<%BANNER%>

FLAG



... Biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075939/00006
 Material Information
Title: ... Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Shell Fish Division
Florida -- Shell Fish Commission
Publisher: T.J. Appleyard
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Creation Date: 1923
Publication Date: <1915>-
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Shellfish trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fisheries -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aquaculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1913/1914)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased with 10th (1931/1932)?
General Note: Third and fourth issues called reports of the Florida Shell Fish Commission.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001750196
oclc - 45623059
notis - AJG3100
lccn - sn 00229152
System ID: UF00075939:00006

Full Text






S,,o \ F- -,- '- ,

& LIVED
4! MAR 7 1925 M
*. *1.* o y ,Q\,
^*4^,or A^


ENV '60












SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Shell Fish Division

OF THE


Department of Agriculture

OF THE

State of Florida















FOR THE YEARS 1923-1924


T. J APPLEYARD, PRINTER, TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


'. '' : .
.... '
*












*"^"












INi













STEAM PATROL BOAT S. C. 144.



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL



Department of Agriculture, State of Florida,

Commissioner's Office

Shell Fish Division

To His Excellency,
John W. Martin,
Governor of the State of Florida.

Sir:

We have the honor to submit herewith the Biennial Re-
port of the Shell Fish Division, of the Department of Agri-
culture, for the years 1923 and 1924.

Respectfully submitted,

T. R. HODGES,
Shell Fish Commissioner.

NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
















SUMMARY OF REPORT



PROPERTY AND CREDITS ACQUIRED

Cash in Treasury...........................$ 14,417.05
Cash in Bank to be deposited in Treasury Jan-
uary 1st, 1925 ........................... 6,367.49
Cash deposited in General Revenue Fund..... 22,520.41
Boats and other property acquired ........... 11,367.32
Replanting oyster bars, 2c planting ........... 4,557.84
Replanting oyster bars, Special Shell Fish
Planting Fund .......................... 50,000.00

$109,230.21

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

Receipts from January 1st to July 1st, 1923

FISH INDUSTRY

Fish dealers' licenses ............... .$3,300.00
Fish boat licenses. .................. 3,510.80
Alien boat licenses .................. 270.00
Alien Fishing Licenses ............. 2,810.00
Excess Net Tags .................... 1.00
Purse seines ...................... 275.00 $10,166.80


SHELL FISH INDUSTRY

Oyster dealers' licenses .............. $1,675.00
Lease rents and fees ................. 949.55
Two Cent Privilege Tax............ 2,252.61
Deposits on Survey and Lease...... 45.00 $4,922.16













' SPONGE INDUSTRY


Sponge boat licenses. ...............


MISCELLANEOUS


Sale of Typewriter .................$
Sale of Desk..................... ..
Sale of Eagle .....................
Sale of Engine ....................
Sale of launch............. ... ......
Sale of brass castings and steel shaft..
Refund on bonds ...................
Rebate on freight. ..................
Confiscated mullet .................
Total amount collected January 1st,
1923- July 1st, 1923.............

Balance in Shell Fish Fund from last
report ..........................


$345.45


20.00
5.00
5.50
50.00
400.00
19.59
12.56
8.93
55.02 $


576.60


$16,011.01


9,877.58

$25,888.59













EXPENDITURES

January 1, 1923-July 1, 1923.

Office Property ...................$ 85.05
Office Salaries .................... 2,488.00
Postage .......................... 150.00
Office Supplies and Expenses....... 693.53
Telephone and telegrams ........... 138.87
Freight and express ............... 40.60
Deputy, Patrol and Inspection Serv-
ice ............................ 5,577.91
Boats and boat property ........... 9,432.25
Refunds on leases and licenses...... 60.35
Replanting oyster bars............. 4,557.84
Seized net expense ................ 174.63
Exhibit .............. ........... 452.48
Paid General Revenue ................ 2,036.91 42.t, .42
Balance in Shell Fish Fund......... .17


Total expenditures ............


