Group Title: Biennial report of the Florida Forest and Park Service
Title: Report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075934/00003
 Material Information
Title: Report
Alternate Title: Work of the Florida Forest Service
Florida forestry
Florida forestry and park progress
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 18-28 cm.
Creator: Florida Board of Forestry
Florida Board of Forestry
Florida Forest Service
Florida -- Forest and Park Service
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st- 1928/30-
Numbering Peculiarities: Period covered by reports ends June 30.
Issuing Body: Reports for 1928/30, 1934/36, 1940/42-1946/48 issued by the board under an interim name: Board of Forestry and Parks.
General Note: Some vols. have also distinctive titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075934
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001746447
notis - AJF9242
lccn - a 59002387 //r

Full Text




























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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY









SIXTH
BIENNIAL REPORT

OF THE

FLORIDA

Forest and Park Service


JULY 1, 1938 JUNE 30, 1940


A STATE ORGANIZATION
DIRECTED BY THE FLORIDA BOARD
OF FORESTRY, COOPERATING WITH
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
IN RENDERING ASSISTANCE
TO THE LANDOWNERS AND FOREST
INDUSTRIES IN APPLIED FORESTRY
AND FOREST PROTECTION, AND IN
THE PRESERVATION AND USE
OF FLORIDA'S OUTSTANDING SCENIC,
HISTORICAL AND RECREATIONAL AREAS










Tallahassee, Florida

.-: j : 7 :..: ..
* .
.*
.* .
. .*. .









































Fig. 1. The Florida Board of Forestry as of October 7, 1940. Left to right: W. C. Ray of Ocala; Joe Foley,
Foley; A. G. McArthur, Fernandina, President; Mrs. Linwood Jeffreys, Jacksonville, Secretary; A. B. Edwards,
Sarasota. Note: Mr. A. B. Edwards succeeded Stanley S. Sheip just after the period covered by this report.











CONTENTS
Page
THE FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY ......................... 4
THE SERVICE CREATED ......................... ........... 5
THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ....................... 5
FINANCING ................... ...... ........ ............ 6
ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN FIRE CONTROL ...................... 7
The Causes of Fire ......................................... 7
Functioning Policies ........................................ 8
The Record ........................ .................. 10
Activities and Developments ................................. 11
Law Enforcement .......................................... 14
Contribution of the CCC to Fire Control ..................... 14

ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN APPLIED FORESTRY .................. 15
Artificial Reforestation ...................................... 15
Forest Management Investigations ............................ 17
Pulpwood Co-operation ................... .................... 21
Naval Stores Co-operation .................................. 22
Farm Forestry ................ ... ........................... 22
STATE FORESTS ........................................... 23

ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN FIRE PREVENTION AND CONSERVA-
TION EDUCATION ......................................... 24
Forestry in the Agricultural High Schools ...................... 24
In the Public Schools Generally ............................... 25
The Boy Scout Forests Project ........................... 25
The Forestry Training Camp .............................. 25
Visual Education ................ ......................... 26
Signs and Posters ............... ......................... 26
Publicity .................................... ......... 28
Publications ................................... .. .......... 29
Public Talks and Addresses ................................ 30
Co-operation with Lay Organizations .......................... 30
Special Projects .......................................... 30

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL ........................... 31

STATE PARKS IN FLORIDA .......................................... 34
In the Biennium ................ .......................... 34
Existing Units ................ ........................... 34
Attendance .............. ............................... 39
Contribution of the CCC to State Parks ...................... 39

PROBLEMS AND NEEDS ...................................... 40

APPENDIX ..................................... .............. 44







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


THE FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY

Forestry as a function of the State had its beginning in Florida
with the enactment, by the 1927 Legislature, of a law creating a
Board of Forestry to: (1) assist and co-operate with Federal and
State departments or institutions, county, town, corporation or
individual; (2) gather and disseminate information in regard to
forests, their care and management; (3) prevent and extinguish
forest fires; and (4) enforce all laws pertaining to forests and
woodlands.
The Board consists of five members appointed by the Governor
for non-concurrent terms of four years. They serve without pay
and may be reimbursed only for actual expenses incurred in the
discharge of their duties-this not to exceed the sum of three
hundred dollars each in any year.
The first Board was appointed and began to function late in
1927. While changes in its personnel are infrequent, the original
membership has gradually been replaced in the twelve years that
have elapsed. Board members whose services terminated during
the last biennium were S. Bryan Jennings of Jacksonville and
John B. Glen of Chipley. At the end of the biennium (June 30,
1940) the Board is comprised of:

President-A. G. McARTHUR, Fernandina

Vice President-JOE FOLEY, Foley

Secretary-MRS. LINWOOD JEFFREYS, Jacksonville

Member-W. C. RAY, Ocala


Member-STANLEY S. SHEIP, Apalachicola







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


THE SERVICE CREATED

In order to redeem its responsibilities, the Board created the
Florida Forest Service and drafted Harry Lee Baker, a forester
in the employ of the Federal Government, to organize and direct
the State's work. A Branch of Fire Control was provided to co-
operate with the public in the prevention and control of forest
fires; a Branch of Applied Forestry was made responsible for the
growing and distributing of seedling trees, for carrying on re-
search, and for counseling with landowners in the growing, man-
agement and utilization of timber crops; and to a Branch of Pub-
licity, Information and Education was entrusted the "dissemina-
tion of information in regard to forests." In due course, it be-
came necessary to institute, also, a Fiscal Branch to manage
budgets and accounts and do the department's purchasing.
The 1935 Legislature provided for the creation and manage-
ment of a system of State parks. Because of the close relation-
ship between the management of forest land for timber crops and
for public recreation, this new State function was delegated by the
Legislature to the Florida Board of Forestry. The result was
the establishment, within the Service, of the Branch of State
Forests and Parks. Eventually, the name of the department was
changed to the Florida Forest and Park Service and the title of its
chief to State Forester and Park Executive.
The Board supervises the work of the Service, meeting from
time to time to counsel with the Service executive on matters of
personnel, policy and finance.



THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS

In April of 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps was instituted
as a relief agency. Camps were made available, through the
Florida Forest and Park Service, to work on acceptable forestry
and parkiprojects. Improvements and activities which the State
might have been years in financing began to be immediately avail-
able at Federal expense in co-operation with the United States
Forest Service. It would be difficult to appraise the benefits that
Florida has derived; suffice to say that forest conservation and
management have been advanced by at least a generation and
that Florida's system of State parks has been largely made pos-
sible through the CCC and the National Park Service.








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


FINANCING

The Service is financed by Federal, State and private funds and
by earnings resulting from departmental activity. State funds
are appropriated biennially by the Legislature. Private monies
are contributed by landowners in connection with co-operative
fire control on private land. Federal allocations are made pos-
sible through the provisions of the national Clarke-McNary law
and are based on reportable expenditures already made by the
State department. Earnings accrue from the sale of tree seed-
lings, from revenues from the State parks and State forests, from
the rental of the forestry training camp to public agencies, and
the like.
The State appropriation for the fiscal year 1938-1939 was
$170,000. For 1939-1940 it was 8210,000, a total of $380,000 for
the biennium. Private contributions grossed $99,282 and S136,-
619, a total of $235,901. Federal funds were $100,282 and $105,-
456.90, a total of $205,738.90. Earnings were $28,414.08 and $39,-
247.56; for the biennium, $67,661.64. A detailed financial state-
ment will be found in Tables I and II in the Appendix.
Exclusive of balances carried forward, the total funds available
to the Service were $398,627.91 in 1938-1939 and $451,323.48 in
1939-40. State funds represented only 42.6 per cent of the total
in the first year and 46.5 per cent in the last year of the biennium.
In view of the fact that the matching power of State funds
makes private contributions possible, and the two, in turn, ac-
count for Federal reimbursement, it may be said that the State ap-
propriation in 1938-1939 earned interest of 134 per cent for for-
estry and park work and in 1939-1940, 115 per cent. Certainly
a worthwhile investment of State funds! Further, this organized
work makes possible the assignment of CCC camps to projects
within Florida and results in Federal expenditures, for which
figures are not readily available, that multiply the total many
times over at no additional cost to the State. The investment
made in State parks and State forests will continue to pay divi-
dends so long as well managed. Forestry expenditures made on
private lands can increase Florida's present average timber stock-
ing from 2 to 3 cords of wood to the acre to 8 to 12 cords-thereby
increasing the value of forest lands fourfold. In short, every
dollar of State funds appropriated for the work of the Board of
Forestry results in the expenditure of several dollars by other
agencies or private individuals and in greatly increased assets for
the State at large.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN FIRE CONTROL
The Causes of Fire
Florida's forest fire problem is admittedly one of the greatest
in the United States. In 1938, 14.8 per cent of all fires in the
nation, by number, occurred in this State. There was a total of
34,589 fires recorded in that year and it was estimated that 34.5
per cent of the State's forest land acreage was swept by fire at
least once.
Why? Because Florida is still a frontier where natural re-
sources are lightly regarded by the rank and file who deal with
them daily. Because custom and tradition have fostered the
burning of the woods: to eliminate redbugs, ticks, cotton boll
weevils and rattlesnakes; to "green up" the pasture; to protect
naval stores operations against uncontrolled fires; to eliminate
the heavy grass and undergrowth so that plowing is easier, fire-
wood found more readily, and game birds and animals secured
with less difficulty.
Prior to the establishment of the Florida Forest and Park Serv-
ice and the beginning of organized fire prevention education, it
was estimated that 75 per cent of the State's land area was burned
annually. Obviously, considerable progress has been made to
reduce the percentage burned by 40 per cent in a 10-year period.
Actually, the picture is both better and worse! In 1938, there
was a total of 5,788,000 acres under fire control and the loss was
accurately checked at 116,110 acres or 1.99 per cent. This means
that there were 7,650,000 acres burned on the unprotected 16,-
599,000, or 45.18 per cent. The comparison-protected acres, 1.99
per cent, and unprotected, 45.18 per cent-speaks for itself!
A study of the causes of fires on land under co-operative fire
control reveals that lightning, the only natural cause of fires,
was responsible for only 2.26 per cent in the first year of the
biennium and 2.3 per cent in the second. Conversely, man was
responsible, either directly or indirectly, for 97.74 per cent in
1938-1939 and 97.7 per cent in 1939-1940.
Accidental man-caused fires may result from railroad right-of-
way burns or locomotive sparks, from the carelessness of campers
or smokers, from brush burning or lumbering operations, and
similar beginnings. Incendiary fires may be set for any one of
the "reasons" enumerated earlier or out of pure "cussedness."
Incendiary, or set, fires accounted for 72.22 per cent, almost
three fourths, of the fires in the first year of the biennium and
accounted for more than 80 per cent of acreage lost. In the
second year, they amounted to 81.7 per cent of the number and
accounted for 87.7 per cent of the acreage. A complete analysis
of the fires by causes will be found in Table III of the Appendix.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Functioning Policies
Fire control is conducted as a co-operative undertaking-pri-
vate individuals-including farmers, corporations, agencies and
even entire counties listing lands with the Board of Forestry for
protection. While there are various arrangements under which
the co-operative agreements are signed, the Service's financial
obligation is the same in every case regardless of acreage or who
is co-operating. In every case, a co-operative budget is agreed to
annually and disbursements made or supervised by some member
of the Service personnel.
In general, the co-operative arrangements may be classed as:
(1) demonstrations, (2) group units, and (3) county units.
Demonstrations. Under the demonstration plan, any acre-
age-large or small-may be listed for fire control. The land-
owner contributes 3 cents per acre annually to the co-operative
fund and the Service matches it with a similar amount. In
addition to making his payment to the co-operative fund, the
landowner or his representative serves as resident manager and
assumes the responsibility for the actual fighting of fire. The
co-operative fund is used to provide ranger supervision, lookout
service, radio and telephone communication, fire tools, plowed
firebreaks and road maintenance. The standard charge for
ranger supervision is 1 cent per acre; for lookout service, 1/ cent
per acre; and for telephone maintenance, 1/ cent per acre. Radio
service depends upon local conditions. If lookout, radio and tele-
phone service are not available, no charge is made for them.
Where the CCC is employed on the land, costly improvements-
such as roads, bridges and cleared firebreaks-are provided at
no cost to the co-operative budget except a deduction of 11/2 cents
per acre to meet increased planning and supervision costs.
After standard deductions have been made, the remaining
funds, usually 3 cents to 41/2 cents per acre, are expended for fire
tools and firebreaks, principally the latter. The firebreaks may
be plowed either by the landowner himself or by Service equip-
ment. Where the Service's special equipment plows the firebreaks,
the co-operative fund pays the department's equipment operation
account at the rate of approximately $2.50 per rolling mile. If by
the landowner, the plowing must be comparable to that done by
the Service and when so certified by the district forester or his
representative, the landowner is credited on the same basis.
Frequently, the landowner pays his entire annual assessment by
plowing his firebreaks and may even receive a check from the
Service for any plowing agreed to in excess of his share of the
budget. Where the land listed is less than a full section (640
acres) it is ordinarily mandatory that the plowing be done by
him as the expense of moving the heavy Service equipment would
not be justified. Where the landowner is willing to assume the
extra transportation costs or where pine plantations are involved,
the smaller acreage may be plowed.






SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Group Units. The group unit plan is particularly adapted
to large holdings, principally those of corporations or absentee
owners. It differs from the demonstration arrangement in that
the landowners desire the Service to handle fire control and pay
an increased assessment accordingly. The usual co-operative
fund is established, the Service again budgeting 3 cents per acre.
The landowners pay 3 cents, plus an additional 2 cents to 5 cents,
depending upon the total acreage in the unit. The overhead or
organization costs reduce per acre as the acreage increases, and
the landowners' costs reduce per acre as the acreage increases;
consequently, the landowners' annual assessment is reduced as
follows:
30,000 acres to 50,000 acres.............. 8c per acre
50,000 acres to 70,000 acres.............. 7c per acre
70,000 acres to 90,000 acres.............. 6c per acre
90,000 acres and up. .................... 5c per acre
The land need not be in a single ownership so long as it adjoins
and can be handled as a compact fire control unit. Less than a
total of 30,000 acres will be listed only after special consideration
and where the landowners agree to pay any costs in excess of the
11 cents per-acre total normally available for the smaller group
units.
By the group unit plan, a special fire control personnel is em-
ployed under the direction of a unit ranger. The unit may finance
its own lookout towers, telephone lines, etc. and will purchase
mechanized fire-fighting equipment. Accordingly, the standard
charges for ranger, lookouts, and telephone maintenance made
against demonstration units will not be made in the budgets of
group units.
County Units. The Legislature of 1935 provided a general
enabling act which makes it possible for any county to undertake
county-wide fire control. Further, the act stipulates the proce-
dure to be followed. There must first be a favorable referendum
vote recorded either at a special or a general election. The Board
of County Commissioners may (it is not mandatory) then enter
into a co-operative agreement with the Florida Board of Forestry,
involving all or such parts of the county as it appears feasible to
protect. The Florida Forest and Park Service will then budget
annually its customary 3 cents per acre and the law requires that
the county pay an assessment of equal amount. Once undertaken
by a county, county-wide fire control can be discontinued only
after the people of the county have given their permission by
another referendum.
If the funds are not available in the county's general revenues,
the Board of Commissioners is empowered to increase the tax
millage to produce the needed money. The co-operative fund
created is administered by the Service. A county forester is ap-
pointed and provided with such assistance as necessary. Look-
out towers are constructed, communication established, using tele-







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


phone, radio, and sometimes both, fire trucks and supplemental
equipment provided, and an educational program is initiated di-
rected toward reducing the number of man-caused fires.
The Record
On June 30, 1940, there was a total of 4,339,829 acres of land
under fire control in co-operation with the Service. This repre-
sents 557 individual ownerships scattered from Escambia to
Glades Counties and exclusive of the individual ownerships in pro-
tected counties. Add to this 1,225,000 acres of Federal property
in Florida protected by the U. S. Forest Service or other Federal
agencies, and there is a total of 5,564,829 acres under protection;
this represents 22 per cent of the 22,500,000 acres classified as
forest lands and needing protection.
Of the 4,339,829 acres under protection with the State Service
on June 30, 1940, 2,166,096 or 49.9 per cent were listed under the
demonstration plan; 698,499 or 16.1 per cent as group units; and
1,475,234 acres or 34 per cent were included in 5 county units,
namely: Duval, Highlands, Hillsborough, Bay, and Volusia. Work
has been initiated in Suwannee and Pinellas Counties, but their
combined acreage of 391,332 is not included in the foregoing
figures.
Due to the greater human risks involved and the inadequacies
of the Service's educational funds, a greater percentage of acre-
age is burned over in county-wide units than under the other ar-
rangements. Losses on county units during the first year of the
biennium were 3.14 per cent and, during the second year, 5.76
per cent. Normally, there is about 4 per cent burned of the total
acreage in the county units.
Under the demonstration arrangement, where small acreages
and usually single ownerships are involved, the record was 3.95
per cent the first year and 1.9 per cent the second year. Normally,
the annual loss has averaged about 3.3 per cent.
In the group units, where the Service's especially trained and
equipped personnel are not handicapped by county unit problems,
the loss in 1938-1939 was 2.7 per cent and, in 1939-1940, 1.55 per
cent. The annual loss has decreased steadily in the past 12 years
-from a normal of about 8 per cent ten years ago to about 2 per
cent in the past few years.
Similarly, the per cent burned for the total protected acreage
throughout the State has declined more or less steadily from year
to year. During the four years immediately following the estab-
lishment of the Florida Forest and Park Service, the acreage
burned was, in no year, less than 7.7 per cent; during the last four
years it has never exceeded 3.4 per cent-and has been as low as
2.2 per cent. In the last two years, the record for all lands listed
with the Service is 3.4 per cent and 3.17 per cent.
A detailed analysis of the growth of forest fire control and re-
sults since the Service was initiated, will be found in Table IV in
the Appendix.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Activities and Developments
Lookout Towers. The 51 primary lookout towers that
existed at the opening of the biennium were increased by 18 in
1938-1939 and by 13 in 1939-1940, making a total of 82 at this
time. The development of subsistence towersites was continued.
Improvements made during the two-year period involved 61 of the
tower grounds and include 21 dwellings, 16 barns and 47 other
subsistence site buildings.
District Headquarters. With the aid of the CCC, the
construction of permanent district and county headquarters was
also considerably advanced. At the Lake City district site, a
county forester's residence, a radio office, an equipment shed, and
two warehouses were added. At the district headquarters at
Panama City three buildings-a county forester's residence, an
office building, and a radio station-have been built.
At Cross City, in Dixie County, a county forester's dwelling
has been constructed and, at the Volusia County headquarters at
DeLeon Springs, a county forester's residence, an office, and an
equipment shed.
The improvement of headquarters and towersites has involved
the construction of a total of 4,801 rods of fencing.
Telephone Lines. The 1,249 miles of forest service tele-
phone line connecting lookout towers, forest officers, and fire
control co-operators was increased by 521 miles for a new total
of 1,770.
There was experimentally designed and constructed in District
3 a demountable hoist which can be quickly installed in the bed
of the ordinary ton or ton and one-half truck and used to dis-
tribute telephone poles and place them in the holes during the
construction of new line. This has proved to be a great labor
saving device and has lowered construction costs.
Firebreaks. The 18,000 miles of plowed firebreaks increased
to 27,767 during the first year of the biennium and had reached
34,496 by the end of the biennium. In the improvement of fire-
break plowing equipment, no major advance was recorded over
the Settlemire plow developed by the Service during the previous
biennium. The Central Repair Shop, maintained by the Service at
Lake City, continued to supervise tractor and plow operation and
to do all repairing and major overhaul work.
The use of a light tractor and plow as the true suppression
equipment has been experimentally employed during the bien-
nium with good results. In this case, the lines are not constructed
in advance and in anticipation of fire but the tractor has been
brought into use when a fire occurs and a line plowed around the
fire to bring it under control. Present plans contemplate the
assignment of such an outfit to Volusia County during the next
fire season.
Fire Trucks. The adoption of high wheels and four-speed-
forward transmissions in fire trucks continued to prove their ef-







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


fectiveness but there has been a definite trend during the past two
years toward larger trucks with greater water-carrying capacity,
particularly in county and group units. Two improvements in
these trucks are worthy of note. An automatic take-up reel for
fire hose has helped to solve the problem of slack line and has
facilitated the rewinding of the hose. A powered winch has also
been installed on the forward end of some of the larger fire fight-
ing units. It has proven a versatile piece of equipment and has
been particularly useful where the going is heavy and trucks be-
come bogged down. If the winch-equipped truck itself is the
victim, the winch cable can be attached to a tree or stump ahead
or on higher ground and the truck made to pull itself to better foot-
ing. If one of the ordinary light trucks becomes stalled, the winch-
equipped truck, with its brakes set and by means of the cable,
is usually capable of effecting a rescue. The winch has also been
effective in dragging cypress poles for telephone line construc-
tion out of ponds and similar inaccessible spots.
Radio. Radio as a quick means of communication in fire emer-
gencies was introduced in 1936 at the Dinsmore headquarters in
Duval County. By July 1, 1938, the opening of this last biennium,
plans were under way for three more broadcasting stations.
These have been completed, and two additional, bringing the total
to six. These are located at Dinsmore, Duval County; Lake City,
Columbia County; DeLeon Springs, Volusia; Cross City, Dixie;
Valrico, Hillsborough; and Panama City, Bay County.


Fig. 2. Valrico Fire Control Radio Station and Hillsborough County Unit
Headquarters.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


In the beginning, only one-way communication, tower to crew,
was employed. This made it possible for a crew to go from fire
to fire without any lost time or to be constructively employed on
bridge or road work at any point while awaiting a fire call. How-
ever, the radio dispatcher had no assurance that his broadcast
was heard nor could a crew secure needed reinforcements or
supplies without dispatching a truck to the nearest telephone
line.
Two-way communication was needed and has been established
during the biennium. There are now 21 mobile, or two-way, out-
fits in use, in addition to more than 100 of the one-way receiving
sets on the fire-fighting trucks of the Service or landowning
co-operators. With the mobile outfits, the fire crew can talk with
the dispatcher at headquarters at any time, from any point, and
in almost any emergency.
As a further step, three towers in the vicinity of Tampa and
St. Petersburg have been experimenting with high-frequency,
two-way sets and communicate with each other by radio instead
of by telephone. This eliminates costly telephone line construc-
tion and maintenance and is less vulnerable in the event of hurri-
canes or similar emergencies.
Early in 1940, a test was made of the use of a radio-equipped
aeroplane as a means of spotting fires quicker and more accurate-
ly and, possibly, of apprehending woods burners. The test was
not successful. Smoke and haze which blanket much of the State
for several weeks during the annual fire season make visibility
from a high flying plane almost impossible.
In closing this discussion of radio developments, it should be
noted that the 6 stations and the mobile units and receivers in
operation do not represent a State-wide network but are located
with respect to the greatest intensity of fire control work and
must be supplemented as fire control becomes more general.

Hazard Reduction The possibility of development of main-
Through Pasture tenance-free firebreaks by sowing carpet
grass on the strips left by the fire line
Improvement. plows has been the basis of experimental
work for several years. Such lines would further serve as im-
proved pasture-and, in fact, would have to be either closely
grazed or mowed in order to be effective fire barriers.
Financial aid offered to farmers and landowners for pasture
improvement under the national Agricultural Administration Act
has made possible a considerable advance along this line. With
this government subsidy, it is possible for a landowner to not
only sow his fire lines to improved pasture grasses but to plow
broadcast through wooded areas and seed it down to better forage.
As a result, there are a great many areas in the State where the
highly inflammable native underbrush has been very largely re-
moved in favor of low spreading grasses and where fire will be
considerably retarded. The trend along this line is increasing








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


and is already being reflected by reduced fires on some areas.
Landowners interested in this program should contact their
county agricultural agent to obtain full particulars.
Fire Detection. Several minor but helpful improvements
have been made in the standardization of towerman's equipment.
The wooden tables commonly in use develop loose joints over a
period of years and fire readings are accordingly subject to error.
An electrically welded metal table has overcome this and is being
substituted for the wooden table as replacements are needed.
The water-proofing of tower maps has also been improved as well
as their durability against exposure to the sun.
Law Enforcement
Landowners and lessees have the right to burn their lands
under Florida law, although they are required to confine their
fires to the acreage under their jurisdiction. Consequently, the
fire law enforcement work of the State is confined almost entirely
to cases involving lands under co-operative protection.
At the opening of the biennium, there were 10 cases pending,
of which 2 were nolle-prossed, 3 acquitted, 1 pled guilty, and 4
still pending. During the two years of the biennium itself, 35
new cases were reported and 34 arrests were made. In the other
case, the culprits pled guilty and were put on probation without
the formality of court proceedings.
Of the 35 cases, 5 were nolle-prossed and 8 acquitted, 5 pled
guilty and 13 were convicted, 3 have been bound over and 1 case
was pending at the end of the biennium. With the 4 pending
cases left from the previous biennium, the 1 from this, and the 3
cases bound over, there are still 8 cases out of 45 of which dis-
position has not been made.
Of the 45 cases handled during the two-year period, 13 per cent
pled guilty, 29 per cent were convicted, 15 per cent were nolle-
prossed, and 24 per cent acquitted. Disregarding cases of which
disposition has not been made, fire law enforcement may be said
to be only 51 per cent effective if based on convictions and pleas
of guilt.
While this means that only one out of every two woods burners
apprehended is punished, it is definitely an improvement over
the total lack of enforcement that existed less than fifteen years
ago. Furthermore, the courtroom results are a reflection of the
greater problem of public apathy toward forest land abuse. Great-
er support will come from the courts as the public becomes more
conservation minded. In other words, the problem of law en-
forcement is largely one of public education.
Contribution of the CCC to Fire Control
As intimated in the beginning of this report, the Civilian Con-
servation Corps, from its inception, has made a substantial con-
tribution toward forest fire control work in Florida. During the
first year of the biennium there were seven camps assigned to







