Group Title: Biennial report of the Florida Forest and Park Service
Title: Report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075934/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report
Alternate Title: Work of the Florida Forest Service
Florida forestry
Florida forestry and park progress
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 18-28 cm.
Creator: Florida Board of Forestry
Florida Board of Forestry
Florida Forest Service
Florida -- Forest and Park Service
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st- 1928/30-
Numbering Peculiarities: Period covered by reports ends June 30.
Issuing Body: Reports for 1928/30, 1934/36, 1940/42-1946/48 issued by the board under an interim name: Board of Forestry and Parks.
General Note: Some vols. have also distinctive titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075934
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001746447
notis - AJF9242
lccn - a 59002387 //r

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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY


Of


I






FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT
OF THE FLORIDA

Forest and Park Service

TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
July 1, 1936 June 30, 1938



0LORIDA
FOREST
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Florida Board of Forestry 3

Foreword .................. 5

Recent Developments and Their
Effect on Land Use ...... 6

Application of Forest Manage-
m ent .................. 11

State Forests and State Parks. 19

Cooperative Forest Fire Con-
trol ................... 26

Extension of Forest Information 38

Quarters and Personnel ...... 48


Federal Aid

Appendix ..


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Figure 1. The Florida Board of Forestry. Left to right: S. Bryan Jennings, Stanley S. Sheip, John B. Glen, Presi-
d(lent, Mrs. Linwood Jeffreys, Joe Foley, and Harry Lee Baker, State Forester and Park Executive.













THE FLORIDA BOARD OF FORESTRY

Although the five-member, unsalaried Florida Board of
Forestry was so named originally by legislative act in 1927,
it was given added duties by the 1935 Florida Legislature.
In addition to representing the State in forestry matters, the
Board of Forestry is now charged with the duty of acquiring,
developing and administering state forests and parks. The
task of administering state forests and state parks is closely
associated. Lands devoted to forest and park use demand
similar management, although administration of land for
park use is not identical with that when used for the produc-
tion of tree crops. In the case of parks, recreation is para-
mount. The area is to be made enjoyable to the public. Tree
growth on parks is desirable because it makes the landscape
beautiful and enables people to enjoy the outdoors more fully
than if it were absent. State forests, on the other hand, are
managed primarily to produce crops of trees. Recreational
use is subordinate to that of forest management. The facili-
ties for public recreation are developed to their fullest only
on the state park lands. Because parks as well as forests are
a part of extensive use of wild life, one agency can manage
them efficiently.
Each Board member serves for a period of four years. Re-
appointment to the Board is based on the pleasure of the
Governor. Currently the Florida Board of Forestry is com-
posed of the following:
Name Date of recent Expiration of
appointment appointment
John B. Glen, Chipley, Jan. 16, 1935 Oct. 1, 1938
Stanley S. Sheip,
Apalachicola, Oct. 29, 1935 Sept. 16, 1939
Mrs. Linwood Jeffreys,
S Jacksonville, Sept. 27, 1935 Sept. 26, 1939
Joe Foley, Foley, Sept. 24, 1936 Aug. 24, 1940
S. Bryan Jennings,
Jacksonville, Nov. 24, 1933 Sept. 6, 1937
As we mentioned previously, the Board members serve
without compensation. Although the Board members are
unsalaried forestry personnel, they perform an important
function by establishing those policies that guide the admin-
istrative practices of the Florida Forest and Park Service.
Only by having well defined policies can there be achieve-


107828








4 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE

ment by the administrative agency, the Florida Forest and
Park Service. As the representatives of the public in forestry
matters, the Board of Forestry has been able to formulate
policies that have enabled the Florida Forest and Park Ser-
vice to progress in a decade from no personnel and no service
to public to an agency that now extends a service to thousands
of landowners. In short, the Florida Board of Forestry has
endeavored to fulfil its responsibilities, in so far as its facili-
ties permitted, by cooperating with private landowners in
maintaining part of Florida's forest land in productive con-
dition and by the initiation of a system of state forests and
parks.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


