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FLAG



The work of the Florida Forest Service
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075938/00002
 Material Information
Title: The work of the Florida Forest Service
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Forest Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: 1930
Publication Date: [1930-1934]
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Forests and forestry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/1930-1932/1934.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: "A state organization directed by the Florida Board of Forestry, cooperating with the Federal government, counties, landowners, and wood-using industries to the end that idle acres may be adequately stocked with timber and the products utilized at a profit."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002480688
oclc - 12822183
notis - AMJ6288
lccn - sn 99026191
System ID: UF00075938:00002
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report of the Florida Forest and Park Service

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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        Page 9
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        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text



























































II










THE WORK

OF THE


FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE

SECOND BIENNIAL REPORT
JULY 1, 1930-JUNE 30, 1932


A STATE ORGANIZATION DIRECTED BY THE
FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY, COOPERATING
WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, COUNTIES,
LANDOWNERS, AND WOOD-USING INDUSTRIES
TO THE END THAT IDLE ACRES MAY BE ADE-
QUATELY STOCKED WITH TIMBER AND THE
PRODUCTS UTILIZED AT A PROFIT.


Applied Forestry
and
Forest Protection
RESTSER



TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


CONTENTS
Page
PERSONNEL .... ...................... .......... ............ 2
SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS:
Fire Control ............................................ 3
Applied Forestry ........................................... 4
Information and Education .................................. 7
FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY ............................... 9
HOW THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE IS FINANCED ........... 12
REQUIREMENTS FOR PROGRESS:
Combined Annual and Severance Tax ......................... 14
County Fire Control ........................................ 16
Survey of State's Forest Resources ........................... 18
FORESTRY EXTENSION:
Juvenile Forestry Education ................................ 21
Fire Control Cooperative Policy Adjusted ..................... 25
Carpet Grass Fire Breaks .................................. 29
Tree Plantations as Demonstrations ........................... 30
FINANCIAL STATEMENT:
Fiscal Y ear 1930-1931 ...................................... 34
Fiscal Year 1931-1932 ...................................... 35
FIRE CONTROL STATISTICS .................................. 36









2 The Work of the Florida Forest Service


? L ,,


FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE

BOARD OF FORESTRY
S. BRYAN JENNINGS, President, Jacksonville
JOHN B. GLEN, Vice-President, Chipley
SIMON F. WILLIAMS, Secretary, Jacksonville
STANLEY S. SHEIP, Apalachicola
R. V. OTT, Ocala.

OFFICE OF STATE FORESTER
Tallahassee, Florida
HARRY LEE BAKER, State Forester
ROSA STANALAND, Secretary
JANE ALLEN, Chief Clerk
Fire Control-
J. J. GOULDEN, Assistant State Forester
Information and Education-
A. D. FOLWEILER, Assistant State Forester
Applied Forestry-
C. H. COULTER, Assistant State Forester

DISTRICT ORGANIZATION
District 1-R. R. Whittington, District Forester, Panama City
District 2-G. A. Young, Assistant District Forester, Rt. 4, Tallahassee
District 3-L. T. Nieland, District Forester, Trenton, Florida
District 4-H. J. Malsberger, District Forester, Green Cove Springs
District 5-G. L. Dally, District Forester, Bartow

FIRE CONTROL UNITS
11 Rangers in charge of 10 group and 25 three-year demonstration units
22 observation towers manned part time by cooperators and the Forest
Service

STATE NURSERY
State Farm, Raiford
William B. Barnes, Nurseryman
Aubrey Frink, Consulting Nurseryman and Horticulturist
Paid Prison Crew; raises forest tree seedlings which are sold at cost for
reforestation purposes.







Second Biennial Report


SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS

FIRE CONTROL
ORGANIZED FIRE CONTROL AREAS
Advisory and financial assistance is extended by the Florida
Board of Forestry to landowners under cooperative agreements
which provide for the prevention and control of woods fires. The
landowners share at least one-half of the expenses, and in most
instances, pay for fire suppression. The Federal funds made
available to the State under Section 2 of the Clarke-McNary Law
are used to offset private expenditures. The State provides the
funds for the skeleton organization to supervise the work.
First Year-Cooperated with private landowners, small and
large, on 1,111,417 acres at the beginning of the year and on
1,144,153 acres at the end of the period.
Second Year-Organized fire control on 471,391 acres of forest
land at the beginning of the year. (See page 25 for expla-
nation of radical decrease from previous year.) Organized pro-
tection in cooperation with 108 individuals and companies on
911,456 acres at the end of the year.
NEW FIRE CONTROL UNITS
First Year-2 group fire control units consisting of 156,645
acres were organized.
Second Year-2 group and 25 three-year demonstration units
were organized aggregating 440,065 acres.
The major purpose of all fire control activities was to lower the
number of uncontrolled "wild fires" on protective areas.
FOREST FIRE SUPPRESSION
First Year-2,209 fires were suppressed on fire control units.
The area of these fires represented 11 per cent of contributing
acreage.
Second Year-1,869 fires that burned 15 per cent of the con-
tributing acreage were extinguished.
FIRE DETECTION ON PROTECTED LAND
Observation towers-"the eyes of the Service"-are indispen-
sable in organized fire control work. Lookout men stationed in
these towers on protected areas discover fires when they are small.
First Year-2 80-foot steel towers were erected. A total of







4 The Work of the Florida Forest Service

17 towers were manned part time during the year by cooperators
and the Forest Service.
Second Year-2 80-foot steel towers and 9 "crows' nests" or
pole lookouts, 45 to 70 feet in height, were erected. These and
11 other steel towers were manned part time during the fire
season by the Forest Service and cooperators.
FOREST FIRE COMMUNICATION
Forest telephone lines-"the nerves of the Service"-are used
by towermen in reporting fires to the warden, ranger, or private
cooperator.
First Year-78 miles of forest telephone line were built and
195 miles were maintained.
Second Year-130 miles of forest telephone line were con-
structed and 121 miles were maintained.
FIRE BREAKS
A fire break is a single, clean, plowed furrow, 6 to 9 feet in
width. Breaks of this width stop many slow burning fires and
are used as a base for backfiring to stop heavy conflagrations.
The Service developed a five-disc fire break plow, called the Nieland
plow, capable of constructing a fire break 8 feet wide at one trip.
First Year-2,164 miles of fire breaks were constructed on fire
control units of which 1,709 miles were plowed by the Service and
455 miles by private landowners.
Second Year-5,914 miles of fire breaks were constructed of
which 3,521 miles were plowed by the Service and 2,393 miles by
private landowners.
15 miles of fire breaks, 40 feet wide, were planted to carpet grass
to test the practicability of combining a green fire-break with
forage for beef cattle. Results appear favorable but not final.
FIRE TRUCKS
In the biennium, the Service developed a power fire fighting
pump which can be attached to either Ford or Chevrolet cars.
The pump enables a crew of 3 men to do as effective word as a
crew of 8 men with ordinary hand-operated suppression equip-
ment.
MAPS
A fire control map is essential to the accurate location of fires
by triangulation and -as a guide to the men engaged in fire sup-
pression work. Four such maps were drawn in 1931-32 for use
on as many fire control units.
APPLIED FORESTRY
The chief project of this Branch is the raising, distribution, and
planting of forest tree seedlings in cooperation with private land-
owners for reforestation purposes.
FOREST NURSERY
First Year-The Raiford nursery produced 491,517 pine seed-
lings, all of which were planted on private land.
The Bartow nursery produced approximately 3,500 exotic seed-
lings for experimental purposes in South Florida.