$25,888.59











10

SHELL FISH FUND



RECEIPTS

July 1st, 1923-December 31st, 1924

FISIH INDUSTRY

Fish Dealers .....................$12,450.00
Fish Boats ...................... 11,663.35
Alien Boat Licenses .............. 367.65
Alien Fishing Licenses............. 5,900.00
Excess Nets ..................... 24.00
Purse Seines .................... 200.00

$30,605.00

SELL FISH INDUSTRY

Oyster Dealers' Licenses .............$ 7,255.00
Lease, Rents and Fees............. 708.63
Sale of Tags and Measures........ 33.70
Deposits on Survey and Lease..... 302.00 $8,299.33

Two CENT PLANTING FUND

Two Cent Privilege Tax.......... $2,376.63

THREE CENT PLANTING FUND

Three Cent Privilege Tax......... $2,149.56

SPONGE INDUSTRY


Sponge Boats ................. ....


544.95













MISCELLANEOUS

Rebate on freight...................$ 1.20
Confiscated mullet .................. 89.13
Rent on Patrol Boat (to J. Y.
Gresham ) ........................ 12.00
Refund on telegrams by Western Union 1.13
Seines, Nets, etc. ................... 112.00 $215.46

Total receipts .................. $44,190.93
Balance in Shell Fish Fund from last
report ........................... .17

$44,191.10

EXPENDITURES

SHELL FISiH FUND

July 1st, 1923-December 31st, 1924
Traveling expenses, Deputies ..... $ 1,377.68
Rent, Purchase and Operation of
Boats ........................ 2,353.44
Two Cent Planting Fund.......... 195.71
Refunds, Leases, Licenses, Legal and
Misc. Exp. .................... 1,039.94
Paid General Revenue ............ 20,483.50 $25,450.27

Balance in Shell Fish Fund. ....... 14,416.21
Balance in Two Cent Planting Fund 2,175.06
Balance in Three Cent Planting
Fund ............... ......... 2,149.56

$44,191.10











12

SPECIAL SHELL FISH COMMISSION PLANTING
FUND

RECEIPTS

By loan to Shell Fish Commission
by Act of the Legislature ap-
proved June 1st, 1923, making an
appropriation of ............... ..$50,000.00

EXPENDITURES

Replanting oyster bars and equip-
ment for same......... .......... $50,000.00












BUDGET APPROPRIATION.


RECEIPTS

By appropriation, July 1st, 1923-
June 30th, 1925 .................

EXPENDITURES
July 1st, 1923-December 31st, 1924
Salary of Commissioner ........... $5,249.96
Traveling expenses, Commissioner... 1,657.09
Salary Clerk-Bookkeeper ........... 2,700.00
Salary Clerk ..................... 2,700.00
Postage ......................... 575.00
Printing, Stationery and other office
expenses ....................... 1,478.34
Salaries (3) Patrolmen and Inspec-
tors ........................... 6,740.21
Traveling expenses Deputies ........ 3,392.45
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector ...................... 1,600.40
Salary (1) Deputy Patrolman and
Inspector ...................... 1,355.48
Salary (2) Deputy Patrolmen and
Inspectors ...................... 861.80
Salary (2) Deputy Patrolmen and
Inspectors ...................... 262.36
Salary Chief Engineer ............ 3,600.00
Salary Cook ...................... 890.27
Salary Seaman ................... 878.83
Salary Seaman ................... 893.91
Rent, purchase and operation of
boats .......................... 9,513.76
Refund Leases, Licenses, Legal and
miscellaneous expenses ............ 909.33
Bal. absorbed by General Revenue at
end of fiscal year ................ 189.92


Bal. in Fund December 31st, 1924..


58,080.00


$45,449.11


$12,630.89














































OYSTER-PLANTING DREDGE FRANKLIN.