FOREWORD

Prior to the creation of the Florida Board of Forestry by
the 1927 Legislature, Florida was confronted by these facts:
(a) The only forest lands in the State under organized forest
management, including protection against forest fires, were
part of the unceded public domain that had been transferred
to the United States Forest Service to be administered as
national forests. (b) Forest fires were common. Many fires
were deliberately set annually by people who resided in the
woods. "Light-burning" was an established custom. Win-
ter and spring fires were especially numerous. (c) Few land-
owners and most of the public attached little importance to
maintaining forest land in productive condition. (d) The
cutting and clipping of timber without regard to reproducing
the trees resulted in part in the non-payment of taxes on land
that no longer had timber, young or old, on it. (e) The State
had committed itself on no policy relative to conserving or
developing areas in the State outstanding because of their
historical, botanical, scenic, wildlife or recreational charac-
teristics.
When the Florida Forest Service commenced to function
in 1928, the principle task undertaken was the extension of
assistance to private and public landowners in the care and
management of forests and the enforcement of laws pertain-
ing to forest land. Briefly, the job was one of reforestation
by forest fire prevention and control and by planting forest
trees. In the first decade of its existence, there has been a
sustained drive on this one problem. At the end of ten years
of effort in this direction, the situation may be summed up as
follows: (a) That state cooperation with landowners was
needed has been demonstrated by the thousands of forest
landowners, who today utilize the services of the Florida
Board of Forestry in fire control and tree planting. (b) Not
only have the landowners responded to cooperation in fire
prevention and control but whole counties are cooperating
and the public generally shows an increasing interest by mak-
ing progressively larger legislative appropriations. (c) In-
dustry, particularly pulp and paper manufacturers, have
taken advantage of Florida's natural resources and have in-
vested millions of dollars in manufacturing plants and land.
(d) The State has accepted the responsibility of forming a
system of state forests and parks to meet a public need. Com-
mencing with reforestation, the tasks confronting the Florida
Forest and Park Service have constantly grown in size and
number and continuously taxed the available facilities of the
department. Service rendered by the Florida Forest and
Park Service is dependent upon the facilities placed at its
disposal.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND THEIR EFFECT
ON LAND USE
LEGISLATION
For the period covered by this report, there were no im-
portant legislative acts that had a significant effect on the
policy of the Florida Forest and Park Service. The State
Legislature passed two enabling acts of a local nature. One
law was concerned with Nassau County and the other with
Volusia County wherein each county was permitted to trans-
fer title to the State, to be used for state park purposes, lands
situated within these counties.
PAPER AND PULP MILLS
A recent development of unusual economic importance was
the establishment of four mills which manufacture pulp and
paper by the sulphate process. The first mill of this type to
be constructed in the State was the Panama City plant of the
Southern Kraft Corporation, a subsidiary of the International
Paper and Power Corporation. This plant commenced opera-
tion in 1930 with daily pulpwood requirements of 500 units.
The present maximum daily requirements of this plant are
listed below. In 1938, three new sulphate plants commenced
producing paper and a fourth was under construction. Three
of the four new plants were concentrated within a radius of
35 miles in the vicinity of Jacksonville.
One factor that contributed to the location of these mills
was proximity to raw materials. Pine timber of relatively
small size, four inches to twelve in diameter inside the bark,
is the chief raw material needed. The maximum daily unit
requirements of these several mills are as follows:

Mill Units of daily pulpwood
requirements
1. Southern Craft Corporation
Panama City Mill ................ 1100
2. National Container Corporation ........ 275
3. St. Joe Paper Company ............... 250
4. Container Corporation of America ...... 250
5. Rayonier ........................... 250
2125
The timber requirements of the five mills listed above are
annually approximately 660,000 units (160 gross cubic feet
each). To produce this quantity of timber almost 1,000,000
acres of land would have to be devoted to the exclusive use
of growing timber for the use of pulp mills. These pulp mills








FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Figure 2. Good Pulpwood Cutting utilizes worked out turpentine tim-
ber, cuts to low stumps, and leaves a stand of timber for a future crop.


Figure 3. Poor Pulpwood Cutting sacrifices both present and future
income.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


are able to utilize timber regardless of whether the trees are
straight-stemmed or crooked, fast-growing or slow-growing,
limby or clean-boled, thrifty or stunted. The product of
Florida's sulphate pulp mills is of such a nature that they can
omit exact and careful timber requirements.
The wood requirements of the pulp mills, briefly, can be
met incidental to the production of other forest products.
Florida is located in that region of the United States where
the two naval stores producing tree species, slash pine and
longleaf pine, grow. Both these tree species, moreover, are
well adapted to the manufacture of boards, dimension stock,
and structural timber. Forest land devoted to the production
of timber for commercial purposes should be used so that the
owner obtains the highest income on a sustained yield basis.
With the several uses of Florida's pine timber, namely: pulp-
wood, naval stores, poles, piling, and sawlogs, there need be
no severe competition among the several utilization plants.
The pulp mill is mainly interested in small timber, under
twelve inches in diameter. The naval stores producer utilizes
trees of a minimum diameter of nine inches, 41 feet above
ground. The sawmill, for economical operation, should use
trees of more than 14 inches in diameter 41/ feet above the
ground. These requirements cause no conflict of interest on
the part of the users of timber. By selective, conservative
cutting, land owners may secure an income from their timber,
keep their land in productive condition, and contribute raw
material for Florida's wood-using industries.
As the state department concerned with forest land use,
the Florida Forest and Park Service feels that it is necessary
to urge landowners to avoid stripping their land of timber.
To remove all timber from land is to permit the area to be-
come unproductive. When land becomes unproductive, it is
incapable of growing timber to sustain the demands of the
paper mills, the naval stores operator and the sawmills.
These wood-using industries are a vital part of the economic
and social pattern of Florida. It is the responsibility of the
Florida Forest and Park Service to see that forest lands are
kept productive so that industries may operate on a sustained
basis. Admittedly many of the industries dependent upon
timber own some forest land and grow some of their own raw
material, but many purchase their timber. The record of the
industries that depend upon timber for their raw material is
on the whole poor in so far as seeing to it that timber is cut
in a manner whereby the land remains productive. Although
the new pulp industry appears to subscribe to the idea of con-
servative cutting, nevertheless this industry has yet to prove
that it is fully committed to the policy of demanding strict
compliance to conservative cutting practices by those con-
tractors who supply their pulpwood.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MEETING THE NEEDS FOR
FORESTRY INFORMATION