Second Biennial Report 5


Second Year-The Raiford nursery produced 559,000 pine seed-
lings and 5,000 exotics. Seedlings are sold to landowners for $3.00
per thousand, plus express charges, for reforestation purposes.
PLANTATIONS
First Year-195 cooperators were assisted in planting 1,470
acres of forest land with the seedlings raised in the nurseries.
Second Year-198 landowners were assisted in planting 564,000
seedlings on 1,574 acres.


_




3 Years Old 4 Years Old
SLASH PINE THE PREMIER TREE OF FLORIDA
The slash pine on the left is three years old from seed. The same tree is shown on the
right one year later. The turpentine operator who set out these seedlings, supplied by the
Forest Service, expects to cup the trees in the plantation in 12 to 14 years. Slash pine in
Florida grows six times as rapidly as spruce in-northeastern United States.

BURNED AND UNBURNED EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Comparative burned and unburned experimental plots were laid
out to ascertain, on a scientific basis, the effect of annual fires on
tree growth and reproduction.
First Year-22 plots were laid out and the 4 established the
previous year were maintained. -








6 The Work of the Florida Forest Service

Second Year-12 new plots were established and those former-
ly laid out were maintained.
ARBORETA
An arborcycle consists of trees planted in a form similar to
spokes in a wheel. The purpose is to determine the growing abili-
ty of tree species not native to Florida, under different spacings.
First Year-5 arborcycles were established.
Second Year-6 arborcycles each of 14 separate species were
planted.
VOCATIONAL FORESTRY
First Year-28 vocational agriculture teachers were assisted
in instructing 576 students in forestry. For information regard-
ing the second year see "Information and Education."
IMPROVED NAVAL STORES PRACTICES
Information in calendar form concerning improved naval stores
practices was circulated to the naval stores industry: 8,000 cal-
endars were distributed the first year and 6,000 the second year.
First Year-Cooperation was extended to the United States
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils in stilling experiments and gum
flow tests.
Second Year-Assistance was rendered to naval stores oper-
ators in supervising the construction of 5 turpentine stills built
under government specifications.
FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF TIMBER GROWING
Cooperation was extended to the United States Forest Service
in gathering data for the publication, Financial Aspects of Grow-
ing Southern Pine, Washington County, Florida, during the fiscal
year 1930-31.
FORESTRY, GRAZING, AND FIRE EXPERIMENT
First Year-A 560-acre forestry, grazing, and fire experiment
was established in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station and Penney Farms to ascertain the effects of
annual fires on forest tree growth and beef cattle production on
native range grazed nine months.
Second Year-A 210-acre forestry, grazing, and fire experi-
ment was started to determine beef production under burned and
unburned conditions on native range when grazed the entire year.
Conclusive results will not be available for several years.
THINNING PLOTS
Cooperation was extended to the United States Forest Service
in the establishment of thinning plots.
First Year-2 new plots were set up; 2 formerly established
were maintained.
Second Year-3 new plots were established and the other 4
maintained.
STORAX FROM SWEET GUM
Experiments on chipping sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
for storax production on a commercial scale were made. Results
showed chipping unprofitable at present prices.







Second Biennial Report 7

INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
VISUAL EDUCATION
First Year-435 motion picture shows, which reached approxi-
mately 85,000 people, were put on in Florida. This was the final
year of a forestry educational project conducted jointly by the
American Forestry Association, the Florida Forestry Association,
and the Florida Forest Service.
Second Year-Motion pictures, arranged in story form depict-
ing the disadvantages of annual wild fires, were shown by 2 truck
outfits in 138 communities in 22 counties; this message reached
17,875 white children, 10,341 white adults, 11,003 colored chil-
dren, and 897 colored adults, or a total of 30,113 people.
Forestry exhibits were displayed at 3 state fairs, 1 state teach-
ers' meeting, and 1 commercial forestry conference. These reached
approximately 4,300 adults and 250 children.
OTHER JUVENILE EDUCATION
Second Year-Assistance was given to 27 vocational agricul-
ture teachers in presenting forestry instruction to approximately
600 agriculture students.
Cooperation was initiated with the Florida Lumber and Mill-
work Association and Boy Scouts of America to establish 25 Scout
Forests scattered throughout the State.
One juvenile fire club was rehabilitated and a new one formed.
These clubs protect approximately 6,500 acres.
School principals and teachers, community leaders, and nursery-
men were contacted in 26 communities as the beginning of an ex-
periment in juvenile education among the school children to build
up a sentiment which will outlaw the annual woods-burning cus-
tom.
LECTURES
Itinerary was arranged, and assistance rendered in the form of
personal services, for H. N. Wheeler, chief lecturer of the United
States Forest Service, for a two-weeks' tour in the State. His 16
talks on the damaging effects of wild fire and advantages of fire
control reached 893 adults.
Illustrated lectures on forest fires as a destroyer of timber,
game, and outdoor beauty were presented to 81 school audiences,
10 luncheon clubs, 13 Women's and Garden Clubs, and 10 miscel-
laneous groups, totaling 4,875 adults and 31,836 children in 27
counties.
GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL TREE PLANTING
During the fiscal year 1931-32, the Forest Service participated
in the nation-wide George Washington memorial tree planting
campaign sponsored by the American Tree Association. Results
of the campaign have not been released by the American Tree
Association, but the Florida Forest Service has a record of having
assisted school children in planting 141,000 slash pine trees in
plantations and individual arrangement to interest the children








8 The Work of the Florida Forest Service

in tree growth and the damaging effects of forest fires, as well as
to serve as living memorials.
PUBLICATIONS, POSTERS, INFORMATION
First Year-Timber growing and forest landtax studies were
made in cooperation with the United States Forest Service. The
results were published in Bulletin 6, Florida's Forest Land Prob-
lem.
The financial aspects of growing southern pine consisted of
studies in Bradford, Hamilton, Bay, and Osceola Counties; the
information was compiled in an unpublished report.
The Service participated in the First Florida Commercial For-
estry Conference held in Marianna in April. The papers read at
the Conference were later briefed and published in bulletin form,
First Florida Commercial Conference.
Second Year-Publications in the form of 16,000 bulletins of a
somewhat technical nature, 10,000 leaflets of a popular concept,
especially as regards forest fires, were generally distributed
throughout the State. County judges cooperated in the distribu-
tion of 35,000 license containers to hunters and fishermen to im-
press upon them the importance of forest fire prevention. 13,500
posters on forest fires were erected on and around the protected
areas.
The newspapers of the State printed 5,732 column inches of
general forestry information obtained from news releases and
other sources.
EQUIPMENT INVENTORY
An inventory of the equipment in the Department was taken
for the first time which revealed that the Forest Service had
capital assets in the form of equipment amounting to $58,261.57,
as of June 1, 1932.







