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The work of the Florida Forest Service
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 Material Information
Title: The work of the Florida Forest Service
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Forest Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: 1928
Publication Date: [1930-1934]
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Forests and forestry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1928/1930-1932/1934.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: "A state organization directed by the Florida Board of Forestry, cooperating with the Federal government, counties, landowners, and wood-using industries to the end that idle acres may be adequately stocked with timber and the products utilized at a profit."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002480688
oclc - 12822183
notis - AMJ6288
lccn - sn 99026191
System ID: UF00075938:00001
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report of the Florida Forest and Park Service

Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARY









THE WORK

OF THE


FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE

APRIL 1, 1928-JUNE 30, 1930

A STATE ORGANIZATION COOPERATING WITH
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LANDOWNERS,
COUNTIES, AND WITH THE AMERICAN AND
FLORIDA FORESTRY ASSOCIATIONS TO THE
END THAT IDLE ACRES MAY BE TRANSFORMED
INTO PRODUCTIVE ACRES



tLoRioDA
Applied Forestry
Forest Protection





TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA



CONTENTS


PAGES
SGeneral Administration .............................. 5-13
S Branch of Information and Education .................. 14-21
Branch of Fire Control ............................... 22-44
Branch of Applied Forestry ......................... 45-57





.... ..... .









The Work of The Florida Forest Service














4- ki


FLORIDA'S FOREST LAND PROBLEM


Over-cutting and annual woods fires have made this land a burden to the
owner, county, and State.


"THE PART OF GOOD CITIZENS"--A people without
children would face a hopeless future; a country without
trees is almost as helpless; forests which are so used that
they cannot renew themselves will soon vanish, and with
them all their benefits. When you help to preserve our for-
ests or plant new ones you are acting the part of good
citizens.
-Theodore Roosevelt.




6003


_ ____._


___









4 The Work of The Florida Forest Service



FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE

BOARD OF FORESTRY
S. BRYAN JENNINGS, President, Jacksonville
N. J. WICKER, Vice-President, Coleman
SIMON F. WILLIAMS, Secretary, Jacksonville
A. A. PAYNE, Panama City
E. W. THORPE (deceased), DeFuniak Springs
JOHN B. GLEN, Chipley (successor to Mr. Thorpe)

OFFICE OF STATE FORESTER,
Tallahassee, Florida
HARRY LEE BAKER, State Forester
ROSA STANALAND, Secretary
JANE ALLEN, Chief Clerk
Fire Control-
H. A. SMITH, Assistant State Forester
Publicity and Information-
J. J. GOULDEN, Assistant State Forester
Applied Forestry-
C. H. COULTER, Forest Assistant

DISTRICT ORGANIZATION
Western-R. R. Whittington, District Forester, Panama City
Southern--George Lee Dally, District Forester, Bartow
Northwestern-H. J. Malsberger, Forest Assistant, Lake City
Northern-G. A. Young, Forest Assistant, Wacissa

FIRE CONTROL UNITS
11 Rangers in charge of 11 Fire Control Units
18 Lookouts stationed in as many fire observation towers
60 Registered Fire Crews equipped to fight all fires

STATE NURSERY
Aubrey Frink, Nurseryman and Horticulturist, State Farm, Raiford
Joseph K. Malpas, Field Nurseryman, State Farm, Raiford
Paid Prison Crew; raises forest tree seedlings which are sold at cost.
NOTE:-Above organization as of June 30, 1930.
















GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

FLORIDA'S FORESTRY PROBLEM
For decades the wood-using industries held first place in the
industrial life of Florida. Even today there are sixteen forest-
dependent industries and trades in Florida which rank on a par
with agriculture. The value of the products of these industries
amounts to over $100,000,000 annually. In 1925, they produced
nearly 30 per cent of all the wealth created in the State, and 47
per cent of the value of all manufactures. Over 70,000 people
were employed by these industries receiving annually $64,000,000
for their labor. Allowing five dependents for every wage earner,
approximately 350,000 people in Florida were directly dependent
upon 'the forests.
In 1928, when the Florida Forest Service began to function,
there remained about six million acres in virgin stands of timber,
and these were fast being cut. The balance of the forested area,
17 million acres, was classified as cut-over land, and it was esti-
mated that the area supported less than one-third of a timber crop.
Forest fires, over-cutting, and destructive turpentining practices
have caused this reduction of forest capital. Forest fires in par-
ticular are hastening timber depletion and it is estimated that 75
per cent of the problem of bringing back the forests of Florida is
to reduce the number of man-caused forest fires. Because of this
timber shortage, our large lumber mills will be forced to close
down before many years, and the reduced cuppage per acre on
these understocked lands is causing many in the naval stores in-
dustry to operate at a loss.
In many counties we find owners who are letting their idle or
understocked lands revert to the State for taxes. Approximately
5,900,000 acres or 17.4 per cent of the State, largely idle forest
land, were off the tax books in 1928. Today the county commis-
sioners are confronted with the problem of raising funds to pay
the cost of government by taxing unproductive lands. Our prob-
lem of financing the school program and paying off the bonded
indebtedness of the roads, particularly in the rural districts, can
be attributed largely to the idle land problem. The owners would


_ __ __ __







The Work of The Florida Forest Service


be paying reasonable taxes today on the great bulk of the area
that has reverted to the State for taxes, if fires had been kept out,
thereby permitting nature to restock the land with trees.
In the past little thought has been given to the care and per-
petuation of our forests. The people as a whole are awakening
to the seriousness of the forest situation and the need for remedial
measures that will bring back these millions of acres into produc-
tivity, perpetuate the forest industries, and keep forest land on
the tax rolls.

LEGISLATURE RECOGNIZES FORESTRY AS A STATE FUNCTION
In 1927, the Legislature first recognized forest conservation
work as a State function by passing a law creating and establish-
ing a Board to be known as the Florida Board of Forestry. This
Act, Chap. 12283, Laws of 1927, became effective on June 6, 1927,
when it was approved by Governor John W. Martin.
The salient features of the law are as follows:
1. The "Board shall be composed of five members, to be
appointed by the Governor, for the term of years hereinafter
stated, one member to be appointed for one year; one member
to be appointed for two years; one member to be appointed
for three years; two members to be appointed for four years,
all of whom are to hold office for the period set forth and until
their successors have been duly appointed and qualified.
After the expiration of these terms of office the Governor
shall appoint their successors for the period of four years."
2. The annual meeting of the Board shall be held on the
first Monday in October of each year. The officers are elected
at each annual meeting of the Board. Special meetings may
be called by the President of the Board or upon the written
request of a majority of the members.
3. The members of the Board shall receive no compen-
sation for services, but may be reimbursed for actual and
necessary expenses incurred in connection with the official
business of the Board up to a limit of three hundred dollars
a year for each member.
4. "It shall be the duty of the Florida Board of Forestry
under such terms as in the judgment of the Board will best
serve the public interest to assist and cooperate with Federal
and State departments or institutes, county, town, corpora-
tion or individual, to gather and disseminate information in
regard to forests, their care and management, to prevent and
extinguish forest fires, and enforce all laws pertaining to
forests and woodlands."
5. "The Florida Board of Forestry shall employ a State
Forester, who shall have been technically trained in the pro-







The Work of The Florida Forest Service 7

fession of forestry, and, in addition, shall have had at least
two years' experience in practical and administrative work
of that profession, the exact extent and character of which
shall be certified by the Secretary of the United States De-
partment of -Agriculture, or State administrative officer
having personal knowledge thereof, whose salary shall not
be more than Five Thousand ($5,000) Dollars per annum."
The State Forester functions as the administrative officer of
the Board.
FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY
On August 17, 1927, Governor John W. Martin appointed
Messrs. S. Bryan Jennings, Jacksonville; N. J. Wicker, Coleman;
Simon F. Williams, Jacksonville; A. A. Payne, Panama City; and
E. W. Thorpe, DeFuniak Springs, members of the Florida Board
of Forestry for one to four year terms, as shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Name Date Appointment Expiration
Commissioned Period Date
S. Bryan Jennings, Pres.. Sept. 7, 1927 2 years Sept. 6,1929
N. J. Wicker, Vice-Pres.. Sept. 27, 1927 4 years Sept. 26, 1931
Simon F. Williams, Sec.. Aug. 25, 1927 1 year Aug. 24, 1928
A. A. Payne ........... Sept. 17, 1927 4 years Sept. 16, 1931
E. W. Thorpe (deceased) Oct. 1, 1927 3 years Sept. 30, 1930
John B. Glen (successor) March 9, 1928 for unex- Sept. 30, 1930
pired term
Mr. Thorpe attended but one meeting of the Board, the first
one held at Tallahassee on December 13, 1927, at which time he
was elected Vice-President. He died a short time after this meet-
ing and was succeeded by Mr. John B. Glen of Chipley.
From the date of the first meeting, December 13, 1927, until
the end of the period covered by this report, June 30, 1930, the
Board held eleven meetings. The total expenses of all members
of the Board for this period amounted to $530.38, an average of
$106.07 per member for a little more than two and one-half years.
This expense is well below actual cost, as members of the Board
made expenditures for which reimbursement was never claimed.
APPOINTMENT OF STATE FORESTER
At the second meeting of the Florida Board of Forestry, on
February 23, 1928, Harry Lee Baker, formerly District Inspector
with the United States Forest Service, was appointed State For-
ester. He assumed his duties on April first, coming to Florida
after seventeen years of continuous service in the field of forestry
with the Virginia, North Carolina, and United States Forest
Services.


7 ____







8 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
A Name Adopted by the Florida Board of Forestry Suggesting Service
The department, broadly known as the Florida Forest Service
and which operates under the direction of the Florida Board of
Forestry, was not specifically created by the legislature. It is the
name which the Board gave to all State effort in the field for for-
estry. The department, the Florida Forest Service, is an all-
inclusive term applying to the work of the Florida Board of For-
estry, the State Forester, his Assistants, District Foresters,
Rangers, Wardens, Towermen, and Fire Crews. The individuals
holding these positions are endeavoring to render a service to the
landowners, forest dependent industries, and people as a whole.
All who are working in the forestry branch of the State Govern-
ment are proud of the word SERVICE in the name of the depart-
ment, and it is their desire that the people of the state shall think
of this department as their Forest Service.