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


such work for all or part of the year and 134,503 man-days were
expended. During the second year, the number of camps was in-
creased by one and work to 173,936 man-days. Of the 308,439
man-day total for the two years, more than half of it was devoted
to the construction of 261 miles of truck trail. The next largest
item was 10 per cent spent in the construction of 412 miles of
plowed fire lines. Fire fighting consumed only about 2 per cent
of the total man-days. Among other accomplishments were the
construction of bridges, fire towers, towersite improvements and
telephone lines; the installation of drainage and landscaping; the
collecting of tree seed; and work at the State tree nursery. A list
of the camps and their locations may be found in Table VII of the
Appendix; a summary of their forestry accomplishments will be
found in Table V.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN APPLIED
FORESTRY

Artificial Reforestation

Approximately 11,853,077 seedling trees were produced at the
Service's nursery at Olustee and distributed to landowners at cost
during the past two years. This represents the reforestation of
21,939 acres of abandoned farm or cut-over lands by artificial
methods.
In 1938-39, there were 122 landowners who had planted trees
in previous years who extended their planted acreage; there were
267 persons who secured and planted trees for the first time.
In 1939-40, there were 154 former planters and 1,141 new ones
who secured planting stock. In other words, there were 389
planting co-operators in the first year of the biennium and 1,295
in the second.
A glance at the annual planting summary in Table VIII of the
Appendix shows that there were more landowners planted trees
in the last year than in the previous six years combined-and, in
the past two years, about as many as the total of the previous nine
years.
This phenomenal increase in the number of landowners prac-
ticing artificial reforestation can be partially attributed to Fed-
eral financing offered to farmers through the AAA program.
For the most part, these AAA plantings are to be found in north
and northwest Florida, Jackson County totaling 235 and Walton
125 during the biennium.
The accomplishments of the last two years bring the number
of trees produced by the Service since its beginning to 29,955,000
and the acreage artificially reforested to 58,246. A summary
for the biennium by districts and counties will be found in Table
IX of the Appendix and a long-time summary in Table VIII.










L~',EI


Fig. 3. Making the most of a timber crop. This woods operator is cutting only trees that have been "worked-
out' for naval stores and trees that should be removed. The peeled poles in the background are bringing a top
price for telephone poles. The logs in the foreground w ill be sold for saw timber. Smaller and crooked ma-
terials are being cut into pulpwood.
C

o,




















trials are being cut into pulpwood.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


A combination of natural and artificial reforestation has been
effected through the use of the so-called Council transplant tool.
With this simple tool, it is possible to lift naturally-grown seed-
lings in the vicinity of seed trees, where they are abundant and
usually too thick, and move them to areas where they are needed.
High survivals are possible and, where there is an abundance of
young trees and hauling distance is not too great, the cost is little
higher than reforesting with nursery-grown stock. A representa-
tive landowner, using the transplant tool and replanting on a 10-
foot by 10-foot spacing, reports a cost of $3.98 per acre, including
hauling and supervision. He states that he believes that he can
reduce the cost to $3.50 per acre. For comparison, nursery-grown
stock can be planted on the same spacing for about $2.92 per acre.

Forest Management Investigations
One hundred and twelve landowners were assisted by field in-
spections and specific recommendations for woodland manage-
ment. Several reports of bug damage were investigated and
studied.

Effect of To demonstrate the results of fire protection,
Fire on Timber five new areas were established where one
Stock. plot will be burned annually and an adjoining
track kept unburned. These demonstrations
are located on the St. Joe Fire Control Unit in Gulf County, the
St. James Unit in Franklin, the Philips Fire Control Demonstra-
tion in Wakulla, on the lands of a sawmill company in Calhoun,
and at the Olustee nursery in Baker County.
Similar demonstrations in existence for the past 10 years or
more were checked for results. The West Bay plots in Bay
County, mixed slash and longleaf timber, showed 28 trees per
acre, of a 3-foot average in height, on the burned plots, as against
875 trees to the acre, averaging 20 feet in height, on the un-
burned. On the Liberty County demonstration, south of Telogia,
the burned area shows no trees, while the unburned portion sup-
ports 1,600 to the acre, averaging 20 feet in height. This is all
slash pine.
At Penney Farms in Clay County, where a forestry and grazing
study has been going on since 1931, additional data on the effect
of fire on timber growth was checked. Longleaf seedling plots,
established 8 years ago, now show an average of 20 trees to the
acre on the plots burned annually as against 2,000 on the un-
burned. Sapling plots, with longleaf 5 to 6 feet tall in 1931, show
heighth increases averaging 20.6 feet on the unburned as against
7.2 feet on the burned. This means, for the 8-year period, an
average heighth increase of 2.6 feet where the trees have been
protected as against 0.9 feet where burned. A 5-year record on
pole stands shows an increase of 56.9 cubic feet per acre per year
in volume for the protected timber against 40.9 cubic feet per







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


acre for the burned lands. This is a net of 16 cubic feet per acre
per year in favor of the unburned woods.
It should be noted that the Penney Farms data is based on
longleaf only-a tree species conceded to have the highest re-
sistance to fire.

Release of Near Newport, Wakulla County, the Service has
Seedling initiated, in co-operation with the landowner, a
onglef. long-time study to determine factors affecting the
Longleaf. height growth of young longleaf in heavy wire
grass. In February, 1940, four 1-acre plots containing 5-year old
longleaf seedlings were laid out and provided protection by fire-
breaks and fencing. Three plots were burned by backfiring at
different hours on a quiet day. A preliminary check of the effect
of this burning was made on June 14 and showed, for the plot
burned at 9:30 p. m., a loss of 36 per cent; for the plot burned at
6:30 p. m., 36 per cent; and, for the 2:30 p.m. burn, 40 per cent.
On the fourth plot, unburned, some of the seedling trees were re-
leased from competition by hoeing the grass from around them.
There were no trees dead on this fourth plot at the time of the
June inspection.
While the lower loss sustained by night burning is significant,
the real results of the study will not be apparent for several years
and will show as comparative growth. The project plan con-
templates that one of the plots will be burned annually, another
at 2-year intervals, and the third at 4-year intervals.
On the unburned plot, hoeing was employed-rather than fire
-as a means of removing grass competition. Further, 63 seed-
lings were hoed for a diameter of 12 to 18 inches, 12 to double that
diameter.
The study should give some indication (1) of the effect that
removing grass competition has on longleaf seedling growth; (2)
whether fire or hoeing is the more efficient instrument for re-
moving the competition, and (3) what rotation of burning, if any,
is most desirable.
Hardwood Due to the dry spring of 1938, the hardwood plant-
Plantings. ing established at the Industrial School at Marianna
showed a poor survival and was replanted during
this biennium. Spacings of 6 feet by 6 feet and 10 feet by 10 feet
were used. The planting includes chinaberry, tulip poplar, per-
simmon, hackberry, catalpa, black walnut, white ash, red mul-
berry, black locust, red maple, hickory, basswood, red cedar, red
oak, magnolia, black cherry, sweet gum, white oak, sycamore, and
dogwood.

Tropical In an effort to find one or more tree species of out-
Plantings. standing commercial value for the semi-tropical
conditions of south Florida, the Service, in the last
year of the biennium, assigned a qualified technical forester to
undertake experimental plantings with exotic species believed







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


to have possibilities. Seed or seedlings of 27 tree species were se-
cured, several laboratory plots were located at scattered points in
south Florida, and plans formulated for a long-time study to
determine the growth and possibilities of the species available.
Pruning. The Sinclair Pruning Study, near Madison, was initi-
ated in 1937 in an effort to secure information on the desirability
and value of pruning the lower limbs from thrifty young trees in
an effort to increase growth and, eventually, the quality of the
timber. Four plots were established in a 5-year old planted stand
of slash pine. All trees were measured for height and diameter
41/2 feet above ground and an aluminum, numbered tag was
placed on each tree. On one plot the limbs on the lower 2/3 of
the crown were removed; on another, the lower 1/2; on the third,
the lower 1/3; and the fourth plot was left unpruned as a basis
for comparison later. These trees will be re-measured from time
to time to determine the effect, if any, of the intensity of pruning.
A preliminary measurement made after two growing seasons
(December, 1938) shows that growth was retarded by removing
1/2 or more of the crown. Further, pruning the lower 1/3 made no
appreciable difference, which leads us to conclude that no pruning
should be done before trees have reached a height of 16 feet and
a DBH of 3.5 inches and then no more than the lower third of the
crown should be cut away.
While the bush axe proved to be the fastest pruning tool, the
saw second, and the pruning shears slowest, the saw cuts were
the cleanest and were healing quickest when inspected two years
after the cutting.

5 years old 7 years old % Increase
*Ht.**D.B.H. Ht. D.B.H. Ht. D.B.H.
Top unpruned ............ 16.5 3.5 25.6 5.0 55. 45.
%/ top pruned ............ 16.1 3.2 24.8 4.8 54. 50.
1/ top pruned ............ 16.5 3.4 24.9 4.7 50. 38.
% top pruned ............ 16.7 3.4 24.6 4.5 47. 32.
*Height in feet.
**Diameters breast high (41/%' above ground) in inches.

Thinning. The Natural Bridge Thinning Study, located 26 miles
south of Tallahassee and initiated in August, 1931, was checked
in January of 1939. The study is comprised of 6 one-quarter
acre plots in what was originally a dense stand of longleaf re-
production. Retaining one of the plots as a check, the other
5 were thinned to different spacings. No diameter measure-
ments were taken at the beginning as none of the trees were over
2 feet in height and consisted only of a "plume." The following
table of averages indicates that all of the thinned plots show in-
creased growth over the unthinned check plots with the 8-foot by
8-foot spacing showing to the best advantage at this time.








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


As of Aug. 17, 1931 As of Jan. 19, 1939 Height
Height Height D.B.H. Increase
Spacing No. of trees in feet in feet in inches in feet
6 x 6 306 2.0 18.9 2.6 16.9
8 x 8 194 2.0 20.5 3.1 18.5
10 x 10 125 1.7 18.3 2.9 16.6
12 x 12 79 1.6 17.1 2.9 15.5
15 x 15 51 1.5 17.6 2.0 16.1
Check Plot 393 1.9 12.8 2.0 10.9


Effect of To determine the effect of spacing of "drills" or
Grading of rows of seed in forest nursery beds, as well as
Seedlings. the value of grading of seedlings, a study was un-
edertaken in 1932 at the old nursery site at the
State Farm at Raiford. A check of this study made after 6 years
(December, 1938) shows little significant difference between
trees grown on 12-inch and 6-inch spacing in the beds but a grad-
ual loss of growth consistent with the grade of stock, Grade 1
stock showing 4 to 41/2 feet more height in the 6 years than cull
stock and approximately an inch greater diameter growth.

12-inch drills 6-inch drills
Aver. Aver. % Aver. Aver. %
Grade Height D.B.H. Survival Height D.B.H. Survival
1 18.0 3.8 92 18.0 3.7 88
2 16.5 3.3 92 16.2 3.2 98
3 15.6 3.3 78 15.4 3.3 96
Culls 13.6 2.7 78.5 13.9 2.8 92

Effect of A study, made in December of 1940 of 9-year old
Spacing in slash pine plantings at 3 different points in north
Plantation. Florida, would indicate 8-foot by 8-foot spacing as
antion. more desirable for plantings than greater intervals.
While a greater percentage of trees attain a merchantable size
on the wider spacings in a given period, there are fewer trees to
the acre to begin with on an acre. The higher number of trees per
acre on the closer spacing results in a volume growth sufficiently
greater to be worthwhile, 2 to 3 times greater in the case of
8-foot by 8-foot as compared with 12-foot by 12-foot spacing.
Furthermore, while the closer spacing shows a smaller percentage
of merchantable stems, the number still runs about 80 per cent of
that of the wider spaced plantings. It would appear that this loss
of 20 per cent in merchantable stems is more than offset by a
gain of 100 per cent or more in total volume. Further, the closer
spacing permits earlier income and greater use, thanks to thin-
nings.
In the following data, cords have been computed from volumes
based on the actual pulpwood volume table for slash pine. Trees
over 51/2 inches in diameter breast high (DBH) were classed as
merchantable.








SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Total N
per aca
680
435
305


680
305
169


8 x 10 540


McColskey Planting, Columbia County

Present Status (%)
0o. Unmer- Mer- C
re Dead chantable chantable pe:
14 30 56 1
13 24 63
15 21 64
Cook Planting, Leon County
19 19 62 2
18 3 79 1
23 5 79


ords
r acre
4.6
9.9
7.2


0.1
4.0
7.1


Alford Planting, Washington County
18 20 62 18.4


Pulpwood Co-operation

In addition to the publication of a bulletin for general distribu-
tion on the growing and marketing of pulpwood crops, representa-
tives of the Service made 336 direct contacts to assist landowners
with problems of pulpwood management, cutting or sale. In an
effort to teach those concerned principles of proper management,
several pulpwood cutting demonstrations were held during the
biennium and permanent demonstrational plots established.
In establishing these demonstrational plots, it is customary
to select and cruise two adjoining land parcels of an acre or more


Fig. 4. Pulpwood cutting demonstrations are being established at strategic
points in an effort to show landowners how to make the most of their land
resource.