Second Biennial Report 9










FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY

The members of the Florida Board of Forestry are appointed
by the Governor. The Board determines policies, prescribes regu-
lations and has general supervision over the organization it has
chosen to call the Florida Forest Service. Each of the five mem-
bers serve for a period of four years. If, at the expiration of a
term, a member is not reappointed or replaced, he is privileged
to serve until either he is reappointed or a successor is named.
Board members do not receive any compensation whatsoever
for their services. They are reimbursed for actual and necessary
expenses incurred in connection with the official business of the
Board. During the two-year period covered by this report, six
meetings were held. The total amount paid to members to cover
actual subsistence and travel expenses incurred by attending
these meetings for the two-year period, and for special investiga-
tions in connection with the business of the Board, was $925.46,
which amounts to $92.54 per member per year.
In September, 1931, the commissions of A. A. Payne of Panama
City, and N. J. Wicker of Coleman, expired. Governor Doyle E.
Carlton thereupon appointed R. V. Ott of Ocala, and Stanley S.
Sheip of Apalachicola to fill these vacancies.

MEMBERS, FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY
Date
Name Residence Commission Expires
S. Bryan Jennings, President Jacksonville September 6,1933
John B. Glenn, Vice-President Chipley December 22,1934
Simon F. Williams, Secretary Jacksonville September 10, 1932
Stanley S. Sheip Apalachicola September 16, 1935
R. V. Ott Ocala September 16, 1935








10 The Work of the Florida Forest Service










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The Work of the Florida Forest Service


HOW THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE

IS FINANCED

Fiscal Year Federal State Private Total
1930-1931 ..............$ 78,230.00 $ 48,304.79 $ 57.125.30 $183,660.09
1931-1932 .............. 68,036.12 39,987.12 42,237.87 150,261.11
Total for Biennium .....$146,266.12 $ 88,291.91 $ 99,363.17 $333,921.20
Average Annual Expendi-
ture ................ $ 73,133.06 $ 44,145.95 $ 49,681.59 $166,960.10
Per Cent ............... 43.8 26.4 29.8 100
Forest fire prevention and control work is financed through the
Florida Forest Service under a so-called "triple alliance" com-
posed of the private landowners, the State, and the Federal Gov-
ernment. It has long been recognized by the Federal Government
that the forest fire problem throughout the country concerns
the well-being of the whole nation as well as that of the states,


WHICH?
TIMBER PRODUCTION or FOREST DESTRUCTION
THROUGH FIRE CONTROL THROUGH ANNUAL BURNING
Seven years ago the timber on both sides of the road was cut. Since that time fire has not
occurred on the left side and nature restocked this area with a thrifty stand of slash pine. Fire
burned the land on the right side of the road for seven consecutive years, leaving it idle and
unproductive. The owner saw the difference, and placed both areas under protection. Note the
fire line on the right side of the road.







Second Biennial Report 13

landowners, and the wood-using industries. The recognition of
the Federal Government's responsibility resulted in the enactment
of the Clarke-McNary Law. The plan has been for the Federal,
State, and County governments, and the owners of private lands
to unite upon an effective forest fire prevention and control pro-
gram. Under Section 2 of the Clarke-McNary Law, financial aid
is extended to such states as are engaged in the prevention and
control of forest fires. Forty-one states and Hawaii have been
in this manner assisted with their endeavors to combat woods fires.
Section 4 of the Clarke-McNary Law has to do with the growing
and distribution of forest tree planting stock. The purpose of
this Federal aid project is to bring about reforestation by means
of planting idle forest lands which will not stock naturally.
During each of the past two years, the Federal Government,
pursuing its policy of liberal contributions toward newly estab-
lished fire control and reforestation programs, has shared 43.8
per cent, the private landowners under cooperative agreement
29.8 per cent, and the State 26.4 per cent of all expenditures in the
biennium covered by this report. In the past the Federal Govern-
ment has shared up to 50 per cent of the total cost of the fire
control work. The aim of the Clarke-McNary Law, however, is
to reduce gradually the Federal Government's share until a ratio
of 25 per cent Federal, 25 per cent State, and 50 per cent Private
is attained, or at least for the State and private expenditures com-
bined to equal 75 per cent of the total.
In the first year of the biennium, the State appropriation pro-
vided $60,000, of which $48,304.79 was expended. During the
second year, $40,000 was provided from the general revenue fund,
an appropriation decrease of $20,000 per annum; of this amount,
$39,987.12 was expended.
PROTECTION COST FOR EACH ADDITIONAL MILLION ACRES
At the end of the biennium, the Forest Service was cooperating
with 108 landowners in the prevention and control of woods fires
on 911,456 acres of land. The Forest Service also assisted owners
in the successful establishment of 173 forest tree plantations.
The skeleton organization required for the supervision of these,
and numerous other projects outlined in this report, is shown on
the accompanying chart. The organization is necessarily a far
flung one, as the projects are broadly scattered over the entire
State. This skeleton organization is sufficient to supervise the
protection of at least an additional three million acres of land
without any expansion whatsoever. Any increase in appropria-
tion would therefore be expended for organized fire control work
locally. If the State should share 25 per cent of the costs, as con-
templated by the Clarke-McNary Law, it is estimated that each
additional million acres of land, up to three million, would cost
the State $15,000.








14 The Work of the Florida Forest Service


REQUIREMENTS FOR PROGRESS

The immediate job confronting the Florida Forest Service is
to put the 23,600,000 acres of forest land in the State to work pro-
ducing wealth for the landowner and State. Timber production
can be considered the chief use of forest land. However, there
are secondary uses which, in certain instances, become primary,
as for example, grazing and the production of game animals and
birds.
IMMEDIATE NEEDS
A YIELD TAX ON FOREST PRODUCTS WHEN HAR-
VESTED PLUS A LOW ANNUAL TAX
AN ENABLING ACT TO PERMIT COUNTIES TO EX-
PEND FUNDS FOR FOREST FIRE CONTROL
INVENTORY OF THE STATE'S FOREST RESOURCES
THE NEW PUBLIC DOMAIN
It is estimated by sources regarded as reliable by the Depart-
ment that in January, 1932, between 9,500,000 and 11,000,000
acres, about one-third of the land area of the State, were tax de-
linquent. The landowner, faced by high taxes and inability to
cope alone with the forest fire situation, permits the forest land
to lie idle and become tax delinquent, consequently placing an in-
creased tax burden upon the remaining productive lands. Each
time the cycle of decreasing tax collections and increasing tax as-
sessments is made, it becomes more vicious, wider in scope, and
causes greater casualties in the form of increased tax delinquen-
cies which eventually lead to bankruptcy.
Because much of the land area of Florida is apparently destined
to remain best suited to forestry, and because of the rapid-grow-
ing, triple-purpose trees which grow naturally in such abundance
where forest fires are controlled, it is quite evident that, if the
future well-being of the State is considered, attention should be
given to those matters which will make it conducive to owners of
forest land to retain title thereto and practice such forestry meas-
ures as will make the land productive. If this is not done, vast
areas of forest land will remain permanently off the tax rolls,
constituting a new public domain of annually decreasing value
with questionable title vested in neither the State nor the individ-
ual, a burden to the State and operating against, instead of for,
private ownership and management of forest lands.