BASIC ORGANIZATION
At a meeting of the Florida Board of Forestry on May 29, 1928,
activities and policies for the new state department were deter-
mined, and a basic organization was set up. Three branches of
work were recognized, namely; Information and Education-Fire
Control-Applied Forestry. The ultimate plan was to place a
technically trained forester, with at least ten years' experience
as a District Forester, or equivalent experience, in charge of each
branch. The range in salary for Assistant State Foresters was
placed at from $3,000 to $3,600 a year. Since the Board was
operating on an annual appropriation of $12,500, it was impossible
to employ an Assistant State Forester at that time.
The plan also contemplated dividing the State up into twelve
districts, each under the supervision of a District Forester in a
salary range of $2,100 to $2,800. According to the plan, it was
preferred that the District Forester should be a technically trained
forester with at least ten years' experience as a ranger or Assist-
ant District Forester in charge of fire control work. In exceptional
cases, outstanding men of proven ability, preferably with exten-
sion experience as agricultural agents, could be employed.
The organization plans as of May 29, 1928, are shown graph-
ically in Figure 1.
BROAD OBJECTIVES
The broad objective of the Department, as determined by the
Florida Board of Forestry on that memorable date, May 29, 1928,
was to cooperate with the Federal Government, landowners, coun-
ties, and with the American and Florida Forestry Association to









The Work of The Florida Forest Service


FIGURE 1

FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE ORGANIZATION

As Planned by the Florida Board of Forestry
May 29, 1928


Branch of
INFORMATION AND
EDUCATION


FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE



FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY
Appointed by Governor



STATE FORESTER






Branch of
FIRE CONTROL
I ______ I


Branch of
APPLIED FORESTRY



STATE NURSERY


12 DISTRICTS






TIMBER PROTECTIVE ASS'N COUNTY GARDENS
Fire Chiefs COUNTY WARDENS


LOOKOUTS CREW LEADERS



FIRE CREWS


LOOKOUTS CREW LEADERS



FIRE CREWS
I--


--- _








10 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

the end that idle acres might be transformed into productive
acres. To accomplish this it was determined that all work would
be directed toward:
1. Education, especially among school children, to develop
a public forest consciousness in respect to our forests and
what they mean to us.
2. Demonstrations in fire prevention and control on fire
control units broadly scattered throughout the State.
3. Demonstrating the growing power of the land by estab-
lishing at least one plantation along a public highway in
every county. Also the demonstration of desirable forest
practices.

The work planned and accomplished to attain the above objec-
tives is explained more fully further on in this publication under
the reports for each of the three branches.


__I_ __ __ T








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1927, to June 30, 1928

STATE APPROPRIATION
Debit
Appropriation ................... ..... $12,500.00
Expenditures .. .................... .
Balance on hand ......................

$12,500.00


Credit

$12,491.52
8.48

$12,500.00


DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES
Personal Services .............................. $ 1,454.50
Travel ......................................... 656.70
Expense Florida Board of Forestry.................. 162.88
Supplies and Expendable Equipment ................ 1,886.87
Non-Expendable Equipment ....................... 5,484.35
Improvement-Construction ........................ 2,540.00
Freight, Express and Hauling ..................... 1.60
Telephone, Telegraph, Postage ..................... 304.62

$12,491.52
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agree-
ments and largely under supervision of Florida Forest
Service ...................................... 5,593.74

Total Expenditures July 1, 1927-June 30, 1928 ... $18,085.26


_ __ __ _____ __ __ __ ____








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1929
STATE APPROPRIATION
Debit
Balance carried forward................ $ 8.48
Appropriation ....................... 12,500.00
Expenditures .........................
Reverted to General Revenue Fund......
$12,508.48
CO-OPERATIVE FUND
Balance ............................ $ 903.71
Receipts-From U. S. Government....... 38,258.93
Receipts-From Landowners ........... 13,552.10
Expenditures .........................
B balance .............................


Credit


$12,504.20
4.28

$12,508.48


45,591.51
7,123.23


$52,714.74 $52,714.74
TOTAL EXPENDITURES
Expended From State Appropriation................ $12,504.20
Expended From Co-operative Fund................. 45,591.51
$58,095.71
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES
Personal Services ................. ............. $25,814.15
Personal Services Fire Fighters ................... 1,020.69
Travel .......................................... 8,041.64
Expense Florida Board of Forestry. ................ 264.51
Supplies and Expendable Equipment ................ 3,085.92
Non-Expendable Equipment ....................... 5,705.97
Maintenance Non-Expendable Equipment ............ 8.75
Improvement-Construction ........................ 12,420.49
Improvement-Maintenance ........................ 2.50
Freight, Express and Hauling ..................... 186.57
Telephone, Telegraph and Postage................... 818.94
Rent, Light, Heat and Water ....................... 140.86
Operating Trucks ................................ 515.86
M miscellaneous .................................... 68.86
$58,095.71
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agree-
ments and largely under supervision of Florida Forest
Service ................ ..................... 20,647.30

Total Expenditures July 1, 1928-June 30, 1929...... $78,743.01


I __ __ ~ ___ __ __ ____ ___ __ __








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1929, to June 30, 1930
STATE APPROPRIATION
Debit
Appropriation ....................... $60,320.00
Expenditures .........................
Balance on hand ......................

$60,320.00


CO-OPERATIVE FUND
Balance ... ............ ...... ...... .$ 7,123.23
Receipts-From U. S. Government...... 40,285.54
Receipts-From Landowners ........... 23,071.52
Receipts-From Depository Interest..... 636.33
Expenditures .........................
Checks outstanding ................... 3,090.62
B balance ..............................

$74,207.24
TOTAL EXPENDITURES
Expended From State Appropriation...............
Expended From Co-operative Fund ................

$a
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES
Personal Services .............................. $
Personal Service Fire Fighters ....................
Travel .............. ....................... .
Florida Board of Forestry......................
Supplies and Expendable Equipment ...............
Non-Expendable Equipment ......................
Maintenance Non-Expendable Equipment..........
Improvement-Construction .......................
Improvement-Maintenance .......................
Freight, Express and Hauling.................... .
Telephone, Telegraph and Postage ................
Rent, Light, Heat and Water ......................
Operating Trucks ...............................
Miscellaneous ................................
F ire L ines .....................................

$1
Private expenditures (direct) under cooperative agree-
ments and largely under supervision of Florida For-
est Service .................................


$51,784.77
8,535.23

$60,320.00


$51,665.55

22,541.69

$74,207.24

$51,784.77
51,665.55

103,450.32

46,901.05
6,202.88
15,396.81
105.47
6,923.13
8,200.02
701.98
12,074.01
346.23
597.29
1,975.95
523.02
962.62
91.75
2,448.11

103,450.32


49.154.91


Total Expenditures July 1, 1929-June 30, 1930....$152,605.23


Credit


__ I_















BRANCH OF INFORMATION AND
EDUCATION

THE JOB BEFORE US
Practically all wood fires in Florida are caused by man, and,
therefore, are preventable. It is not within the scope of this report
to give all the reasons why approximately 15,000 fires are turned
loose annually, burning over 75 per cent of the piney woods of the
State. Let it suffice to say that forest destruction in Florida is due
to the custom of woods burning. The Florida Board of Forestry
recognized at the outset that carelessness and indifference with
fire in the woods reigned supreme, and that the problem before it
was to devise some way of putting an end to the destructive prac-
tice of burning our forest capital.
The apathy which prevails in many quarters today concerning
the menace of woods fires is an outgrowth of customs established
in most natural ways. Customs of long standing cannot be
changed in a day by speedy and drastic legislation, and any
measures that may be adopted in an attempt to prevent woods fires
should be considered in the light of these customs. Woods fires
will continue to burn in Florida until a host of people who depend
on forest industries appreciate more fully what the forest means
to them; until those who set fires intentionally realize that it is
not to their best interest to continue this practice, or until an out-
raged public opinion demands that the situation be remedied. An
organized and sustained educational campaign is believed to be
the only way to bring about voluntary cooperation on the part of
the majority of those who set fires, or to obtain effective fire laws
to deal with those who are reckless or antagonistic.

FIRE PREVENTION
*"Fire prevention comes first. It must strike through
education at the lack of information, the prejudice, and the
carelessness of the woods burner."
"Every risk should be given close study, and direct and
specific action should be taken for its control, reduction, and
*"Woods Burning in the South," U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Leaflet No. 40.


_ _L__ __ __~







The Work of The Florida Forest Service 15

eventual elimination. Every agency of forest protection,
public or private, through persistent personal contact should
bring home to the town resident and the landowner a realiza-
tion of the value of forests and range kept free from fire and
of the loss to the individual and community that results from
fire. There should be developed in each community and
throughout the South a public sentiment against woods burn-
ing and a determination to do away with it."
"Every educational facility available should be brought
into play. The motion picture and illustrated lecture should
be used to bring to every schoolhouse and meeting house a
forest-protection message for old and young. The press, the
billboard, the poster, the community fairs, and expositions
should all play their part."
"Fire danger should be reduced by clearing rights of way,
making sawmills safer, and adequately safeguarding brush
fires."
"Those who cannot be persuaded by education must be
reached by other methods. Laws honestly, fearlessly, and
fairly enforced must be called to the public aid."
PROGRAM ADOPTED
The Board apparently had a clear insight into the job before
it, as above outlined, when-it decided to create the Branch of In-
formation and Education and outlined the duties of the Assistant
State Forester in charge of this branch as follows:
1. Devise ways and means for getting forestry taught in
the schools. Assist in the preparation of study courses, essay
and poster contests. Prepare leaflets and posters.
2. Prepare and release information to the press dealing
with the work of the Florida Forest Service.
3. Inspire the fire control organization to greater activity
in fire prevention work, by personally conducting educational
campaigns.
4. Prepare in cooperation with the Assistant State Forest-
er in charge of Fire Control, fire prevention leaflets, bulletins,
and posters.
5. Prepare in cooperation with the Assistant State Forest-
er in charge of Applied Forestry, timber growing, turpentin-
ing, and other leaflets needed for extension purposes.
6. Supervise moving picture projects, take pictures for
photographic collection and prepare slides for lectures.
7. Give talks before civic, commercial, and Women's
Organizations.
8. Prepare exhibits for county and state fairs.


1 r '5







16 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

PERSONNEL
Mr. H. A. Smith, formerly District Forester in Pennsylvania,
assumed his duties as Assistant State Forester in charge of the
Branch of Information and Education on August 16, 1928. Dur-
ing the early part of 1930, Mr. Smith gradually withdrew from this
branch to assume charge of the fire control work. Throughout
this period, however, it was never possible for Mr. Smith to devote
all of his time to his branch of the work as it was necessary for
him to assist with the general work of the department.
AMERICAN FOREST WEEK
One of the first educational activities of the Florida Forest
Service was the observance of American Forest Week April 21-28,
1928. In cooperation with the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, literature was sent from the office of the State Forest-
er to over 1,400 schools. The State Superintendent of Public
Instruction requested the teachers of the State to cooperate by
having forest conservation programs in the schools.

THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY EDUCATIONAL PROJECT
The Southern Forestry Educational Project sponsored by the
American and Florida Forestry Associations was launched in Flor-
ida a few months after this department was organized. During
the two years ending June, 1930, the conductors of a forestry
exhibit truck and two motion picture trucks reached 256,060 people


DEMONSTRATING DESIRABLE NAVAL STORES PRACTICE DURING THE FIRST
FLORIDA FOREST FAIR.