CONSERVATION OF SHELL FISH

In 1915 the Legislature saw fit to place under the juris-
diction of the Shell Fish Commissioner the enforcement of
laws for the protection of all salt water fish, including
shrimp, crayfish, crabs and also sponge, as well as the shell
fish, thus in reality making him the Salt Water Fish Com-
missioner.
When the Commission was first created the majority of
those engaged in the industry were very hostile and many
threats of violence were made against the Commissioner
and his Deputies. Just how well the Department has
served its purpose is clearly demonstrated today by the
fact that nearly every fisherman and dealer favors the
laws and their enforcement in order to conserve the busi-
ness in which they are engaged.
Florida is leading all other oyster producing States in
the conservation of her natural oyster reefs. She is the first
State to own and operate her own dredge and planting
machinery. During the past biennial period the Depart-
bent has been able to accomplish some real constructive
work in replanting the barren oyster reefs of the various
coast counties of the State. During this period the Depart-
ment has planted 463,085 bushels of live seed oysters on
the public reefs for the free use of the public, and ninety
per cent of the available supply of oysters today can be
attributed as the direct results of this replanting. Three
hundred and four bushels of clams were planted during
the period.
The Department has acquired one of the best and most
modern oyster-planting dredges and other oyster-planting
equipment, aggregating in value $19,367.89. With this
splendid equipment and funds available, replanting oper-
ations will continue. The dredge has a planting capacity
of 2,100 bushels daily.
2-Shell Fish










18

This work has been carried on under the personal super-
vision of the Shell Fish Commissioner, and at the same
time the laws have been enforced so as to place the industry
on a firm business basis in order to insure its protection in
future.



















- -~-~-. 1 I


EMPTY OYSTER EREDGE IN POSITION TO GO OVERBOARD.


. 1* '


















OYSTER DREDGE FILLED WITH SEED OYSTERS.


4











































SECTION OF CARGO SPACE OF DREDGE FRANKLIN.










25

SHELL FISH HANDLED

A substantial increase in the shipment of oysters and
clams is shown over the previous biennial period. Two
hundred and twenty-one thousand nine hundred and
twenty-four barrels were taken from the public reefs of
the State and shipped raw or canned. This is an increase
of 31,924 barrels over previous biennial period.

ARRESTS FOR VIOLATIONS

One hundred and forty-two arrests were made for vio-
lations of the law during the biennial period and 130 con-
victions secured. Six cases are untried and only six were
acquitted. Thirty-five illegal seines and illegal nets with
other gear was seized with and without prisoners. The
fines were deposited in the Fine and Forfeiture Funds of
the various counties in which the arrests were made.












































A FULL GROWN OYSTER (ELEVEN INCHES LONG) FROM INDIAN PASS.

























FLEET OF TYPICAL OYSTER BOATS IN HARBOR.


I\J


t
L~53~,I












OPERATION OF BOATS

The Department operates fourteen boats in its service.
Some comment has been made about the Department
using a converted sub-chaser in its patrol service. When
I reassumed the duties of Shell Fish Commissioner in 1921
I found the Department without a seaworthy boat that
was large enough to navigate the rough waters of the Gulf
at all times and with sufficient room for the Commissioner
to maintain an office on board and have living quarters suf-
ficient for himself and crew of four or five. Not having
sufficient funds with which to purchase such a vessel, we
borrowed the boat we are now using from the Navy for
two years with all necessary equipment. Having spent
some money on overhauling and repairing her during the
loan period, we bought the chaser from the Navy for five
hundred dollars, which amount would not cover the actual
cost of her anchor chain and anchors.
The gasoline engines on the chaser being rather expen-
sive to operate, we exchanged them at a cost of about fifty
dollars for a steam plant worth about ten thousand dol-
lars, which was installed in the chaser with an oil-burning
apparatus that cuts our fuel consumption down at least
three quarters. The actual operating expenses of this.
steam patrol boat will not exceed ten dollars per day, in-
cluding food, fuel and upkeep.
Having U. S. Steamboat Master's papers, I act in the
capacity of Captain without additional cost. Our engi-
neer is the mechanic for the Department and keeps all our
engines and machinery on other boats in repair, and the
three other men are used on other boats at various times.
If a smaller gasoline boat should be used, the cost of
operation would be practically the same as that of the
chaser. It has been suggested that renting boats would
be more economical. I have found it almost impossible
to rent boats for our service and the rental value of any
kind of a sizeable craft runs from twenty-five to thirty-five













