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FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
THIRD BIENNIAL REPORT
July 1, 1932-June 30, 1934
A STATE ORGANIZATION DIRECTED BY THE
FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY, COOPERATING
WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, COUNTIES
LANDOWNERS, AND WOOD-USING INDUSTRIES
TO THE END THAT IDLE ACRES MAY BE ADE-
QUATELY STOCKED WITH TIMBER AND THE
PRODUCTS UTILIZED AT A PROFIT.
importance of Forestry .......... ...............-.... ....-- ........- 3
'lorida Board of Forestry .............-----............- ...-.......... ....-- 4
Branch of Publicity, Information, and Education------..................-----........ 5
ranch of Fire Control ................-----------------.... 13
Branch of Applied Forestry .....-.........-- ------~~-. ...- ... -. --------- ... 25
Fiscal Year 1932-33....................---------------. 34
Fiscal Year 1933-34 ................-.. ----------...------. 34
'ersonnel- ..*... *. .. ."............ .........------------ 35
.* .. --'- .*^-*-,-'-;""-*~-**-.; .
-." *.. *.
*** *. *
: : .. .*
S ** .. *
IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY
Florida's forests had an important role in the early development
of the State. Such ports as Jacksonville, Tampa, and Pensacola were
opened primarily to ship the products of the forests. The expansion
of the railroad system can likewise be traced in large measure to the
first timber operations by the lumbermen and turpentine operators.
For decades the wood-using industries maintained first place in the
industrial life of Florida. As late as 1929 there were sixteen forest-
dependent industries and trades which produced 43 per cent of all
the wealth and 33 per cent of the value of all manufactures. This
inherited natural resource, upon which the wood-using industries are
dependent for raw material, is being exhausted. The growing stock
on some twenty-three million acres of forest land must be replenish-
ed in order that the wood-using industries of Florida may continue
As the population of the State increases, it is safe to assume that
more intensive uses will be developed for the better soils. However,
there will always remain a vast acreage upon which the growing of
timber crops will be the most profitable land use. Much of this area
has been rendered unproductive by woods fires, over-cutting, and
destructive turpentining. Timber depletion is largely responsible
for the tax-delinquency problem extending to approximately nine
million acres of forest land. The only salvation for the owners is to
aid nature to restock these lands with trees. It is the function of
this department to assist the landowners in this undertaking, largely
through fire control. One county and 350 landowners are cooperat-
ing with the Forest Service in the protection of 1,213,341 acres of
land. These lands will soon become an asset instead of a liability
to the owners. They will be restored to the tax rolls and in future
years will provide raw material to sustain the wood-using industries.
4 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY
The Legislature of 1927 recognized that the State should assist
in restoring this forest wealth by the passage of a law creating and
establishing the Florida Board of Forestry. The members of this
Board are appointed by the Governor for four-year terms. They
do not receive compensation for their services, but are reimbursed
for actual traveling expenses. The Board determines the policies
for the department known as the Florida Forest Service, employing
a State Forester to direct the work. The department is divided into
three branches, namely, Publicity, Information, and Education; Fire
Control; and Applied Forestry. Each branch is in charge of an As-
sistant State Forester. The State is divided into five districts, each
in charge of a technically trained forester who is assisted by rangers,
wardens, towermen, and fire crews. The work performed by the
three branches is explained in the following pages.
Third Biennial Report
BRANCH OF PUBLICITY,
INFORMATION, AND EDUCATION
The activities of this branch are directed toward informing the
adults and educating the youth concerning the best known forestry
practices to be applied to forest areas.
The method of approaching the adult is through a presentation
of facts which indicate the damage caused by destructive forestry
practices to the productivity of the forests and their proper utiliza-
tion. Forest areas on which woods fires are prevented and idle or
poorly-stocked lands planted to pine seedlings serve to demonstrate
to the landowner and his neighbors the value of these practices.
These actual demonstrations are the most effective method of show-
ing the increased values. A presentation of facts, however, must be
resorted to because many have never had an opportunity to visit a
protected or planted area.
The principal objective of this branch is to acquaint the present
generation with these facts because 97 per cent of all the woods fires
are man caused. The fire problem of this State will consequently
not be serious when all individuals determine to outlaw woods fires.
The development of a public opinion thoroughly opposed to all de-
structive forestry practices is essential at this time to perpetuate the
social and economic values of our forests for the succeeding genera-
One method of releasing information is through the distribution
of informative material.
During the period covered by this report, the following publica-
tions were prepared or revised and printed:
The Workc of the Florida Forest Service, Second Biennial
R report ........................................ 5,000
Forestry and Timber Laws of the State of Florida, Bul-
letin N o. 10 ................. ..................... 5,000
Forestry Manual for Florida High Schools, Bulletin No. 1 5,000
Florida Naval Stores, Bulletin No. 9 ................ 3,000
Forestry Supplement for December, 1932, issue of
6 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
SOUTHERN LUMBER JOURNAL ................ 5,000
Good Naval Stores Practice, Circular No. 1 .......... 3,000
A Code and Pledge to Florida's Forests .............. 20,000
Sample naval stores lease to all lawyers in State
Are Stumpage Values Vanishing .................... 2,000
Forest Conservation as a Function of State Government 7,000
The Land Problem in Florida ....................... 2,000
License Envelopes ...................... .............. 73,800
These carry a fire warning and are distributed through
the county judges to hunters and fishermen
One hundred thirty mimeographed news releases were prepared
and mailed to the newspapers in the State during this two-year
period. From time to time, spot news was released verbally to rep-
resentatives of the Press. In addition to the publicity originating
in this office, the district foresters and Emergency Conservation
Work camp superintendents also contributed.
The 182 newspapers on our mailing list carried 15,836 column
inches of publicity during this period.
No new posters were designed but approximately seven thousand
were printed and distributed.
Dr. H. N. Wheeler, chief lecturer of the U. S. Forest Service, con-
ducted an illustrated lecture tour during the winter of 1932-33.