Spacing
8x8
10 x 10
12 x 12


8x8
12 x 12
16 x 16


Cords
Growth
per acre
per year
1.33
0.90
0.65


1.92
1.27
0.64


i t
t~srt

SL








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


each and select and mark the trees which are ready to market or
should come out for the good of the stand. On the one area,
the marked trees are cut and, on the other, all trees are left to
show the condition that existed prior to cutting. The cruise and
cut give an accurate picture of the number of pulpwood units har-
vested and left on the one plot and of what should have been cut
and left on the other. At intervals during future years, these
plots will be re-cruised and their comparative increments, or
volume of new growth, used as a basis for improving the man-
agement of such timber crops.
These demonstration plots are usually joint undertakings in
which the Service, landowner and some Florida pulp mill co-
operate in an effort to show the public and landowners how to
improve and sustain the wood supply. The 10 areas thus far
established are adjacent to main traveled highways and are per-
manently marked with informative signs calling attention to the
demonstration. They are scattered across north Florida where
pulpwood operations are more intensive but will be extended down
State as conditions permit.

Naval Stores Co-operation
The co-operative extension of information to naval stores op-
erators initiated jointly in 1932 by the Florida Forest and Park
Service and the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and
Engineering, was continued throughout the biennium. Improved
practices resulting from research at the Olustee Naval Stores Ex-
periment Station were transmitted to the operators in the indus-
try through demonstrations at the Station and through the ef-
forts of a co-operative agent who assists the naval stores men
individually in the field. This aid takes the form of assistance in
still settings and the installation of such equipment as dehy-
drators, thermometers, and the like, at the still site and, in the
woods, would include instruction and recommendations on chip-
ping, cupping, fire control and forest management generally. A
detailed list of the accomplishments of the naval stores agent will
be found in Table X of the Appendix.
It should be noted that the full-time efforts of the naval stores
agent were reduced to half time shortly after the opening of this
biennium because of the initiation of farm forestry extension
activity.
Farm Forestry
The solution of a long-felt need for greater co-operation with
farmers and small landowners was undertaken on June 16, 1938,
just prior to the opening of the biennium, by the appointment of
a full-time farm forestry extension agent. Personnel develop-
ments at the time delayed the initiation of actual field work until
September when the co-operative naval stores agent was desig-
nated to devote a portion of his time to farm forestry work. Since
then 21 group demonstrations have been held at various points,







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


in addition to the numerous contacts with individual farmers.
In April, 1940, a new and intensive type of agricultural forestry
was begun in co-operation with Federal agencies under the so-
called Norris-Doxey Law enacted by Congress in 1939. Under an
arrangement with the United States Forest Service and the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service, a forest farming project
was initiated in Columbia County. A technical forester was as-
signed full time to the project to assist those landowners whose
major income was or could be obtained from their woodlands. In
the 3 months that remained of the biennium, the forester assisted
with the marking of 496 acres for improvement cutting, in the
cruising of 100 acres and a growth study, and in the sale of a
farmer's timber for 50 per cent more than he was originally
offered.
In May, 1940, a somewhat similar undertaking, a Farm For-
estry Project, was started in west Florida in co-operation with the
Federal Soil Conservation Service and the State Agricultural
Extension agency. In contrast to the Columbia County program,
the production of forest crops on the farm is expected to be only
a supplemental-rather than a major-farm enterprise. The
technical forester assigned works with farmers throughout three
soil conservation districts which involve several counties. During
the two months of the biennium that remained when this project
was started, four farm woodlands, totaling 220 acres, were in-
ventoried and an investigation was made of existing markets for
woodland products.

STATE FORESTS
At the opening of the biennium, 5 State forests, totaling 31,272
acres, had been acquired by the Service to be used for research
and training purposes and for public demonstrations. With the
exception of the Myakka unit of 18,610 acres in Sarasota County,
none of the State forests were of large enough area to lend them-
selves well to administration and management. It was antici-
pated that these units would serve as a beginning for a much more
extensive publicly-owned forest system.
No new acreage was added during the biennium and the trans-
fer of more than 4,000 acres of the Myakka tract from forest to
State park status actually reduced the total to 26,092.
However, the Service leased in 1939, on a long-term basis from
the Federal Soil Conservation Service, a tract of 181,822 acres in
OkaldoSa and Santa Rosa Counties. This extensive acreage was
purchased by the Federal government as the Pensacola Resettle-
ment Project but is now known as the Blackwater River State
Forest. Approximately 700 acres of the total are devoted to an
intensive game farm where fish, quail and deer are reared for
release. The administration of this game project and the acre-
age involved has been turned over to the Commission of Game
and Fresh Water Fish.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


The management plan for the balance of the area is directed
towards a long-time sustained yield program. For the present,
defective trees and worked-out turpentine timber are being cut
for poles, sawlogs and pulpwood. Stump wood and tar wood are
also providing a present income. Turpentine leases have been
let but the operations are limited, for the most part, to back fac-
ing trees which have been worked before the area was leased to
the State. Local labor is being used, both by the Service and by
private timber operators, on the area. Financial technicalities
have embarrassed the State in the administration of the Black-
water area thus far and have forced the most rigid economies.
The Soil Conservation Service, using WPA and NYA labor, has
been of material aid to the State by completing a good portion of
its work program after the actual leasing of the land had oc-
curred.
Next to the Blackwater River State Forest, Myakka has pro-
duced the best income, principally from grazing leases. It is not
anticipated that the State forests, only recently put under man-
agement and still in an understocked condition, will be able to
meet their management costs at this time. As a matter of fact,
it is surprising that they have been able to earn 92 per cent of
their administration costs during the biennium. State forest
statistics will be found in Table XI of the Appendix.


ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN FIRE
PREVENTION AND CONSERVATION
EDUCATION

Demands upon the limited funds of the Service resulted in a
reduction of the amount budgeted for educational and fire pre-
vention work and curtailed to some extent during the biennium
the activities of the Branch of Publicity, Information and Educa-
tion.
Forestry in the Agricultural High Schools
Co-operation with the vocational agricultural high schools in
the teaching of farm forestry was continued throughout the bien-
nium. This program reaches approximately 105 schools, involv-
ing 3,000 pupils throughout the State. During the first year of
the biennium these schools were provided 123 pounds of seed for
school nurseries and 75,400 seedling trees. In the second year, the
same amount of seed was requested and the number of trees in-
creased to 135,000.
There was a definite trend toward improving the school instruc-
tion by teaching the teachers. During the summer of 1939, by an
arrangement with the Summer School of the University of Flor-
ida, the agricultural high school teachers' courses were offered at
the O'Leno Forestry Training Camp and a course in Methods of






SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Teaching Agricultural Forestry included. Assistant State For-
ester William F. Jacobs was loaned to the University as instructor
for this course. Out of this special course came the basic plan for
18 new job teaching units in farm forestry; 8 of these have been
printed and are now in use by the teachers of agriculture. Four
more are in the printer's hands and will shortly be available.
In the Public Schools Generally
Forest conservation continued to hold its place in the public
schools generally. All institutions of higher education in the
State offer methods courses looking toward better qualified teach-
ers in elementary science and in the conservation of natural re-
sources, including forests. An informal survey of these college
courses made by the Service reveals that some of these are not
too effectively taught but an effort will be made to improve them
through co-operation with the college faculty members concerned.
There is still no general compliance on the part of the public
schools in the teaching of elementary science and of the conserva-
tion of natural resources, as required by an Act of the 1935 Leg-
islature. Further, the Department of Public Instruction has in-
dicated that it prefers to see greater emphasis on these subjects
as intergraded parts of an improved general program rather than
as special subjects, as the law contemplated.
Co-operating with the Department of Public Instruction in its
plans, the Service, during the biennium, (1) issued annually a 4-
page leaflet of suggestions to teachers listing available teaching
aids, (2) issued Circular No. 3, "De Woods of Pine," a song for
school use, (3) secured and distributed a reprint of the elemen-
tary school color leaflet "The Woods That The Farmer Owned,"
(4) secured a reprint of the bulletin on Forestry, prepared for
high school use, (5) provided pertinent features for "The Journal
of the Florida Education Association," (6) provided speakers for
teachers' meetings and school programs, and (7) continued to
supply teaching literature and aids in response to a steady re-
ceipt of mailed requests. Tentative approval of 30 subjects for
additional elementary science teaching units was given by the
State school authorities but the units have not yet been prepared.
The Boy Scout Forests Project
The Boy Scout Forests Project was continued with 25 troops
participating. The troops made a commendable showing, using
8 pounds of seed and 25,000 trees, during the two years in spite
of the fact that the ranger in charge was eliminated in the inter-
est of economy less than 6 months after the opening of the bien-
nium and the project has lacked adequate supervision since that
time.
The Forestry Training Camp
The O'Leno Forestry Training Camp was operated each sum-
mer, being attended in .,938 by .88 Future Farmers and 32 Boy
Scouts and by 75 of.tfe:.f-ymerrald 18 of the latter in 1939. The
.: *:.'::. : .:- .
.
.. : : ... -.. .': ,
.. ...-. .. :: : ...
**.. ...:.. .'






FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


trainees who attend this camp do so free of expense and are
the outstanding representatives of the Future Farmer chapters,
chosen by the agricultural high school teachers, and of the For-
estry Project Boy Scout troops. During the 2-weeks' camp, each
boy devotes a full day to each of 6 forestry subjects and is taken
on 3 all-day field trips to managed forestry areas, projects or
industries. After 6 years, it is believed that this camp is one
of our best educational undertakings.
Visual Education
Visual education was seriously curtailed. In the first year of
the biennium, exhibits were displayed only at the Slash Pine
Forest and Farm Festival at Lake City and at the Centennial
Celebration at Port St. Joe. With the aid of the personnel of
the various districts, exhibits were displayed at 12 fairs or public
celebrations in the second year. These were, for the most part,
county fairs or local meetings although the list included the State
Fair at Tampa and contributions to an elaborate display shown at
several points in south Florida under the auspices of the State
Planning Board.
A much-needed and long-planned forestry motion picture proj-
ect was again deferred due to the lack of finances and our activi-
ties along these lines during the two years were limited to occa-
sional use of our obsolete equipment where it was possible and to
somewhat increased use of lantern slides in connection with illu-
strated talks. The last year of the biennium a motion picture out-
fit was secured through the joint financing of the Tallahassee of-
fice and the budget for District 1 and motion picture shows were
made possible for the Bay County Fire Control Unit and im-
mediate adjoining areas. It is hoped that it will become possible
to extend this very effective phase of educational work through-
out the State.
Signs and Posters
The use of posters and signboards which has hitherto been
largely confined to fire control units was given more general
coverage through a special project initiated in the summer of
1938. By the employment of two men and the assignment of a
fire control truck, it was made possible to repair 237 signboards
which were already in use and to add 278 new ones to those
already erected. This means a total of 515 signs, most of them
being 60-inch by 30-inch and supported by two upright posts.
The messages portrayed were limited to a few words in each
case and a pictorial effect was achieved through the use of sil-
houettes. Four designs were used and the painting was done by
silk screen process. For existing signboards that needed re-
painting, these new designs were prepared on sign cloth which
could be easily spread on the old boards. Where new boards were
desired the designs were silk screened on quarter-inch resin-
bonded plyboard. .. .
.. *. .. :* ..
:.. "-::- "::. "'..-









LOOKOUT(
STOWjER
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IDELANDS
Es 'OLEro Imous"
4IDLE *DSP


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FOREST
PROECTIVE AREA
ir
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& PR EdTING
IREST FIRES








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Again utilizing plyboard and the silk screen process, standard
shield signboards were secured also to identify local ranger head-
quarters and towersites. The signboards used for Scout forests
were also adapted to the shield design. For the most part, these
shields were 4 feet in height; experimentally, a 6-foot shield was
made and erected on the north boundary of the Bay County Fire
Control Unit.
Reprints were secured on the various standard posters used by
the Service but no new designs were created. The so-called Flagg
Fire Prevention Posters for both 1939 and 1940, made available
through the American Forestry Association, were given wide
distribution throughout the State, particularly in the public
schools.
Late in the biennium, a car plate, carrying a fire prevention
message, for the front end of automobiles, was designed and a
quantity secured which will be distributed immediately.