dollars per day and nothing furnished in the way of food
or fuel.
The fishing industry is carried on along the coast and
not in the interior, and therefore it follows that boats are
an absolute necessity for the proper conduct of the De-
partmental business.
The annual appropriation for the operation of this De-
partment is $29,040 under the budget system.
Out of the above appropriation we are given five thou-
sand dollars per year with which to operate all our boats.
This includes purchase price of additional boats as well
as food, fuel and equipment.
We have approximately three thousand miles of coast
line over which to enforce laws for the protection of an
industry that is worth over fifteen million dollars annually
to the State, and the annual appropriation is entirely in-
adequate to furnish Deputies, boats and equipment, food,
fuel, etc., for properly safeguarding this great industry.
Other States are spending hundreds of thousands of dol-
lars for the same purpose annually with less than one-
fourth the territory covered by the Florida waters.


































OYSTER TONGING AND CULLING.


i~LL
i
LL I;










































AN OYSTER FILLED WITH PEARLS. (Unusual freak of nature.)
Taken from the Waters of Apalachicola Bay.



























OYSTER, FILLED WITH PEARLS

This photograph is a most remarkable freak of nature in
the shape of an oyster, literally filled full of pearls. The
pearls are embedded clear through the oyster and occupy
the entire body except the great mussel or eye, gills and
mantle.
This oyster was taken from the waters of Apalachicola
Bay. in Franklin County, where the most productive beds
are located, and preserved in formaldehyde solution and
is on exhibition in the State Capitol with the exhibit of
the Shell Fish Department.












































TARPON, BETTER KNOWN AS THE "SILVER KING," FLORIDA'S SPORT FISH.












THE OYSTER

The oyster may be determined as an edible mollusk, one
of the Lamellibranchiate Mollusca. It belongs to the genus
Ostrea, family Ostraeide, the members of which are dis-
tinguished by the possession of an inequivalve shell, the
one-half or valve being larger than the other. The shell
may be free, or attached to fixed objects, or may be simply
imbedded in the mud. The fry or fertilized ova of the
oyster are termed "spat" and enormous members of ova
are produced by each individual oyster during the spawn-
ing season. Oysters will spawn in the Florida waters dur-
ing every month in the year, but the spawning season is
generally considered to be the best from March until Sep-
tember in Southern waters.
A normal oyster is supposed to spawn ten million eggs
or "spat." The "spat" being discharged, each embryo is
found to consist of a little body inclosed within a minute
but perfectly formed shell, and possessing vibratile fila-
ments or cilia, by which the young oyster at first swims
freely about until it comes in contact with some kind of
clean clutch, such as shell, posts or any object in the water
that is not covered by mud or slime.
The young oyster grows very rapidly in the waters of
this State for the first twelve months, attaining a length
of three or more inches from hinge to bill. Of course this
rapid growth is more marked at certain locations along
the coast, according to the feeding matter contained in the
waters. Ordinarily an oyster will attain its growth to a
marketable size of from three to five inches within two
years, the second year's growth being considerably less
than the first year. If undisturbed, oysters will grow to a
length of from six to twelve inches long.
Oysters have practically the same food value as meat
and are even more easily digested and therefore an impor-
tant part of the invalids' diet. In buying beef, mutton,
poultry or fish, there is always considerable waste in the













form of bones, inedible portions, feathers, etc. In a cut
of steak, for instance, the waste often runs as high as 30
to 60 per cent. In the oyster there are no bones or feath-
ers and no inedible portions. It is all meat, and particu-
larly rich in those elements which go to repair overworked
brains and nervous systems.
It is estimated that a quart of oysters contains on an
average about the same quantity of actual nutritive sub-
stance as a quart of milk, or three-fourths of a pound of
beef, or two pounds of fresh codfish, or a pound of bread.
The nutritive substance of oyster contains considerable
protein and energy-yielding ingredients.
Prof. Frederick P. Gorham, Associate Professor of Bi-
ology of Brown University, and sanitary expert of the
Rhode Island Shell Fish Commission, says: "There is no
reason today why we should not give the oyster prominent
place in our dietary as a cheap, delicious, nutritious, health-
ful and pure food product."
It is a well-known fact that every food product has ad-
vanced in price, while the oyster or clam market has not
changed. It cannot be "cornered" by the rich, and the
rich and poor alike may enjoy them.