The itinerary was arranged from this office and personal services
rendered. Dr. Wheeler made fifty-three lectures on the damaging
effects of wild fire and the value of forest protection, and reached
approximately nine thousand persons, most of whom were members
of civic clubs.
Members of the Tallahassee and district personnel made lectures
from time to time during the period covered by this report.
Five radio speeches were delivered by members of the personnel.
Magazine and Newspaper Articles
In the two-year period covered by this report, the personnel of
the Florida Forest Service prepared eight special articles on forestry
for distribution in magazines and newspapers.
Third Biennial Report 7
The preceding portion of this branch report has been confined to
a discussion of the methods utilized in supplying information dealing
with the economic facts concerning the value of rebuilding and main-
taining the productivity of forest lands. This information will
result in the prevention of some woods fires, the planting of some
unproductive lands, and a closer utilization of forest products. How-
ever, too much stress cannot be placed upon educating the boys and
girls of the present generation. Children's minds are plastic, and
it is desirable that they acquire the habit of preventing forest fires
because of a knowledge of the importance of the forests and the
wood-using industries to their future welfare.
One of the primary objectives of this branch was attained when a
course on nature study became a required subject of study in the
elementary schools of the State. Six teaching outlines, one for each
of the first six grades, prepared by Mrs. Clara I. Thomas while in
the employ of the Florida Forest Service, are being used as a guide
in teaching this subject.
As a result of nature study becoming a required subject in the
school curriculum of the State, it is necessary that the leading uni-
versities and colleges offer courses in nature study in order that
teachers may become properly certificated. There have been about
two thousand copies each of the six teaching outlines distributed to
teachers throughout the State.
One of the most intensive educational projects in elementary
schools was conducted by Mrs. Thomas in the introduction of these
conservation outlines in ninety schools in nineteen cities throughout
the State. At the same time, the children were encouraged to pur-
chase seedlings from commercial nurseries and a tree-planting pro-
gram was conducted. All these activities were directed toward
acquainting youth with an elementary knowledge of forestry and
The knowledge gained by the actual experience of planting trees
gives the child a better understanding of the conditions which affect
survival and growth. Therefore, the idea of the child's planting a
tree has been encouraged. In addition to those planted during Mrs.
Thomas's tour, the majority of the 34,513 seedlings distributed for
miscellaneous educational purposes went to schools for plantations
of school forests on school lands.
The Work of the Florida Forest Service
Vocational Agricultural Forestry
Desirable forestry practices are being taught to over one thousand
farm boys in the forty-seven vocational agricultural high schools in
the State. Forty-one teachers are cooperating in schools located in
twenty-eight counties. There have been prepared in this office, and
distributed to the instructors, nine teaching outlines for use in this
course of study. Reference bulletins and other supplementary ma-
terial have been provided to aid the instructors in teaching and
demonstrating the need for the application of good forestry prac-
tices on the farms of the boys.
UNBURNED DEMONSTRATIONAL PLOT
This plot, which is situated adjacent to a burned one, was installed by the Tate
Vocational Agricultural High School at Gonzalez as a part of the practical forestry
training of the vocational forestry project. It is typical of similar demonstrations
depicting the value of forest fire prevention and control conducted by forty-seven
vocational agricultural schools in twenty-eight counties by over one thousand future
The practice of having actual demonstrations of the subject being
studied is followed in this project. A total of 96,297 seedlings, which
were planted in school forests, were distributed to these schools. In
addition to this activity, forest protection, nursery practice, thinning,
timber scaling, tree identification, identification of woods, and utiliza-
tion of proper woods for special purposes are being studied. The
objective of the activity is to acquaint these boys with the place of
forestry in the land-use problem of the State and how to make their
farm woodlots productive, perpetual, and profitable.
Third Biennial Report
A PRACTICAL METHOD OF IMPROVING A FARM WI(ODLOT
This dense stand of longleaf pine was not growing as rapidly as it should have be-
cause of overcrowding. Vocational agricultural boys made a thinning and utilized
the products which paid for the labor, demonstrating a sound forestry practice for
the farmer and landowner. A creosote treatment of the sap pines will improve their
value for fence posts, poles, and piling. Allowing more light to reach the remaining
trees will increase their rate of growth.
Boy Scout Forests Project
The number of Scout troops participating in this project increased
from seventeen in 1932-33 to twenty-five during the fiscal year 1933-
34. The forestry work conducted by the troops is reaching ap-
proximately seven hundred boys in thirteen counties. They are re-
sponsible for protecting from fire eleven hundred acres of Scout
forest lands, and have planted 82,388 seedlings on ninety acres of
the total. A Scout forest handbook was prepared in this office and
distributed to the Scoutmasters to be used as a guide for the work.
This project not only stimulates interest in forestry but provides
Scout forests, which many of the troops did not have before. These
forests furnish recreational areas which the Scouts can call their own.
It brings the boys in closer contact with the outdoors and they
naturally learn to be careful with woods fires and refrain from
practices detrimental to the conservation of natural resources. The
majority of the boys reached by the project is from the towns and
cities in contrast with the farm boys who are reached by the voca-
tional agricultural project.
10 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
BOY SCOUTS PROTECT
SCOUT FORESTS FROM
These Boy Scouts are build-
ing a signal and lookout tower
on their Scout forest. An
observer can locate woods fires
in the vicinity of the forest
while they are small and the
troop can prevent them from
reaching their forty-acre forest.
These practical demonstrations
of fire fighting which actually
show how the forests respond
to fire prevention and control,
cover eleven hundred acres of
land in thirteen counties.
Eighty-two thousand three
hundred eighty-eight seedlings
have been planted on about
ninety acres of the total, all
a part of the Boy Scout For-
ests project in which the
Florida Lumber and( Millwork
Association is cooperating.
reached in the project.