Publicity
A fairly accurate barometer of public thinking is to be had in
the columns of newspapers generally. The space devoted to a
subject in the public press is doubly indicative of the public mind
(1) because the press molds the public mind and (2) because
newspaper men are constantly on the alert to provide their read-
ers with information on subjects that they feel are of current
public interest.
This barometer indicates that the people of Florida are becom-
ing increasingly conscious of forestry and parks. During the
first year of the biennium newspapers in the State devoted a total
of 16,800 column inches to these subjects. This is the equivalent
of 6 ordinary daily newspapers full of printed matter on forestry
and parks. Of this, 30 per cent was based directly on press re-
leases of the Florida Forest and Park Service or on facts and
information provided by it to the papers.
In the second year of the biennium the space increased to 26,540
column inches-more than 50 per cent over the first year and
the equivalent of 10 ordinary daily papers. While the amount
based on the releases of this department dropped to 27 per cent
it still represents, due to the greater volume, an increase of 45
per cent in publicity and press information on the part of the
Service.
Aside from this attention to press relations, there was, during
the biennium, a definite effort to provide individual newspapers
with local coverage of forestry or park activities in the local vicin-
ities.
In addition to newspaper publicity, there were 16 feature ar-
ticles prepared for magazines, 3 of them being of national dis-
tribution.
Among the special publicity projects undertaken was the prep-
aration of 6 pages of information dealing with phases of Florida's
lumber industry for the bulletin "Know Florida" which was issued








SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


by the State Department of Agriculture especially for distribution
at the New York and San Francisco World's Fairs. At the same
time, we provided 2 full-color pictures on State parks for use in
another World's Fair publication entitled "Scenic Florida." In
connection with the formal opening of the Gold Head Branch
State Park a special publicity campaign was conducted through
the newspapers. Also, full-page spreads were prepared in co-
operation with a few local papers publicizing certain State park
areas in the vicinities of these papers. A special writer was as-
signed for 5 weeks to a tour of the major fire control areas to
prepare and release local materials dealing with the local fire
control projects and problems.
As in past years, the Service, in co-operation with county
judges, issued game license envelopes carrying a forest fire pre-
vention message. Sixty-seven thousand of these were required
in the first year, 80,000 in the second year, a total of 147,000 dur-
ing the biennium.
Publications
During the biennium, Planted Pines Pay, Circular No. 2, was
revised and reprinted. The circular, Suggested Natural Science
and Conservation Teaching Aids, was revised and reprinted an-
nually. The elementary school color leaflet entitled The Woods
That the Farmer Owned, was reprinted, as was the bulletin en-
titled Forestry used in the high schools in connection with the
teaching of the conservation of natural resources.
A song, entitled De Woods of Pine, was issued as Circular No.
3 for distribution to the public schools. The first printing of
3,000 copies was exhausted within two weeks and 2,000 additional
copies had to be secured immediately.
The biennial report for the previous biennium was prepared,
printed and distributed. Late in the biennium, Bulletin No. 13,
Cutting Timber for Increased Profits, was released as a guide
to landowners in marketing their woodland crops.
The Service co-operated with the State Planning Board in the
publication and distribution of a booklet combining the prelimi-
nary reports of the Florida Park and Recreational Survey and the
Forest Resources Survey. The popular leaflet describing High-
lands Hammock State Park was reprinted and a new leaflet deal-
ing with Hillsborough River State Park was prepared and two
editions secured during the biennium.
Considerable time was devoted to the preparation of a much-
needed popular fire prevention bulletin but, due to a shortage of
funds, this remains unprinted. At the end of the biennium the
Service was co-operating with other public agencies in the com-
pilation of a functional conservation map of-Florida which will
soon be released.
Reprints of magazine articles of special interest were secured
from time to time and, through the co-operation of the Florida
delegation in Congress, quantity supplies of several Federal pub-
lications were secured for distribution.








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


It is impossible, under the present arrangement, to get an abso-
lute check of the literature distributed by the Service through its
several offices and channels. However, it appears that between
20,000 and 25,000 pieces of literature were distributed during the
first year of the biennium and that more than double that amount,
or approximately 60,000 pieces, during the last year. While part
of this represents literature given away in connection with ex-
hibits or at meetings of various kinds, more than 50 per cent was
sent out in response to mailed requests.
Public Talks and Addresses
The Service continued to provide speakers for various organi-
zations and occasions. Among the meetings in which the Service
participated were the State conventions of the Florida Federation
of Women's Clubs, Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, the Ki-
wanis, the State Teachers' Association, and the Florida Engineer-
ing Society. We also secured the Services of Mr. H. N. Wheeler,
Chief Lecturer of the U. S. Forest Service, for a period of 4 weeks
and routed him on a speaking tour through the southern part of
the State.
Co-operation With Lay Organizations
In addition to our sustaining projects with the public schools
and Boy Scouts, the Service continued to co-operate with women's,
civic and patriotic organizations throughout Florida in the prep-
aration of their State-wide conservation programs. Assistance
was given to several such organizations in the establishment of
their annual conservation objectives and the preparation of litera-
ture concerning them for their membership. This co-operation
was extended, where requested, to the point of mimeographing
monthly letters to the local conservation chairmen.
Special Projects
The special signboard project carried on in the first year of
the biennium and the visual education work done in District 1
have already been referred to under other heads. Various local
campaigns were undertaken through field personnel of the Serv-
ice, outstanding examples being an educational campaign in Pinel-
las County carried on in connection with the initiation of a
county-wide fire control unit and a forestry motorcade in Taylor
County in co-operation with local landowners. The opening of
the Wood Parade Museum in St. Petersburg, while a private un-
dertaking, bears mention, also, inasmuch as the museum should
be a definite force for public education in appreciation of forest
products; the Service co-operated by lending several displays to
the museum and assisted in its public dedication.
Another development was the first All-Southern Fire Control
Conference held at the O'Leno Forestry Training Camp near High
Springs in early June of 1940. This was held at the instance of
the U. S. Forest Service and was attended by representatives of







SIXTH MIENNIAL REPORT


the State and Federal forestry agencies from Texas to North
Carolina. The session lasted 5 days and was of sufficient merit
to warrant its establishment as an annual event. Florida, being
the host State, played a major role in the conference and was
recognized as doing an outstanding job along all forestry lines.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL
There were comparatively few changes in the personnel during
the biennium although several shifts in organization resulted in
changed assignments. Fire Control Chief Earl Porter left the
Service to accept a position with a large pulp mill corporation, as
did District Forester Guy H. Wesley of Lakeland. The vacancy
resulting from Porter's resignation was filled by the promotion
of District Forester Nelson B. Blocker from the Lake City office.
The Lakeland district vacancy was filled by the promotion of
County Forester B. F. Harris of Highlands to the district forester
position. The district position made vacant by Blocker's pro-
motion was filled by the elevating of Assistant District Forester
M. E. Henegar.
By the lease of the Blackwater River State Forest in Santa
Rosa and Okaloosa Counties a new administrative problem was
created. This was solved by the organization of two districts
west of the Apalachicola River where formerly there had been
one. These are known as Districts 1-A and 1-B. District 1-A
continues to be directed from Panama City by District Forester
James N. Wilson, Jr. A new headquarters was designated at
Munson on the Blackwater River State Forest and District For-
ester Joe R. Gramling was transferred from the Tallahassee dis-
trict to this new administrative unit. Extension Ranger H. R.
Maige was promoted to district forester to succeed Mr. Gramling
in the Tallahassee territory.
Another organization change of importance was a re-districting
of the State generally. By this re-districting, all counties lying
between the Apalachicola and the Suwannee Rivers were included
in District 2. District 3 relinquished the administration of Ma-
rion, Levy, Dixie and part of Lafayette -Counties but gained
Nassau, Duval, St. Johns, Clay and Putnam Counties. District 4,
which formerly comprised several counties in the northwestern
portion of the State and had its headquarters located in Jackson-
ville, was shifted to a belt across the center of the peninsula
with headquarters at Ocala and is now comprised of Flagler,
Volusia, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Sumter, Lake, Seminole,
Orange and the northern half of Brevard Counties. District For-
ester T. Lamar Raney of Jacksonville was transferred to Ocala
along with the district headquarters. District 5 continued as
the southern portion of the State but was reduced to 231/2 coun-
ties through the transfer of 61/ to District 4. This re-districting
provides for a better balancing of the administrative program
and a better distribution of headquarters sites.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
As of June 30, 1940
Tallahassee Office

Administrative-
Harry Lee Baker, State Forester and Park Executive.
Branch of Fire Control-
Nelson B. Blocker, Assistant State Forester.
Branch of Applied Forestry-
C. H. Coulter, Assistant State Forester.
Lewis E. Staley, Forest Management Specialist.
Branch of Public Relations-
William F. Jacobs, Assistant State Forester.
Branch of State Forests and State Parks-
H. J. Malsberger, Director.
Fiscal Branch-
SH. D'Anna, Fiscal Agent.
Field Offices
District 1-A. Headquarters, Panama City-
James N. Wilson, Jr., District Forester.
Counties: Gulf, Calhoun, Jackson, Holmes, Washington, Bay
and Walton.
District 1-B. Headquarters, Munson-
Joe R. Gramling, District Forester.
Counties: Okaloosa, Santa Rosa and Escambia.
District 2. Headquarters, Tallahassee-
H. R. Maige, District Forester.
Counties: Franklin, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla, Jeffer-
son, Madison, Taylor, Dixie and Lafayette.
District 3. Headquarters, Lake City-
M. E. Henegar, District Forester.
Counties: Levy, Gilchrist, Suwannee, Hamilton, Columbia,
Alachua, Bradford, Union, Bay, Nassau, Duval, Clay, Putnam
and St. Johns.
District 4. Headquarters, Ocala-
T. Lamar Raney, District Forester.
Counties: Flagler, Volusia, Lake, Marion, Citrus, Hernando,
Sumter, Seminole, Orange, and north half of Brevard.
District 5. Headquarters, Lakeland-
B. F. Harris, District Forester.
Counties: South half of Brevard, Indian River, Osceola, Polk,
Pasco, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, De-
Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, St. Lucie, Martin, Palm
Beach, Hendry, Glades, Lee, Collier, Broward, Dade and Monroe.





7


r.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


STATE PARKS IN FLORIDA
In The Biennium
As has been stated earlier in this report, Florida's system of
State parks was authorized by the 1935 Legislature, less than 6
years ago. There is something paradoxical in this fact in view
of the millions of tourists that annually trek to Florida to enjoy
its climate, scenic beauty, and outdoor sports. That Florida peo-
ple generally have still not awakened to the need and value of
an adequate system of State parks to provide these tourists-as
well as our own people-access to the real, unspoiled Florida is
evidenced by the inadequate appropriations made available to the
Florida Board of Forestry for park work.
In spite of the lack of funds and thanks to CCC camps made
available through the co-operation of the National Park Service,
commendable progress has nevertheless been made.
At the beginning of this biennium, 9 State park units, rep-
resenting a total of 15,574 acres, were already under develop-
ment or in process of acquisition. Highlands Hammock, near
Sebring, and Hillsborough River State Park, near Tampa, were
already sufficiently improved to be opened to public use. Five
more units were under improvement.
During the biennium, the Pan-American unit, near Ft. Lauder-
dale, was added to the system. On April 15, 1939, Gold Head
Branch, near Keystone Heights, was formally dedicated to public
enjoyment. The Fort Clinch unit, near Fernandina, is scheduled
for opening within the next 3 months and Myakka, near Sara-
sota, is approaching the stage where it can be opened to the
public. Florida Caverns, on the outskirts of Marianna, and Tor-
reya, near Bristol, are well advanced in their development. Su-
wannee, near Ellaville; Tomoka, near Daytona Beach; and the
Pan-American units are still unimproved.
Existing Units
Highlands Hammock State Park is the gift of the John
A. Roebling Estate which was extensively developed at the time
that it became the first park unit. It is situated 6 miles west
of Sebring and reached by a paved road. A jungle of lush, tropical
growth, it has been made accessible by an excellent system of
gravel driveways and well-marked nature trails. Both animal
and plant life are highly diversified. Highlands Hammock has
been adjudged the third outstanding State park in the entire
country. There is an entrance charge of 35 cents per car and
driver and 15 cents per passenger additional. Annual pass tags
for cars may be had for S2.00, after July 1 for 81.00.
Hillsborough River State Park is located between Zephry-
hills and Tampa on State Road No. 156. Colorful water plants,







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Fig. 7. Fishing at Myakka River State Park.


shy orchids and graceful palms dominate the tropical water
course from which it takes its name. Its attractions include boat-
ing, fishing, nature trails, picnicking and camping, for all of
which it is admirably equipped. There is an admission charge
of 25 cents per car. Bathing is free and there is no charge for
the use of the bathhouse except a basket checking service which
is not compulsory. Boats rent for 25 cents an hour, 50 cents the
half day, and 75 cents all day; to cabin renters, the boat rate is
50 cents per day or $1.00 per week. Trailers may park up to two
weeks for 25 cents a night or $1.00 per week. Similarly, tent
campers may remain for as long as two weeks at 25 cents per
night or $1.00 per week. Cabins are available at $1.50 per night
or $8.00 per week for groups of 4 or less. If more than 4 occupy
a cabin, there is an extra cot charge of 25 cents per night or $1.00
per week. Fire wood is available at no charge. Charcoal pots
with one bag of fuel may be rented for 10 cents. Gas fuel for cook-
ing in the cabins costs 25 cents per day.