Second Biennial Report 15

INVESTIGATIONS
Some attention has been given by the Department to determine
the reason for such widespread tax delinquency and to discover
measures that could be adopted for the solution of this problem.
In the publication, Financial Aspects of Growing Southern Pine,
Washington County, Florida, prepared jointly by the United
States Forest Service and the Florida Forest Service, a statement
is made which could be used as a basis for a policy to change the
present tax situation in so far as it affects the taxation of forest
lands. The statement is as follows:
"The forest land tax situation must be revised in Florida.
It must be adjusted to the income and value of the present
depleted second-growth stands. Only in this way can con-
structive building up of the forest capital be encouraged.
The forest land tax in Washington County averages $0.22 per
acre The assessment of forest land, according to the
preliminary survey made in this study, is much higher in its
relation to sale value than the assessment of improved lands.
The same situation exists in other forest counties. It will
not do to say merely that forestry practice is the remedy.
While this may be the final remedy, it takes time and capital
investment to restock forest land. The State will do well in
adopting a flexible tax system that will permit the reforest-
ing of its lands, and automatically increase the tax as the in-
come increases."
An investigation on the current situation regarding taxation of
forest lands as published in Florida's Forest Land Problem shows
clearly that "In five Florida counties the study of 244 unplotted
properties indicate the ratio of assessed value to actual sale to be
20 per cent for improved land, while for unimproved land, it was
53 per cent. This means that forest land bears an 82 per cent
higher tax rate than improved lands" which have annually some
income. The report also makes it quite evident that forest lands
are being taxed far in excess of present forest income.
ANNUAL TAX TREND TOWARD TIMBER DEPLETION
Under the present system of ad valorem taxation, forest lands
are taxed annually, regardless of the amount of income which is
derived from them. About 95 per cent of Florida's forest lands
have been cut over within the past forty years. This means,
therefore, that by far most of Florida's lands are not producing
an income to their owners today because the land, if stocked with
second-growth timber at all, is not in condition for conducting a
profitable woods operation. Much of the second-growth timber
has been chipped for naval stores. Most of this timber is small
in size-so small, as a matter of fact, that once it has been chipped
it is useable for no other purpose than pulpwood, or fuel wood.
Many owners have been forced, to lease their timber to naval
stores operators in order to defray their annual costs, such as







16 The Work of the Florida Forest Service

taxes. This virtually means that timber has been forced prema-
turely on the market because of unwise taxation.
YIELD TAX WHEN FOREST CROP IS HARVESTED
If private ownership of forest lands is to be continued, confis-
catory taxation must stop. Also, if Florida wishes to produce
raw material in the form of timber for its wood-using industries,
the State must make it possible for landowners to retain posses-
sion of their land and practice forestry.
One remedy which could be applied to the situation would be a
flat annual land tax plus a yield tax when the forest products are
severed from the land. The application of the system could be
made optional with the owner. The land tax would aid counties
to conduct their usual business without impairing their activity
too greatly and would also enable the landowner to carry his tim-
ber for a longer period of time; at least, until it could become
merchantable at a profit. This would enable him to avoid forced
liquidation of his timber assets and allow the trees to grow to
sawlog size before operations commenced. At the time of sever-
ance of the timber, or a product of the tree, a percentage of the
sales value would accrue to the County and State in lieu of the
diminished annual taxes for the period in which the timber was
growing.
The taxation of forest lands is a matter which cannot be ad-
justed alone and apart from other State matters because public
income and expenditure are so delicately balanced that any action
affecting the income will in turn react upon expenditure which
requires an adjustment in income. The taxation of forest lands
is a matter of public concern; no single group of interested people
can remedy the situation. The taxation affecting forest lands is
so much a unit of governmental finance that broad perspective
must be employed in recommended adjustment.
The enactment of legislation outlined above will encourage the
landowner, who owns forest lands, to attempt reforestation. It
is fallaceous to believe that the landowner is capable of paying
out money annually, year after year, with no income accruing
from his forest property which is the case in cut-over lands.
The application of the yield tax law would not constitute tax
dodging. It would, however, serve as a means by which thou-
sands, and possibly millions, of acres of forest lands would find
their way back to the tax rolls.
COUNTY FIRE CONTROL
One hundred and eight individuals and companies, in coopera-
tion with the Florida Forest Service and Federal Government,
were protecting their forest properties against fire at the end of
the biennium. They have assumed their full responsibility and
truly are pioneering,in the field offorest fire prevention and con-
trol. These people feel that public support is far removed and
that the counties should assume some of the responsibility.







Second Biennial Report 17

The owner of a protected property rarely uses fire and when he
does, it is under control. He instructs all employees to prevent
and control fires. Usually, he feels able to take care of his own
fire problem. He has little control, however, over hunters, camp-
ers, stockmen, turpentine operators and others who may be care-
less or intentionally turn fire loose in the woods.
Fire control to a large extent is the problem of the individual
owner. While a large number of owners are protecting their
properties with good results, the owners as a general rule feel un-
able to control the situation alone. They pay taxes the same as
property owners in cities and feel that the county government
should give them some protection.
If fire control could be organized on a county basis, it would be
possible to provide observation towers. The men stationed in
them could report fires promptly to cooperating landowners and
to rangers or wardens, who would assist the owners by directing
the suppression work of stand-by or registered fire crews sup-
ported by modern fire fighting equipment. County rangers could
carry on fire prevention educational work and enforce the fire
laws. Fires would be controlled on the properties of absentee
owners so that those resident owners already protecting their
properties would feel much safer. They would continue to fight
their own fires.
In some counties where there are thousands of parcels of land,
it is an insurmountable task for the District Forester to sign up
and cooperate with each individual owner, many of whom live in
distant cities. In such counties the logical set-up is for all as-
sessed property to contribute to forest fire protection as is done
in the cities. Under county-wide protection, the fire control work
would continue through depression periods and while lands were
off the tax books. Forest values would be created so that more
owners would feel able to pay their taxes. Fire protection by the
county and the State should, therefore, be regarded as a self-
liquidating investment.
In the past, the forest lands have supplied the raw material for
the wood-using industries of Florida, which annually produced
commodities valued as high as $100,000,000, employed as many as
70,000 wage-earners, and indirectly provided the means of sup-
port for one-fourth of Florida's population. New money will
flow into our State to the extent that raw materials are shipped
out, and future output depends largely upon the growing power
of our lands. Everybody loses when timber burns, and the people
in the cities should be as much interested in the suggested law
authorizing organized fire control on a county-wide basis as the
owners of forest properties.
Public interest in the fire problem of the landowner should be
aroused at this time when about 9,000,000 acres of land are off the
tax books. High taxes are partly responsible, but most of these
lands would be on the tax books today, if they had not been ren-