Forestry Training Camp
A forestry training camp of two weeks' duration was held at the
Jacksonville Scout camp on Doctor's Lake near Orange Park. The
contest winners of the Boy Scout and vocational agricultural projects,
numbering seventy-eight boys, were in attendance. The boys were
instructed in forestry and, in addition, observation trips were made
to the Osceola National Forest, Florida Forest Service nursery at
Olustee, and the Naval Stores Station of the Bureau of Chemistry
and Soils. Experts in attendance at these various locations thorougih-
ly explained the work which was being observed.
Plans were formulated during this biennium to acquire a site and
construct a permanent forestry camp. A site was selected, equipment
and building materials purchased, and a project outlined to utilize
E.R.A. labor for the construction of the camp.
Third Biennial Report 11
A motion picture and exhibit truck was purchased and equipped,
and routed constantly throughout the State. During the week-ends,
the truck was stationed in county seats and viewed by approximate-
ly three thousand persons. The exhibits in the truck included
diorama scenes in miniature of burned and unburned forest con-
ditions and of a forest showing an approved management plan.
Methods of utilizing forest products were also featured. The truck
was so constructed that by dropping the sides and opening the rear
panels, the exhibit was ready for immediate display. It was also
equipped with a moving picture projector, screens, and an amplify-
ing system. A collection of wood samples prepared by a vocational
agricultural school was arranged in exhibit form and made available
AN EXHIBIT QN WHEELS
This truck has carried the story of forestry into practically every county of the
State and has been viewed by thousands of people. It has been displayed at county
and state fairs, C.C.C. camps, schools, and public meeting places. The exhibits
tell a story of the value of fire prevention and control as opposed to annual woods
fires for production of timber; they display products derived from the forests, and
demonstrate good utilization practices. The truck is also equipped to give motion
Forestry exhibits were displayed at six state and county fairs.
In cooperation with the Garden Clubs, Women's Clubs, schools, and
individuals interested in forestry, eleven additional forestry exhibits
were displayed during the period covered by this report.
The Work of the Florida Forest Servce
Some material was prepared in cooperation with A Century of
Progress officials for the forestry exhibits at A Century of Progress
Numerous. exhibits were prepared and displayed in the Capitol
during the Legislature.
In addition to motion pictures being used at most of the fairs,
an intensive campaign was conducted in the schools of Jefferson,
Madison, Lafayette, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Duval, Highlands, Hills-
borough, and portions of Hardee, Polk, Seminole,.and Citrus counties.
Emergency Conservation Work
The organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps presented a
splendid opportunity to teach thousands of young men the social
and economic value of forests. The State Forester addressed each
camp in the State, including those working on Federal forests, on
the national and state aspects of forestry. This was followed by an
address by the District Foresters in each of the camps in their dis-
tricts. Dr. H. N. Wheeler gave illustrated lectures in five of the
camps which had the highest percentage of Florida boys. The motion
picture and exhibit truck traveled to all camps, including those on
Federal forests. Two portable exhibits were routed to each camp.
Each camp was supplied with library materials for use of the en-
rollees in acquainting themselves with a knowledge of forestry. All
these educational measures were very helpful in explaining the neces-
sity of the work the enrollees were performing to maintain the pro-
ductivity of forest areas. The C.C.C. boys also planted pine seedlings
as a forestry vocational educational experience. All the boys in the
camps spent one day on this work.
The Governor, members of his Cabinet, and various other State
officials made a tour of inspection of one of the C.C.C. camps. A
newsreel was taken of the trip and received wide distribution in the
Third Biennial Report
BRANCH OF FIRE CONTROL
This branch renders advisory and financial assistance to land-
owners and counties that are interested in preventing and sup-
pressing forest fires on their timber lands. Forest soils cannot pro-
duce a maximum crop of timber so long as the custom of annual
woods burning continues. Therefore, the fire contrc4 cooperation
offered by the Florida Forest Service is very vital to assure a con-
tinuous supply of timber to sustain the wood-using industries. In
addition to extending this cooperation and administering these
activities, the branch assists in preparing cases for the prosecution
of violators of Florida's forest fire laws, and plans and specifies
the forestry work that is being carried on by the Civilian Conserva-
tion Corps camps working on private lands.
EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK
President Roosevelt's Emergency Conservation Work program,
which is the activity carried on by the Civilian Conservation Corps,
has advanced forestry in Florida by at least ten years. It is the
outstanding factor in focusing the attention of people on the neces-
sity of maintaining productive forests and likewise providing aid
to make effective such practices which will assure perpetual forests.
A TYPICAL C. C. C. CAMP
The Army locates the site for these camps on or adjacent to the forestry work area
and constructs the camp. Two hundred boys plus the Army and forestry personnel
are stationed at each camp. The Army provides shelter, clothing, food, medical at-
tention, educational and recreational facilities, and disciplines the enrollees while
they are in camp. The forestry agencies provide the woods work and supervise the
boys while they are in the field.
The Work of the Florida Forest Service
This program has made it possible to provide landowners cooperat-
ing with the Forest Service with fire control improvements which
have taken the doubt out of organized forest fire prevention and
control. It is now possible to supply 20-foot boundary and 16-foot
interior fire breaks, roads, and other improvements which are re-
quisites for successful protection, and which it was formerly impos-
sible to provide adequately on account of limited cooperative funds.
All labor and certain materials are furnished by E.C.W. at no cost
to any cooperative budget, but the landowner and State must spend
as much as they did in the past on fire control work and furnish
assurance that the improvements will be maintained in future years.
During the period June 1, 1933 to June 30, 1934, an average of
fourteen C.C.C. camps under the jurisdiction of the Florida Forest
Service worked on twenty-three different locations. The sites for
these camps were located on or adjacent to the forestry work areas
by officials of the Army and representatives of the Forest Service.
The responsibility of the Army is to construct the camps, provide
food, shelter, clothes, medical attention, educational and recreational
facilities, and discipline the enrollees while they are in camp. The
Forest Service designates the forest areas to be worked, specifies the
type of work to be done, and supervises the work of the boys in
.the field. Accomplishments during this period for the twenty-
three C.C.C. work projects are indicated in the following tabulation.
