
of fairyland, stands Florida's first fresh water fish hatch-
ery at Welaka, Florida.
Just one year ago the Shell Fish Commissioner went to
Welaka, on the St. Johns River, accompanied by Hon.











Henry O'Malley, U. S. Fish Commissioner; Hon. G. C.
Leach, U. S. Fish Culturist; Hon. Frank D. Fant, Hon. E.
W. Fowler and Hon. G. J. L. Smith, members of the Flor-
ida Fish Hatchery Commission; Hon. Nathan Mayo, Com-
missioner of Agriculture, and Hon. J. B. Royall, State
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commissioner. The purpose
of this visit was to select a proper location for a fresh
water fish hatchery, which was to be established by the
Shell Fish Department.
The enterprising citizens of Welaka met the delegation
on arrival at the dock at Welaka and afforded them every
facility for investigating the various desirable sites in Put-
nam County. After mature consideration and investiga-
tion of other probable locations, the Commissioners decided
that the first hatchery should be located at Welaka, the
location having been donated to the State by the city.
Immediately upon the transfer of the property to the
State, construction work began. First, a complete topo-
graphical survey was made of the location, showing levels
and extent of the acreage of the ponds to be flooded in
order that dams might be constructed to confine the over-
flow waters and also to determine the height above the St.
Johns River from which the water supply was to be se-
cured. This survey developed the fact that the pond area
to be flooded was fifty acres and would afford three sep-
arate ponds for the hatching of black bass, bream and
crappie, the species of fish to be propagated by this hatch-
ery. It also developed the fact that the ponds were located.
seventeen feet above the river level, which would make it
possible to syphon the water back into the river when the
time arrived to drain the ponds for the purpose of remov-
ing the "fry" and "fingerlings," the names by which
baby fish are known.
Docks had to be built to sustain the heavy pipe line into
the river, pumping stations had to be erected, machinery
had to be ordered, and all during the long summer months
gangs of workmen labored faithfully under the direction of




















































GROUNDS OF FRESH WATER HATCHERY NUMBER TWO.


Srp ~



3'












the Superintendent of Hatcheries in order that the plant
might be put in operation in time for the Spring hatch. A
thousand and one things had to be whipped in line before
this was accomplished.
It is estimated that this hatchery will produce about
twenty-five million young bass annually. These young fish
will be distributed over the State in the various streams and
lakes by the Shell Fish Commission.
The water supply for the Welaka hatchery is secured
from the St. Johns River and a powerful pumping plant is
located on the river bank and the ponds are filled and
drained through a twenty-four inch pipe line with an
eighteen inch pump, driven by an eighty horse Fairbanks
& Morse crude oil engine.
Shad, herring and other salt water fish are hatched in
salt water hatchery No. 2 by use of a battery of hatching
jars. Ripe eggs are taken from the fish while alive and
fertilized by placing the egg of the male with that of the
female and then the fertile eggs are placed in the hatching
jars and a constant flow of water through a rubber tube
passes down to the bottom of the jar and causes constant
circulation, thus acting as an artificial father to the baby
fish, for the male fish is the one that fans and guards the
nest during the period of incubation instead of the female.
One peculiar feature about the spawning habits of the
black bass is that when a portion of the roe is ripe, the
female selects a male bass and delivers to him for hatching
that portion of her eggs that are ready for hatching. Later
on she selects other males to take care of the remaining eggs
when they become ripe and ready for hatching. Bass have
been known to make use of as many as five male bass to
perform the duties of incubation during the spawning
season.
Fresh water fish hatchery No. 3 is now under construc-
tion at Laurel Hill, Florida, in Okaloosa County. This
hatchery is to be of the dam type, two large dams being
used to confine the water which flows into the confined area












from a natural water course. The breeding ponds will
cover about forty acres and will be capable of producing
millions of "fry" and "fingerlings" annually, which will
be distributed over the State and placed in the various
streams and lakes.
The roe of an adult bass contains about sixteen thousand
eggs and the time required for incubation is from four to
eight days, according to the temperature of the water. The
spawning season is from the middle of March until the
middle or latter part of June and in some cases later. The
spawning season of the catfish is about the same, while
bream spawn from March to October.
The mode of distribution of baby fish is by shipment in
large cans, accompanied by a messenger, who carries ice
and a thermometer. At intervals ice is placed in the
cans in order to keep the water at a temperature suffi-
ciently cold to insure the safe carriage of the fish alive. The
railroads handle them free as baggage and the only cost of
distribution is the messenger's expense and ice.




























































VIEW OF PIPE LINE AND DOCK FROM ST. JOHNS RIVER TO POWER HOUSE.