The Work of the Florida Forest Service


dered idle and unproductive by woods fires. There is a close re-
lation between tax delinquency and the idle land problem, and
the public is interested in helping the landowner to produce tim-
ber, if for no other reason than to bring this land back on the
tax books. Too, the county should safeguard its equity in tax-
delinquent lands from further damage by fire and trespass.
The landowner cannot handle the fire situation alone and de-
mands public aid on the grounds that protection is normally ex-
tended to individuals in society where they are not able to protect
themselves. The forest-landowner's fire problem is of public con-
cern, and the public should demand that he be given a fair chance
to produce timber on his property. He will be encouraged to
assume the risk of fire protection when an outraged public opin-
ion demands more equitable taxes, fire law enforcement, and
some assistance in controlling fires!
A SUGGESTED LAW AUTHORIZING ORGANIZED FIRE CONTROL ON A
COUNTY-WIDE BASIS
Authorizing Boards of County Commissioners to Cooperate
with the Florida Board of Forestry and Federal Government in
the Prevention and Control of Forest Fires on a County-wide Basis.
A Bill to Be Entitled An Act Authorizing the Counties of Flor-
ida to Levy an Assessment not to Exceed Two Mills on the Dollar
of Assessed Value to Cooperate with the Florida Board of For-
estry in Forest Fire Protection Work.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE
OF FLORIDA:
Section I. That the Boards of County Commissioners of the
several counties of the State of Florida be and they are hereby
authorized and empowered to enter into agreements with the
State Board of Forestry of the State of Florida for the establish-
ment of county-wide fire protective units in any or all of said
counties, and said Boards of County Commissioners are hereby
authorized and empowered to levy, assess and collect a tax not to
exceed two (2) mills on the dollar, assessed valuation upon the
taxable real and personal property in said counties for use of the
State Board of Forestry in the maintenance of said county-wide
fire protective units which are hereby declared to be county pur-
poses.
Section II. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict herewith
are hereby repealed.
Section III. That this Act shall become effective upon its be-
coming a law.
SURVEY OF STATE'S FOREST RESOURCES
The United States Forest Service, through the McNary-Mc-
Sweeney Law, was given authority and funds for cooperatively
conducting a survey of forest resources throughout the various


18







Second Biennial Report


timber regions of the United States. The survey has been com-
pleted for the Northwest and Mississippi Hardwood Regions.
In order for private owners, states, and the counties at large to
formulate properly a forestry program which can be carried out
successfully, it is necessary to have information on the timber
resources as they now exist. There is much discussion, based upon
loose and unsubstantiated facts, concerning our timber resources
today. Is our forest capital increasing or decreasing? This is
especially important with regard to the naval stores and wood-
using industries which depend upon timber for raw material.
Florida has not been able to take advantage of the McNary-Mc-
Sweeney funds because no part of the funds appropriated by the
State legislature is available for this purpose.
Lack of information on the State's forest resources not only
handicaps the formation of an adequate forest policy for the
State, but also prohibits statements supported by facts which
would make it inviting for wood-using industries to locate in
Florida.
With the trend toward newsprint production from southern
pines, Florida with its fast-growing tall specie and large areas of
forest land should make every effort to present facts which will
induce wood-using industries, especially paper manufacturers, to
locate plants here. $








The Work of the Florida Forest Service


FORESTRY EXTENSION

The work of the Florida Forest Service is founded on the belief
that its primary function is the extension of good forestry prac-
tices throughout the timber-growing areas of the State.
Fundamentally, all efforts in fire control, applied forestry, and
information and education are directed toward forestry exten-
sion. The 3-year demonstration fire control contracts embody an
educational feature which aims at stimulating the landowner to
assume the responsibility of preventing and suppressing forest
fires on his own property. As these areas develop in value through
fire control, they serve to demonstrate and extend good practices
to adjoining landowners.
The same principle applies to the planting of forest trees. Suc-
cessful plantations which demonstrate the rapidity with which
certain commercial species grow under some care, extend the
idea to neighboring landowners.
By means of such widely scattered examples of good forestry
practices, the general public can actually see how forest fires are
controlled and how the land restocks with trees and growth in-


LAKE JOVITA VOLUNTEER FOREST FIRE FIGHTERS
This group of farm boys fight all fires on a 1,480-acre tract which they selected. This
volunteer work is the result of their hearing one lecture and seeing one motion picture
show pointing the way to forest fire prevention and proper forest management.








Second Biennial Report


creases. Thus far, many fire control areas have demonstrated
the increased values which result from fire prevention and sup-
pression, and plantations have shown exceptional development.
There is still another means of developing a public forestry
consciousness which consists of educating the youth in the ad-
vantages of forest fire control and good woods practices. It is
with this type of education that the Branch of Information and
Education is particularly concerned.

JUVENILE FORESTRY EDUCATION
The continual presentation of actual facts to adults will produce
some results in preventing forest fires, but the early training of
children to this end is far more effective. It is hoped that adults
can be "sold" on forestry by presenting economic facts on the
value of maintaining the productivity of forest lands. Youth can
be trained to prevent fires by acquiring fire prevention habits,
such, for example, as breaking a match before it is thrown away.
Although motion pictures have been shown to school children,
and in spite of the fact that educational work is done among juve-
nile organizations, there is a distinct need to make organized
educational work, which will show the need for intelligent use
of natural resources, a part of the regular instruction in the
schools.
If it is assumed that Florida will remain essentially an agricul-
tural and timber-producing state, it would seem reasonable that
the school children should be instructed in the part that natural

















CHILDREN OF LAKEWOOD SCHOOL, ST. PETERSBURG, RECEIVING GEORGE WASH-
INGTON MEMORIAL TREE CERTIFICATES FROM MRS. CLARA I. THOMAS,
STATE CONSERVATION CHAIRMAN OF GARDEN CLUBS
One hundred and forty-one thousand slash pine trees were planted by school children as
memorials to George Washington. It has been said that when a child plants and cares for a
tree, he becomes a forest conservationist at heart. At least, interest is aroused and the teacher
has an opportunity to teach the children how they are dependent upon the forests and why
it is important to prevent and control forest fires.







The Work of the Florida Forest Service


resources will play in their future existence as citizens of the
State, inasmuch as natural resources constitute all basic wealth.
Juvenile education has been confined largely, except in a few
isolated cases, to the presentation of basic knowledge; there has
been little instruction as to the application of the knowledge. In
our State institutions of higher learning where many students
prepare to enter the teaching profession, there is no course which
can equip them, even very superficially, with information which
would indicate that Florida's wealth is derived chiefly from agri-
culture and other natural resources, such as forest products,
minerals, sponges, fish, and climate. It has also probably not
occurred to students that only 1,499,800 acres of land were in
cultivation in the State in 1929. This is less than 5 per cent of
















VISUAL FOREST FIRE PREVENTION EDUCATION IN COUNTRY SCHOOL
HOUSE
Motion pictures, arranged in story form, depicting the disadvantages of annual
wild fires, were shown by two truck outfits in 138 communities in 22 counties; this
message reached 17,875 white children, 10,341 white adults, 11.003 colored children,
and 897 colored adults, or a total of 30,113 people.
the total land area of the State; sixty-seven per cent is in forest
land. Before the importance of natural resources can be brought
to the attention of the school children even in an indirect way, it
must first be demonstrated to their teachers who should have an
opportunity to receive basic information on a matter so vital to
the economic welfare of the State. Effort is being made to bring
this matter to the attention of the various educational agencies
of the State in the hope that not only those who will become
teachers, but all students, will have an opportunity to become ac-
quainted with the natural resources and the economic bearing
they have on the State.
There has been a tendency in forestry educational work to mere-
ly talk planting, thinning, practicing fire control, et cetera. The
Forest Service believes, however, that better results will be
secured if the child actually participates in some phase of forestry