Telephone lines-196.9 miles
Fire breaks-1,766.7 miles 10-foot, 16-foot, and 20-foot widths
5,889 miles 8-foot width
Reduction of fire hazards-9,193 acres
Roadside clearing of clean-up for fire prevention-26 miles
Lookout houses and other structures-11
Fighting forest fires-15,342.4 man-days
Fire presuppression-11,158 man-days
Fire prevention (educational work) 2,087.5 man-days
General clean-up other than for fire prevention-50 acres
Forest stand improvement as an educational feature-239.4 acres
Truck trails-559.9 miles
Fences, other than range-2.5 miles
Wells and water holes-6
Forestry educational work-1,656 man-days (approx.)
Seed collection-65 bushels
Survey, linear-3,594.8 miles
Survey, topographic-116,304.5 acres
Landscaping, tower sites and camp sites-50 acres
It can be seen at a glance that in addition to the purely fire con-
trol projects undertaken by the C.C.C. enrollees, there are many
Third Biennial Report 15
other items to make up a broad, diversified, and well-balanced pro-
gram. However, only fire control work is authorized on private
lands, whereas planting, thinning, fencing, and administrative im-
provements can be provided on State parks and forests or State-own-
ed land cooperatively protected from fire with the Florida Forest
The work was distributed over the properties of 154 landowners
in addition to that performed in two counties. Work was completed
on approximately 690,000 acres of protected land. The improve-
ments thus constructed have strengthened the confidence of the
cooperators and other landowners in organized fire control to such
an extent that the acreage under cooperative agreement was ma-
ROAD AND BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION BY. E .(. W.
Roads and bridges are constructed by C.C.C. enrollees with materials on hand to
provide transportation of fire crews and equipment into inaccessible areas.
terially increased. During the biennium ending June 30, 1934, the
number of cooperators increased from 109 protecting 911,456 acres
of land in July, 1932, to 350 cooperators and part of Duval County
protecting 1,213,341 acres in June, 1934. In addition, there are
203,283 acres in Duval County and 599,370 acres in Hillsborough
County where the rangers are carrying on forest fire prevention
educational work as a preliminary to organized fire suppression
work, which it is anticipated will follow. It is to be noted that ap-
proximately one half of the acreage under protection as of June 30,
1934, had received a fire control system which effected thorough
protection on those lands and favorably impressed all who saw the
16 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
Funds for cooperating with landowners in the prevention and
control of forest fires are, obtained from three sources, namely,
private, State, and Federal. Private funds are obtained from co-
operating landowners on an assessment per acreage basis. The
Florida Board of Forestry receives an appropriation from the State.
Under the terms of 'the Clarke-McNary Law, enacted by Congress,
the Federal Government during this biennium has appropriated a
sum approximately equal to the combined annual expenditures of
the landowners and State. This financial arrangement is frequently
referred to as the "triple alliance." The sources of revenue and
fire control expenditures for the period covered by this report are
listed below. It will be observed that State expenditures for fire
control work represent only 23+ per cent of the total expended for
Expenditures By Years For Fire Prevention And Control
Per Per Per
Year Federal Cent State C'ii Prit.1 Cent Total
1932-33 $ 66,901.29 50- $28,516.84 21+ $39,175.64 29+ $134,593.77
1933-34 67,760.00 50 34,363.44 25+ 33,396.56 25- 135,520.00
TOTAL $134,661.29 50- $62,880.28 23+ $72,572.20 27- $270,113.77
The Florida Forest Service cooperates with landowners and coun-
ties in the following ways:
1. Individual Demonstration Agreement. Where the landowner
lives on the property himself or employs a resident manager, the
Forest Service will cooperate by matching the landowner's expendi-
tures of from 3 cents to 5 cents per acre per year for a period of from
three to five years. These funds are expended principally for the
plowing of fire lines and for fire fighting equipment. On large
tracts of land, a portion of the money may be spent for towers and
telephone lines. In addition, the landowners undertake the responsi-
bility for and assume the cost of suppressing all fires on their own
2. County-wide Fire Control. Where counties are interested in
organized forest fire prevention and control for a portion or all of
the county, the Forest Service will cooperate if funds are available.
Before complete county-wide control work is established in a county,
small appropriations should be made for county-wide educational
fire prevention work which should be continued for a year or more
before actual fire suppression commences. It is much more difficult
to obtain good results in county-wide fire control than it is with the
individual landowners, due to a more shifting responsibility over
large tracts under non-resident ownership in the county, but county-
wide fire control is the ultimate objective and within a few years,
much forest protection work will most likely be done in that way.
Third Biennial Report 17
NUMBER OF COOPERATORS AND AREA PROTECTED
The table below shows number of cooperators and net acreage pro-
tected under the different policies during the biennium:
Demonstrations Group Units Counties* I Total
Number NumbeI'Ir Number Numbler
Contracts Acre'.ge Contracts Acreage Contracts Acroage Contracts A acreage
1932 25 268,182 84 643,274 10!
1933 163 3S8,0)5 74 536,148 1 2530,000 238 1.174.203
1934 280 592,621 70 348,573 1 272,147 331 1.213.341
*In addition to the above, there are 203.283 acres in Iuval County anid 509.370
acres in Hillsborough County where the rangers are carrying on forest fire prevention
educational work as a preliminary to organized fire suppression work, which it is
anticipated will follow.
The area shown under protection would be much larger but for
the cancellation of 382,193 acres during the course of the biennium.
Of this acreage, 161,955 acres were sold to the Federal Government
for a National Forest, and, therefore, were not dropped from pro-
tection although they are not included in the total; 83,740 acres were
dropped from protection because of delinquent taxes as the Forest
Service is not permitted to protect tax-delinquent lands; 72,000 acres
were dropped from protection because of the owners' inability to pay
the assessments. Protection had to be discontinued on some of the
remainder that was dropped because the removal of the larger tracts
from protection made it economically impossible to continue with
the smaller tracts as group units, and the landowners were not pre-
pared to protect their lands as individual demonstrations. In many
instances, however, lands involved in these small group unit contract
cancellations were subsequently signed as individual demonstra-
tions so that, on the whole, there was a very small percentage of loss
of protected areas.