The Work of The Florida Forest Service 17

at 1,613 motion picture shows and lectures. At 68 fair exhibits,
736,552 people saw and heard the message of forest conservation.
A total of 992,612 men, women, and children had the wanton
damage of woods fires vividly portrayed before them at a cost of
less than six cents per person. Perhaps an idea of the results of
this work may best be gained from the words of one cooperator
who said, "When this educational work started, about 30 per cent
of the people were for fire prevention and control. Now about 60
per cent are with you. The important thing is to continue this
work until 90 per cent of the people join in an effort to drive demon
fire from the woods. Then you can expect to get results."
It was a most fortunate incident in the history of the Florida
Forest Service that this forestry educational work started soon
after the department was organized. This work was needed par-
ticularly on the fire control units where project motion picture
shows were shown every year. The expenditures of the Florida
Forest Service in time and money on this cooperative project have
been well worth while and all members of the Service deeply ap-
preciate the cooperation extended by the American and Florida
Forestry Associations.

















CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE FOREST FIRE PREVENTION FILM AT
A LITTLE ONE-ROOM SCHOOL IN THE HEART OF THE WOODS

FIRST FLORIDA FOREST FAIR
The Forest Fair held at Lake City was one of the outstanding
events in Forestry. Hundreds of people viewed the exhibits and
made field trips to witness demonstrations in desirable forest
practices.


__ __ __ __ __ __






SCENES SHOWING THE WORK OF THE FORESTRY EDUCATIONAL
PROJECT


A DAYLIGHT SHOW AT A NEGRO SCHOOL


ONE OF THE THREE FLORIDA TRUCKS


AN OUTDOOR SHOW AT A TURPENTINE CAMP








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


TEACHING FORESTRY IN SCHOOLS
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION
In cooperation with the State Superintendent of Public In-
struction and the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Bulletin
No. 1, Lessons In Forest Protection, by Assistant State Forester,
H. A. Smith, containing fourteen forestry lessons, was distributed
to the school teachers of Florida for use in the thirty-minute
weekly period then devoted to Nature Study. The Women's Clubs
cooperated in the distribution of these lessons and in getting them
taught in the schools. This bulletin contains a letter of endorse-
ment from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and a
letter of appeal from the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs.

















ALTON KNIGHT, WINNING PUPIL OF THE STATE, IN THE
VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL FORESTRY COURSE
AND HIS SEED BED
VOCATIONAL FORESTRY
A bulletin, Forestry for Vocational Agricultural Students, by
H. A. Smith, Assistant State Forester, was published by the
Florida Forest Service. Cooperation was extended by J. F. Wil-
liams, Jr., Superintendent of Agricultural Education, and the
teachers of fifteen vocational schools. Approximately 300 stu-
dents, in addition to studying lessons in forestry, began practical
field work in tree planting and nursery practice the first year.
This course was offered in the form of a contest, the American
Forestry Association generously donating the prizes. Alton
Knight, of Plant City, won the student first prize and was awarded
a free trip to Kansas City to attend the National Congress of
Future Farmers of America. R. L. Price, of Graceville, won the
teacher's first prize of $100 for the best vocational forestry work
in the State.


__ __ __







20 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

Thirty thousand slash and longleaf pine seedlings and 40
pounds of slash pine seed were made available to the pupils in the
forestry courses by the Applied Forestry Branch.
MEETINGS
Mr. H. N. Wheeler, chief lecturer of the U. S. Forest Service,
was scheduled to talk before 47 school, civic, commercial, and
Women's Clubs. During this lecture tour he reached more than
six thousand people with his message of forest conservation.
It is estimated that the State Forester or his representative,
has appeared on the program of thirty-seven different meetings
and addressed over 3,500 people on the work of the Service. The
work necessitated by the rapid expansion of the Service made it
impossible for the State Forester to fill engagements for many
meetings.
PUBLICITY MATERIAL
During the period covered by this report the following public-
ity material was prepared and printed:
Bulletins:
Bulletin No. 1, Lessons in Forest Protection, by H. A.
Smith.
Bulletin No. 2, Forestry For Vocational Agricultural
Schools, by H. A. Smith.
Common Forest Trees of Florida and How to Know Them,
by W. R. Mattoon. (This was a reprint of a book first
printed by the Florida Forestry Association).
Leaflets:
Program and Log of the First Florida Forest Fair.
Common Trees of North and Northwest Florida.
Common Trees of South Florida.
Automatic Game Preserves.
Fire in the Turpentine Orchard.
Woods Fires and the Cattle Industry.
Woods Fires--Every Man's Enemy. (Published by the
American and Florida Forestry Associations in co-
operation with the Florida Forest Service).
Annual Report West Bay Forest Protective Association
by R. R. Whittington.
The Florida Forest Service and What It Offers.
A small fire prevention sticker or seal.
POSTERS
Eight posters have been designed, printed, and are being dis-
tributed throughout the State. Two of these are designed prim-
arily for use on fire control units. One 30" x 60" sign is for use on
billboards along main highways. The others are used in public
places and along woods roads within the fire control units. These


_I I __







The Work of The Florida Forest Service


posters appeal to the general public, stressing the need for care
with fire in the woods and emphasizing the damage done by forest
fires.


THE CIGARETTE
IS THE FOREST'S
PRIME EVIL


I o A, A&A ,I
LARGE SIGNBOARDS LOCATED ON MAIN ROADS KEEP FOREST FIRE PREVENTION
BEFORE THE PUBLIC.
OTHER LITERATURE FOR DISTRIBUTION
Twenty-five bulletins printed by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and other agencies covering subjects of interest to
Florida people were selected for distribution by the Service. Hun-
dreds of inquiries on many phases of forestry made such action
necessary.
PRESS
Over approximately a two-year period, more than 30,000
column inches of Forestry material have been carried in Florida
papers. The increasing interest and willingness of the press to
carry our material is evidenced by the increase from 473 inches
carried in 35 papers in June, 1929, to 2,185 inches carried in 91
newspapers in November, 1929.
LIBRARY
Funds have not permitted the extension of the library insofar
as books are concerned but some eighty slides have been secured
for use in illustrated talks, and complete stereopticon equipment is
available for this use. Over five hundred bulletins have been
classified and some three hundred photographs mounted and filed.


_ __
















BRANCH OF FIRE CONTROL

WOODS FIRES A FLORIDA TRAGEDY
According to estimates made by representatives of the U. S.
Forest Service prior to the organization of the Florida Forest
Service, 15,000 fires yearly burned over 75 per cent of the piney
woods of Florida. The crop value of the destroyed young growth
was placed at $8,000,000, or as much lumber as would be used in
building 100,000 six-room houses. Woods fires burn up the seed
and kill the baby trees by the millions causing blank spaces in the
forest. They burn the life out of the soil and retard the growth of
such trees as are not killed outright. Fire burns in the worked-out
turpentine faces, causing beetle infestation, diseases, windthrow,
and great losses in merchantable timber. Fire burns up the food
and shelter of wild game and bird life. It destroys the nests and
eggs of quail and turkey besides many beneficial insectivorous
birds, and it drives these birds to low ground where the young
may later be drowned out by high water.

IDLE LAND
Perhaps the most serious consequence of woods burning is the
idle land problem. Florida has about 4,300,000 acres of "oak
scrub" or barren land that once supported merchantable forest
growth. The remaining cut-over lands are about 30 per cent
stocked with young tree growth which means that approximately
70 per cent of the normal timber crop is lost to the owners. Exces-
sive and uncertain forest land taxation and woods burning have
made the future holding of these lands unattractive. The few
remnant trees left in cutting would have restocked a large percent-
age of the area had not periodic fires destroyed the young tree
growth.
POSSIBILITIES UNDER ORGANIZED FIRE CONTROL
Forest protection through organized fire control is the means
of restoring fertile soil, restocking land with young trees, stimulat-
ing rapid tree growth, and increasing game supply. Lastly, it
provides a means of making timber growing a commercially pos-
sible undertaking. There is no magic to forestry. An under-


_ _







The Work of The Florida Forest Service 23

stocked slow-growing tree crop is as much a loss and failure as a
scattered, stunted growth of corn in a farmer's field.
Organized fire control strives toward the goal of bringing to
the attention of every man woman, and child, the benefits accru-
ing to themselves, their county, State, and nation from forest pro-
tection. When this goal of an awakened public consciousness has
been achieved, Florida's forest heritage will again return and the
State's idle land problem will have been solved.

THE TRIPLE-ALLIANCE

FEDERAL STATE PRIVATE
U. S. Forest Service Florida Forest Service Landowners
Cooperating Under the Provisions of Section 2 of the Federal
Clarke-McNary Law

Fundamentally, the fire situation in Florida in 1928 was no
different from the situation in other parts of the country. The
Federal Government had already recognized that the forest fire
problem throughout the country concerned the whole nation as
well as the states, landowners, and wood-using industries. In rec-
ognition of this fact, the Clarke-McNary Law was enacted by
Congress. It is based on the principle that the Federal, State, and
county governments, and the owners of private lands should unite
upon an effective forest fire prevention and control program. Under
the Clarke-McNary Law, Federal advisory and financial assistance
is extended to the State as an offset to State and private expendi-
ture. When the Florida Forest Service began to function, thirty-
three states were cooperating with the Federal Government in
organized fire prevention and control work and were getting good
results. Difficult as the situation seemed in Florida, the Florida
Board of Forestry believed that our State could make as satisfac-
tory progress as other states in reducing fire losses. Accordingly,
on May 29, 1928, the Board authorized cooperation with the Secre-
tary of Agriculture for the protection of Florida forest lands
against fire. This agreement was executed June 13, 1928.

COOPERATION WITH LANDOWNER

DEMONSTRATE FIRE CONTROL
The problem in the beginning was to demonstrate that the
landowners would pool their interest and join hands with the
State and Federal Governments to protect their cut-over lands
against fire. There was need also to demonstrate that the Triple-
Alliance could hold fire losses to a reasonable figure as had been







24 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

proved to be possible in other states. Accordingly, the Florida
Board of Forestry decided to organize approximately 10 fire con-
trol units of about 100,000 acres each. The goal, therefore, was to
have a million acres under protection before the end of the bien-
nium. By June 30, 1928, three fire control units had been organ-
ized totaling 280,217 acres, and by the end of the biennium, June
30, 1930 (including June, 1928), 242 landowners were cooperat-
ing on eleven fire control units, with a net listed acreage of 1,111,-
417 acres. See Table 4, page 42.

POLICY
Where a group of landowners or a county is interested in keep-
ing fire out of the woods and lists 80,000 acres or more with the
Florida Forest Service, a fire-control unit is organized, meaning
that:
A Ranger is employed to direct the work.
Men are stationed in observation towers to look out for fires.
Registered fire crews are organized.
Additional men are stationed at the fire towers to supplement
the registered crews during emergencies.
Telephone lines are built and fire-fighting equipment is pur-
chased.
Boundary fire lines and demonstrational fire lines are con-
structed.
An intensive educational campaign to prevent fires is carried
on.
The landowners or county pay two cents per acre per year and
the funds so raised are matched by State and Federal expendi-
tures. Within the large blocks, surrounded by fire lines construct-
ed from the cooperative funds, the landowners or turpentine
operators often build additional fire lines at their own expense
around 40 to 160-acre tracts.
Every effort is made to secure the membership of all property
owners large and small, within the unit. No relief from taxation
accompanies membership in a fire control unit. However, pro-
tected forests will produce an income and thus enable the owner to
meet reasonable assessments.

COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT FOR FIRE CONTROL
The following cooperative agreement is executed by the land-
owner and the Florida Forest Service for the protection of forest
land located within fire control units:








The Work of The Florida Forest Service 25


COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

BETWEEN
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
AND

Unit- -
Name
Acres--

Date----- Address

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT, by and between
by and through its agent, hereinafter referred to as the Owner, and the Flor-
ida Forest Service, State of Florida, by its Agent, hereinafter referred to
as the Forest Service.
WITNESSETH:
WHEREAS, It is mutually beneficial to the Owner and to the Forest
Service to cooperate in the prevention and suppression of forest fires, which
may or do threaten the destruction of the timber owned by said party and
which forms a part of the timber resources of the State;
NOW, THEREFORE, In consideration of the mutual promises, and agree-
ments, hereinafter contained to be faithfully kept and performed, it is agreed,
as follows:
Listing of Land.
1. The Owner shall list certain of his lands with the Forest Service for
protection from forest fires for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 19--, and
ending June 30, 19-, and for each year thereafter, unless this agreement is
terminated in writing in the manner prescribed in Section 15. Said lands are
listed on the back of this agreement and are made a part hereof.
Cooperative Fund.
2. On or before July 1 of each fiscal year, so long as this agreement
remains in full force and effect, the Owner shall deposit with the Forest
Service a sum equal to -cents per acre for the lands listed
under this agreement, same to cover the Owner's pro-rata share of the ex-
penses of forest fire protection for the following year.
The Florida Forest Service agrees to allocate to this project-
cents per acre for the lands listed under this agreement.
The fund so created, and which may be supplemented by deposits of
other cooperators and the allocated funds of the Forest Service, authorized
under similar agreements with other Owners, will be known as the Coopera-
tive Fund from which all expenditures will be made by the Forest Service,
for the Association area defined in Section 7.
If, after all the anticipated expenditures for the blanket protective system
have been budgeted, there remains a balance in this Cooperative Fund, such
balance may then be allocated to and used for fire line construction for the
purpose of reducing special fire hazards not caused by the Owner or other
members of the Association, or may be used to build a skeleton system of fire
breaks. Under no other condition may the Cooperative Fund, created by this
section, be used for fire line construction, unless increased by supplemental
deposits of the Owner as prescribed in Section 4.


__








26 The Work of The Florida Forest Service


3. If, after the first year's operation of the unit, there be supplemental
listings of lands for protection by the Owner or new listings by the Owners
of adjoining lands, it is understood that such lands, not having contributed
to the cost of improvements, shall be listed at 3 cents per acre for the first
year and 2 cents per acre thereafter, this policy applying to all lands falling
within a radius of 8 miles of an existing fire tower.
Other Obligations of Owner.
4. The Owner declares himself to be unalterably opposed to "light
burning" as is commonly practiced by stockmen and turpentine operators and
if he be, or at any time becomes, a stockman or turpentine operator on the
area covered by this agreement, he agrees not to rake his trees and/or burn
the woods. The Owner further agrees if he conducts turpentine operations
on said area, to spend not less than one-half of the normal costs of raking and
burning, for the construction of fire breaks upon said area, his minimum ex-
penditure for this purpose being twenty-five dollars ($25.00) per crop, and he
further agrees to construct such lines and to report his expenditures to the
Forest Service; or, when mutually agreeable to both parties to this agree-
ment, to deposit the money with the Forest Service to cover the full cost of
constructing such lines by said Forest Service. The Owner shall further
cooperate with the Forest Service by instructing all employees to report fires
and to help in their extinction. The Owner further agrees not to lease his
land or timber, for turpentining, grazing or for any other purpose, to anyone
without embodying in such lease all fire protection requirements hereinbefore
mentioned and assumed by said Owner as a party to this agreement; the
terms of such leases, insofar as they affect the protection of trees from fire,
to be approved by the Forest Service.
5. The Owner shall permit State Forest Officers to occupy the lands
listed under this agreement for lookout and patrol purposes, when such use
does not conflict with the stipulations of existing leases, or with other agree-
ments.
6. The Owner shall permit authorized representatives of the State to
construct lookout towers and telephone lines, intended primarily for forest
fire protection purposes, on and over the lands listed under this agreement,
and shall allow such trees as may be designated by the Owner to be cut for
telephone poles when used in the construction of said lines, such occupancy
and timber use to be permitted without charge and when not in conflict with
the stipulations contained in existing leases, or with other agreements.
The Association Area.
7. A natural fire control unit, known as the
Forest Protective Association area, shall be established by the Forest Service,
which shall include the lands listed by the undersigned Owner and such other
adjoining forest lands as are listed with the Forest Service for fire protection
under agreements which contain substantially the stipulations as are herein
provided.
Responsibility of Forest Service.
8. The Forest Service shall be responsible for organizing the Associa-
tion Area in such a way as to render equal protection to all parties whose lands
are listed under the aforesaid cooperative agreements.
9. The Forest Service shall designate employees to study the needs of
the Association area from the standpoint of fire prevention, detection, tele-
phone communication, the mobilization of fire crews and fire suppression, and
shall take such steps as may be necessary for the prevention and speedy
suppression of forest fires, within the limits of funds available.
10. While the Forest Service shall be responsible for all fire control work,
it shall make a special effort to obtain the views of the cooperating land-
owners and to adopt a program of action that will meet with the approval of








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


the majority. To this end, the Fire Chief for the Association Area, and other
representatives of the Forest Service, shall from time to time counsel and
advise with the cooperating landowners or their designated representatives.
11. At the end of each fiscal year, the Forest Service shall furnish the
Owner with an itemized statement of receipts and expenditures on account
of fire control for the Association Area for the preceding year, together with
a report which shall cover the line of work undertaken, the results secured,
the fire control problems, and the plans for their solution.
Title to Improvements and Equipment.
12. The Forest Service is hereby designated as the custodian of all
property, improvements, and equipment purchased from the Cooperative
Fund set up for fire protection on the Association area, this function being
assumed by the Forest Service as its public responsibility and to assure con-
tinued protection to all Cooperating Owners. Should this agreement be
terminated by either party as provided in Section 15, title to all improve-
ments and equipment shall remain with the Forest Service, and the Owner
specifically authorizes the Forest Service to remove said improvements and
equipment from his land. For such improvements and equipment as may be
removed from the protective district in which the Owner's land is located,
the Forest Service will reimburse him for such equity as he may have in said
improvements.
Provision for an Emergency Fund.
13. To provide for the emergency of a disastrous season and recognizing
the fact that the Forest Service itself may be unable to share in emergency
expenditures in excess of the Cooperative Fund contemplated by Section 2
of this agreement, it is understood and agreed that the unexpended balances
of assessments paid to the Forest Service by members of this Association or
allocated by the Forest Service to this project shall, at the end of each year,
be used to create an emergency fund which shall be held for such use until the
fund shall amount to twenty per cent (20%) of the Cooperative Fund con-
templated by Section 2 of this agreement.
Should the unexpended balance in any fiscal year exceed twenty per cent
(20%) such excess shall be devoted to the project or to the reduction of the
assessment rate.
Power of Attorney Delegated to State Forester.
14. The Owner does hereby constitute and appoint Harry Lee Baker,
State Forester, and/or his successors in office, the true and lawful attorney
in fact for the following purposes, and does hereby confer upon him and/or his
successors in office, the following powers:
(A.) To file and maintain suits at law or in equity in behalf of said
Owner severally or jointly with other members of said
Forest Protective Association to enforce the payment of unpaid assessments
from members of the Association, who have obligated themselves, under this
or similar agreement, to pay such assessment.
(B.) To file and maintain suits, or actions, to recover from persons or
corporations responsible for setting out fires within said protective area, or
that spread thereunto, the cost of fighting such fires.
(C.) To file and maintain suits for injunctions against persons, firms, or
corporations, who, either purposely or negligently in the course of their busi-
ness operations, repeatedly set out, or cause to be set out, fires which endanger
said Protective Association, or subject it to frequent expenditures in fighting
fires.
(D.) To file and maintain suits for damages in trespass to the
Forest Protective Association against persons, firms or corporations setting
out, or causing to be set out, fires on or over the lands embraced in said
Protective Unit.


__ ___








28 The Work of The Florida Forest Service


Said Attorney in Fact shall have the right to bring and maintain said
suits and actions in his own name as fully and to the same extent as if the
Owner herein mentioned had personally become a plaintiff or a complainant
therein, and shall have the right to settle same by compromise as fully as the
Owner could. It is understood, however, that said actions shall be only such
as affect the -Forest Protective Association, and shall not
extend to suits or actions affecting damages to the property of the Owner
embraced in said Protective Unit. It is further understood that all liability
'for Court costs in such suits shall be against said
Forest Protective Association, and not against the Owner personally.
15. This agreement shall remain in force and effect until June 30, 19-,
and from year to year thereafter, provided that the Owner shall have the right
to voluntarily withdraw his lands from protection on June 30, 19-, or on
June 30 in any subsequent year by giving the Forest Service notice in writ-
ing by registered mail to its head office in Tallahassee, Florida, not later than
June 15 in each of such years of his intention so to withdraw. The Forest
Service may withdraw cooperation under this agreement in precisely the same
manner as is stipulated for the Owner in this section, by sending notice in
writing by registered mail to his last known address.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this agree-
ment to be executed on the date written opposite their signature.
(L. S.) ,19--
Owner Date

By:- 19-
Date

FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY
Governing Board for the Florida Forest Service