At the close of a decade of effort devoted largely to re-
habilitating forest land through the prevention and control
of fires and reforesting idle land by the planting of pine trees,
there are approximately 3,500,000 acres of privately owned
forest land on which effort is directed toward sustaining the
production of tree growth. The control of fires is the chief
means of getting production started, or sustaining it, on this
land. With a long step forward toward sustained forest land
production in the form of fire prevention and control and tree
planting, this must now be followed by a program of carrying
information to the landowner whereby those recommenda-
tions outlined above may be put into practice by the land-
owner. Although there may appear to be many indications
to the contrary, the situation is ripe to carry information to
the landowner so that he may conduct cutting practices that
are to his benefit. A decade ago there was every indication
that a program designed to prevent and control fires in
Florida was doomed to failure. There existed a state-wide
custom of annual burning, ingrained in the native population
for generations. The record today shows, however, that
there were hundreds of landowners who wished to control
fires but were helpless to do so because of public apathy. In
ten years, there has developed forest fire consciousness in
Florida among landowners and the public who are receptive
to constructive ideas if presented with them. There is as
much need today for information to be carried to the land-
owner and the public in the application of good cutting prac-
tices as there was ten years ago for encouragement in forest
fire prevention and control. It is the responsibility of the
Florida Forest and Park Service to meet this need.

LACK OF EXTENSION FACILITIES IN FOREST
MANAGEMENT
Data have been provided above to show that there has de-
veloped a new and concentrated demand for small-size timber
in some parts of the State, namely those surrounding the pulp
mills. Under its present method of operation, the field per-
sonnel6of the Florida Forest and Park Service is required to
devote! 90% of its time to forest fire prevention and control
since it operates on Federal, State, and private funds ear-
marked for this purpose. With thousands of landowners in
Florida to contact in providing information and assistance so
that they may conduct good forestry practices on their land
-practices that are to their advantage financially and to the
State and industry by retaining their lands in productive con-
dition-the personnel of the Florida Forest and Park Service







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


is inadequate. There is an acute need for the employment
of technically trained foresters who may render service to
landowners who wish to manage their lands for profitable
use for pulpwood, naval stores, and sawlogs. Additional
foresters need to be placed in the field at once so that lands
will not be stripped by the sale of small timber.
The pulp and paper mills, with their demand for small
timber, can make it possible for the landowner to practice
intensive forest management and obtain sustained incomes,
or they can contribute to devastation by cutting all timber so
that, even with protection from fire, the land cannot repro-
duce because of a lack of trees to provide the seed for a new
crop. Briefly, the time has come to take another forward step
in Florida's forestry program whereby assistance is extended
to the landowner and the wood-using industries by practicing
careful cutting.

MANAGEMENT THROUGH EDUCATION VERSUS
REGULATION
Public regulation of all cuttings on private lands has been
advocated by some public agencies as the means of preventing
the clear cutting of forest lands, but the Florida Forest and
Park Service recommends that such drastic action be taken
only after a sincere and energetic attempt has failed to bring
the desired cooperation from the landowner and the wood-
using industries in maintaining forest land in continuous tim-
ber production. The Florida Forest and Park Service wishes
to extend its service so that the immediate need-that of
practicing forestry in conducting timber cuttings for forest
products-may be met. The prevention and control of fires
is wasted effort if sensible cutting, or the practice of forestry,
is later overlooked.
To enable the Florida Forest and Park Service to contact
those landowners who wish information and demonstrations
on forest management, especially in cutting, the Service
should have at least one qualified forester in each district.
With these facilities, some genuine headway can be made in
getting forestry cutting practices started on private lands.
Ultimately there may be a need for the services of such a
person in all those counties where forestry can be practiced
intensively.
As part and parcel of the need for the extension of informa-
tion on good cutting practices, those agencies responsible for
training personnel who contact the small landowner should
receive instruction in this field so that they may redeem their
-responsibilities. Those agricultural students at the University
of Florida who are trained to extend agricultural information






FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


to the farmer and small landowner, in other words, the future
vocational agricultural teachers and county agents, should re-
ceive some basic, practical training in forestry. These students
receive some instruction in all phases of farm management
from hog to cotton raising, but are not required, as in the
other phases of agriculture, to learn anything about practic-
ing forestry as a part of the farm operation. In some coun-
ties the county farm agent can render as much, or possibly
more, service to his community by cooperating with land-
owners in practicing forestry and marketing timber products
than in other phases of agriculture.