I _I











































POWER HOUSE AND PUMPING STATION, HATCHERY NUMBER TWO.









4-


INTERIOR OF POWER HOUSE, SHOWING PUMPING PLANT.











































BASS HATCHING PONDS.








































VIEW OF BREAM HATCHING POND.













EXPERIMENTAL FISH CULTURAL WORK

In connection with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, the
Department has carried on experimental fish cultural inves-
tigations with a view to hatching the egg of the mullet. The
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries furnished the service of an expert
fish culturist and this Department paid all costs of opera-
tion.
Valuable information was secured in carrying on these
experiments, which will ultimately result in great good to
the fishing industry. The Department fitted up a floating
hatchery on a large barge and this hatchery can be towed
to the spawning grounds of the mullet and other salt water
fish, and it is the hope of the Department that mullet will
be successfully hatched during the coming spawning
season.
The Department has secured the services of an expert
fish culturist and will carry on the work independently in
future.














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SALT WATER FISH HATCHERY NUMBER ONE.


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- 1


INTERIOR OF SALT WATER FISH HATCHERY NO. 1, SHOWING BATTERY OF HATCHING JARS AND
"FRY" TANK.













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14.





































STEAM PATROL BOAT S. C. 144.










45

VIOLATIONS, ARRESTS AND CONVICTIONS

The provisions of laws for the protection of the industry
under the jurisdiction of this Department have been well
enforced. Those engaged in the industry realize the impor-
tance of law enforcement as a protection to themselves and
have given valuable information and assistance to the Dep-
uty Shell Fish Commissioners that has enabled them to
arrest and convict those who violated the law.
The records of the Department show that the total arrests
made for all violations amounted to 330 and 315 convic-
lions were secured.




































































STATE PATROL BOAT "PERMA" TYPE OF BOAT USED IN THE SERVICE.


1


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----
..t












OPERATION OF BOATS

The Department operates fourteen boats in its service.
Some comment has been made about the Department
using a converted sub-chaser in its patrol service. When I
reassumed the duties of Shell Fish Commissioner in 1921
I found the Department without a seaworthy boat that was
large enough to navigate the rough waters of the Gulf at
all times and with sufficient room for the Commissioner to
maintain an office on board and have living quarters suffi-
cient for himself and crew of four or five. Not having suf-
ficient funds with which to purchase such a vessel, we bor-
rowed the boat we are now using from the Navy for two
years with all necessary equipment. Having spent some
money on overhauling and repairing her during the loan
period, we bought the chaser from the Navy for five hun-
dred dollars, which amount would not cover the actual cost
of her anchor chain and anchors.
The gasoline engines on the chaser being rather expen-
sive to operate, we exchanged them at a cost of about fifty
dollars for a steam plant worth about ten thousand dollars,
which was installed in the chaser with an oil-burning appa-
ratus that cuts our fuel consumption down at least three-
quarters. The actual operating expenses of this steam pa-
trol boat will not exceed ten dollars per day, including food,
fuel and upkeep.
Having U. S. Steamboat Master's papers, I act in the
capacity of Captain without additional cost. Our engineer
is the mechanic for the Department and keeps all our en-
gines and machinery on other boats in repair, and the three
other men are used on other boats at various times.
If a smaller gasoline boat should be used, the cost of oper-
ation would be practically the same as that of the chaser.
It has been suggested that renting boats would be more
economical. I have found it almost impossible to rent boats
for our service and the rental value of any kind of a size-
s. F.-4










50

able craft runs from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars per
day and nothing furnished in the way of food or fuel.
The fishing industry is carried on along the coast and
not in the interior, and therefore it follows that boats are
an absolute necessity for the proper conduct of the De-
partmental business.