By: (L. S.), 19-
President of Board Date

By: (L. S.) 19-
Secretary of Board Date

ACREAGE LISTED UNDER THIS AGREEMENT

Description


Township Range Area


Section








The Work of The Florida Forest Service 29


SUPPLEMENTAL TURPENTINE OPERATOR AGREEMENT
Whenever the cooperating landowner lists his lands for fire
control, the lessees of turpentine rights on the property enter into
the following agreement with the Florida Forest Service:
SUPPLEMENTAL AGREEMENT
TO BE EXECUTED BY THE LESSEE OF TURPENTINE RIGHTS
THIS SUPPLEMENTAL AGREEMENT, made and entered into on this,
the- day of-, A. D. 19-, between-
and Florida Forest Service of the State of Florida, WITNESSETH:
THAT WHEREAS, on the---day of------ A. D. 19-,
did enter into a certain cooperative agreement
with the Florida Forest Service, a copy of which is hereto attached and made
a part hereof, which said agreement is designed for the purpose of prevention
and suppression of forest fires on certain lands owned by the said
and embraced in the aforesaid cooperative agreement, and
WHEREAS, the undersigned,- is the lessee of the
turpentine rights on certain of the lands covered by the aforesaid cooperative
agreement, which said agreement he has read and fully understands, and in
consideration of the premises and for the benefits to be derived therefrom, the
said lessee agrees to such occupancy and uses of lands and timber by Forest
Officers and other employees of the Forest Service, as is permitted by the
Owner in Sections 4 and 5 of said cooperative agreement, and further agrees
to cooperate with the Owner and the Forest Service by instructing all
employees to report fires and to assist in their extinction.
The lessee further declares himself to be unalterably opposed to light
burning and agrees to abandon the practice of raking and/or burning the
woods. The lessee further agrees to construct fire lines throughout his tur-
pentine orchard for which he agrees to spend one-half of his normal cost for
raking and burning, with the minimum amount spent being twenty-five dollars
($25.00) per crop, and to report such expenditures to the Forest Service; or,
when mutually agreeable to the owner, the Forest Service and the lessee, he
will deposit the money with the Forest Service to cover the full cost of con-
structing such fire lines by said Forest Service.
The lessee further agrees not to sub-lease his land or timber, for turpen-
tining, grazing or any other purpose, to anyone, without embodying in such
sub-lease all fire protection requirements of said cooperative agreement herein
assumed by him; the terms of such subleases insofar as they affect the protec-
tion of said property from fire, to be approved by the Forest Service.
This supplemental agreement will remain in full force and effect until the
aforesaid cooperative agreement between the Owner and the Forest-Service
is terminated.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this agree-
ment to be executed on the date written opposite their signature.
(L. S.) 19-
Date
By: -- -- ---, 19--
Date
FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY
Governing Board for the Florida Forest Service
By: (L. S.)-- 19--
President of Board
By:- -SraoB(L. S.) 19--
Secretary of Board




F- ` -


30 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

GENERAL DUTIES OUTLINED BY BOARD
The goal and policy of the Florida Forest Service was adopted
by the Board on June 29, 1928. At this meeting, the Board also
authorized the branch of Fire Control and outlined the duties of
the Assistant State Forester who would be in charge as follows:
1. Build a comprehensive fire plan for the State and keep it
currently revised and up to date.
2. Supervise the execution of the plan.
3. Secure necessary statistical data for detailed and authentic
reports.
4. Prepare leaflets, posters, and publications on fire control in
cooperation with the Assistant State Forester in charge of pub-
licity and education.
5. Keep posted on new developments in fire fighting technique
and equipment which might be used to advantage.
6. Select, purchase, and distribute fire fighting equipment.
7. Study all known fire risks, such as railroads, and make plans
for overcoming them.
PERSONNEL

The fire control work along with all other work of the depart-
ment was under the supervision of the State Forester, Mr. Harry
Lee Baker, from April 1, 1928, until December, 1929, after which
time he was gradually relieved of the routine work of this branch
by Mr. H. A. Smith who had been in charge of the branch of
Information and Education.
EXPENDITURES

The expenditures by the so-called Triple-Alliance under the
Clarke-McNary Law were as follows:

FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL EXPENDITURES
April 1, 1928, to June 30, 1930
1928* 1928-29 1929-30 Totals
Federal.....$ 9,000.00 $35,000.00 $37,017.00 $81,017.00
State ....... 6,234.63 10,583.79 44,200.03 61,018.45
Private ..... 2,765.37 26,535.13 51,494.77 80,795.27
$18,000.00 $72,118.92 $132,711.80 $222,830.72
*April 1st to June 30th.

The advisory assistance given by Federal officials in laying out
and executing the work has been a great help and inspiration to
your State Forester, and Federal funds have made possible the
rapid expansion of the work.








The Work of The Florida Forest Service 31

The Federal government is authorized under the law to share
up to 50 per cent in the costs of fire control and under this authori-
zation is quite liberal with newly organized state forestry depart-
ments. However, the policy of the Federal government is to
reduce gradually its percentage until it amounts to 25 per cent of
the total expenditures made in the State for fire prevention and
control work, and until its expenditures are no greater than those
made by the State. The aim is to attain ultimately the ratio of


A FIRE CONTROL UNIT TRUCK SPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR FIGHTING FIRES.

25 per cent Federal, 25 per cent State, and 50 per cent private or
counties; or at least for the combined expenditures by State,
county, and private individuals to amount to 75 per cent of the total.

OBSERVATION TOWERS
Observation towers are the "eyes of the Service", for it is the
man stationed therein, the lookout, who discovers the majority of
fires. Eighteen observation towers were in use at the end of this
biennium. Two tank towers were put into use and one wooden
tower was built. The remaining 15 are of steel construction.
Three of them are 100 feet high and the other twelve are 80 feet
high. At the end of the period, only 16 towers were actually


- --- ~-CC -- --.-~-








32 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

operated by the Florida Forest Service as two were sold to the
U. S. Forest Service when it acquired the Osceola National Forest,
thereby reducing the acreage of the St. Mary's Unit 93,827 acres.





















ONE OF THE FIFTEEN STEEL LOOKOUT TOWERS BUILT
AND OPERATED, COOPERATIVELY, BY THE
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE.

TELEPHONE LINES
A telephone communication system is necessary in organized
fire control in order that the lookouts may report fires promptly
to the rangers and wardens. On seven fire control units, 174
miles of telephone line were constructed in addition to the inclusion
in this communication system of a large mileage of existing lines.

ORGANIZATION
The organization on a fire control unit usually consists of a
ranger, one lookout for every 60 to 100 thousand acres, and a
community or camp warden for every 15 to 20 thousand acres.
It is the purpose of each warden to organize what is known as a
registered fire crew. The men selected for wardens are usually
community leaders who are interested in forest conservation. The
wardens and fire fighters are paid only for the actual time spent
in fighting fires.
Under this system, fairly rapid mobilization of fire crews is
possible if the communities and logging or turpentine camps are


I







The Work of The Florida Forest Service 33

strategically located and if genuine cooperation exists in such
communities or camps. Where this set-up is impossible, it is
necessary, particularly during emergency periods, to supplement
the regular organization by paid fire crews. Such crews usually
consist of from two to five men who are employed from one to
four months out of the year.
On June 30, 1930, the following organization existed, although
some of the rangers and lookouts, and practically all of the war-
dens were off the payroll at that time: 11 rangers, 16 lookouts,
and 60 registered fire crews equipped to fight all fires.

RANGER THE KEY MAN
The Forest Ranger's most important job is to cooperate with
the people and, at the same time, endeavor to win them away from
the destructive practice of woods burning. To accomplish this
end he must understand why woods fires make idle lands, idle
industries, idle hands, and be able to carry these truths of forest
conservation to his people, largely through personal contact work.
Experience has proved conclusively that the ranger who is able
to work with the people gets the best results. When fires do occur,
he must be the leader in suppressing them. The many duties of
the ranger are outlined in considerable detail in the report of
Ranger P. F. Simmons covering his first six months' work on the
West Bay Fire Control Unit, on the following page:









The Work of The Florida Forest Service


TABLE 2

ACTIVITIES OF RANGER P. F. SIMMONS
WEST BAY FIRE CONTROL UNIT, DECEMBER 10, 1928, to JUNE 30, 1929
Total
Activities No. Hours Hours
Car Miles Traveled............... 5,217

Job. No. FIRE PREVENTION WORK:
1. People Interviewed .................. 439
2. Schools Visited ...................... 3
3. Turpentine Stills Visited ............... 52
4. Saw Mills Visited .................... 1
5. Meetings Attended ................... 1
6. Posters Put Up ...................... 208
7. Leaflets Distributed .................. 199
8. Reduction of Risks ................... 45
9. Law Enforcement Cases..............
10. Total Hours Fire Prevention ........... 6181/2
11. Office Hours Fire Prevention..... ..... 15913
12. Grand Total Hours, Fire Prevention ... 778


PRE-SUPPRESSION WORK:
People Interviewed Unit Extension.....
Hours Unit Extension .............
Crews Organized ....................
Organization Work ... .. ... .
Distribution of Tools and Equipment....
Maintenance Tools and Equipment.....
Improvement Construction Fire Lines...
Improvement Const. Telephone Lines...
Improvement Maintenance Tower......
Improvement Maintenance Tel. Lines...
Fire Observation Tower..............
Fire Patrol for Detection............ .
Total Hours Pre-Suppression..........
Hours Office .........................
Grand Total Pre-Suppression..........


109'

203 1/
10
17
14
24
3
143
8 1
172
7041'
75


FIRE SUPPRESSION AND INVESTIGATION:
Number of Fires in District ............ 137
Acres Burned in District ............. 6,000
No. Fires Ranger Fought-Hours...... 68 136V2
No. Fires Ranger Investigated-Hours.. 39 67/2
Total Hours Fire Suppression.........

TOTAL ALL WORK............


9.4 hours per day including one-half of all Sundays.
Area Burned ........................ 6,000 acres
Contributing Aica................... 138,406 Per cent I
Gross Protected Area .................. 160,000 "


7791/2


204

1,761!


3urned-4.4
" -3.7










The Work of The Florida Forest Service


FOREST RANGER MAKING A PERSONAL CONTACT, EXPLAINING THE FIRE CONTROL,
WORK AND REQUESTING AID IN PREVENTING, REPORTING, AND
FIGHTING FIRES ON HIS UNIT.


FIRE-FIGHTING TOOLS SUPPLIED TO ORGANIZED CREWS ON FIRE CONTROL UNITS:
AXE, BRUSH-HOOK, PAIL, RICH RAKE, 10-GALLON WATER CAN, BACK
PUMP, AND FIRE SWATTER.


__L __ __


I







The Work of The Florida Forest Service


FIRE IN THE TURPENTINE ORCHARD

MOTIVE OF COOPERATIVE EXPENDITURE IS TIMBER GROWING
The underlying purpose back of all fire control expenditures is
to give nature a chance to restock the land with trees and to keep
fire from destroying or retarding young tree growth. If the fire
control measures result in the growing and preservation of timber,
it may be said that the expenditures are in accord with the intent
and purpose of the Clarke-McNary Law and that the State and
private expenditures will be recognized as a basis for Federal reim-
bursement.
"ROUGH" PRESENTS FIRE RISK
When the landowner pays at least half of the costs of organized
fire control, his purpose usually is in line with the objective of the
State and Federal Government. However, if he is a turpentine
operator or if he leases turpentining rights to others, there may
be a mixed motive, i. e., one to grow and preserve timber, the other
to protect the investment in the woods. Fire "in the rough" can
easily destroy thousands of cups, the gum in them, and throw the
trees out of production. The turpentine operator stands a chance
of suffering heavy losses. Under such conditions, his chief interest
quite properly is to protect his investment.