APPLICATION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT

ARTIFICIAL REFORESTATION

The outstanding activities of the Florida Forest and Park
Service in its first decade of existence have been the natural
reforestation of forest land through fire prevention and con-
trol and by artificial reforestation through the planting of
trees. Natural as well as artificial reforestation is impossible
without forest fire control. There are many areas, however,
such as cutover woodlands, and abandoned farm land where
all timber had been removed, where no seed trees have been
left and reforestation is possible only through planting. There
has been sustained activity by the forestry department in the
production of small trees for planting, with a steady increase
in this field throughout the entire decade since the establish-
ment of the department. As seen in Table I, the number
of seedlings (one year old trees) produced by the forestry
nursery has increased steadily.
Because Florida soil is particularly adapted to the growth
of pine trees, nursery production has been devoted chiefly to
growing slash pine (Pinus caribaea) a species native to the
state, rapid-growing, and adapted to producing naval stores,
pulpwood, boards, poles, piling and structural timbers.
Recent Expansion of Nursery Facilities
For the biennium covered by this report, there has been
considerable enlargement of the facilities for the production
of forest tree seedlings. Sixteen acres of new seedbed area
were added, bringing the total gross seedbed area up to 43
acres with a total production capacity of 10,000,000 pine
seedlings, using one-half of the area each year for seedbeds.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Permanent structural improvements were added. These
are as follows: seed house, two cone storage and drying
sheds with a capacity of 3,000 bushels of cones, wells and
pump capable of delivering 210 gallons of water per minute,
packing house and heeling-in shed, warehouse and garage,
water tank, office and overhead irrigation system. A tractor
exclusively for nursery work was also purchased. Drainage
in the nursery area was provided with open ditches and a
limited amount of underground drainage by tile.


















Figure 4. Six million Slash Pine Seedlings for planting by Florida
landowners.

Research in nursery practice enabled some conclusions to
be arrived at relative to some procedures. The distance be-
tween drills (rows) of seedlings was reduced from ten to
eight inches, thereby materially increasing the productive
capacity of the area. A cotton tobacco cloth is as effective
as burlap strips as a mulching agent and is considerably
cheaper than pine straw in applying and removing.

FOREST MANAGEMENT INVESTIGATIONS
Some Conclusions Learned from Planting
When the planting of forest tree seedlings commenced in
1928, a procedure was set up to maintain permanent records
on these plantations. In 1937, the records of 826 plantations
established up to that time were studied in order to determine
whether anything might be learned from these d;ita relative
to planting procedure. The plantations studied covered the
planting of 6,963,000 slash pine seedlings and 363,000 long-
leaf seedlings.



































PINES
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Figure 5. Planted Pines Make Rapid Growth. The McColsky Planta-
tion near Lake City.


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FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Survival of Seedlings Planted-
The average survival of slash pine was 62% and for long-
leaf 27%. These averages are for all plantings including dry
sites and those plantations damaged by fire, animals and dry
weather.
Various factors that affect the survival from the records
are dry land, drought following planting, fire, the quality of
the seedlings, goat, sheep and other animal damage and poor
planting in order of importance. Since survival counts were
made at least seven months after planting, a correct check on
supervision and planting methods is not possible.

Season of Planting-
An analysis was made from among those slash pine planta-
tions that were considered "normal", i. e., had their survival
unaffected by those unfavorable variables mentioned above,
to ascertain whether the time of planting had any effect of
survival. The record is as follows:

Survival Percentages
Time of Planting 61%-100%
December 1-January 15 ............ 86.8
January 16-February 15 ............ 82.6
February 16-April 30 .............. 74.1

The conclusion that may be derived from this part of the
study is that planting before February 15 produces survival
superior to that planting done later. The planting done be-
fore January 15 will produce the best survival.
It has been the custom of the Florida Forest and Park Ser-
vice to recommend the procedure of plowing furrows for
planting on drier types of soil in order that the seedling will
have less competition from other vegetation, less likelihood
of drying out, and securing better spacing. The analysis of
the date, shows a difference of 4.4% survival in favor of those
seedlings planted in furrows.