FIRES, ACREAGE PROTECTED, AND PER CENT BURNED
In 1932-33, 1,146,985 acres were under intensive protection and all
fires were suppressed on this acreage. There were 1,077 fires on
the protected lands, burning a total of 42,290 acres, or 3.6 per cent
of such lands. In 1':: :-.'4, 1,321,916 acres were under intensive pro-
tection. There were 2,018 fires on this acreage, burning 106,023
acres, or 8.02 per cent of the protected land.
The variation in the acreages here shown as being under protec-
tion and those listed in the table above is due to the fact that
the total acreage under protection during the course of the year is
constantly being changed because of cancellations of contracts and
additions of new acreages.
18 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
BURNED AND UNBURNED DEMONSTRATION
The quarter-acre plot on the right has not been burned in five years while the adjacent one is burned annually. Results obtained by fire prevention and control are
readily discerned in this contrast. Forest lands in this condition are an asset to the owner and State. Many thousands of acres of the piney woods of Florida could be
made productive by fire control.
ANNUALLY BURNED QUARTER-ACRE PLOT
This quarter-acre plot is the same as the one shown above on the left. The identical seed trees supplied seed for these adjoining plots. Fire, however, prevented the
growth of seedlings on this plot. Forest lands in this condition are a liability to the landowner. They produce no revenue.
Third Biennial Report
20 The Work of The Florida Forest Serrice
Fires on Individual Demonstrations
In 1932-33, there were 163 landowners cooperating under the in-
dividual demonstration agreement. Of this number, 121 demonstra-
tions comprising 154,724 acres had no fires; 15 demonstrations with
a total of 95,410 acres had from 1 to 5 per cent burned; 16 dem-
onstrations with a total of 41,902 acres had from 6 to 30 per cent
burned; and 11 demonstrations with a total of 3,957 acres had over
30 per cent burned.
Of the 280 individual demonstrations in 1933-34, 197 demonstra-
tions comprising 134,154 acres had no fires; 27 with 168,898 acres
had from 1 to 5 per cent burned; 44 with 193,780 acres had from
6 to 30 per cent burned; and 12 with 11,540 acres had over 30 per
The principal reasons for the burning of large percentages of land
for some cooperators are as follows: the lateness in signing up lands
for protection which prevents the installing of a good fire line system
before the fire season; not reworking fire lines before the fire season;
not advising neighbors of the cooperator's intention to control fires
and requesting their cooperation in preventing fires; and the inability
of some landowners to obtain cooperation of other people for various
FIRE LAW PROSECUTIONS
It is the policy of the Florida Forest Service to secure the coopera-
tion of the public, if possible, without enforcing the law against woods
burning. Where lands are put under protection, a canvass of the
territory is made and all people are contacted by forest rangers who
explain the value of fire control, distribute literature, put up posters,
and request everyone to cooperate in the prevention and control of
If fires occur after protection work is started, those who are
suspected of setting them are again contacted and every possible
effort exerted to obtain cooperation without prosecution. At times,
when someone is apprehended setting fires, he is permitted to go
without being arrested. This action depends upon many factors
which are considered. In a few instances, much better results were
obtained by not prosecuting than if the law had been strictly enforced,
but it is seldom that this action is deemed advisable. Usually where
it is decided that the trespasser should not be given a fine or jail
sentence, the offender is advised to plead guilty with the under-
standing that fine or sentence will be withheld pending good be-
havior in the future. This practice is getting good results, for in
most instances the offender is not only converted to the policy of not
setting fires, but is also actually made a friend of forestry.
Where it is necessary to take a case into court, everything possible
is done to convict the defendant. When convictions are obtained,
no suggestions are ever made that the courts do not give maximum
fines and penalties which are $1,000.00 and a twelve-month jail
Third Biennial Report 21
From July 1, 1932 to June 30, 1934, twenty-four arrests were made
for violation of Florida's forest fire laws. Of this number, one case
was nolle-prossed, six defendants were not indicted, seven pleaded
guilty, seven were convicted, and three acquitted. Sentences ranged
from suspended sentences to sixty-eight days in jail, and fines did
not, exceed $50.00 and costs of $77.09 for any one defendant.
Even in cases where conviction is not obtained, the defendant has
to face the embarrassment of being prosecuted and pay attorney's
and other incidental fees, all of which tends to make him more re-
spectful of the State's fire laws.
It is gratifying to be able to note that much better cooperation is
being obtained from law enforcement officials now than was pos-
sible a few years ago.
FIRE CONTROL IMPROVEMENTS
During the biennium the number of lookout towers was increased
from eight to thirty-four as follows:
Steel Towers Wooden Towers Total
July 1, 1932 ................. 7 1 8
Erected 1932-33 ............. 4 2 6
Erected 1933-34 ............. 10 10 20
21 13 34
Steel towers are so located as to conform with the state-wide tower
system, at approximately sixteen-mile intervals. On small tracts
of only a few thousand acres, and where it does not fit in with the
state-wide system, a wooden tower from fifty to sixty feet high is
Of the above, nine steel and nine wooden towers were erected by
the E.C.W. camps in cooperation with the Forest Service.
Telephone line built 1932-33 ............ 92 miles
Telephone line built 1933-34 ............ 196.6 miles
Of the above, 196.6 miles were built by the E.C.W. camps in co-
operation with the Forest Service.
Fire Fighting Equipment
On June 30, 1934, there were eleven fire trucks in operation
throughout the State. Outstanding among these is the completely
equipped, one-and-a-half ton emergency fire truck presented by Mr.
John A. Roebling through his representative, Mr. Alexander Blair
of Red Hill, Florida. The estimated value of this truck is $2,100.00.
It is stationed at Lake City and used for emergency fire fighting in
that part of the State.
22 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
Rangers are provided with a half-ton truck equipped with tank,
hose, and power take-off pump as well as fire tools to be used on
the units or wherever their services are in most demand. Some of
the cooperating landowners have supplied their units with trucks
to aid in supressing fires.