Second Biennial Report


FIRE LINE CONSTRUCTION ON BOY SCOUT FOREST
Cooperation was initiated with the Florida Lumber and Millwork Association, Boy Scouts of
America organization, and American Forestry Association to establish 25 Scout forests, 25 to
40 acres in size, scattered through the twelve Scout councils in the State.
Each troop is required to protect the Scout Forest from fire, establish fire breaks, secure the
cooperation of nearby residents in fire prevention, plant the open spaces with pine tree seed-
lings, and identify trees.
practice. With this thought in mind, tree seedlings are distributed
free for educational purposes to schools for planting by the pupils.
With those older groups of juveniles with which the Service is
working, such as the vocational agriculture students, Boy Scouts,
and fire control clubs, the project has been planned so that the
boys are able to practice actual forestry work which will give
tangible results.
TWO NEW EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS
SCOUT FORESTS
As indicated above, the Forest Service maintains that in educa-
tional work as well as in applied forestry and fire control, demon-
stration is the most effective method of selling. Towards this
end the Scout Forests project is being conducted in cooperation
with the Boy Scouts, Florida Lumber and Millwork Association,
and the American Forestry Association. The objective of the
project is the establishment of 25 Scout forests, 25 to 40 acres
in size, scattered through the twelve Scout councils in the State.
Each troop is required to protect its Scout Forest from fire, plant
the open spaces with pine seedlings, secure the cooperation of
nearby residents in fire prevention, establish firebreaks, and
identify trees.
The Florida Lumber and Millwork Association will send the
most outstanding Scout in each troop to a Scout camp for one week








24 The Work of the Florida Forest Service


A SEED BED HARD TO BEAT
Donald Kraft, Gonzalez, third prize winner, 1932.
This agricultural student, enrolled in a practical forestry course, demonstrated
his ability to raise pine seedlings for planting idle forest land on his father's
farm. This bed produced 500 thrifty pine seedlings. In the vocational agricul-
tural school foretry course, sponsored by the Forest Service, over 1,000 individual
seed beds were planted and cared for in two years. Planting seedlings, scaling
timber, tree identification, fire control, seed collection, thinning and utilization
were studied and practiced in addition to this seed bed work.

as a reward for meritorious forestry work. The American Forestry
Association will award a plaque to the Scoutmaster who achieves
the best results with his troop. The Florida Forest Service plans
to assist each troop in the selection of its forest site, contribute
the planting stock, plow fire lines when consistent with other de-
mands upon the plowing equipment, and aid in the instruction of
tree identification.
CORRELATION OF NATURE STUDY AND FOREST CONSERVATION
In the educational work of the Service, it is considered highly
desirable to interest not only the high school students in the con-
servation of our natural resources but also those in the elementary
grades. To this end, a nature study project was planned and
partly executed during the biennium.
In order to interest young children in fire prevention, it was
found necessary to attract their attention by correlating this sub-
ject with something with which they were already familiar, such
as the birds, insects and animals of the woods. A study of the
life habits of these animals emphasizes the important part which
the forest plays in their existence. Any destructive force, such
as an uncontrolled forest fire, is recognized as an enemy of the
wild life of the woods, and, consequently, a menace against which
to guard. With this realization, the young child begins to under-
stand the necessity of preventing forest fires.








Second Biennial Report 25


"THE EYES OF THE SERVICE"
Observation towers are indispensable in organized fire control
work. Lookout men on protected areas, stationed in these towers
during burning weather, discover fires when they are small. A total
of 22 steel and wooden pole lookouts were manned part time during
the fire season by the private cooperators or the Forest Service.
As an aid to teachers, forest conservation outlines were pre-
pared in the form of a unit for each of the elementary grade levels.
Each unit revolved around some animal, bird, or insect life native
to the woods.
As a part of this project, the cooperation of teachers, local
nurserymen, Parent-Teachers Associations, Garden Clubs and
Women's Clubs was enlisted so that flowering trees could be dis-
tributed to the school children at a very low cost. The children's
interest in tree life was stimulated by planting these trees at their
homes. They were actually able to observe the difficulties which
small trees encounter in their struggle for survival. With this
knowledge gained from actual experience, the child was able to
appreciate the natural as well as human forces with which tree
growth must cope in its early life.
FIRE CONTROL COOPERATIVE POLICY ADJUSTED
Forest fire control activities were disorganized in the beginning
of the fiscal year 1931-1932 because State funds were appropri-
ated by the legislature with the proviso that they could not be








26 The Work of the Florida Forest Service


used for the protection of lands on which taxes had not been paid.
It developed that 57 per cent of the area protected in cooperation
with landowners was tax delinquent. Much of the land which
was not tax delinquent was so scattered as to render administra-
tion impracticable or was insufficient in area to bear the necessary
overhead administrative charges. In all instances where pro-
tection was abandoned, the area was burned over in subsequent
months, thereby destroying beautiful stands of young slash pine
that Nature had been able to establish in the absence of fire-a
complete loss of all that had been invested by the State, Federal
Government, and landowners.
INDIVIDUAL DEMONSTRATION UNITS
Prior to 1928, organized fire control was rarely practiced in
the State. No greater need was felt to exist than to establish
numerous demonstrations illustrating how fire control was accom-
plished and the benefits to be derived. Up to 1931, the Service
organized fire control units only where a group of owners had
lands covering areas of 60,000 acres or more which were well
blocked in, and from which sufficient private funds could be
derived to finance the work. Three outstanding reasons caused
the Florida Board of Forestry to revise its policy of cooperating
with landowners: (1) recognition of the urgency of extending
cooperative aid to many scattered land tracts where group pro-
tection was impossible; (2) belief that many areas were suffi-
ciently tenanted to cope adequately with the actual necessary fire
fighting, if given assistance in the other phases of fire control;
(3) the loss of 57 per cent of the protected area which was tax
delinquent and not eligible for State financial aid because of legis-
lative ruling.


THE "NIELAND" FIRE LINE PLOW DEVELOPED BY THE FLORIDA
FOREST SERVICE
Fire lines consisting of furrows 6 to 8 ft. in width are a necessary part of a
fire protective system. Handicapped because practically no plow could be found
suitable for such rigorous work, the Florida Forest Service developed the above
plow, and stimulated the efforts of manufacturers in evolving similar equip-
ment. The plow shown above will throw a furrow 8 feet wide in one trip at
a cost of approximately $2.30 per mile.