UNCONTROLLED BURNING NOT PERMITTED
Because of the fire risk, the turpentine operator may deem it
advisable to follow the old practice of raking his cupped trees and
light-burning the woods. Such uncontrolled burning, if it takes
place on a fire control unit, defeats the purpose for which the unit
was created, as, under such practice, most of the land will burn
over every few years. In some instances, the turpentine operators
have persisted in the practice of uncontrolled burning without the
permission of the landowners or the Forest Service, and this
practice has threatened the very existence of the units.
The Florida Forest Service appreciates the heavy fire risk that
confronts some turpentine operators if they do not rake and burn,
and forest officers are instructed not to ask any man to take such
a risk against his better judgment.
In the beginning when turpentine leases contained no pro-
visions concerning cooperative fire protection, the Service policy
has been to cooperate with the turpentine operator and landowner
in restricted, controlled burning and fire line construction, and
endeavor in other ways to arrive at a satisfactory solution of this
problem. The Service, however, cannot continue to cooperate in
the protection of any property where uncontrolled burning is
practiced, as under such conditions, the full restocking of the land


k






The Work of The Florida Forest Service


/4L~


BEFORE and AFTER
RESULTS OF FIRE IN FLORIDA'S PINEY WOODS


DO FIRE LINES PAY?


f
IF


h1 kE








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


is impossible. Supplemental agreements with all turpentine
operators are now required in which they agree not to rake their
trees or burn the woods, and to substitute therefore fire lines or
fire breaks at a cost no greater than that of raking.

FIRE LINES AND FIRE BREAKS
A fire line usually consists of a single plowed furrow which is
used as a line from which to back-fire. It is not intended that fire
lines should serve as fire breaks although in many cases they do
stop light fires.
A fire break is usually a strip 50 to 150 feet wide which has
been fire-proofed, which means that the grass and other debris
have been burned between plowed lines. Highways and streams
serve as fire breaks.
The cooperating turpentine operators leave the woods "rough"
and the money ordinarily spent for raking their trees is used to
build fire breaks or fire lines.
Under practically all conditions fire lines can be constructed
around every forty-acre tract for about the cost of raking, and in
many cases at a considerable saving to the operator. Fire line
costs vary with the type of soil, underbrush, number of trees,
type of line constructed, and kind of equipment used. Ordinarily,
however, plowing costs are between $2.00 and $6.00 per mile. It
costs $3.00 to $10.00 per mile to burn fire breaks. Fire break
burning is not generally advocated due to the expense and because
plowed fire lines adequately serve the purposes for which they were
intended. Constant effort is being made to develop plows and
other equipment suitable for fire line construction in the turpen-
tine orchards thereby eliminating to a large extent the need of
annual burning as a protective measure which is now so commonly
practiced off fire control units.
Wherever a whole-hearted spirit of cooperation has existed,
the loss from fires in the turpentine orchards has been small,
amounting to but one per cent in 1930. These operators have
expressed their satisfaction with the results obtained through
fire control measures as evidenced by more abundant restocking
of the land with trees, faster growth, increased yield, reduced
costs and higher percentage of turpentine.
Because of the constant hazard to the capital invested in the
orchard, continued successful protection of the areas requires the
most enthusiastic cooperation from the turpentine operator. In
such matters as instructions to labor regarding the prevention of
fires, responding readily to fire calls from the fire tower, and
having men available for use at his camps, the operator is able to
assist in decreasing the hazard to the orchard because of the rough
to a very low degree. In every respect, successful elimination of


1








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


fires cannot be realized without the firm, unswerving assistance
of the operator working with the fire control organization toward
the goal of air-tight protection.


INTENSIVE FIRE LINE SYSTEM IN TURPENTINE ORCHARD
One Section, Tyler Fire Control Unit


LEGEND


SQUARE REPRESENTS 10 ACRES IN AREA
DOUBLE FURROW PLOWED FIRE LINE 7 TO
8 FEET WIDE
OLD PHOSPHATE MINE PIT
GOOD WOODS ROAD
DIM WOODS ROAD
OLD TRAM ROAD


DIlnbx


__


U

s:::':,:~-
-';;;;;';;'








40 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

FIRE CONTROL RESULTS
FIRE CONTROL AREAS UNDER COOPERATIVE CONTRACT
During the months of June, 1928, and throughout the fiscal
year 1929, seven fire control units comprising 649,966 acres were
listed for protection under signed cooperative agreements by 202
owners. This net protected area increased to 1,111,417* acres in
1930 and represented 40 additional signed cooperative agreements
on four additional units.
EXPENDITURES
Expenditures by the Florida Forest Service from the coopera-
tive State, Federal, and private funds in 1928-1929 averaged 5.4
cents per acre. By adding in direct private expenditures, which
were made under cooperative agreements and largely under the
supervision of the Service, the average cost amounted to 6.29 cents
per acre. (These figures represent two fiscal years and only one
fire season). The cooperative expenditure in the fiscal year 1929-
1930 was 4.21 cents per acre, and 4.37 cents including private in-
vestments outside of the cooperative budget. (Table 3, page 41.)
FIRE CONTROL STATISTICS
With 761,440 acres gross under protection during the 1928-29
fire season, 52,912 acres burned, or 6.95 per cent. In 1929-30, on
a protected area of 1,259,922 acres, 57,465 acres burned, or 4.56
per cent, representing a decrease of 2.39 per cent below the pre-
ceding year, despite the creation of four new units during that
period. The average area per fire fell from 82.4 acres in 1929 to
43.2 acres the following year. The average elapsed time of the
fire control organization in 1930 shows that the smoke was sighted
about 12 minutes after the fire began, the report to the suppression
crew was made in five minutes, mobilization required nine minutes,
travel time to the fire, fourteen minutes, fire suppression, one hour
and nineteen minutes, or a total elapsed time of one hour and
fifty-nine minutes per fire.
In 1929-30, in addition to the listed area of 1,111,417 acres, it
was necessary to protect 148,505 acres of intermingled, non-con-
tributing lands. These lands represented 11.7 per cent of the total
protected area of 1,259,922 acres. If the non-contributing acreage
had "paid its way" the cooperative expenditures would have been
reduced from 4.21 cents to 3.8 cents per acre. It is obvious that
non-contributing acreage which requires protection, increases the
cost of organized fire control and presents a problem for which
the cooperators and Florida Forest Service are earnestly seeking
a solution.
*Table 4, page 42, shows net area of 1,043,321 acres protected which
excludes a transfer in fire control administration to the U. S. Forest Service
of 93,827 acres. The 1,111,417 acres is an adjusted figure to allow for the
portion of the year the area was protected by the Florida Forest Service.










The Work of The Florida Forest Service 41


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42 The Work of The Florida Forest Service
TABLE 4
ACREAGES LISTED FOR FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL WITH
THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE BY THE COOPERATING
LANDOWNERS
1928-1930

YEARS


LANDOWNERS


WEST BAY
Seminole Plantation Company..............
Moody Turpentine Company................
Brown-Florida Lumber Company..........
E. W Hagler ............................
W L. Hightowers .......................
J. W alton Day ...........................
W H Bishop ............................
A. W. McDade ..........................
E. M oody Estate ..........................
E. L. Strickland ...........................
W A. Strickland ..........................
J. T. Stapelton ...........................
Dan Anderson ............................
C. L. K elly ..............................
Joe W W illiam s .......................
W allace H. Laird ....................... .
Wesley Hobbs & Brother...................
C. B ,Dunn ..............................
H Q. Brew er ............................
W C. Vickery ..........................
Joe Peterson ......................... .
W W M ay, Jr. ...........................
J. T. K ent .............................
A lice D estin ................. .........
W esley Potter, Sr. ........................
Lorenza Brown ........................
J. T. Jackson ............................
H A Pledger ...........................
W E Lee ...............................
J. E Pledger ..........................
C. C. M this .............................
J. D Sellars ..............................
Vernon Land and Timber Company..........
Chipley Realty Company .................
Dekle Land Company ......................
Julia Bryant .............................
J. N. Cox ...... .........................
J. E. Rodgers .............................
W. M. Pope ... .........................
Vernon Land and Timber Company..........
M. E. McCorquodale.....................
J. M Vickers .............................
Eugene Jackson ..........................
Parish Brothers ..........................
C. E M iller ...... .......................
W illiam Brantley .........................
Edward B. Banks .................. .....
John C. W illiam s .........................
Vernon Land & Timber Company...........


1928-29

Acres
41,539
6,640
36,000
40
32
80
40
120
200
80
200
45
60
124
9,178
600
1,040
1,330
120
108
40
130
40
80
160
20
145
143
80
80
82
120
3,600
120
160
60
80
90
80
35,380
140


1929-30

Acres
June 1, 1928











May 28, 1928























146
122
280
80
40
160
40
2,441


I)









The Work of The Florida Forest Service


LANDOWNERS


WEST BAY-(Continued)
W T. M orris ............................
Roland Pom pey ...........................
J. S. Clem ones .........................
F. E. M marshall ..........................
V T. M marshall ............................
J. E H ow ell ............................
N. J. Dawkins ................... ......
C. P. W ard ................... ...........
No. Cooperators-57.
N o. Acres .........................

BLACK CREEK
J. C. Penney-Gwinn Corporation............
No. Cooperators-1
No. Acres ...........................

TYLER
J. C. Penney-Gwinn Corporation ............
E Sapp ................................
T. H. DuBose ............. ...............
Camp Phosphate Company.................
Loncala Phosphate Company ..............
Cummer Lumber Company................
N. G. Wade Investment Company...........
Florida Land Company ...................
No. Cooperators-8.
N o. A cres ............. ..............

ST. MARYS
Columbia Farm Lands Corporation ..........
No. Cooperators-1.
N o. A cres ........................ .

LENO
Durham Tropical Land Corporation.........
Darrell F. Johnson .......................
Ruth M orris ............................
Emerson W. Wheelock ...................
John P. M oore ..........................
Edna B. Burgess..........................
No. Contracts
1 to 25 acres .................. 132
26 to 50 acres................... 16


YEARS

1928-29 1929-30

Acres Acres
40
40
107
60
80
80
427
85

138,406 4,228


156,500

156,500


58,180
40
240
1,600
8,000
1,280
3,000
8,480

80,820

170,239.58*

170,239.58

60,000
60


June 1, 1928




June 1, 1928


60
130
80
60

220 1,365
80 530


No. Coopeiators-154.
No. Acres ............................. 60,0001 _

*Withdrawn from the protection rendered by the Florida Forest Service
and added to the Osceola National Forest. This withdrawal does not repre-
sent a loss to the protected area of the State.
1Small acreage lots reduce the 60,000-acre tract proportionately as they
are listed under individual cooperative agreements.


_ _~_IL __ _T









The Work of The Florida Forest Service


LANDOWNERS


LAKE KERR
Florida Salt Springs Corporation...........
No. Cooperators-1.
No. Acres ............... ............

RAIFORD
Board of Commissioners of State Institutions.
No. Cooperators-1.
N o. Acres .............. ..............


YEARS

1928-29 1929-30

Acres Acres
30,000

30,000


14,000

14,000


JACKSON
Jackson Lumber Company ................
W. A. & C. B. McNeil.... .................
R. A. Frazier.............................
R. H. Jones. ............... ..........
John W. Williams.........................
J. T. Manning.............................
McCaskill Investment Company ............
No. Cooperators-7.
No. Acres .................... .... .............