RULES AND REGULATIONS


GOVERNING TIE OPERATION OF OYSTER SHUCKING AND
PACKING HOUSES IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA, BY AT-
TIORITY OF SECTION 1233 OF TIE REVISED
GENERAL STATUTES OF FLORIDA.

The following rules and regulations have been adopted
by the Department of Agriculture for the State of Florida,
so that oyster and clam packing establishments may be
conducted in a more sanitary manner in order to lessen
any danger of contamination or pollution:
Rule 27. Every building or room used as a shucking
house shall be constructed and equipped as hereinafter pro-
vided, and the operations carried on shall be so conducted
that the purity and wholesomeness of the shell fish handled
therein shall not be impaired.
Rule 28. All rooms in which shucked oysters are packed,
stored, washed, or otherwise handled, shall be separated
from the rooms in which they are opened, or the washing
and packing operations shall be carried on at a sufficient
distance from the shucking benches to avoid danger of con-
tamination.
Rule 29. Rooms in which oysters are shucked and rooms
in which shucked oysters are packed, stored, washed, or
otherwise handled, shall be provided with floors which can
be readily cleansed and such floors must be cleaned daily.
Side walls and ceilings shall be kept in a reasonably clean
condition. There shall be adequate light and ventilation.
Screens shall be provided during the fly season.
Rule 30. There shall be an abundant supply of unpol-
luted cold water and of scalding hot water or steam.
Rule 31. All shucking houses shall be provided with
adequate drainings.












Rule 32. Shucking benches shall be constructed of ma-
terial which can be readily cleaned, and such benches shall
be kept clean.
Rule 33. Only oysters which are alive, with tight shells,
shall be used for shucking.
Rule 34. All utensils, buckets, skimmers and other
equipment in which shucked oysters are placed, must be of
such material and construction as to enable them to be
readily cleaned. They must be thoroughly cleansed and
then scalded out with hot water or steam before beginning
the day's work. Knives of shuckers must be treated like-
wise.
Rule 35. Wooden paddles and buckets shall be discarded
and construction shall be of metal or some other substance
which can be thoroughly cleansed.
Rule 36. If the shipping containers are of such shape or
construction as to preclude sterilization and cleaning, or if
the facilities for cleansing and sterilizing any container are
not provided and constantly in use, only non-returnable
containers shall be allowed.
Rule 37. After oysters have been washed and are ready
for final packing and shipment, they shall not be touched
by the hands.
Rule 38. Shucked oysters may be washed with clean,
unpolluted water. This washing must be of such a thorough
nature that dirt and filth introduced by the openers or
during subsequent handling shall be effectively removed.
Rule 39. If a blower or any form of mechanical agita-
tion is used to wash the oysters, it must be kept clean, the
sediment removed after each blowing and a fresh supply of
clean water used for each blow. The period of blowing shall
not be over three (3) minutes, unless salt solution is used,
the strength of the solution ranging between 1 per cent. and
2 per cent., depending upon the salinity of the water in
which the oysters were grown.