Fire lines are usually plowed on cooperating or protected lands
by the Florida Forest Service as tractors and special plows and har-
rows have been bought for this purpose. Fourteen tractors are
usually in operation plowing new or reworking old lines from about
September 1 to March 1. Landowners are encouraged to plow their
own lines if they have equipment suitable for such work, and they
SIXTEEN-FOOT LINES AN IMPORTANT AID IN STOPPING WOODS FIRES
The C.C.C. enrollees clear and plow these sixteen-foot fire lines approximately one
mile apart in protected territory. These fire lines are reworked annually by the Florida
Forest Service in cooperation with the landowners.
are given credit as "service in lieu of cash" on their cooperative
budget. After lines have been plowed the second or third year with
Forest Service equipment, the landowners are able to rework the
lines annually with light equipment and in some instances at less
expense than with heavy equipment.
Lands of individual cooperators are usually cut into approximate-
ly forty-acre blocks with eight-foot fire lines with Forest Service
equipment and these lines are reworked annually. All protected
lands within working distance (twenty-five miles) of the C.C.C.
Third Biennial Report 23
24 The Work of the Florida Forest Service.
camps are protected with either a ten-foot, sixteen-foot, or twenty-
foot cleared, stumped, and plowed boundary fire break, and with a
ten-foot or sixteen-foot interior cleared, stumped, and plowed break
on approximately all section lines. These lines are reworked an-
nually at the expense of the cooperative fund of the landowner and
In 1932-33 there was a total of 2,118 miles of fire lines plowed or
reworked by the landowners and 5,820 miles plowed or reworked with
Forest Service equipment. The total mileage of fire lines was 7,938
In 1933-34, the cooperating landowners plowed or reworked 1,128
miles of fire lines and the Forest Service plowed or reworked 4,682
miles. This brought the total for the year to 5,810 miles of Florida
Forest Service fire lines. This, added to 7,655.7 miles of fire lines
plowed by E.C.W. during 1933-34, brings the grand total to 13,-
465.7 miles of fire lines on protected lands, an average of 7.1 miles
per section of land.
DISTRIBUTION OF PROTECTED LANDS
The map on page -23 shows the distribution of the forest fire
protective areas in the State. It reveals that there are sections of
the State which have no demonstrations of organized fire preven-
tion and control. In those sections, people interested in seeing the
State's forest resources protected ask why "something is not being
done about these woods fires." Even in those sections of the State
where fire control activities are concentrated, it should be noted that
the majority of the protected areas are not adjacent to the well-
traveled highways where they can be observed by those traveling
through the State.
The fire control cooperative policy of the Forest Service is neces-
sarily one of helping those who help themselves. It is obvious that
the State by itself could not supply sufficient man power to sup-
press all these fires with its limited funds. It is, therefore, neces-
sary that the landowner or county spend money in an organized
effort to prevent and control woods fires. These fires will be con-
trolled only as rapidly as this type of cooperation is received.
In fairness to the progress made in forest fire prevention activi-
ties in the State, these two situations should be recognized: (1)
that the majority of the protected area is not along main highways
and (2) that the policy in effect is to help those who help them-
selves. It should also be appreciated that woods fires will continue
to burn on all unprotected areas until fire protection is demanded
and labor and funds expended to obtain it. The photographs on
pages 18 and 19 illustrate very graphically the difference between
burned and unburned woodlands.
TIr1'i Biennial Report 25
BRANCH OF APPLIED FORESTRY
The primary functions of the Branch of Applied Forestry are the
establishment of demonstrations showing improved forestry practices
and the rendering of personal assistance to individuals, operators,
and communities in putting these practices into effect.
Protection of forest lands from fire will double or treble the an-
nual yields per acre for the landowner and State. In addition, in-
tensive forest management will permit the lands of individual own-
ers to produce more and better-grade products. Furthermore, with
sustained yield, forest-dependent industries will be able to conduct
their business on a permanent basis which will enable individuals
and communities to adjust themselves to a more stable condition.
Selective cutting and conservative turpentining alone will go a long
way toward bringing this about. Selection for size will eliminate
the losses sustained by cutting or operating unprofitable small size
While it is recognized that certain divisions of the work of this
branch deserve equal or greater attention than others, yet, due to
shortage of finances, technical assistance, and equipment, certain
activities have not advanced beyond the initial stages.
The work of the Branch of Applied Forestry falls into various
divisions and each one is briefly treated separately in this report.
STATE FOREST NURSERY
The Raiford Nursery was operated from 1928 until March, 1934,
at which time it was discontinued and the newly acquired nursery
near Olustee went into operation. It is located three miles east of
Olustee on the north side of the Lake City-Jacksonville Highway on
land purchased by the State. The property has over a mile frontage
on the highway and an equal amount on the railroad which fact
26 The Work of tlze Florida Forest Service
brings to the traveling public very forcibly the knowledge that Flor-
ida maintains a forest nursery, and that interested landowners can
secure seedlings for forest planting. Preparation of the land for the
nursery and construction of buildings commenced during December,
1933, as a Civil Works Administration project and was continued
by the Federal Emergency relief Administration. The buildings
under construction include a packing house, pump house, heeling-in
shed, seed extraction plant, garage, and nurseryman's residence. An
overhead sprinkler system was installed. Beds were laid out and
planted for the production of two million seedlings.
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE NURSERY
Produced two million seedlings in 1934 which were sold at cost to landowners and
farmers for planting idle lands.
When completed it will be one of the most modern and attractive
forest nurseries in the South. It is anticipated that with these ex-
cellent facilities, seedlings can be produced at prices which will en-
able the average landowner to proceed rapidly with the planting of
areas which will not reseed naturally within a reasonable time. The
central location of the nursery enables many landowners to consult
the forester in charge concerning their planting and other timber
growing problems. They also have an opportunity to look over the
nursery and see the various species which are being grown and the
technique and equipment employed in seed collection, seed extrac-
Third Biennial Report 27
tion, bed planting and care, lifting, packing, and shipping of the
The nursery is operated in cooperation with the Federal Govern-
ment which acts in an advisory capacity and supplies a substantial
portion of the operating funds.