Effect of Seedling Quality on Survival and Rate of Growth-

On the basis of 100 seedlings of each of four grades, it was
found that the highest quality of seedling grew at the greatest
rate in height and that each lower quality of seedling grew
at a slower rate. The data for these conclusions are listed
in Table II of the Appendix.
The conclusions arrived at relative to seedling survival are
as follows:







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


1. The planting of seedlings on excessively dry sites should
be avoided if better sites are available for planting.
2. Seedlings should be planted in the early winter, prefer-
ably before January 15.
3. Fire and goats must be excluded from plantations.
4. Responsible labor and careful supervision should be used
so that the planting operation is conducted correctly.

The Effect of Annual Burning

In 1930, two separate areas were established to determine
the effect of annual burning on the establishment and rate of
growth of forest trees. Although the size of each burned
and unburned plot was only one-quarter acre, the demonstra-
tion serves at least to show the trend of development. It was
customary to burn the plots in January of each year when
much of the burning is done in the State. Those days for
burning were chosen when the burning conditions were reas-
onably good. The heat generated by the fires was relatively
low because the fires were unable to generate any "head" due
to the small size of the area.


Figure 6. The land in the left foreground is burned over annually;
the balance of the land is protected from fire.

At the end of eight years of repeated burning, on the one
plot that was burned each year, there were 6 stunted







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


longleaf seedlings one foot to four feet tall. On the adjoining
plot that had remained "rough" and unburned, there were
205 slash and longleaf saplings from eight to twenty-four
feet in height. On another pair of plots treated similarly,
there was a corresponding situation. On the burned plot
there was a total absence of seedlings and saplings. On the
unburned side there were 409 slash pine saplings varying
from sixteen to twenty-four feet in height.
Another set of plots covering the period 1932-1936 on the
same type of work produced the following conclusions:
(a) No longleaf seedlings survived annual burning.
(b) Unburned lands have shown an increasing number of
seedlings produced by natural (seed from trees)
means.
(c) Growth of longleaf saplings (4'-16' high) was three
times greater on the unburned than on the burned
areas.

Tree Pruning Tools and Costs
The removal of the lower branches of young trees has been
recommended by foresters so that there will be fewer knots
and a higher quality of timber produced. Even for naval
stores use, the removal of the lower limbs is desirable so that
there will be no interference with clipping.
The tools used were heavy pruning shears, pruning saw,
and axe. Live as well as dead limbs were removed up the
trunk of the tree to seven feet from the ground. The spacing
of the trees varied from 91/' x 91,' to 12' x 12'. The cost of
pruning an acre with 325 trees on it ranging in height from
16.0 feet to 22.2 feet and an average diameter breast high
ranging from 3.2 to 4.6 inches was 41c for the shears, 41c for
the saw, and 31c for the axe. Costs were computed at the
rate of 10c per man hour. The saw did the most effective
type of pruning in all cases. The axe produced broken stubs
and loosened the bark of the tree trunk where the limb had
been fastened and the shears left longer stubs. In the light
of costs and results produced, pruning with the saw is recom-
mended.

Cutting Practices
The initial steps in the form of forest fire prevention and
control and tree planting have been taken in the forest man-
agement of 3,200,000 acres of Florida's private forest land.
Just as important a phase of forest management is the cutting
of timber so that the forest land will continue to remain pro-
ductive. This is the second logical step in forest manage-
ment. If the forest is cut so that only the small and deformed







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


trees are left, the area cannot produce sufficient seed to re-
stock itself. One objective of good forest management is to
cut only those trees that will provide the most satisfactory
return to the owner.


Figure 7. The pulpwood industry has brought a new source of revenue
and employment to Florida.

The pine tree species native to Florida make it possible to
practice a most intensive sort of forest management because
the demand for pulpwood in some sections of the state pro-
vides an outlet for a class of material that otherwise would
have to be handled at a loss. Small trees that would normally
die through a natural thinning process can now be sold for
pulpwood. In other words, unless man reduces the number
of trees on an acre of young forest nature will do it for him
by allowing some trees to thrive at the expense of others. In
this process, however, the rate of growth is seriously reduced
among all the trees, including those that survive the crowding.
If some of the trees that would normally die can be salvaged
by sales for pulpwood, the owner receives an income that
would otherwise not be possible.
Good forest management usually produces stands of timber
so dense that some of the stems must be removed. They
either die naturally or are artificially removed by man with
an axe or saw. For example, a stand of slash pine timber
that has reproduced itself under natural conditions frequent-