KISSIMMEE
Consolidated Land Company................
No. Cooperators-1.
No. Acres .........................................

LIBERTY
W C. Rodgers ............................
Graves Bros. Company ........... ........
W J. Singletary .......................
K M Stokes .............................
St. Joseph Land & Development Co..........
No. Cooperators-5.
No. Acres ......................................

WACISSA
The Singletary Investment Company........
Florida Industrial Company................
Peninsular Naval Stores Company.........
C. L. Morrison Company. .................
Capital City Naval Stores..................
Brooks-Scanlon Corporation ...............
No. Cooperators-6.
N o. A cres ........................... ..............
Total No. Cooperators-242.
Total No. Acres ....................... 649,966


39,315
370
80
120
80
480
840

41,285


126,000

126,000

8.250
33,280
7,680
700
120,000

169,910


28,000
40,000
3,169
27.500
1,770
45,320

145,759

487,182


Acreage Listed Up to June 30, 1930....... 1,137,148
*Withdrawals Up to June 30, 1930......... 93,827

Total Listed Acreage on June 30, 1930... 1,043,321


_ __ __

















BRANCH OF APPLIED FORESTRY

CONDITIONS FAVORABLE FOR TIMBER GROWING
While there is much to be learned in the field of Applied For-
estry and Research, we are certain that a large part of Florida is
in the heart of one of the best timber producing sections of the
United States. With our long-growing season and heavy, well-
distributed rain-fall, nature abundantly restocks the land with
fast growing trees. Young pine timber in North Florida, on
medium land, and in the absence of fire, will grow to pulpwood and
turpentine size in 15 to 20 years, to tie and pole size in 30 years,
and to saw-log size in 40 to 60 years. In thirty years the average
yield of spruce pulpwood in the northeast is placed at 2.2 cords
as against 24.5 cords for longleaf and 48 cords for slash. Foresters
throughout the country concede that the South as a whole is
destined to be the outstanding timber producing section of the
United States.

DEMONSTRATION BEFORE PRACTICE
Over-cutting, destructive turpentining, and "wild fire" have
prevented nature from restocking cut-over land, which on an
average supports only from 20 to 30 per cent of the possible crop.
This situation has prevented many people from appreciating the
true growing power of the land. Many landowners are not ac-
quainted with the advantages of conservative cutting and turpen-
tining, and what is to be gained by putting into effect other desir-
able practices. However, there are many owners of forest land
who are interested in timber growing, who want to keep fire off
their land, plant up idle acres, prune and thin trees, and adopt
other desirable growing and utilization practices. They are in-
clined to practice simple forest management and are appreciative
of any Service that may be offered by a State Extension Forester.
These are the men who are to demonstrate the growing power of
the land as well as desirable and profitable practices, and who will
help the Florida Forest Service bring about timber growing on
lands not used for agriculture or other purposes.

45


__








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


GENERAL DUTIES OUTLINED BY BOARD
The Florida Board of Forestry, realizing that many owners
of forest land were seeking advice and assistance in timber grow-
ing, created the Branch of Applied Forestry and in outlining the
work, stressed the importance of determining desirable practices
and applying them on demonstrational units in cooperation with
the landowners. At the same time, the Board provided for re-
search work to determine desirable practices, obtain facts about
the financial aspects of timber growing, and to determine the
suitability of Florida's trees for various wood products and how
best utilized. The general duties of the Assistant State Forester,
who would eventually be in charge of the Branch of Applied For-
estry, were outlined by the Board as follows:
1. Cooperate with the Southern Forest Experiment Station
to determine desirable timber growing and turpentining
practices.
2. By close personal and field contact, learn the problems con-
fronting the landowners, become acquainted with land
values, taxation problems, operating costs, and markets.
Demonstrate desirable timber-growing practices as deter-
mined by research.
3. Determine the problems confronting the turpentine oper-
ators, naval stores factors and the industry as a whole,
including the leasing provisions, woods and still practice,
costs, by-products and markets. Demonstrate desirable
turpentining and still practices.
4. Know the problems of the lumber and other forest indus-
tries. Cooperate with these industries in all possible ways.
5. Collect, compile, and disseminate information concerning
the production and consumption of the forest products,
stumpage, yields, markets, forest taxation, timber stands,
and types.
6. Direct the work at the forest nursery, distribute planting
stock, extend planting to idle lands, and disseminate infor-
mation concerning the best planting methods.
7. Identify and know the requirements for the healthy
growth of forest trees and their commercial uses and
values.
PERSONNEL
Mr. C. H. Coulter, former Field Assistant with the United
States Forest Service, Starke, Florida, was employed as temporary
Forest Assistant in the field of Applied Forestry and Research
from October, 1928, to February, 1929. In July, 1929, Mr. Coulter
became permanently connected with the State Forest Service in
charge of the Applied Forestry and Research work.


--








The Work of The Florida Forest Service 47

STATE NURSERY

FIRST PROJECT OF DEPARTMENT
On February 24, 1928, a State Nursery was authorized to be
established at the State Prison Farm near Raiford. Temporary
use of State land and water had been offered by the Superintendent
of the State Farm to carry on nursery work experimentally until
permanent arrangements could be made between the Board of
Commissioners of State Institutions and the Florida Board of
Forestry. As the season was well advanced, the Secretary of the
Board, Mr. Simon F. Williams, and the State Forester assumed
the responsibility for starting the nursery work at once.
Mr. Aubrey Frink, Assistant to the Superintendent, of the
State Farm, had full charge of the work and installed eight 50-foot
seed beds. Because of the late planting, poor soil and site, only
5,500 longleaf seedlings were used for transplanting. Valuable
experience was obtained from this first work.

COMMISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS COOPERATE
On September 19, 1928, an agreement was executed with the
Board of Commissioners of State Institutions which took this


RAIFORD NURSERY. SLASH PINE SEEDLINGS 9 MONTHS OLD IN FLORIDA FOREST
SERVICE NURSERY. AVERAGE HEIGHT 13 INCHES.


t _








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


project out of the experimental class by authorizing use of State
Farm lands for the growing of forest tree nursery stock. The
work was done by prison labor, for which the State Prison was
compensated. All work was under the direction of the Florida
Forest Service.

COOPERATION WITH U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

On May 29, 1928, advisory and financial assistance from the
Federal Government was assured by the execution of an agree-
ment with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Under this agree-
ment the Federal government pays, up to the limit of the annual
allotment, one-half of the cost of growing and distributing such
forest tree nursery stock as is sold to farmers.

PERMANENT NURSERY ESTABLISHED 1929

A study of forest tree nursery practices, especially those
applicable to Florida, was made and a plan adopted for the State
Farm Nursery. The work contemplated in this plan was ably
executed by Mr. Aubrey Frink, Nurseryman and Horticulturist
at the State Farm. The increase in the volume of this work and
other demands on Mr. Frink's time made it necessary to appoint an
assistant, Mr. Joseph Malpas, who took over the active supervision
of this work, with Mr. Frink still functioning in an advisory
capacity. A new location where better soil and moisture condi-
tions were found was selected for the permanent nursery. In
sixty 4 by 50-foot beds, 52 pounds of slash pine seed and 53 pounds
of longleaf pine seed were sown in January, 1929. In the winter
of 1929-30 155,000 slash pines and 95,000 longleaf pines were
available for planting, a total of 250,000 seedlings. In addition,
trial plantings were made of 27 promising tree species. Twelve
of these proved to be suitable for planting in the field. The seed-
lings were sold at $4.00 per thousand to landowners in Florida
for reforestation purposes.
1930 NURSERY
In February, March, and April of 1930, 234 pounds of slash
pine seed and 122 pounds of longleaf pine seed were sown in 212
beds. In addition, 31'promising tree species were planted in small
amounts. Due to the wet spring weather, nursery seeding was
delayed which caused a considerable reduction in the output of
seedlings. Blackbirds also did a great deal of damage. The ex-
pected output of 800,000 seedlings will, in all probability, be some-
what lower than anticipated. The seedlings probably will be sold
for $3.00 per thousand which is the estimated cost of producing
them.


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The Work of The Florida Forest Service


X;


FLA.FOREST SERVICE AND
STATE FARM COOPERATING
SEEUNCS AT COST FOR LAND
OWNERSTHRUOUT FULRIDA TO
MAKEILE ACRESPRODUCTIVE


RAIFORD NURSERY. FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE NURSERY AT STATE
FARM, RAIFORD.
Note that convict labor is being used to remove the straw mulch which has protected the seed
and seedlings during the germination period.


AUTOMATIC PINE SEED SOWER: ONE ROW PROPERLY SPACED IS SOWN BY A FOR-
WARD AND BACK MOTION OF THE HANDLE. SAVING OF SEED, GREATER
ACCURACY IN SOWING, AND ONE-FIFTH OF THE USUAL TIME ARE
THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS DRILL SEEDER.


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L. I f.. *.
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The Work of The Florida Forest Service


BARTOW NURSERY
In February, 1930, Mr. George Lee Dally, District Forester at
Bartow, secured the use of a plot of land for nursery purposes on
the Polk County Farm about two miles from Bartow through the
courtesy of the County Commissioners. The Bartow nursery is
experimental in nature and only a few promising tree species to be
used in the southern part of the state were sown.
In addition to the sowing of one pound each of slash and long-
leaf seed, small quantities of 31 promising exotic species were
sown. The press of other work made it impossible to seed-in
the nursery as early as was desired. Production is estimated at
5,000 slash and 2,000 longleaf seedlings, besides several exotic
species.
ARBORCYCLES
In an arborcycle, the trees are planted in rows arranged as the
spokes of a wheel. As the rows or spokes diverge, the spacing of
the trees increase. The spacings vary from 3.5 to 25 feet on the
162-foot radius, 14 trees to a radius or spoke. The purpose is to
determine how various promising native and exotic species develop
at different spacings or under different degrees of competition
for light and moisture. Thus at the end of a few years, we hope
to learn much about the requirements of various species of trees
and at a lower cost than is normally possible. The arborcycles
are considered, however, to be in the experimental stage.
Tree seeds secured from other sections of the United States
and from Australia were sown in the spring of 1929 in the Raiford
nursery. In the spring of 1930, six species of pines, two eucalyp-
tus, chinaberry, catalpa, osage orange, mulberry, black locust, and
black walnut were available for arborcycle establishment and
were planted at the State Prison Farm, Penney Farms, Lake City,
and Mulberry. From 13 to 14 rows were planted at each location,
each row a different species. The late planting of these partial
arborcycles will probably be detrimental to their success.