In the first year of the biennium, a total of 590,057 seedlings were
produced and sold at a price of $3.00 per thousand. During 1933-34,
a total of 1,079,015 seedlings were sold at $4.00 per thousand.
In March 1934, 450 pounds of slash pine seed, 25 pounds of long-
leaf pine seed, and 31 pounds of miscellaneous tree seed were sown
at the new nursery. During 1934-35, the seedlings will be sold on a
sliding scale starting at $3.25 per thousand and graduating down-
ward at the rate of 15 cents per thousand to a minimum of $1.90 per
thousand for 10,000 or more. The seedlings produced were for for-
estry purposes only and applications for trees for ornamental uses
were not accepted. However, applications for seedlings for use on
public lands for educational and experimental purposes were honored.
Nursery planting, fertilization, packing, and shipping methods
were improved, as well as procedure for handling applications and
The extension of planted forests in Florida proceeded very rapid-
ly, as can be seen from the fact that during this biennium over a
million and a half seedlings were planted. This equals the total
number planted during the four-year period prior to this biennium
during which time forest planting was a novelty or an experiment
to most Floridians. At the present time, the planting of forest trees
is a very commonly accepted method of improving forest stands. The
establishment of demonstrational plantings along highways was a big
factor in selling this idea to the landowners and general public.
Efforts are continually being exerted to establish more large planta-
tions along the highways.
The planting of forest trees is of infinite value beyond the increase
of forest wealth represented by the plantings. An owner may have
millions of seedlings naturally reproduced on his land every several
years, but because they are so small, he does not notice them or at-
tempt to protect them from fire or other destructive agencies. How-
ever, if he plants a few thousand seedlings and watches their develop-
ment, he will also begin to observe the small natural seedlings in the
woods and to realize that if nature were given a chance, natural re-
forestation would result in many cases. Usually, after an owner
plants seedlings, his next step is forest protection. However, in
many cases, the process is reversed in that an owner protects his
land first and then plants the areas which cannot reseed naturally
or which will reseed too slowly.
28 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
During this biennium, 237 commercial plantings, totalling 1,372,155
seedlings, were established. The remainder of the stock produced
was used for educational and experimental plantings.
Burned and Unburned Plots
Records were kept on burned and unburned plots and continued
to show that fire, in most cases, prevented natural seeding or killed
or retarded the growth of seedlings, saplings, and trees. It is not
necessary to increase the number of plots in localities where organ-
ized fire control areas are present as these large areas demonstrate
the advisability of keeping lands unburned. In considering the dam-
age from fires, all factors affecting forest growth and the forest en-
vironment, such as soil, soil moisture, ground cover, seed, seedlings,
saplings, round timber, working turpentine faces, worked-out turpen-
tine faces, forest insects, and wild life must be taken into considera-
Plots were established for the purpose of observing costs and the
effects of artificial pruning of the lower branches on planted slash
pine. While it is commonly known that pruning will not increase
volume growth, it is well known that pruning will increase the quality
of the first log. The experiments are for the purpose of determining
the degree of pruning which will be practical in young stands of
planted pine, the costs, and results.
Thinning research plots were established at various locations, but
insufficient time has elapsed since their establishment to secure any
definite data. However, it is well known that wide spacing promotes
rapid diameter growth and full bushy crowns. Trees should be
widely spaced, therefore, where rapid diameter growth is the primary
consideration of the wood-using industry. However, where a com-
bination of naval stores, saw logs, poles, and piling is desired, the
spacing should be closer in order to promote natural pruning.
Nursery and Planting Experiments
Studies were conducted on various phases of nursery technique,
including grading of seedlings, seed bed spacings, fertilizers, and
mulching. A study was made of the relative merits of planting
seedlings in furrows, on scalped spots, and on ground which has had
no previous preparation. The results of the latter experiment, thus
far, indicate that best survival is secured on the scalped spots.
Third Biennial Report 29
Information is being secured concerning the suitability of various
native and foreign species for use on different planting sites by
means of plantings made in cooperation with organizations and in-
dividuals throughout the State.
Forestry and Grazing
The forestry and grazing experiment is being continued and it is
anticipated that it will yield some interesting results when completed.
PULPWOOD FROM FLORIDA PINES
Pulpwood should come from thinning, tops, sawmill slabs, worked-out turpentine
trees, and low grade and defective trees.
Efforts were made by the Florida Forest Service and Trustees of
the Internal Improvement Fund to secure loans from the Public
Works Administration for the purpose of purchasing and develop-
ing State forests. Many offers of lands were submitted by the own-
ers. A number of tracts were inspected to determine the desirability
of examining them in detail. Three were so examined, reports com-
piled, and applications for loans submitted. After these applica-
tions were submitted, however, it developed that only 30 per cent of
the amount of loans could be used for lands and materials, and the
remainder had to be used for labor. The applications were with-
drawn and the one which appeared to have the best chance of suc-
cess was resubmitted, and action on it is still pending. Negotiations
were then instituted to secure State forest and park lands by gift
and purchase on a deferred payment plan, and indications are that
this method will be successful to a certain degree. One tract was
donated, and negotiations were started for the purchase of a large
30 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
IMPROVED NAVAL STORES PRACTICES
One hundred and forty posters, "Small Trees Yield No Profit,"
were displayed at turpentine places visited. These posters illu-
strated especially the losses from cupping small timber.
Supervision was furnished for the construction of thirty-three
turpentine fire stills on the Government plan. These settings illu-
strated the best known method of fire still erection. Thirty-two
counties out of a total of forty-two naval stores counties in this State
have one or more Government style still settings.
Over seventy-three ten-ounce bottles, accompanied by a stilling
chart to take the "sound" and "guess" out of stilling, were sold to
operators. Eleven recording thermometers were installed and sixty-
six covered separators and covered spirit tubs were put into use,
resulting in the saving of from $100.00 to $300-00 per place.