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


ly has 1,000 stems per acre when the stand is a few years old.
When this same stand arrives at fifty years of age, it will have
100 or fewer trees per acre, involving a loss of 900 trees. The
landowner who wishes to make the greatest profit from his
forest land will practice forestry so that he will salvage most
of the 900 trees that normally would die because of the crowd-
ed conditions. When the stand is young, from fifteen to
twenty-five years old, many of the trees can be cut for pulp-
wood. The naval stores operation utilizes not more than
eight feet of the trunk of the tree; this is all available for
use as pulpwood when unburned. Forest management can
arrange the stand so that there are 50 to 100 trees available
for sawlogs at 50 years, or when the naval stores operation
has been completed.
To cut all the timber for pulpwood, however, is poor busi-
ness as well as poor forest management. To remove all the
trees for pulpwood deprives the landowner of continuous
revenue from his forest and in addition prevents the land
from reforesting naturally. With the land in a non-produc-
tive condition, the landowner is not interested in retaining his
ownership and is willing to allow taxes to go unpaid. To
avoid this situation, the Service is justified in carrying in-
formation to the landowners so that they may be informed as
to how to best manage their forest land. Social distress com-
mences, although gradually, with the abuse of this natural
resource.

Trees to Cut and Trees to Leave
The Florida Forest and Park Service recommends that only
some, not all, trees be cut for pulpwood. Certain trees should
be left for chipping for naval stores and for sawlogs. Only
those trees should be cut for pulpwood that are: growing
very slowly, worked-out naval stores trees, crooked and poor-
ly formed trees, undesirable, diseased, and fire-scarred trees.
After this cutting has been done and a return actually re-
ceived from cutting trees of this sort, the remaining trees are
able to make better growth than before. In a pulpwood cut-
ting those trees that should be left for future cuttings are the
round trees over 10 inches in diameter at breast height and
the straight and healthy trees.
It is financially to the benefit of the landowner to utilize
trees for naval stores rather than cut for pulpwood when the
trees are 10 inches or larger, outside the bark at breast height,
(41/2 feet from the ground) and have these characteristics
just mentioned. A ten inch tree will yield 3c per face per
year for five years, or a total of 30c if backfaced, when
used for naval stores. If the same tree were sold for pulp-
wood at $1.00 per unit, and this is a high value if based on






FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Figure 8. A good stand of timber, properly turpentined, assures the
owner of substantial income.

current prices paid for pulpwood, it would yield 12c. If the
tree were used for naval stores and then cut into pulpwood,
there would be a cash return of 30c plus 12c (with allow-
ance for butt-jumping and none for increased growth), or
42c. In other words, by delaying the sale for ten years, the
value of the tree would have been more than trebled. Some
of the trees chipped for naval stores would also be salable for
sawlogs which provides a greater return per tree more than
12 inches in diameter at breast height than if sold for pulp-
wood.


STATE FORESTS AND STATE PARKS
State forests and state parks are lands requiring similar
management, although they have characteristics peculiar to
each. On a state forest, for example, the primary uses of the
land are for growing crops of timber, for watershed control,
for grazing or for recreation of an extensive nature such as
the hunting of game. A state park, however, is utilized pri-
marily to withhold lands of unusual scenic, historical, bo-
tanical, or recreational characteristics from commercial ex-
ploitation so that the public may fully enjoy the advantages
of the area. Such use, moreover, requires that those natural
features of the area that make it desirable as a state park be
conserved and improved. Those wild lands suitable for tim-
ber production and lacking unusual scenic, historical, or
botanical qualities, or not highly adaptable to active recrea-















IA HAMMOCK


wl
(jg







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


tion, are best fitted for the practice of forestry. Briefly, wild
land should be devoted to its highest uses. If it is best suited
for park purposes it should be developed and used according-
ly, provided there is public or social need for such uses in any
given area because of proximity to population centers, tourist
traffic, or danger of destruction to unusual botanical, historic,
or physiographic features.
The CCC program with the cooperation of the National
Park Service, was responsible for the major expenditure of
funds and labor through which the State parks have been de-
veloped during the past two years. A total of five State park
CCC camps operated on six park areas during most of the
period. In addition to developing the State parks, two of
the SP camps performed forestry work on private lands in
cooperation with the Fire Control Branch. One forestry
camp also developed a State park area.
Forestry CCC camps also assisted in constructing improve-
ments whereby three State forests could be more adequately
protected from forest fire and establish a basis for continuous
yields of forest products.
STATE PARKS
With its numerous undeveloped areas of wild land well
adapted to recreational purposes, Florida is one of the play-
grounds of the United States, and with its unusual climate for
the enjoyment of outdoor recreation this State has a genuine
need for state-owned parks. A total of 15,574 acres is spe-
cifically set aside for State park purposes.
Since the Branch of State Forests and Parks commenced
to function in 1934, the development of park areas has
progressed steadily in the acquisition of lands for park pur-
poses and in their development. There are now nine state
parks. Two of these have been developed so that some recre-
ational facilities are now open to the public. The facilities
of five of the remaining park areas have been in the process
of development during the biennium. Improvements have
not commenced on the Suwannee River State Park nor on
Volusia Hammock which is a recent acquisition.
The residents of Florida and the visitors to this State have
indicated their approval of these State park areas even
though they are not completed for public use as is evidenced
by the fact that approximately 95,000 people visited all the
parks during this biennium.
Parks Opened to the Public
Two park areas, the Highlands Hammock State Park in
Highlands County and the Hillsborough River State Park in