Gold Head Branch State Park, on Highway No. 68 just
northeast of Keystone Heights, is located in a region of fresh
water lakes, open pine forests and rolling sandhills. It takes its
name from a wholly unexpected wooded ravine of surpassing
beauty. Swimming, boating and fishing excel. Week-end cot-
tages providing modern accommodations are available. There is
an admission charge of 10 cents for all visitors over 12 years of
age. This gives access to the bathhouse, beach, picnicking facili-
ties, and the like. Camping and trailer permits and boats are
available on the same basis as itemized for Hillsborough River.
Cottages, accommodating 4 people, rent for $20.00 per week dur-









FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Fig. 8. Ft. Clinch State Park. Parking area in foreground, concession build-
ing, and, in the background, the old fort.


.






Fig. 9. The Beach at Gold Head Branch State Park.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


ing the summer season, March to October, and for $15.00 per
week the balance of the year. If the renting group exceeds 4 and
additional beds are required, the charge is $1.50 per week for each
additional person. For overnight rental, the charge is $3.00 per
cabin for one or two persons; 25 cents additional for each extra
person.

Fort Clinch State Park, on the outskirts of the town of
Fernandina, combines to a high degree historic, scenic and recrea-
tional qualifications. The old fort, from which the park derives
its name, is outstanding in masonry and design. Its museum is
exceptional. The area about the fort offers deepsea fishing, surf
bathing, intriguing sand dunes and a jungle hammock which has
been variously the rendezvous of pirates, adventurers, runaway
slaves, and rum runners. Although experiencing a considerable
local use, the park is still not officially open to the public. Its ulti-
mate plan anticipates picnic facilities, a trailer park, cabins on
the beach, and an overnight lodge.

Myakka River State Park, east of Sarasota on State Road
No. 220, is the largest of the park units. One of the finest
natural wildlife sanctuaries to be found anywhere, the variety
and abundance of its bird life is particularly impressive. The
park includes the vast flood plain of the river, including 2 exten-
sive lakes. If you want solitude, relaxation or communion with
nature, Myakka's "bigness" will satisfy the most exacting.

Florida Caverns State Park, just outside of the city limits
of Marianna, features a surprising network of underground
passageways festooned with formations of unique design. In
addition, there is the natural bridge over the Chipola River, fern-
draped rock escarpments, natural rock gardens, Blue Hole spring
and, adjoining, the Federal fish hatchery.

Torreya State Park, on the rugged, wooded bluffs of the
Apalachicola River between Bristol and Chattahoochee, is out-
standing for its varied plant life, including the unique Florida
Yew and the Florida Torreya. Its heights afford inspiring vistas
not found outside of the region. Historically, the park sets a
high standard with its old Federal warehouse, pre-Bellum Greg-
ory Mansion, and its well-preserved gun pits and trenches, a part
of the river's defenses during the War Between the States.

Suwannee River State Park, a still undeveloped unit lo-
cated at the junction of the wooded Withlacoochee River and the
immortalized Suwannee River, between Live Oak and Madison, is
rich in legends of the old South. Its development plan contem-
plates the restoration of that old plantation life.













bek


7.ij
V


, I,


~u.4


Fig. 10. Typical cavern formations, Florida Caverns State Park.


~.II i







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Tomoka State Park, at the confluence of the Tomoka and
Halifax Rivers just north of Daytona Beach, is situated in a
region rich in Florida history and historical ruins. Its exceptional
boating and fishing potentialities will be made available to the
public. Adjoining the east coast highway and in a section famous
for public recreation, it is believed that the park, when developed,
will prove one of the most popular.

Pan-American State Park, also undeveloped, is a tract
located between the north and south forks of New River, near
Ft. Lauderdale. Occupying a unique position in the edge of the
Florida Everglades and, at the same time, on the east coast, it is
the breeding ground of the rare Florida Manatee, or Seacow, and
is frequented by Seminole Indians. It will be made accessible to
the public by scheduled boat trips and a network of canoe trails.
Attendance
Attendance figures on the three parks opened to public use dur-
ing the biennium show a total of more than 100,000 people. Gold
Head Branch, which was opened only one summer season and had
little publicity, was used, nevertheless, by 6,786 people. High-
lands Hammock, the oldest unit, accounted for 27,749 and Hills-
borough River State Park, because of its excellent picnicking
facilities and its proximity to Tampa, was used by more than
68,000. All of the park units, even those on which no develop-
ment work has been done, are seeing some degree of use but at-
tendance figures have been kept only for those which have been
formally dedicated and are in the hands of an administrative
staff. This use indicates the very favorable reaction of the public
to the acquisition, development, and maintenance of a State park
system.

Contribution of the CCC to State Parks
There were 5 CCC camps and one side camp operating on State
park improvements during the entire biennium. The parks af-
fected were Fort Clinch, Gold Head Branch, Highlands Hammock,
Myakka, Caverns and Torreya. Among the accomplishments
listed by these park camps are the construction of 8 cabins, 2
dwellings 4 combination buildings, 2 boathouses, 2 pump houses,
2 latrines, 1 museum, 5 water systems, 42 picnic tables, 6 camp
stoves, 9.7 miles of roads, 9.8 miles of truck trails, 6.7 miles of foot
trails, and approximately 700 signs and markers. Boundaries
were marked, beach shores improved, public use areas landscaped,
parking grounds and trailer camp areas established, and fire
control improvements constructed. A detailed listing of these
accomplishments will be found in Table VI of the Appendix.
Without the work of the Civilian Conservation Corps, little prog-
ress could have been made in park improvements due to the lack
of available funds.








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


PROBLEMS AND NEEDS
Florida has a land area of approximately 35 million acres of
land and its principal income is derived from the soil. It de-
pends upon this revenue for its economic and social stability.
Of these 35 million acres, approximately 22 million are consid-
ered to be best adapted for the production of forest crops. It is
readily understandable that careful consideration must be given
to the proper utilization of this 63 per cent of the entire land
area of the State. Approximately 7 per cent of the forested acre-
age is owned by Federal and State agencies; the remaining 93 per
cent is owned by farmers and private timberland owners.
Proper management of forests means not only increased profits
to the owners and the wood-using industries but to all the public
because the latter receives numerous benefits derived from for-
ests which cannot be measured in monetary returns. Conse-
quently, the public, through governmental agencies, should en-
courage investment in forest properties by rendering such assis-
tance and protection as is normally provided other tax payers.
Statistics compiled by the Southern Forest Experiment Station
in a State-wide forest survey indicate that for the calendar year
ending December 31, 1938, Florida was cutting her forest prod-
ucts in excess of growth. It is interesting to note that, of this
drain, the lumber industry used 29 per cent; cross ties, poles and
piling, 6 per cent; veneer, 5 per cent; cooperage and miscellaneous
manufacturing, 1 per cent; pulpwood, 6 per cent; fuel wood, 7
per cent; farm use, 1 per cent; and 45 per cent was caused by
fire, insects, disease and destructive turpentining practices. The
immediate forestry problem confronting us today is to secure the
proper balance between growth and drain.
Uncontrolled forest fires remain the greatest menace to the
complete restocking of forest lands and to obtaining a satisfactory
growth which will enable private landowners to conduct a profit-
able forestry business. Fires are a public menace because they
do not respect property boundaries. They destroy tender, tree
seedlings to such an extent that only a small percentage of the
forest lands can grow timber crops. Communities in which these
forests are located suffer from this lack of sufficient quantity of
wood and this, in turn, seriously affects the stabilization of the
wood-using industries and results in a transient labor condition
which is socially and economically unsound. It is apparent that
if the 45 per cent drain or mortality caused by woods fires, etc.,
could be reduced one-half a wood supply could be maintained
which would support a larger number of wood-using industries
without increasing the timber drain against the growing stock.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Approximately 27 per cent of the forest acreage in Florida is to-
day receiving services in organized forest fire prevention and
control in co-operation with State and Federal agencies; of this,
21 per cent is accomplished in direct co-operation with our de-
partment. Uncontrolled forest fires, therefore, are consistently
depleting one of the State's greatest natural resources, and con-
siderably more funds are necessary to extend this service on a
State-wide basis.
Satisfactory fire control is the first step to be taken in re-
habilitating these forest lands. After that, forest management
must be applied to properly utilize the products for their best
purpose and to assure a continuous cut. Landowners need to be
acquainted with the fact that selective logging, marking of timber
prior to cutting, and other improved forestry practices will yield
greater financial returns as well as maintain an ample supply of
trees for future use. Our department lacks sufficient funds and
personnel to carry this message to all the owners of the 22 million
acres of forest land.
Many landowners agree with this principal but have had diffi-
culty in applying it on account of numerous obstacles encoun-
tered. Forest taxation is one of the most serious of these ob-
stacles. There are many examples throughout the State where
forest lands are taxed far beyond the ability of the land to pay.
As a result, acres upon acres have reverted to the State for non-
payment of taxes.
Other landowners likewise have been handicapped in carrying
forest lands because of the lack of any system of proper forest
credits. Present understocked conditions of a large percentage of
the timberlands prevent them from being immediately placed on a
management system which will produce annual revenue. The
lands must be carried a number of years until they are fully
stocked at which time annual revenue can be obtained. Landown-
ers would be encouraged to practice forestry on these poorly
stocked stands if they had available a credit system permitting
long-term loans at low rates of interest.
Education and publicity efforts need to be increased in order
that the students in our schools, universities and colleges, timber-
land owners, wood-using industries, and the public may become
more fully acquainted with the necessity of adequately protecting
and properly utilizing the forests and their products. Public
opinion must be molded to a realization that the forest is one
of the most important of our State's basic sources of wealth.
The ten park units which now comprise Florida's State park
system represents only a beginning. The ultimate should be a
sufficient distribution of State parks to provide wholesome out-
door recreation within traveling distance and the pocketbook
range of every Floridian. In addition, the historic, scenic or
unusual should be preserved. There is a need and place for
roadside parks or picnic areas such as have been established by
various other tourist-minded states. Florida's waterways are







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


potentially the finest of tourist attractions and an undeveloped
recreational resource. With the awakening of the State to the
possibilities of these assets and the development of canoe and
small boat routes, picnicking and overnight camping sites, similar
to those mentioned for the highways, would be needed along the
more used streams. Obviously, this ultimate program repre-
sents a long-time development for which plans have already been
prepared and which contemplates a staff of architects, landscape
architects, engineers, naturalists, recreation planners, historians,
and maintenance forces. The fulfillment of this long-time pro-
gram has no definite schedule and will evolve just as the people
of the State realize, want, and approve the various steps in bring-
ing it about.
The Florida Forest and Park Service recognizes the need of
proper land-use planning, especially as it relates to the Service's
responsibilities in the forestry and park field as delegated to it by
the Legislature. A plan which includes a long-range forestry and
park program for Florida is considered essential to serve as a
guide to channel our activities over a period of years. These ob-
jectives may not be attained immediately but, unless unforeseen
conditions develop, such a program serves its purpose in directing
efforts towards solving major forestry and park problems.

1. Efforts should be exerted to obtain an increase of State and
Federal funds to extend forest fire prevention and control State-
wide.
2. A need exists to obtain increased State and Federal appro-
priations which will enable the employment of additional personnel
capable of demonstrating to the landowners the value of practic-
ing improved forest management on their lands.
3. A program should be initiated to assist farm and non-farm
forest owners with the marketing of their forest products. Co-
operative financial assistance should be obtained from the Fed-
eral government using the same principle as that now being used
in the expenditure of co-operative forest fire control funds.
4. It is believed that forest credits for timberland owners enab-
ling them to obtain long-term loans at low rates of interest would
stimulate proper management of forest lands.
5. Existing'Federal legislation should be modified which would
permit reimbursement by the Federal government for the sale of
seedlings to owners of non-farm as well as farm forest lands.
6. It is essential that the importance of non-farm forest lands
to the economy of the entire county be included in county land-
use plans.
7. An equitable forest tax remains a great need for the ad-
vancement of forestry.







SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


8. The State forest program needs to be expanded so that it
may eventually consist of 500,000 acres or more, which will mean
approximately twenty 25,000-acre or more forests scattered
throughout the State. These forests are to be used to demonstrate
proper forestry methods, as training grounds for personnel em-
ployed by our department, and as public hunting grounds and
refuges. The need for public shooting grounds is becoming more
and more apparent throughout the State and State forests could
be managed for a dual purpose.
9. We should support efforts to obtain Federal appropriations
authorized under the Fulmer Act which are to be used to assist
the State in acquiring State forests.
10. Legislation is required which will enable communities to
establish community forests.
11. Increased financial aid is needed to expand the activities
of the publicity and educational work of our department.
12. Additional funds are required to expand the State park
system to include several parks located along the Atlantic Ocean,
Gulf of Mexico, and the lakes.
13. There is a need for establishing wayside parks and addi-
tional funds are required for this purpose.
14. Additional park legislation is required to broaden the activi-
ties of the Florida Forest and Park Service in the acquisition,
maintenance and development of a system of State parks.