COVER FOR SEPARATOR BARRELS
Covers for separator barrel and spirit tub cost $1.00 for materials and 50 cents
for labor to install. The saving by reducing evaporation amounts to one and one-half
to three gallons per charge which is worth from 75 cents to $1.50 per charge (turpen-
tine at 50 cents per gallon). or in a year about $150.00. When these covers are used,
insurance premiums are reduced $2.50 per thousand per annun.
During personal contacts with 199 operators, details of woods works
concerning the size of trees being operated, chipping, cup covers and
cupping, fire protection, and other points were discussed. Inspec-
tion of the woods operations was made, when possible, to determine
the details which needed correction.
Third Biennial Report 31
0% o FA
z O u
Z 0 0
32 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
The U. S. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils cooperated with the
Florida Forest Service in the preceding program.
A survey was made of naval stores operators by forest officers to
secure information regarding their operations. In each case, a report
was made out and these reports were condensed into tabular form for
the use of the various district offices. These contacts were valuable
in that they supplied information concerning the operations, and
enabled the district forester or his representative and the operators
to discuss fire protection, planting, and operating problems. A
similar survey was made of sawmills, crate mills, and other lumber
SAWLOGS FROM SMALL TREES DO NOT PAY
Small trees are usually operated for sawmill purposes at a loss. Larger trees pay
the losses sustained from operating small trees. Do not cut small trees and you save
them and avoid the losses.
Third Biennial Report
COOPERATION WITH LUMBERMEN AND LANDOWNERS
Advice and suggestions regarding the proper methods of practic-
ing forestry were sent to landowners and lumbermen through various
media and by personal contacts, with the result that proper cutting
practices are becoming more common. Owners and operators are
rapidly seeing the wisdom of cutting only species and sizes which
yield a profit. It is our belief that the vast majority of operators
desires to practice some forestry measures when it is demonstrated
that satisfactory results can be obtained without increasing operat-
ing costs. Increased costs without increased income cannot be under-
taken by organizations or individuals who desire to stay in business.
Where taxes are not excessive, a number have started to protect re-
sidual growth from damage during felling operations and to leave
sufficient suitable trees for natural seeding purposes. The fact is
being more generally appreciated that cut-over lands have a higher
sale value if they support sufficient trees for natural reproduction,
and if the trees which are too small for economic operation are per-
mitted to remain to form the next crop. Usually residual trees ac-
celerate their rate of growth after the larger trees are removed.
Since the conservation article of the Lumber Code became effec-
tive, the need for the employment of a forester of this type in our
organization has become increasingly imperative. However, limited
finances have prevented employing one inasmuch as a man with suf-
ficient age, training, experience, and personality for this very de-
sirable work has not been obtainable for the sum available.
Many of our district foresters have the qualifications for this kind
of work and do a large amount of it, but their other duties demand
so much of their time and attention that they can work on it only
intermittently. The value of assigning a man to this specific work
was proved in a similar instance when a full-time naval stores
technologist was employed.
34 The Work of the Florida Forest Service
July 1, 1932, to June 30, 1933
Balance- July 1, 1932 .................... .. .................. .... $ 12.88
Appropriation ......--............. ........... ... ............... 40,000.00
Expenditures ............. ......................
Balance- June 30, 1933 ................................ ..........
Balance- July 1, 1932 -............................ -- ... ............. $ 110.59
Receipts-From U. S. Government .............................. 68,683.18
Receipts-From Landowners ........................................... 12,825.95
Receipts-State Nursery .... ............................................... 1,170.62
Receipts- Depository Interest ......................................... 38.95
Expenditures .... ............. ..................................... $ 76,315.83
Balance- June 30, 1933 ....................-......... -... ........ 6,513.46
$ 82,829.29 $ 82,829.29
Expended from State Appropriation ...............-..-.......................$ 37,522.15
Expended from Cooperative Fund ....................-........ ...... ............ 76,315.83
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest Service ............--.. 30,573.19
July 1, 1933, to June 30, 1934
Balance- July 1, 1933 ................. ...............-- .......$ 1,215.05*
Appropriation ...... ......... ........................... ................ 44,000.00
E expenditures ...............--......... ..........................
$ 45,215.05 $ 45,215.05
Balance- July 1, 1933 .................... .. ........---.............$ 6,513.46
Receipts-From U. S. Government ...--..........................-... 69,280.00
Receipts-From Landowners .....................-................. 13,772.78
Receipts-Fire Control Improvements ..-........................... 3,922.00
Receipts- State Nursery --....................... ................. 3,458.41
Expenditure .. .....................................
Balance- June 30, 1934 .......... ........................................
Expended from State Appropriation --------..-........... ....................$ 45,215.05
Expended from Cooperative Fund ........................-.............. .............. 90,484.49
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest Service ................... 26,257.02
*Of the $2,490.73, balance on hand June 30, 1933, only $1,215.05 was credited
to this Department due to shortage in the General Revenue Fund.
Third Biennial Report '35
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
BOARD OF FORESTRY
S. BRYAN JENNINGS, President, Jacksonville
JOHN B. GLEN, Vice-President, Chipley
STANLEY S. SHEIP, Secretary, Apalachicola
MRS. LINWOOD JEFFREYS, Jacksonville
HAROLD S. FOLEY, Foley
OFFICE OF STATE FORESTER
HARRY LEE BAKER, State Forester
ROSA STANALAND, Secretary
JANE ALLEN, Chief Clerk
R. R. WHITTINGTON, Assistant State Forester
Publicity, Information, and Education-
A. D. FOLWEILER, Assistant State Forester
C. II. SCHAEFFER, Assistant State Forester
C. H. COULTER, Naval Stores Technologist,
Lake City, Florida
District 1-District Forester, Panama City
District 2-District Forester, Tallahassee
District 3-District Forester, Gainesville
District 4-District Forester, Jacksonville
District 5-District Forester, Lakeland
Address the Nurseryman