RESOURCES OF THE SEA

That the resources of the sea are of paramount impor-
tance in feeding our present and largely increasing popula-
tion is borne out by the fact that the United States Navy
(Hydrographic Department) is engaged in a definite plan
of oceanographical research. Instead of charting the waters
for navigation of ships, they will survey and chart them for
the benefit of the fishing industry.
Many things may be learned and taught as to the migra-
tory movements of fish and the cause of such migration and
other problems, dealing with deep sea and shallow water
fishing.
Bread, meat and fish have been the staple articles of food
for man since the creation of the world, and while grazing
lands are decreasing, which makes it almost impossible to
enlarge the world's supply of meat sufficiently to fill the
demand of the rapidly increasing population, the wide
waters of the sea have a food-producing area which is prac-
tically unlimited.
Florida is blessed with more sea-food producing territory
than any State in the Union and might be correctly termed
the storehouse of America for luxuries as well as necessities.
During the long winter months, when fishing grounds
are frozen over in the North and East, large demands are
made for fresh sea foods from Florida waters.

ENFORCEMENT OF CONSERVATION LAWS

The enforcement of conservation laws, as a general rule,
is a difficult matter-first, on account of the vast territory
to be policed, and secondly, on account of the lack of ap-
preciation of the importance of such enforcement by the
public generally. Conservation laws are enacted for the
benefit of the people, as the primary object of their enact-
ment is to encourage, protect and build up some public
resource in order that the people of the State may enjoy
more fully the fruits of the particular industry conserved.










52

The poultrymnan does not kill the setting hen or destroy
all the eggs or sell all the small chickens. If he did, he
would not maintain a poultry farm very long. The same
rule can be applied to the conservation of the fish. We
stood by and saw our other natural resources disappear;
but, fortunately, the note of warning was sounded in time
to save our salt water fishing industry.
A recent publication by the United States Bureau of
Fisheries at Washington places Florida at the head of the
fist in conservation of her mullet industry, which is the
greatest money-producing fish we have.








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A GOOD HAUL, OF SPANISH MACKEREL.


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FISH CENSUS TAKEN

Section 12 of Chapter 10123, Act of 1925, provides that
1he Shell Fish Commissioner shall gather data of the com-
mercial fisheries and prepare the data biennially so as to
show the real abundance of the most important commercial
fish and to make investigation of the various species of fish
as will guide in the collection and preparation of the sta-
tistical information necessary to determine evidence of
over-fishing.
In order to secure this data it was necessary to send out
requests to each wholesale dealer for a report on fish han-
dled. While the information secured may be slightly un-
derestimated, still it may be considered to be fairly accu-
rate.
The census indicates that the catch of mullet far exceeds
that of previous biennial periods, over seventy million
pounds having been shipped.
There has been no declination in the quantity of other
species of fish shipped except perhaps shad, herring, red-
fish and sheephead.
By operation of salt water fish hatchery No. 1, these spe-
cies will be greatly increased during the years to come.
The bass, bream, crappie and catfish handled were taken
from the waters of St. Johns River and Lake Okeechobee,
which are considered salt water and come under the juris-
diction of the Shell Fish Department. The operation of
fresh water pond hatcheries by this Department will
greatly increase these species of fish in the waters named
as well as in other fresh water lakes and streams of the
State.
The census taken shows number of pounds of various









56

species of fish handled during the biennial period as fol
lows:
Mullet ........................... 70,998,464
Trout ............................ 10,935,274
M ackerel ......................... 15,890,840
Bluefish .......................... 3,820,826
Kingfish ......................... 2,358,032
Redfish ........................... 69,000
Sheephead ........................ 47,020
Flounders ........................ 42,436
Red Snapper ...................... 18,462,986
Grouper ......................... 8,849,440
Pompano ......................... 2,345,762
Shad ............................ 1,310,010
H erring .......................... 1,539,160
Catfish ........................... 5,860,870
Bream ........................... 10,457,260
Black Bass ........................ 2,211,502
Crappie .......................... 3,002,630
Shrimp ........................... 14,674,940
Crayfish ......................... 175,122

173,051,574














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MULLET, THE MONEY FISH OF FLORIDA.






















































SHAD, ONE OF THE SALT WATER FISH OF FLORIDA FOR WHICH A HATCHERY HAS BEEN
ESTABLISHED.


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SEA TROUT, A GOOD MONEY PRODUCER. VERY MUCH IN DEMAND IN NORTHERN MARKETS.


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SPANISH MACKEREL, A MIGRATORY SALT WATER FISH WHICH BRINGS TO THE STATE A LARGE
REVENUE ANNUALLY.