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


APPENDIX


Table Subject Page

I. FINANCIAL STATEMENT, July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939........ 45

II. FINANCIAL STATEMENT, July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940....... 46

III. ANALYSIS OF FIRES .................................. 47

IV. FOREST FIRE CONTROL ............................... 48

V. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF FORESTRY CCC ................ 49

VI. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF STATE PARK CCC .............. 50

VII. RECORD OF CCC CAMPS ............................... 51

VIII. ANNUAL SUMMARY OF PLANTING ..................... 51

IX. BIENNIAL PLANTING SUMMARY ................... 52-54

X. ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN NAVAL STORES CO-OPERATION 55

XI. FLORIDA STATE FORESTS ............................. 56

XII. FLORIDA STATE PARKS .............................. 57

XIII. LIST OF AVAILABLE PUBLICATIONS ................... 58








SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE I

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939
STATE APPROPRIATION
Debits


Credits


Balance-June 30, 1938........................... .$ 544.45
Receipts (Canceled warrants) ...................... 36.40
1938-1939 Appropriation ......................... 170,000.00
Expenditures ................... ............... $ 170,447.82
Balance June 30, 1939 (State Forests Fund) ......... 133.03
$ 170,580.85 $ 170,580.85

CO-OPERATIVE FUND

Balance-July 1, 1938............................ $ 28,506.39
Receipts-U. S. Government. ...................... 100,282.00
Receipts-Landowners ........................... 99,931.83*
Receipts-Highlands Hammock ................... 5,030.36
Receipts-Hillsborough River ..................... 2,048.49
Receipts-Gold Head Branch. ..................... 101.60
Receipts-Nursery .............................. 11,540.96*
Receipts-Forestry Training Camp ................. 588.50
Receipts-Blackwater River State Forest............ 650.00
Receipts-Unanticipated .................. ....... 8,454.17

Expenditures .................................... $ 253,132.30
Balance-June 30, 1939........................... 4,002.00
$ 257,134.30 $ 257,134.30

TOTAL EXPENDITURES


Expended from State Appropriation ................... .............
Expended from Co-operative Fund........................... ......

Total Expenditures from State Funds......................... $

Private Expenditures (labor in lieu of cash) under co-operative agreements
and largely under supervision of Florida Forest and Park Service
a


*Gross receipts from which refunds have not been deducted. These re-
funds are, of course, included in the total expenditures from this fund.


$170,447.82
253,132.30

S423,580.12

19,028.81

442.608.93









FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


TABLE II

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
STATE APPROPRIATION

Debits


Credits


1939-1940 Appropriation ................... .......$ 210,000.00
Receipts-(Refund on Travel Requests) ............. 17.00
Expenditures.................................... $ 210,017.00

$ 210,017.00 $ 210,017.00

CO-OPERATIVE FUND
Balance-July 1, 1939 .......................... $ 4,002.00
Receipts-U. S. Government ..................... 105,456.90
Receipts-Landowners ........................... 136,619.02*
Receipts-Highlands Hammock State Park.......... 3,813.36
Receipts-Hillsborough River State Park............ 2,390.27
Receipts-Gold Head Branch State Park............ 239.28
Receipts-Nursery ............................... 12,328.56*
Receipts-Forestry Training Camp ................. 543.80
Receipts-Blackwater River State Forest............ 10,375.68
Receipts-Myakka River State Forest .............. 669.86
Receipts-O'Leno State Forest ..................... 377.78
Receipts-Pine Log State Forest ................... 467.36
Receipts-Unanticipated ............................ 8,041.61

Expenditures.................................... $281,880.14
Balance-June 30, 1940 ........................... 3,445.34

$ 285,325.48 $ 285,325.48
REPLACEMENT FUND

Receipts...................... ................. 200.00
Balance-June 30, 1940 ........... ............... $ 200.00

$ 200.00 $ 200.00
TOTAL EXPENDITURES


Expended from State Appropriation ................................
Expended from Co-operative Fund ...... ..........................

Total Expenditures from State Funds........................
PrivateExpenditures (labor in lieu of cash) under co-operative agreements
and largely under supervision of Florida Forest and Park Service.....


*Gross receipts from which refunds have not been deducted. These re-
funds are, of course, included in the total expenditures from this fund.


$ 210,017.00
281,880.14

8 491,897.14

17,695.77

$ 509,592.91











SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT




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TABLE IV
FOREST FIRE CONTROL
Number of Co-operators, Area Protected, and Per Cent of Protected Area Burned


Number of Co-operators Area Protected Per Cent of Area Burned
As of Close of
Fiscal Year Individual Group County Individual Group County Individual Group County State

1928-1929............ .... 209 .. ........ 670,285 ......... ... 8.4 .... 8.4

1929-1930............ .... 254 .. .... .... 1,073,427 ......... .... 7.7 .... 7.7

1930-1931............ .... 279 .. ........ 1,469,440 ......... .... 8.5 .... 8.5

1931-1932............. 26 77 .. 124,110 947,365 ......... 3.5 17.1 .... 17.1

1932-1933 ............ 139 64 1 653,919 443,066 ......... 3.4 4.05 .... 3.6

1933-1934 ........... 121 68 2 584,560 833,448 79,000 10.7 3.9 5.8 8.0
1934-1935 ............ 91 68 3 791,848 402,962 347,395 6.3 2.9 22.0 8.7

1935-1936 ............ 308 72 3 1,103,861 356,444 559,154 3.2 2.4 3.2 3.0

1936-1937 ............ 345 64 3 1,257,994 489,017 581,394 1.8 1.1 4.0 2.2
1937-1938 ............ 390 59 4 1,726,600 527,657 881,394 3.4 1.5 4.4 3.4

1938-1939............ ... .... 5 1,914,729 536,177 1,441,398 3.95 2.7 3.14 3.4
1939-1940............. .. .... 5 2,166,096 698,499 1,475,234 1.9 1.55 5.76 3.17




TABLE V
ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF FORESTRY CCC

1938-1939 1939-1940 Total
Units
No. Units Man-days No. Units Man-days No. Units Man-days

Towers, Lookouts...................... No........ 10 2,111 3 953 13 3,064
Dwellings.............................. No........ 9 1,604 8 1,622 17 3,226
Barns ...................... No........ 6 232 5 341 11 573
Latrines, toilets ........................ !No........ 9 50 0 0 9 50
Equipment Storage Sheds................ No........ 0 0 2 795 2 795
Other Buildings......................... No.... 7 187 2 140 9 327
Wells-including pump and house......... No........ 4 118 4 132 8 250
Water systems ...................... No........ 7 149 5 254 12 403
Sewerage and waste disposal systems ...... No ..... 0 0 1 25 1 25
Fence........ .............. .. Rods...... 9,670 4,045 480 692 10,150 4,737
Cattle guards ...... ................. No........ 11 294 2 114 13 408
Radio Stations......................... No....... 0 0 0 80 0 80 s
Other structural improvements .......... No........ 4 .521 4 741 8 1,262 W
Landscaping.......................... Acres..... 27 724 41.5 1,865 68.5 2,589 M
Telephone lines.................. ...... Miles..... 160.9 5,126 125.9 7,536 386.8 12,662
Vehicle Bridges........................ No........ 56 4,717 85 10,142 141 14,859
Truck trail ... ..... .. .............. Miles..... 100.9 62,515 160.6 103,240 261.5 165,755
Truck trail maintenance .................. Miles..... 0 0 26 2,196 26 2,196
Foot trail. .............. *........ Miles..... .3 183 .4 926 .7 1,109
Ditch-open......................... Ln. Ft .... 10,100 794 0 0 10,100 794
Ditch-diversion ..................... Ln. Ft.... 3,220 244 0 0 3,220 244
Excavation-canals, etc..................Cubic Yds. 0 0 98 449 98 449
Tree seed collecting................... Bushels.... 176 138 157 112 333 250 0
Tree nursery .......................... Man-days. 6,753 6,753 4,414 4,414 11,167 11,167 0
Field Planting .......................... Acres ... 145 326 0 0 145 326
Forest Stand Improvements ............. Acres..... 16 533 0 0 16 533
Surveys ..................... Man-days. 3,365 3,365 2,840 2,840 6,205 6,205
Timber Estimating..................... Acres. .... 0 0 69,120 318 69,120 318
Fire Prevention ............. Man-days. 75 75 0 0 75 75
Fire Hazard Reduction-Roadside......... Miles .... 16 391 0 3 16 394
Fire Hazard Reduction-other............ Acres ..... 3,193.5 452 0 0 3,193.5 452
General Clean-Up ...................... Acres..... 17 292 28 528 45 820
Fire Pre-suppression. .................. Man-days. 391 391 2,006 2,006 2,397 2,397
Firebreaks ............................ Miles..... 163.2 14,766 249.2 17,128 412.4 31,894
Fire Fighting......................... Man-days. 2,430 2,430 3,847 3,847 6,277 6,277
Maps and Models....................... Man-days. 114 114 0 0 114 114
Prep. and Trans. Materials ............. Man-days. 20,860 20,860 8,890 8,890 29,750 29,750
Tech. Service Camp Buildings ........... No........ 0 0 8 1,607 8 1,607
Total...... ................ ... ...... .. ........ 134,503 ........ 173,936 ........ 308,439









FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE

TABLE VI
ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF STATE PARK CCC


1. Buildings:
Dwellings ............................... ......
C abins.......................... ..................
Cabin additions ...................................
Museums........................................
Combination buildings .............................
Latrines...........................................
Pump houses .....................................
Boat houses .....................................
2. Supplemental improvements:
Fire towers......... .........................
Water storage, facilities, towers and tanks.. ...........
Diving towers......................................
Bridges ..........................................
Boat docks .......................................
Sewage systems ...................................
Sewage disposal systems.................. ........
W ells .............................................
Water systems...................................
Pipe lines ........................................
Telephone lines .............. ..................
Power lines........................................
Garbage disposal pits .............................
Boat-house landings ................................
Incinerators.......................................
Playfields......................................
Drinking fountains ................... ..............
Camp stoves .....................................
Picnic tables......................................
Signs and markers ...............................
Fire-tool boxes ....................................
Roads .........................................
Truck trails .....................................
Foot trails .......................................
Furniture.........................................
Boats .........................................
Boundary markers ...............................
3. Grounds:
Erosion control .............. ..................
L evees............................................
Beach shore improvement ...........................
Groins............................................
Landscaping......................................
Trailer camp area ...............................
Picnic area .....................................
Parking areas.....................................
Pavilion parking area ...............................
Towersite improvement .............................
Vista cuttings .....................................
Caverns development ..............................
Stream development. ..............................
Boundaries marked. ..................................
Eradicating poison weeds...........................
Trees and shrubs planted .........................
4. Miscellaneous:
General survey work .............................
Fire hazard reduction ..............................
20-foot firebreaks .............. .................
10-foot firebreaks ................................
Fire presuppression. ............................. ..
Fighting forest fires .............................
Clearing camp sites and constructing side camps .......


2
8
5
1
4
2
2
2

2
2
1
3
1
2
5
2
5
10,645 lineal feet
10.75 miles
2.8 miles
13
1
1
3.5 acres
7
6
42
659
13
9.7 miles
9.8 miles
6.7 miles
341 pieces
14
25

1,970 man-days
1
8 miles
4,146 cubic yards
11 acres
6 acres
1.5 acres
10,010 sq. yds.
1
1,836 man-days
1,500 man-days
4,921 man-days
1.25 miles
20 miles
400 man-days
54,174


3,252
6,050
7.4
10.3
2,950
96 -
7,581


man-days
man-days
miles
miles
man-days
man-days
man-days








SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT 51




TABLE VII
RECORD OF CCC CAMPS
Forestry


County


P -66............... P olk ..........................
P -67............... B aker.........................
P-71 ............... Hillsborough ................. .
P-75............... Taylor. .......................
P -79............... D uval.........................
P -80 ............... B ay ..........................
P-81 ............. G ulf..........................
P-82............... Volusia ........................
P-83............... Levy .........................
P-84............... Dixie.........................
P-85............... B radford ......................
Parks

SP- 4.............. Sarasota......................
SP- 5.............. Clay ..........................
SP- 8.............. N assau ........................
SP-10 ............ Highlands ....................
SP-12.............. Jackson .......................
Side Camp*........ Liberty.......................
*Side Camp based on Florida Caverns Camp, SP-12.


Date of Date of
Occupancy Evacuation


5-29-34
5-24-34
5-15-34
8-22-35
2-15-37
11-30-37
8- 1-39
6- 5-39
10- 9-39
10-11-39
10-20-39


10-17-34
7- 2-35
7- 1-37
5-14-34
7-20-38
9-13-39


TABLE VIII
ANNUAL SUMMARY OF PLANTING
1928-1939, Inclusive

Number Nursery Planted
Year Co-operators Production Acreage


1928-29 ...........................
1929-30 ...........................
1930-31 ..........................
1931-32 ...........................
1932-33 ...........................
1933-34 ..........................
1934-35..........................
1935-36 ...........................
1936-37 ...........................
1937-38 ...........................
1938-39 ..........................
1939-40 ..........................