PRIVATE SEED BEDS
In the spring of 1929, no pine seedlings were available for dis-
tribution from the State Nursery although many requests were
received for planting stock. Pine seed or mast was available, so
the landowners were interested and assisted by the Florida Forest
Service in putting in their own seed beds to raise pine seedlings.
Seed was sold at cost and the landowners were assisted in the
preparation, sowing, and care of their seed beds by trained for-
esters. Detailed instructions for the care of the nursery beds
were supplied to these cooperators. Of the 23 cooperators
who established seed beds, only eight were successful. It is


N








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


estimated that 169,000 pine seedlings were raised by these private
parties. Bird and chicken damage to the seed and young seedlings,
lack of weeding, watering, and cultivation, and occasionally insect
and fungus damage were the factors responsible for poor results
secured by the other cooperators. The successful ones, however,
took much interest in this phase of timber growing and today are
among the strongest supporters of the work of the Florida Forest
Service. These eight cooperators planted 260 acres of idle land
with their home grown seedlings in the winter of 1929-30.
In the spring of 1930, seventeen different cooperators estab-
lished their own private seed beds. These, however, were smaller
in size than those of the previous year and a strong tendency was
apparent toward the use of State-grown seedlings.


THE POOR SURVIVAL IN A PRIVATE SEED BED DUE TO LACK OF PROTECTION
FROM BIRDS.


PLANTINGS
The demonstration of timber growth is one of the objectives of
the Applied Forestry Branch. It was hoped in three years' time
to have at least one demonstration plot in every county in Florida
located adjacent to a main county or state highway.


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The Work of The Florida Forest Service


1929 SPRING PLANTING
In 1929 only 5,000 slash pine and an equal amount of longleaf
pine seedlings were available. These were planted in from one
to five-acre plots in twelve separate plantings, scattered from
Pensacola to North of Jacksonville, totaling 17 acres.
1930 SPRING PLANTING
As far as personnel and time permitted, visits were made to
landowners in many counties. Forty-seven demonstration plots
of an acre or more were planted in the early spring of 1930. The
landowners paid for the stock, supplied the labor, and agreed to
take the necessary steps for protection from fire. Small signs
were posted at each plantation which read as follows: "Planted
Pines! Help Protect From Fire. Seedlings Supplied by the Florida
Forest Service, Tallahassee. Grow Timber."
In addition to the above-mentioned plantings, 54 non-demon-
strational or field plantings were made. These varied in size from
less than an acre to nearly 200 acres. Several requests for assist-
ance and for seedling stock were turned down. A total of 706
acres were planted in 1930.
The planting procedure is as follows: A representative of the
Florida Forest Service examines the land, recommends the proper
species to plant and, at the time of planting, instructs in proper
methods of planting. He supervises the work for a short time in
the beginning. Planting tools are loaned to cooperators to speed
up and improve the planting. The seedlings are inspected after a
year in the field to check the survival.
SEEDLING DISTRIBUTION POLICY
Seedlings are sold at cost, F. O. B. Raiford, to landowners
throughout the state for the reforestation of idle land, and to
civic organizations for highway planting. Seedlings are furnished
free of charge when planted by school children for educational
purposes. Under no consideration are seedlings sold for the beau-
tification of private land.
DIRECT SEEDING IN THE FIELD
The purpose of this project is to test the practicability of sow-
ing pine seeds by spot and broadcast methods on the land to be
reforested.
In January, 1929, between five and six hundred hills or spots
containing 6-9 seeds per hill were sown with Black Locust seed
near Quincy on old mine dumps. A good germination resulted but
the tender young seedlings were eaten by rabbits. Only one seed-
ling survived.
Another test of both broadcast and spot sowing of slash pine
seed was also started in January near Penney Farms by the James


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L









The Work of The Florida Forest Service 53


*-hiiCi. f


U1 v* ^
N. t r
*3u ^-'


A DEMONSTRATION PLANTING: SLASH PINE PLANTED ON HIGH, DRY, SANDY
LAND. THESE SEEDLINGS ARE TWO YEARS IN THE FIELD.







.'1. .. .-I $


FIRE DEMONSTRATION PLOT. LEFT SIDE PROTECTED. RIGHT SIDE BURNED
ANNUALLY. LOCATED ADJACENT TO MAIN HIGHWAY,
NORTH OF PANAMA CITY.

D. Lacey Company. Part of the seed was treated with red lead
to prevent rodent damage. These tests on a variety of soil and
moisture conditions resulted in failures. It was estimated that
four pounds of slash pine seed per acre would be necessary to
secure a satisfactory stand. The seed and labor would cost over








The Work of The Florida Forest Service


$12.00 per acre, which is three to four times the total cost of
planting, and would, therefore, be prohibitive.
Reasons for failure of direct seeding are: (1) Insects, birds,
and rodents eat up the seed. (2) Moisture conditions are not
always satisfactory for sprouting. (3) Such seeding-in as occurs
is usually in clusters and large "blanks" result. (4) Seedlings in
the field do not have the vigor of nursery stock.

TO DEMONSTRATE GROWTH ON BURNED AND
UNBURNED LAND
Three plots were established, one in 1929 and the other two in
1930.
The procedure is as follows: A plot naturally restocked with
slash or longleaf pine seedlings ranging in size from those in the
grass to about three feet in height is selected for the demonstra-
tion. A suitable area is then divided into as nearly equal halves as
possible by a six-foot fire line. Both plots are surrounded by addi-
tional fire lines and one-half is then burned. Check strips are laid
out on both the burned and unburned plots and the number and
size of seedlings recorded. The burned half is returned annually
and measurements taken every one to two years.
Already on these year-old burned plots there has been a notice-
able loss in seedlings and a slowing down in height growth is
apparent.
FORESTRY AND GRAZING EXPERIMENT
The purpose of this experiment is to test tree establishment,
survival and growth, and beef production, on burned and un-
burned land and further on improved pasture lands.
The J. C. Penney-Gwinn Corporation, the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, and the Florida Forest Service are cooper-
ators in this study. The location is four miles west of Penney
Farms on the Green Cove Springs-Starke Highway in Clay County.
One experiment consists of two 240-acre tracts, one burned
annually, the other kept rough, and two 40-acre tracts where im-
proved grasses were broadcast and strip sown. The cattle graze
nine months in the year and are weighed monthly to determine
their comparative weights. Both advanced reproduction and seed-
lings in the grass are being studied to determine survival and
growth under burned and unburned and grazed and ungrazed con-
ditions; also under a different combination of these conditions.
Some 56 sample plots were established on which the number,
height, and diameter of the seedlings were recorded. This work
will be repeated from year to year.
One-half of each forty acres of improved pasture was burned
before sowing, then one-quarter of each forty was light and heavy
disced. One forty was broadcast sown to carpet grass, lespedeza


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The Work of The Florida Forest Service


22,800 NATURAL SEEDED LONGLEAF PINES PER ACRE. EACH WHITE STAKE ON
THE PLOT (1/100 OF AN ACRE IN SIZE) MARKS A LONGLEAF PINE SEEDLING
ESTABLISHED UNDER FIRE PROTECTION: FORESTRY AND
GRAZING EXPERIMENT.


THINNING EXPERIMENT. LONGLEAF PINE THINNED OUT TO ACCELERATE
GROWTH. NOTE CORDWOOD PILED AT LEFT OF PICTURE.








56 The Work of The Florida Forest Service

and bahia grass, twenty pounds to the acre. The other was strip
sown, about one-quarter of the area being seeded to these grasses.
No results will be forthcoming from this test for several years.
THINNING PLOTS
Thinning plots are established to contrast the growth of over-
stocked or dense stands of pine saplings with growth where com-
petition for light and moisture has been reduced by thinning. In
January, 1929, two plots were located near Lake City, in longleaf
pine stands. Measurements were taken of the thinned and un-
thinned trees of each plot. Costs of thinning were kept. From time
to time remeasurements will be taken to determine the growth
under the thinned and unthinned conditions. In November, 1929,
two plots, one of slash pine, near Starke, and one of longleaf pine
near Pensacola were put in by Dr. Austin Cary of the U. S. Forest
Service. In each case one or more members of the Florida Forest
Service assisted and records are being kept in the Tallahassee
office.
FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF TIMBER GROWING STUDIED IN
WASHINGTON COUNTY
The purpose of the study was to compile elements of cost of
the various forest industries, receipts and returns from timber
land and also to investigate the future of the various forest indus-
tries. Strip cruisers were run and the number of trees and turpen-
tine faces recorded, yield, income and costs were studied. Since
taxes have an important bearing on the cost of growing timber,
considerable time was devoted to this phase of the subject.
This study in Washington County was started in May, 1930,
in cooperation with the Southern Forest Experiment Station. This
county was selected as representative of the long!eaf-sandhill
areas of Western Florida. Three men worked in the field for three
weeks securing these data. The results were worked up and the
preliminary report written in one month. While the final report will
be forthcoming at a later date, a few significant facts are here
listed:
(1) The woodland of the county bears a much heavier tax
in proportion to its producing ability than does the farm land.
(2) The average woodland is not earning enough to pay
for its taxes.
(3) Destructive turpentining, lumbering, and fires have
reduced its producing power to a very low figure.
(4) The cut of lumber is twenty and one-half million
board feet annually, while the growth amounts to only eight
and one-half million board feet. This shows a cut of two and
one-half times in growth.
(5) Turpentining and lumbering in the future will show
a downward trend in production for several years to come.


_







The Work of The Florida Forest Service


The building up this woodland industry into a substantial
sustained future business is possible at a profit under desir-
able forest practices.

NAVAL STORES PROGRAM
Dr. Austin Cary, in February, 1928, laid out a gum and manage-
ment test near Starke, Florida. He was assisted in the work by
the resident member of the Florida Forest Service at Starke. Cer-
tain trees were cut and thinned out, others were worked for tur-
pentine and will be removed after they are worked out or die and
the "trees in place" will remain as round saw timber. These tests
were located in a thrifty stand of slash pine and have already
shown a profitable production of gum. In future years the yield
in saw timber, under this kind of woods practice, will be deter-
mined.
STUDY OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF PULP AND
PAPER MAKING
In keeping with the policy to gather and disseminate infor-
mation which may help to open new markets for Florida-grown
timber and bring new industries to the State, the Florida Board
of Forestry, in July, 1929, authorized an investigation to deter-
mine the possibilities of pulp and paper making in Florida. Mr.
W. L. Wilson was appointed as special investigator and assisted
the State Forester in studying and investigating the pulp and
paper problem.
The investigations were nearly completed at the end of the
biennium covered by this report. The findings will be printed at
a later date in bulletin form.
SHOW WINDOWS OF FORESTRY
No State land is owned or managed by the Florida Forest Ser-
vice. Improved forest practices must, therefore, come from the
combined efforts of individuals, companies or organizations, and
the State Forest Service.
Twelve cooperators in 1929 planted 17 acres, and 101 cooper-
ators in 1930 planted over 706 acres. This tremendous increase
within the biennium is indicative of the interest in this work.
The owners have been assisted and advised by the Florida
Forest Service, and idle acres have actually been put to work
growing timber. These evenly spaced, fully stocked plantations
will help the owner to realize the possibilities of timber growing
on his land which was impossible to visualize in the understocked,
uneven aged stands so prevalent in the piney woods of Florida,
Forest tree plantations-demonstrations-once established and
growing, are living advertisements which show Florida's enviable
position in the timber growing field.


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