Second Biennial Report 27


~1AITt V


THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE PLOW CONSTRUCTING AN
EIGHT-FOOT FIRE LINE IN ONE TRIP
Lines of this width stop many slow-burning fires and are used as a base from
which to backfire to stop heavy fires. During the years 1931 and 1932, the
Forest Service constructed 5,230 miles, and private owners 2,848 miles of fire
lines on fire control units similar to that illustrated above.
THREE-YEAR PLAN
The Service cooperates with the landowners on a 50-50 basis up
to a limit of 10 cents per acre. The records for a four-year period
show an average expenditure of 6 cents per acre which under our
present policy would mean 3 cents for the State and Federal Gov-
ernmnent and 3 cents for the landowner. On large units or under
county-wide fire control units this cost can be cut in half.
Most of the new listings are under the three-year demonstra-
tional agreement, which places responsibility on the landowner to
provide his own labor and fight all fires with no reimbursement
from the State. State and Federal funds may be expended for
lookout towers and observers, ranger service, fire fighting equip-
ment, or to construct fire breaks and telephone lines, as may be
agreed on. By the end of three years, it is anticipated that the
State will probably withdraw from the picture, except that it may
continue to make "blanket" expenditures for county or district
rangers and to man primary lookout towers.
This three-year plan is working out very well. It is adapted to
the resident owner who believes in fire protection, is willing to
assume the risk of bad fires in "the rough", following a few years
of fire protection, and who has ample man-power at his disposal
to suppress fires. There are 25 individuals owning 268,182 acres
of land who are protecting their properties under the three-year
plan in cooperation with the Forest Service.
FIRE BREAKS IN FIRE CONTROL
One of the major projects of the Branch of Fire Control was to
develop an adequate, well-planned system of fire breaks on protec-
tive units. A fire break usually consists of a single plowed furrow
6 to 9 feet wide which is used as a base from which to backfire.
Fire breaks are not intended to check fires, although they fre-
quently stop them.









28 The Work of the Florida Forest Service








HAND-OPERATED FIRE FIGHTING PUMP
Knapsack fire-fighting pumps, using water, are
efficient suppression tools. Supplemented with fire
rakes and flaps, these pumps have proved service-
able outfits for a landowner's use in keeping fire
off his property.









A RANGER'S FIRE FIGHT-
ING TRUCK
The fire fighting truck
with pressure water pump
enables three men to do as
efficient work as a crew of
eight equipped with ordinary
hand tools. As the truck
travels at a walking rate
along the edge of the fire,
the man operating the hose
knocks down the flames with
a continuous stream of water
pumped from a 100-gallon
tank on the truck. The
water pump is driven by a
belt attached to the fan shaft
of the engine in the truck,
an arrangement conceived by
members of the Florida For-
est Service. It has been es-
timated that truck equip-
ment can be used efficiently
on 75 per cent of all forest
fires.

Landowners and turpentine operators feel much safer with
their lands blocked up with fire breaks, and are more inclined to as-
sume the risks that accompany fire control. Approximately 18
miles of fire breaks are required to break up a section of turpentine
woods into 10-acre blocks which, at $2.30 per mile, brings the cost
of the average section to about $40.00 for the initial fire break out-
lay. In subsequent years the cost of maintaining these breaks
drops to about $20.00 per section. In normal times it costs the
turpentine operator about $40.00 a year to rake and burn a crop
of cupped trees (found on about a section of land or less). This,
in fact, is merely another form of protection which is usually more
expensive than fire breaks.
Many operators are abandoning the practice of raking and
burning, and instead are constructing fire breaks and fighting all
fires, since they obtain greater yields of gum and higher grades of
rosin from unburned woods. During the last year of the bien-








Second Biennial Report


FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE EMERGENCY FOREST FIRE TRUCK
Anticipating the need of backing up landowners and crews during emergency fire weather,
the Forest Service developed a 1%-ton truck which is available for use on all fire control units
in the northwestern part of the State.
nium, those cooperating with the Forest Service plowed 2,393
miles of fire line as against 455 miles in 1930-31. The Forest Serv-
ice plowed 3,501 miles in 1931-32, compared with 1,709 miles dur-
ing the first year of the biennium.
Fire line building requires unusual plow construction. Handi-
capped because practically no plow could be found suitable for
such rigorous work, the Forest Service developed the "Nieland"
plow which is capable of making an 8-foot fire line in one trip at
a cost of about $2.30 per mile.
CARPET GRASS FIRE BREAKS
Realizing that millions of acres of land will for decades to come
be devoted to the production of timber and grazing of cattle, and
that it is of the utmost importance that those primarily interested
in timber production cooperate with the stockmen in an endeavor
to coordinate these forms of land use, five carpet grass fire-break
experiments were established. They were 18 to 40 feet wide and
2 to 6 miles long. Carpet grass seed was sown on these freshly
plowed breaks at the rate of about fifteen pounds per acre. Under
ordinary conditions, fire-breaks which form a necessary part of
a fire control system constitute a loss in productive acreage on the
unit, and require annual or biennial maintenance. When fire-
breaks are planted to good forage grasses, however, they not only
retard the spread of fires but permit intensive grazing on land
that would otherwise be idle. The results of these widely scat-
tered experiments are not yet conclusive. The grass appears to
be spreading rapidly over the plowed fire-breaks and it seems quite
probable that the maintenance cost will be greatly reduced. Where
the carpet grass is fairly well established, the cattle are concen-
trating on the fire lines to the complete satisfaction of the stock-
men.









30 The Work of the Florida Forest Service


FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE NURSERY, STATE FARM, RAIFORD
Over 1,200,000 slash and longleaf pine seedlings were raised during the biennium and sold
at cost to 393 landowners throughout the State for reforestation of idle lands. Seedlings are
not sold for beautification purposes on private property. A representative of the Forest
Service assisted each landowner for a short time at the beginning of the planting operations.
TREE PLANTATIONS AS DEMONSTRATIONS
There is a most natural tendency on the part of many people to
base their judgment of future timber yields and revenue upon
understocked second-growth stands and remnant timber. These


A 3-YEAR-OLD SLASH PINE PLANTATION
A Washington County citizen visualized the possibilities of his unproductive land for
growing timber, and planted this 40-acre tract with 18,000 slash pines. At the age of 3
years, many of these sapplings are over 9 feet tall. Land once idle now gives promise of
heavy timber yield. At least, 200 trees per acre can be cupped for gum within 18 years, and
not less than 50 "trees in place" per acre can be utilized as sawlog timber within 35 years.







Second Biennial Report 31

depleted stands are the result of over-cutting, destructive tur-
pentining, and fire. The yield from the average of such lands
probably is less than one-fourth of what it would have been
if simple forestry measures had been adopted. But the casual
observer and even many landowners fail to appreciate that trees
are conspicuous by their absence because the seed and seed-
lings were destroyed by fire. They do not realize that for various
reasons growth has been retarded, and that gum and timber pro-
duction is below normal. Then, too, it is difficult to keep track of
the uneven-aged stands of young growth. That certain trees
have grown at a surprising rate may not be observed, because they
are not singled out for observation.
Whether or not the growing of timber will ever be universally
practiced, it is safe to conclude that the course followed by the
owners will be based upon the facts as they see them-largely
upon timber growing demonstrations. The plantation is the
simple means adopted by the Forest Service to demonstrate how
rapidly trees grow and the yield and revenue that can be expected.
There are plantations in nearly every county in the State in the
timbered region, and 173 successful plantations in the State. Al-
though the Florida Forest Service at the end of this biennium is
a little more than four years old and has passed through but three
planting seasons, there are numerous plantations that already
serve as demonstrations. To many they are a revelation as to
rate of growth and demonstrate the growing power of the land.
GROWING POWER OF THE LAND
The landowners and the public would be more interested in the
universal practice of timber growing on land not needed for agri-
culture, if there were a fuller appreciation of the growing power
of the land. The naval stores commission that studied conditions
in France stated that the famous Maritime pine that has built up
thrifty communities in the Landes district does not grow as fast,
or produce as much gum, as our own slash pine.
Forest tree planting in Florida promises relatively quick re-
turns. On good forest soils, slash pine trees will grow to maturity
in thirty-five years, and some source of income can be expected
within eighteen years. It has been estimated, based on observa-
tions made on young plantations and on yield data for fully stocked
slash pine stands as compiled by the United States Forest Service
that, on a 35-year rotation basis, first returns in 18 years, the fol-
lowing yield and revenue would be obtained from 17 acres of forest
land planted with slash pine seedlings:
663 cords of wood
1 crop (10,000) chipping faces
136,000 feet board measure (Scribner rule)
Total returns, interest compounded at 5% ........$ 3,200
Total costs, interest compounded at 5% .......... 1,008