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STURGEON, ANOTHER VALUABLE SALT WATER FISH.

























































POMPANO, CONSIDERED TO BE ARISTOCRAT OF ALL SALT WATER FISH.


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RED FISH, FOUND IN ALL SALT WATERS OF THE STATE AND APPRECIATED BY THE SPORTSMEN.









































SHEEPSHEAD, A BOTTOM FISH OF CONSIDERABLE VALUE.












CONSERVATION OF SHELL FISH

Florida is leading all other oyster producing States in
the conservation of her natural oyster reefs. She is the first
State to own and operate her own dredge and planting
machinery. During the past biennial period the Depart-
ment has been able to accomplish some real constructive
work in replanting the barren oyster reefs of the various
coast counties of the State. During this period the Depart-
ment has planted 203,460 bushels of oyster shell and 310,116
bushels of live seed oysters on the public reefs for the free
use of the public, and ninety per cent of the available sup-
ply of oysters today can be attributed as the direct results
of this replanting. Three hundred and four bushels of
clams were planted during the period.
The Department has acquired one of the best and most
modern oyster planting dredges and other oyster planting
equipment, aggregating in value $19,367.89. With this
splendid equipment and funds available, replanting oper-
ations will continue. The dredge has a planting capacity
of 2,100 bushels daily.
The sworn statements of shell fish dealers filed in the
office of the Shell Fish Commissioner shows number of bar-
rels of oysters and clams handled as follows:

Number of barrels oysters handled 1925.......... 61,410
Number of barrels clams handled 1925 ........... 19,644

Total 1925 ................................. 81,054

Number of barrels oysters handled 1926.......... 92,976
Number of barrels clams handled 1926 ........... 6,442

Total 1926 ................................. 99,418

Total increase of oysters handled in 1926 over
1925 ................................ 31,566 barrels

This substantial increase in oysters handled can be di-
rectly attributable to the extensive planting operations car-
ried on by the Department during the past three years.




























































OYSTER-PLANTING DREDGE FRANKLIN.


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THE OYSTER

The oyster may be determined as an edible mollusk, one
of the Lamellibranchiate Mollusca. It belongs to the genus
Ostrea, family Ostraeid, the members of which are dis-
tinguished by the possession of an inequivalve shell, the
one-half or valve being larger than the other. The shell
may be free, or attached to fixed objects, or may be simply
imbedded in the mud. The fry or fertilized ova of the
oyster are termed "spat" and enormous numbers of
"spat" are produced by each individual oyster during the
spawning season. Oysters will spawn in the Florida waters
during every month in the year, but the spawning season is
generally considered to be the best from March until Sep-
tember in Southern waters.
A normal oyster is supposed to spawn sixty million eggs
or "spat." The "spat" being discharged, each embryo is
found to consist of a little body inclosed within a minute
but perfectly formed shell, and possessing vibratile fila-
ments or cilia, by which the young oyster at first swims
freely about until it comes in contact with some kind of
clean clutch, such as shell, posts or any object in the water
that is not covered by mud or slime.
The young oyster grows very rapidly in the waters of
this State for the first twelve months, attaining a length
of three or more inches from hinge to bill. Of course this
rapid growth is more marked at certain locations along the
coast, according to the feeding matter contained in the
waters. Ordinarily an oyster will attain its growth to a
marketable size of from three to five inches within two
years, the second year's growth being considerably less than
the first year. If undisturbed, oysters will grow to a length
of from six to twelve inches.
Oysters have practically the same food value as meat
and are even more easily digested and therefore an impor-
tant part of the invalids' diet. In buying beef, mutton,
poultry or fish, there is always considerable waste in the
form of bones, inedible portions, feathers, etc. In a cut of












steak, for instance, the waste often runs as high as 30 to 60
per cent. In the oyster there are no bones or feathers and
no inedible portions. It is all meat, and particularly rich
in those elements which go to repair overworked brains and
nervous systems.
It is estimated that a quart of oysters contains on an
average about the same quantity of actual nutritive sub-
stance as a quart of milk, or three-fourths of a pound of
beef, or two pounds of fresh codfish, or a pound of bread.
The nutritive substance of oyster contains considerable
protein and energy-yielding ingredients.
Prof. Frederick P. Gorham, Associate Professor of Bi-
ology of Brown University, and sanitary expert of the
Rhode Island Shell Fish Commission, says: "There is no
reason today why we should not give the oyster prominent
place in our dietary as a cheap, delicious, nutritious, health-
ful and pure food product."
It is a well-known fact that every food product has ad-
vanced in price, while the oyster or clam market has not
changed. It cannot be "cornered" by the rich, and the
rich and poor alike may enjoy them.













































EMPTY OYSTER DREDGE IN POSITION TO GO OVERBOARD.