T otal.........................


12 10,784 17


102
176
98
154
150
127
125
192
234
389
1,295

3,054


392,051
589,220
580,321
590,057
1,078,915
2,120,740
3,242,145
3,908,688
5,588,987
5,443,537
6,409,540*

29,954,985


707
1,464
1,520
1,369
2,383
4,060
8,371
6,936
9,478
11,196
10,745

58,246


*1,700,000 additional were produced and sold to the Soil Conservation Service


Camp
Number


9-29-38
12- 5-39
7- 8-38
10-10-39
4-30-39




12-19i40





TABLE IX
BIENNIAL PLANTING SUMMARY

1938-39 1939-40
Co-operators Co-operators
County --- Trees Acreage ----- Trees Acreage
Old New Total Planted Planted Old New Total Planted Planted
District No. 1-A
Bay ......................... 6 11 17 739,000 1,205 3 4 7 517,000 1,026
Calhoun ...................... 1 2 3 23,000 63 4 22 26 448,550 660
Gulf ......................... 3 2 5 50,500 94 1 1 2 10,500 8
Holmes....................... 1 4 5 34,500 74 2 16 18 65,500 98
Jackson ...................... 3 63 66 486,270 816 5 181 186 766,000 1,127
Walton ....................... 2 8 10 103,000 154 7 122 129 306,480 454
Washington.................. 3 13 16 78,500 147 7 72 79 316,990 465
Escambia ..................... 2 4 6 65,400 175 (Listed Under District No. 1-B)
Santa Rosa ................. 1 1 1,000 2 (Listed Under D district N o. 1-B)
Okaloosa ...................... 5 5 43,000 93 (Listed Under District N o. 1-B)

Sub-Total .................. 21 113 134 1,624,170 2,823 29 418 447 2,431,020 3,838

District No. 1-B
Escambia..................... (Listed Under D district No. 1-A) 5 5 156,700 267
Santa Rosa....................... (Listed Under D district N o. 1-A) 2 2 4 71,500 119
Okaloosa......................... (Listed Under District N o. I-A) 4 23 27 117,500 198

Sub-Total ................ 6 30 36 345,700 584

District No. 2
Franklin ..................... 3 3 16,000 26 -
Gadsden ..................... 3 2 5 18,000 26 1 8 9 164,000 95
Jefferson ..................... 4 8 12 153,800 185 1 4 5 36,580 52
Lafayette ................... 18 18 105,220 150 28 28 99,000 148
Leon......................... 11 10 21 147,260 323 5 13 18 130,580 171
Liberty ...................... 12 12 66,150 93 2 26 28 185,400 288
Madison ..................... 12 20 32 506,650 740 9 7 16 210,900 377
Taylor...................... 1 2 3 95,000 158 3 1 4 100,000 156
Wakulla ...................... 2 4 6 43,000 95 2 1 3 15,200 23
Dixie....................... (Listed Under D district N o. 3) 1 1 60,000 Replants

Sub-Total................ 33 79 112 1,151,080 1,796 24 88 112 1,001,660 1,310





TABLE IX
BIENNIAL PLANTING SUMMARY-(Continued)


1938-39


County


District No. 3
Levy... ................ .
Suwannee....................
Colum bia .....................
Union.... ...................
Hamilton .....................
Bradford. ....................
B aker ........................
Alachua....................
Gilchrist. .................
Dixie. .................. ..

Clay .......................
Duval ......................
N assau ... ...................
Putnam .....................

Sub-Total................

District No. 4
V olusia ......................
Flagler...................
Clay......................
Duval....................
N assau. ......................
Putnam .....................
St. Johns.....................
Marion..... .......... ....
Orange.................. .
Sem inole .................. ..
Sumter....................
Lake.. .......................
C itrus........................

Sub-Total. ...............


Co-operators


New


1
5
2
2

2
4

1
5
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed

22



1
3
2

2
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed

8


Under D
Under D
Under D
Under D

34


Und
Und
Und
Und
Und
Und


Total


2
5
9
3
4
1
3
14
1
1
13
district N
district N
district N
district N

56


7
1


4 5
4 7
3 5
1 1
2
er District N
ler District N
er District N
ler District N
ler D district N
ler D district N

20 28


Trees
Planted


Acreage
Planted


12,000
35,375
121,400
29,500
26,500
7,000
57,100
143,850
2,000
380,000
351,500


1,166,225 1,915


9,000
15,000
297,000
55,000
142,000
800
240,000


758,800 2,137 16 39 55


1939-40


Co-operators


New


2
5
3
2
3

7
10

(Listed
(Listed
8

1
1

42


4

(Listed
(Listed
(Listed
(Listed

7
2
2

1


Total


1
59
7
1
2
2
3
9
3
Under D
Under D

3

7

97


22
1
Under D
Under D
Under D
Under D

7
3

1
2
3


3
64
10
3
5
2
10
19
3
district N
district N
8
3
1
8

139


26
1
district N
district N
district N
district N

14
5
2
1
3
3


Trees
Planted


16,000
201,720
54,800
12,500
37,500
7,200
31,000
118,180
38,000


640,800
6,000
5,000
203,100

1,371,800


59,480
540


455,900
23,000
1,200
3,000
19,500
10,070

572,690


Acreage
Planted


32
445
100
29
63
17
55
256
84


1,467
14
12
465

3,039


99
1




695
53
2
5
29
21

905


-----


~-- ~ ----








TABLE IX
BIENNIAL PLANTING SUMMARY-(Continued) 5


1938-39 1939-40
Co operators Co-operators
County ---Trees Acreage Trees Acreage
Old New Total Planted Planted Old New Total Planted Planted '
District No. 5 O
Dade ....................... 1 1 1,000 2 -
DeSoto....................... 3 1 4 8,500 20 1 1 2 11,000 21
Broward..................... 11 11 54,750 85
Charlotte...... ............. 2 2 8,000 17
Hardee...................... 1 1 2 7,000 22 1 2 3 5,500 11
Hendry...................... 1 1 10,000 33 -
Highlands .................... 5 5 1,665 4 1 5 6 10,915 23 r
Hillsborough ................. 4 8 12 51,472 153 1 9 10 17,425 34
Indian River................. ----- 1 1 1,000 2
Lee.......................... 1 1 680 1
Manatee ................... 1 1 500 1 1 1 500 1
Martin ....................... -- 1 1 1,000 2
Pasco........................ 1 1 2,000 3 3 3 19,600 7
Pahn Beach .................. 1 1 1,115 2 1 1 680 1
Polk ........................ 13 2 15 610,900 2,142 3 9 12 549,400 855
Pinellas..................... 2 2 4 4,750 13 1 3 4 4,220 6
Sarasota..................... 1 1 3,480 8 1 1 2,000 3
St.Lucie ..................... 1 1 2,000 5 __ <
Citrus........................ 1 1 20,000 65 (Listed Under District N o. 4)
Lake......................... 1 1 1,000 4 (Listed Under District N o. 4) M
Orange ...................... 2 1 3 11,000 33 (Listed Under District N o. 4)
Seminole ..................... 4 4 5,680 11 (Listed Under District No. 4)
Sumter ...................... 1 1 2,000 4 (Listed Under District N o. 4)

Sub-Total................ 38 21 59 744,062 2,525 8 51 59 686,670 1,069

GRAND TOTALS...... 122 267 389 5,444,337 11,196 125 723 848 6,409,540 10,745








SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT







TABLE X


ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN NAVAL STORES CO-OPERATION
Improved Still Practices


1938-1939 1939-1940 Total

Still settings supervised ......................... 16 14 30
Still sheds supervised ........................... 3 2 5
Still repairs supervised .......................... 1 1 2
Covered separators installed ..................... 8 4 12
Dehydrators installed.......................... 6 4 10
Thermometers installed ......................... 8 9 17
Stillers instructed....................... ...... 2 7 9
Stilling demonstrations held ..................... 23 8 31
Tail gates repaired ........................... 1 0 1
Rosin strainers-construction .................... 6 2 8


Improved Woods Practices

Cupping demonstrations given ................... 21 25 46
Lease contracts..................... .......... 3 3 6
Chipping and pulling demonstrations ............. 15 22 37
Fire control recommendations .................... 48 43 91
Planting recommendations ................ ..... 9 17 26
Thinning demonstrations...................... .. 1 1 2
Gum producers assisted .................. ...... 62 43 105
Gum farmers started............................ 4 10 14














TABLE XI
FLORIDA STATE FORESTS


Counties
Saw-
logs
Manatee and
Sarasota .....

Bay and
Washington...

Columbia and
Alachua......

Nassau and
Duval ........


Okaloosa and
Santa Rosa... X


Immediate Sources of Revenue


Poles& Cross- Pulp-
Piling ties wood


Acquired


1934


1936


1936


1937


1939


Naval Stump
Stores Wood


Name


Myakka.....


Pine Log.....


O'Leno ......


Cary ........


Blackwater
River......


Totals...


Graz- Rock


Graz- Rock
ing


X


X


Manage-
ment
Costs


$ 1,289.53


1,976.51


701.28


533.60


16,933.85


$21,434.77


Returns
>-(


$ 669.86


467.36


377.78

W



18,326.53

$19,841.53 H


Acreage



14,588


6,960


1,160


3,413


181,822


X X


X


207,943


Naval Stump
Stores Wood


$21,434.77












TABLE XII

FLORIDA STATE PARKS


Name


Highlands Hammock.. 1935


3,640


Counties


Highlands. ...............


Hillsborough River... 1935 720 Hillsborough.............

Gold Head Branch.... 1935 1,180 Clay.....................

Fort Clinch........... 1935 1,085 Nassau.................

Myakka River....... 1934 12,883 Manatee and Sarasota.....

Torreya ............ 1935 520 Liberty..................

Florida Caverns..... 1935 963 Jackson..................

Suwannee ............. 1936 1,636 Hamilton and Suwannee....


Tomoka.............

Pan-American ........


1938

1938


PRESENT ATTRACTIONS









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Volusia...................

Broward. ..............


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FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


TABLE XIII
LIST OF AVAILABLE PUBLICATIONS
Numbered Bulletins
Planting Forest Trees in Florida, Bulletin No. 8; 30 pages, 1931.
Florida Naval Stores, Bulletin No. 9; 59 pages, 1933.
Forestry and Timber Laws of Florida, Bulletin No. 10; 44 pages, 1934.
Vocational Forestry, Bulletin No. 11; 92 pages, 1937.
Growing and Marketing Pulpwood, Bulletin No. 12; 26 pages, 1938.
Cutting Timber for Increased Profits, Bulletin No. 13; 19 pages, 1940.
Numbered Circulars
Planted Pines Pay, Circular No. 2; 8 pages, revised 1940.
De Woods of Pine, a song, Circular No. 3; 4 pages, 1939.
Conservation, report of a teaching unit, Circular No. 4; 4 pages, 1941.
Leaflets
Common Trees of North and Northwest Florida, 16 pages, 1930.
Elementary Science Teaching Units, 1932:
Grade 1-The Rabbit
Grade 2-The Bob-White
Grade 3-The Woodpecker
Grade 4-The Honey Bee
Grade 5-The Pine Forest
Grade 6-Reproduction of the Pine Tree
The Public and Forest Fires, Florida's forest fire law; 12 pages, 1936.
The Woods That The Farmer Owned, color leaflet for elementary schools,
8 pages, 1936.
Suggested Natural Science and Conservation Teaching Aids, 4 pages, revised
1940.
Highlands Hammock State Park.
Hillsborough River State Park.
Reprints
Back to Public Ownership, by Carl E. Ladd; from the Farm Journal.
Practical Forestry for Florida Farmers, by Lenthall Wyman; from Florida
Grower, December, 1931.
Flaming Florida, by Charles F. Evans; from American Forests, June, 1932.
Forestry-A Cash Crop (for Farmers, by C. H. Coulter; from Florida Grower,
September, 1935.
Tar Heels of the Piney Woods, by I. F. Eldredge; from American Forests,
February, 1937.
Nature Study-Why and How? by George F. Dillmann; from Nature Maga-
zine, Aug.-Sept., 1938.
Improving the Forest to Meet the New Demand, by Lewis E. Staley; from
Civil Engineering, June, 1938.
When to Prune Southern Pines, by Benson H. Paul; from Southern Lumber-
man, December, 1938.
Improve Your Turpentine Woods, by John O. Boynton; from ATFA Journal,
September, 1939.
Florida State Parks in Review, by William F. Jacobs; from Picturesque
Southland, November, 1939.
The Florida Torreya, by William F. Jacobs; from The Journal of the Florida
Education Association, January, 1940.
On the Trail of Natural Beauty in Florida, by Devereux Butcher; from
American Forests, December, 1940.
State Forestry, by H. A. Smith; from American Forests, July, 1940.
Miscellaneous Publications
Forestry, Course in Conservation of Florida's Forests; 91 pages, 1937.
The Scout Forest Handbook, 36 pages, 1937.
Functional Conservation Map of Florida, 1940.
Florida's State Parks Invite You, 16 pages, 1941.




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