N et profit ............... .................. .$ 2,192
Average net profit per acre per year ............. $ 3.68









The Work of the Florida Forest Service


THE GROWING AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST TREE SEEDLINGS
An important activity of the Florida Forest Service is the grow-
ing and distribution of forest tree planting stock to aid individuals
to reclaim idle forest land that will not restock naturally. During
the bienium 1,218,800 slash and longleaf pine seedlings were dis-


TURPENTINE STILL ERECTED ACCORDING TO GOVERNMENT
SPECIFICATIONS
Seven turpentine still settings, conforming to approved govern-
ment specifications, were built by turpentine operators in the past
two years. Construction was supervised by the Florida Forest Serv-
ice. In addition to doubling the life of the still setting, making better
grades of rosin and lowering insurance costs, a great saving of wood
used in stilling is effected. In addition to better stilling practices
over 30 turpentine operators were assisted in improving their woods
work.
tribute from the Forest Service nursery located at the State
Prison Farm. Seedlings were sold to farmers and other landown-
ers at $3.00 per thousand, f.o.b., Raiford. Under no circumstances
are seedlings sold for ornamental planting on private land. The
Forest Service encourages the purchase of such stock from estab-
lished commercial nurseries. Seedlings are furnished free of
charge when planted by school children for educational purposes.







Second Biennial Report 33

A representative of the Forest Service assists the landowner to
the extent of consulting with him concerning the species of trees
which are best adapted to his soil conditions and purpose intended;
he also supervises the beginning of the planting and lends "plant-
ing irons" or dibbles to the landowner for his use in planting the
seedlings. It has been found that landowners who do planting for
the first time are prone to plant the seedlings too deeply, and do not
pack the earth tightly around the roots. In order to insure the
success of the plantations, it has been found essential to provide
supervision of initial plantings by competent foresters.








34 The Work of the Florida Forest Service


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1930, to June 30, 1931
STATE APPROPRIATION
Debit Credit
Appropriation .......................................... $ 60,320.00
Expenditures ..................................$ 48,304.79
Balance on hand June 30, 1931 .................... 12,015.21
$ 60,320.00 $ 60,320.00

COOPERATIVE FUND
Balance -June 30, 1930 .................................. $ 19,451.07
Receipts-From U. S. Government ......................... 78,230.00
Receipts- Landowners ............................... ... 23,269.64
Receipts-Depository Interest ............................. 262.51
Receipts-State Nursery .................................. 1,388.93
Receipts- Miscellaneous .................................. 1,870.13
Expenditures ............................... $113,183.96
Checks outstanding June 30, 1931 ................ 26,538.83
Balance June 30, 1931 ......................... 37,827.15
$151,011.11 $151,011.11

TOTAL EXPENDITURES
Expended from State Appropriation ....................... $ 48,304.79
Expended from Cooperative Fund .......................... 113,183.96
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest Service ........ 22,171.34
Total Expenditures July 1, 1930, to June 30, 1931 ............ $183,660.09

DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES
All Expenses, Forestry Board .............................. $ 549.56
Personal Service ........................................ 59,354.78
Personal Service Emergency Crew .......................... 2,809.40
Supervision ................................... ........... 1,354.01
Personal Service Fire Fighting ........................... 9,049.76
Travel ................................................. 22,595.84
Supplies Expendable Equipment ........................... 13,986.47
Non-Expendable Equipment ............................... 22,322.07
Maintenance Non-Expendable Equipment ................... 4,600.69
Improvement-Construction ............................... 13,314.65
Improvement-Maintenance ............................... 569.53
Freight, Express and Hauling ............................. 139.34
Telephone, Telegraph, Postage ............................ 5,475.31
Rent, Light, Heat, Water ................................. 1,564.40
Operating Trucks ......................................... 2,260.69
Fire Breaks ........................ .................... 1,542.25
$161,488.75
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest Service........ 22,171.34
Total Expenditures July 1, 1930, to June 30, 1931 ............ $183,660.09









Second Biennial Report 35


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1931, to June 30, 1932
STATE APPROPRIATION
Debit Credit
Appropriation ....................................... $ 40,000.00
Expenditures ............................ .....$ 39,987.12
Balance on hand June 30, 1932 .................... 12.88

$ 40,000.00 $ 40,000.00
COOPERATIVE FUND
Balance -June 30, 1931 ...................... ............ $ 9,474.85
Receipts- U. S. Government ............................... 68,036.12
Receipts- Landowners .................................... 14,679.72
Receipts- Depository Interest ............................. 80.37
Receipts- State Nursery ................................... 769.49
Receipts- Miscellaneous .................................. 2,981.20
Expenditures ................................. $ 96,122.36
Checks outstanding June 30, 1932 ................. 16,748.52
Balance June 30, 1932 ......................... 16,647.91

$112,770.27 $112,770.27
TOTAL EXPENDITURES
Expended from State Appropriation ........................ $ 39,987.12
Expended from Cooperative Fund .......................... 96,122.36
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest Service ........ 14,151.63
Total expenditures July 1, 1931, to June 30, 1932 .............. $150,261.11
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES
All Expenses, Board of Forestry .................. ........ $ 619.90
Personal Service ........................................ 48,520.78
Personal Service Temporary .............................. 3,560.17
Personal Service Emergency Crew ......................... 3,531.82
Personal Service Fire Fighting ............................ 9,479.76
Travel ................................................ 19,173.60
Supplies ................................................. 5,647.08
Printing ................................................. 4,877.54
Postage ................................................ 3,043.39
Telephone, Telegraph ..................................... 2,022.58
Freight, Express, Hauling ................................ 917.64
Rent, Light, Heat, W ater .................................. 748.79
Equipment ............................................. 14,451.38
Tow ers ................................................. 2,770.70
Telephone Lines ......................................... 2,191.02
Fire Lines .............................................. 6,221.22
Maintenance Equipment .................................. 4,766.41
Maintenance Towers ...................................... 162.84
Maintenance Telephone Lines .............................. 99.36
Maintenance Fire Lines ................................... 205.15
Operation Trucks ........................................ 2,228.33
Operation Tractor ........................................ 700.02
Shows Under Budget ..................................... 170.00

$136,109.48
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest Service ........ 14,151.63
Total expenditures July 1, 1931, to June 30, 1932 .............. $150,261.11










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