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OYSTER DREDGE FILLED WITH SEED OYSTERS.









































SECTION OF CARGO SPACE OF DREDGE FRANKLIN










































A FULL GROWN OYSTER (ELEVEN INCHES LONG) FROM INDIAN PASS.


















OYSTER TONGING AND CULLING.


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FLEET OF TYPICAL OYSTER BOATS IN HARBOR.























OYSTER, FILLED WITH PEARLS

The photograph on opposite page portrays a most re-
markable freak of nature in the shape of an oyster, literally
filled full of pearls. The pearls are embedded clear through
the oyster and occupy the entire body except the great mus-
sel or eye, gills and mantle.
This oyster was taken from the waters of Apalachico!a
Bay, in Franklin County, where the most productive beds
are located, and preserved in formaldehyde solution and
is on exhibition in the State Capitol with the exhibit of the
Shell Fish Department.
























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AN OYSTER FILLED WITH PEARLS. (Unusual freak of nature.)
Taken from the Waters of Apalachicola Bay.


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USE OF AUTOMOBILE

Account of increased territory and duties to be per-
formed by the Shell Fish Commissioner in connection with
the establishment of fish hatcheries in the various parts of
the State and visiting the salt water territory designated
by Act of the 1925 Legislature as covering Lake Okeecho-
bee and St. Johns River, it was found necessary to purchase
a car for the use of the Commissioner.
Over eleven thousand miles of territory has been covered
in this car within ninety days and the Shell Fish Com-
missioner has been enabled to personally visit many points
quickly on the coast as well as in the interior by this means.












SPONGE INDUSTRY

The sponge grounds are located along the West Coast of
Florida from Franklin County south and around on the
East Coast as far up as Dade County. They are taken
inside the jurisdiction of the State by hook and beyond by
divers. They are of the finest quality and are of quick
growth in Florida waters.
The United States Bureau of Fisheries has carried oi
extensive artificial propagation in Florida waters and dem-
onstrated the fact that a sponge of commercial size can be
grown in thirty-five months from a small cutting. A sponge
is really a marine plant and grows rapidly from a small
piece cut from the green sponge.
Those versed in sponge culture state that the sale of a
cargo of small-size sponge, five inches in diameter, bringing
sixty-five cents a bunch, would sell for four dollars a bunch
if allowed to remain in the waters and grow for another
year.
Four million nine hundred twenty-eight thousand four
hundred fifty-five sponges were marketed in Florida during
the Liennial period. The protection afforded the sponge
industry by this Department prevents the taking or gath-
ering of sponges less than five inches in diameter.

TOTAL NUMBER SPONGES HANDLED 1925-1926.

Large wool ........................ 2,396,817
Small wool ......................... 1,228,217
Yellow ............................ 1,016,244
Grass ............................ 218,185
Wire .............................. 68,992

4,928,455

The bulk of the sponge marketed in the State is sold at
Tarpon Springs, which is considered the largest sponge
market in the world, at which point a mammoth exchange
building is located. There is also an exchange at Key West.










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SPONGE EXCHANGE TARPON SPRINGS, FLA., W[TH SPONGE ON DOCK.












The Tarpon Springs sponge exchange building is con-
structed of brick with a large cement court in the center in
which the various kinds of sponge are piled on sale days.
Individual rooms with iron gratings are built along this
court in which the sponge from various ships are stored
until sold.
The sponge buyers place sealed bids for each lot of
sponge sold and the highest bidder secures the sponge, pro-
vided the exchange does not withdraw it from sale account
of bids being too low. Of course, some sponge is sold inde-
pendent of the exchange.
The large wool sponge are graded in bunches containing
about twelve sponge, while the small wool contains about
twenty-one to the bunch. Yellow sponge runs about eight,
while grass and wire run at seven and six to the bunch. Of
course, the wool sponge is the most valuable, while yellow
sponge is of less value.


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SPONGE FLEET IN HARBOR AT TARPON SPRINGS, FLA.


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