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Hillsborough County have been developed so that a portion
of their anticipated improvements are available to the public.
The Highlands Hammock State Park is developed around
a hammock or hardwood tree growth area that contains
numerous unusual botanical species. It is located near the
southern extremity of the peninsular "ridge" and is readily
accessible from nearby towns over hard-surfaced roads. One
of the most attractive features of this park is the fact that
board walks have been constructed to enable visitors to pene-
trate in safety the recesses of the jungle. The sturdy oaks
and waving palms present a picture which is scarcely accessi-
ble on such a large scale in any other section of Florida. An
admission of 35 cents per car and driver and 15 cents for each
additional passenger is charged to enter the park. These
funds are used to assist in maintaining the area. Pedestrians,
cyclists, and groups of botanical students under the direction
of a competent leader are admitted free of charge. An at-
tractive folder has been prepared which pictorially describes
the natural beauties to be observed in this park.
The Hillsborough River State Park in Hillsborough County,
near Tampa, is also developed around an undisturbed ham-
mock. The park is situated on the Hillsborough River on
which boating facilities are available. This park serves a
distinct social need of Tampa and the vicinity, and is accessi-
ble over State Road No. 156. Complete picnic facilities are
available at this park for small family groups or for large or-
ganization group picnics. The picnic area contains a large
group picnic shelter, several covered individual picnic tables,
running water, lights, fuel wood, and toilet facilities. Five
rustic cabins have been constructed along the banks of the
Hillsborough River and are very attractive to accommodate
fishing parties, campers, and people desiring to spend their
vacation in one of the State parks. There is an admission
charge of 25 cents per car with no additional charge for
passengers.

Parks in the Process of Development
The improvements for the enjoyment of the recreational
facilities at Myakka River, Gold Head Branch, Torreya, Fort
Clinch, and Florida Caverns State Parks are in the various
stages of development. This prevents the public from fully
enjoying these recreational areas at present.
The Myakka River State Park in Sarasota County is situ-
ated along the banks of the Myakka River. This physio-
graphic feature, coupled with unusual climatic conditions,
has caused numerous waterfowl to nest in the Myakka River
Valley, unique because of its wildlife. One of the paramount







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


considerations in the Myakka River State Park development
is making provision for the continued existence of the unusual
wildlife that exists there. The control of the Upper and
Lower Myakka Lakes and the section of the intervening
Myakka River will provide one of the outstanding fresh water
fishing grounds in that section of the State. Facilities are
being provided for the public to enjoy picnicking and over-
night cabins have been constructed for the accommodation of
campers. The Park is accessible from the road extending
from Sarasota to Arcadia.
The Gold Head Branch State Park in Clay County is unique
because of the topographic formation consisting of a gulch
of a depth varying from twenty to seventy feet with a crystal-
clear stream of considerable volume rising at its head. The
name "Gold Head" is derived from the legend that the ab-
origines once found gold where the stream rises from the
ground. The stream empties into a large lake where bathing
facilities are now in the process of development. The picnic
facilities which will be completed in the near future at this
park will be one of its main features. The area is located on
the east side of the road that has been built from Middleburg
to Keystone Heights.
Torreya State Park, on the bluffs and rivers on the east
side of the Apalachicola River, has a rugged topography.
Peculiar environment makes it possible for two tree species
to exist in this immediate vicinity. These species are the
Torreya tree, sometimes known as stinking cedar (Tumion
taxifolium) and the Florida Yew (Taxus floridena.) The
area also has historical value. During the War between the
States, gun emplacements were established on a high point,
known as Rock Bluff post office, between Bristol and River
Junction.
Fort Clinch State Park, at the extreme northeastern tip of
the State, derives its name from the fort that was constructed
in 1849 by the United States just after it had acquired Florida
from Spain. Added historical value is due to the site having
been occupied at the time of the Spanish exploitation. In the
early period of development the Spanish named the site Fort
San Carlos. The fort is being restored on the basis of retain-
ing part of it as a ruin and completing partial restoration in
other sections. This fort is open for public inspection. Cum-
berland Sound is on the north side and the Atlantic Ocean on
the east. Approach to the area is through the City of Fern-
andina.
Park Areas to be Developed
All lands necessary to complete the Suwannee River State
Park ini Suwannee and Hamilton Counties have not been