Rule 40. A solid pack, in which the oysters have been
drained substantially of all water and shell liquor, shall be
required when sold by measure.
Rule 41. .sliii;.-l oysters offered for shipment must be
packed in closed containers thoroughly iced. Oysters must
not be packed in contact with ice. They must be shipped
the same day as opened unless stored at 45 degrees F., or
below, or packed in shipping containers, and thoroughly
iced, or otherwise effectively refrigerated.
Rule 42. Waste materials must not be permitted to ac-
cumulate in the rooms where shucked oysters are packed.
Rule 43. All shucking houses shall be provided with
water, soap, clean towels, to enable the employees to wash
their hands. Employees shall be required to wash their
hands before beginning work, and after visiting the toilet.
Rule 44. The outer clothing worn by persons engaged in
shucking oysters shall be of material which can be readily
cleaned, and only clean garments shall be worn.
Rule 45. No person afflicted with any communicable
disease shall be employed by any shucking house or allowed
to enter same. Persons with infectious wounds on hands
or arms are included in this restricted class.
Rule 46. Proper toilet facilities shall be provided for
use of employees in shucking houses, and toilets shall be
kept clean to avoid contamination after use.
Approved:
NATHAN MAYO,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
January 16th, 1925.
Tallahassee, Fla.








*'1


i I


r" -


A GOOD HAUL OF SPANISH MACKEREL.


r-


P .

h2( -


..~.


|44












RESOURCES OF TIIE SEA

That the resources of the sea are of paramount im-
portance in feeding our present and largely increasing
population is borne out by the fact that the United States
Navy (Hydrographic Department) is engaged in a definite
plan of oceanographical research. Instead of charting the
waters for navigation of ships, they will survey and chart
them for the benefit of the fishing industry.
Many things may be learned and taught as to the migra-
tory movements of fish and the cause of such migration and
other problems, dealing with deep sea and shallow water
fishing.
Bread, meat and fish have been the staple articles of food
for man since the creation of the world, and while grazing
lands are decreasing, which makes it almost impossible to
enlarge the world's supply of meat sufficiently to fill the
demand of the rapidly increasing population, the wide
waters of the sea have a food-producing area which is prac-
tically unlimited.
Florida is blessed with more sea-food producing terri-
tory than any State in the Union and might be correctly
termed the storehouse of America for luxuries as well as
necessities.
During the long winter months, when fishing grounds
are frozen over in the North and East, large demands are
made for fresh sea foods from Florida waters.
In one year more than one hundred and thirty-seven
million pounds of fish, shrimp and oysters were shipped
from Florida to these ice-bound States. So, speaking from
a commercial standpoint, the salt water fishing industry of
Florida is worthy of consideration, being worth in round
numbers more than fifteen million dollars annually to the
State.


4-Shell Fish













ENFORCEMENT OF CONSERVATION LAWS

The enforcement of conservation laws, as a general rule,
is a difficult matter-first, on account of the vast territory
to be policed, and secondly, on account of the lack of ap-
preciation of the importance of such enforcement by the
public generally. Conservation laws are enacted for the
benefit of the people, as the primary object of their enact-
ment is to encourage, protect and build up some public re-
source in order that the people of the State may enjoy
more fully the fruits of the particular industry conserved.
The poultryman does not kill the setting hen or destroy
all the eggs or sell all the small chickens. If he did, he
would not maintain a poultry farm very long. The same
rule can be applied to the conservation of the fish. We
stood by and saw our other natural resources disappear;
but, fortunately, the note of warning was sounded in time
to save our salt water fishing industry.
A recent publication by the United States Bureau of
Fisheries at Washington places Florida at the'head of the
list in conservation of her mullet industry, which is the
greatest money-producing fish we have.












SALT WATER FISHING

The salt waters of every coast county in Florida produce
fish for commercial purposes, besides non-edible fish from
which oil and fertilizer are manufactured extensively, and
the hides of some species are being tanned for leather.
The laws for the protection of food fish prohibit their
use for fertilizer and very few, if any, are caught with the
class of fish that are used by the factories.
The bulk of the fish caught are mullet, which the laws
protect during their spawning season, and they are rapidly
increasing in numbers and size from year'to year. No esti-
mate has been made on the roe produced by the mullet, but
the sale of roe alone, exclusive of the fish, may be safely
estimated at a quarter of a million dollars.
White shad, which is a salt water fish, running into the
fresh water rivers to spawn annually, are protected during
the spawning season. They are of considerable commercial
value, both for the fish and roe, and the various streams of
the State could be easily stocked from a hatchery, which
this Department expects to establish when sufficient funds
become available.
The sea trout and mullet could be more effectively pro-
tected if a sizing law was enacted, thereby saving the small
fish until they become of marketable size. Small fish are
practically worthless to the dealer and are generally sold
at a loss. The protection of the small fish one year simply
means a larger yield the next and more than double their
value.







































MULLET, THE MONEY FISH OF FLORIDA.







































SHAD, ONE OF THE SALT WATER FISH OF FLORIDA FOR WHICH A HATCHERY IS NEEDED.





































SEA TROUT, A GOOD MONEY PRODUCER. VERY MUCH IN DEMAND IN NORTHERN MARKETS.



























SPANISH MACKEREL, A MIGRATORY SALT WATER FISH WHICH BRINGS TO THE STATE A LARGE
REVENUE ANNUALLY.


Mal09 o-mL""- WO





























.: J


STURGEON, ANOTHER VALUABLE SALT WATER FISH FOR WHICH A HATCHERY IS BADLY NEEDED.


c


































































POMPANO, CONSIDERED TO BE ARISTOCRAT OF ALL SALT WATER FISH.


"*, ".- '












































RED FISH, FOUND IN ALL SALT WATERS OF THE STATE AND APPRECIATED BY THE SPORTSMEN.









































SHEEPSHEAD, A BOTTOM FISH OF CONSIDERABLE VALUE.












SPONGE INDUSTRY

The sponge grounds are located along the West Coast of
Florida from Franklin County south and around on the
East Coast as far up as Dade County. They are taken
inside the jurisdiction of the State by hook and beyond by
divers. They are of the finest quality and are of quick
growth in Florida waters.
The United States Bureau of Fisheries has carried on
extensive artificial propagation in Florida waters and dem-
onstrated the fact that a sponge of commercial size can be
grown in thirty-five months from a small cutting. A sponge
is really a marine plant and grows rapidly from a small
piece cut from the green sponge.
Those versed in sponge culture state that the sale of a
cargo of small-size sponge, five inches in diameter, bring-
ing sixty-five cents a bunch, would sell for four dollars a
bunch if allowed to remain in the waters and grow for
another year.
Six million seventy-nine thousand five hundred and
ninety-three sponges were marketed in Florida during the
biennial period. The protection afforded the sponge indus-
try by this Department prevents the taking or gathering of
sponges less than five inches in diameter.

TOTAL NUMBER SPONGES HANDLED 1923-24

Large wool ......................... 2,441,448
Small wool ............ ............. 2,358,573
Y ellow ............................. 902,920
G rass ................. .......... 290,276
W ire ................ ............ 86,376

6,079,593

The bulk of the sponge marketed in the State is sold at
Tarpon Springs, which is considered the largest sponge










70

market in the world, at which point a mammoth exchange
building is located. There is also an exchange at Key West.
The Tarpon sponge exchange building is constructed of
brick with a large cement court in the center in which the
various kinds of sponge are piled on sale days. Individual
rooms with iron gratings are built along this court in which
the sponge from various ships are stored until sold.
The sponge buyers place sealed bids for each lot of sponge
sold and the highest bidder secures the sponge, provided
the exchange does not withdraw it from sale account of
bids being too low. Of course, some sponge is sold inde-
pendent of the exchange.
The large wool sponge are graded in bunches containing
about twelve sponge, while the small wool contains about
twenty-one to the bunch. Yellow sponge runs about eight,
while grass and wire run at seven and six to the bunch. Of
course, the wool sponge is the most valuable, while yellow
sponge is of less value.





























































SPONGE EXCHANGE TARPON SPRINGS, FLA., WITH SPONGE ON DOCK.


I
















'iL'i


I r ---5--


SPONGE FLEET IN HARBOR AT TARPON SPRINGS, FLA.


t i I1


"\
\r













di(


SPONGE DIVING BOAT WITH CREW OF DIVERS











*// I


SPONGE DIVING BOAT ON WAYS, SHOWING FULL CONSTRUCTION.
















4t


dO



M- l
,, *.

rr "


-Upa


PLACING DIVING HELMET ON DIVER WITH AIR HOSE
ATTACHED.


. ,!
i

































Ap A r-
F4 "

1^^^^^msSw^


DIVER GOING BELOW TO GATHER SPONGE.
; : 11 Fish























'''

- .-.J
.L. 3~~1
S~

.c;
;r..C

~- /


SNs


SPONGE DIVER IN SUIT WITH SPONGE NET.












A.


SPONGE HOOKING SLOOP UNDER WAY.


















































HOOKS WITH WHICH SPONGE ARE TAKEN.









p~,;Lc rI"


4YJ


GLASS-BOTTOM DIVING BUCKET, USED BY SPONGE HOOKER TO SEE SPONGE.























- -' ,. A


SPONGE HOOKER, USING DIVING BUCKET AND SPONGE HOOK.





























































Sheepswool sponge 35 months old, grown on spindles, in Cape
Florida Channel from a cutting about the size shown. Weight,
dry and thoroughly cleaned, 1 1-3 ounces. Nine-tenths natural
size.



























































Sheepswool sponge not over 48 months old, grown on a cement
disk at Anclote Key from a cutting about the size shown.
Weight, dry and thoroughly cleaned, 21/% ounces. Nine-tenths
natural size.














-1





















-/.












CEMENT DISKS WITH CUTTING MOUNTED. SHOWS CUTTINGS SECURED BY WIRE.









































































SPONGES GROWING ON CEMENT TRIANGLES USED IN
EXPERIMENTAL PLANTS OF CUTTINGS.


Pi












RAW AND CANNED SHRIMP.

Shrimp are found along the entire coast line of Florida,
but in greater quantities in Franklin and Nassau counties,
where very extensive shipments of raw shrimp are made by
freight and express to northern markets.
Certain areas are closed during the spawning season and
to not fishing in order that the shrimp may propagate.

CRAYFISII AND CRABS

Crayfish or "Florida Lobster" inhabit the rocky coast
of Florida from Sarasota County south on the West Coast
to Broward County on the East Coast, and are caught in
great numbers and shipped to northern as well as local
markets.
They are protected by a closed season during the spawn-
ing period, and it has only been necessary for this Depart-
ment to make a few arrests and seizures to discontinue vio-
lations of the law for their protection.
Stone and blue crabs are found over the entire coast of
Florida and are gathered for local market only and not for
shipment. The stone crab has a limited protection by local
laws, but should be protected by a general law.


















* -*-


r
~d E
O
M
m
W



O
~d I R~B3U' ~IA~J~g~s''.-~:
i ~~.~ ~




z
a
a
o



m

8
~ 8911~50~f~r I''~CWl~r~E~LI~IS
m

~~ip"~
:r .
r:i ;cJh .
r B
~uBi --e


ii


~,
-'
P~J~ ~jl
'E:~5-! ~.
tj~~H*f7 ~c
't~-






i M


I1


FLEET OF SHRIMP BOATS AT FERNANDINA, FLA.














































SHRIMP BOAT. SHOWING NET WITH WHICH SHRIMP ARE TAKEN.












































STONE CRAB, A DELICATE CRUSTACEAN, FOUND ALONG THE SAND REEFS OF FLORIDA.


























~t~Ahh.


BLUE CRAB, WHICH AFFORDS A DELICIOUS FOOD. FOUND GENERALLY IN ALL SALT WATERS
OF THE STATE.


L
.Y 1Lr,
~Cr~,,c~-



























































CRAY FISH, (FLORIDA LOBSTER).


_







FLORIDA'S CAPITOL BUILDINGS


I
- 'S!


1


r
Tr7;-7 if6
I r~ "9~;
bul 5


4jjq -i: IF,7'lr i 1i,2l .I I .I bl!ibt



l.aw -------


i- rr -WAM
-71~ '-...,...


-a---' : i~~


Upper Right: Begun 1838, Finished 1842; Upper Left: Begun 1901, Finished 1902:
Centre: Begun 1022, Finished 1923


*1,