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


acquired. Volusia Hammock State Park, in Volusia County,
is a recent acquisition; consequently, no developments have
commenced on these areas.
Florida Caverns State Park, as the name indicates, has
some unique features due to the presence of sizeable under-
ground chambers caused by the action of waters filtering
through the soft limestone rock. The caverns contain the
stalagmites and stalactites typical of limestone caves. An-
other unusual feature is the presence of a limestone wall or
escarpment around the edges of a limestone ridge. The park
will have an unusual appeal to residents of this state as well
as tourists due to the fact that developed caves are not ex-
pected to be found in Florida. The Chipola River with its
clear waters overhung with forest vegetation supplies addi-
tional scenic as well as recreational advantages. This area
affords an opportunity for the development of underground
chambers found only in this immediate vicinity. There will
be ample opportunity to provide recreational facilities, such
as swimming, boating, and picnicking, by developing the
Blue Hole Run which is located within the park. The Florida
Caverns is situated just north of Marianna along the Chipola
River.
Volusia Hammock State Park is located on a narrow point
between the Halifax and Tomoka Rivers. The Halifax River
is actually the northern part of the estuary known as the
Indian River. U. S. Highway No. 1 runs through the Park
area, thus making it readily accessible to tourist traffic and
such tourist centers as Ormond, Daytona, and St. Augustine.
The land is located between Ormond and Daytona. Vegeta-
tion typical of high hammock land bordering on the salt
marshes makes the area picturesque from a scenic standpoint.
The Suwannee River State Park located on both sides of
the Suwannee River, nationally famous through Stephen Fos-
ter's song, lies partly in Suwannee and partly in Hamilton
Counties. Peculiar to many coastal streams, the Suwannee
has very little overflow land at this point, so the water level
fluctuates rapidly.

The Overseas Parkway
A recent development with exceptional potentialities is the
beginning of the conservation and development of the natural
beauties of the roadside and keys adjoining the Overseas High-
way from Homestead to Key West. This Highway has been
constructed at considerable expense on a portion of the aban-
doned roadbed of the overseas extension of the Florida East
Coast Railway from Homestead to Key West. The execution
of the project is on a cooperative basis with the Florida Forest











































Mi

GOLD HEAD BRAlor
rairYU








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


and Park Service as the effectuating agency. The cooperat-
ing agencies are the State Road Department, the Overseas
Road and Toll Bridge Commission, the Trustees of the In-
ternal Improvement Fund, and the Florida Forest and Park
Service and the National Park Service.

STATE FORESTS

The state forests furnish demonstration areas for forest
land management. They also permit investigative work to
be carried on in a permanent manner with a minimum of in-
terruption. Demonstrations and experiments on private lands
are frequently unsatisfactory because there is no control over
the land which is frequently unfenced, unprotected against
fires, and grazed without consideration for forestry practices.
Florida's five State forests contain an acreage of 31,272.5
acres.
During the biennium active administration was continued on
the three state forests, namely the Myakka, Pine Log, and
O'Leno. The University State Forest is being administered
by the University of Florida for the use of its School of
Forestry.
A new land purchase was made in Nassau County from the
estate of the late Austin Cary and is now known as the Cary
State Forest. An area of 850 acres lying adjacent to the
original Cary property was also acquired. An interior hold-
ing of 240 acres was added to the Pine Log State Forest.
Fire control and the planting of forest tree seedlings were
the chief activities on the state forests. A survey was made
of the Pine Log, Cary, and O'Leno State Forests to obtain an
inventory of growing stock. A boundary survey was also
completed on O'Leno State Forest.


COOPERATIVE FOREST FIRE CONTROL
Fire Control As a Public Function
The earliest attempts in the United States at protecting
forest lands from uncontrolled fires commenced on private
lands. The endeavor soon demonstrated, however, that there
were so many obstacles to successful prevention and control
on private land that the objectives could scarcely be ac-
complished without te "aif of '.ulli-c. agencies which would
be given authority. t'q cppe with th'e.f'e.s fire problems that
were peculiar.':tdoo'bne area, but were tte-wide, regional,
and even national in their scope. :' .
'.. -. ..:
. *
..... ..







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Figure 11. A scene on the Osceola National Forest before complete
fire control.-(Courtesy of the U. S. Forest Service)


Figure 12. The same scene as above after five years of fire control.
-(Courtesy of the U. S. Forest Service)







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Public cooperation in the protection of private forest land
from the damage of uncontrolled burning is justifiable for
economic as well as social reasons. One of the most import-
ant reasons for preventing and controlling fires is to permit
cutover lands to again grow a stand of timber. Young trees
are particularly susceptible to damage from flames. Unless
cut-over areas are protected from uncontrolled fires, the area
-formerly supporting trees-becomes unproductive because
of the constant mortality of seedlings due to burning. Those
wood-using industries peculiar to any region depend on the
trees of the forest for raw material. If the land does not re-
main continuously productive, these industries move to other
states and regions, payrolls disappear, and taxable wealth in
the form of industry is no longer available to support com-
munities. From a social standpoint, therefore, the public has
an interest in making it possible for wood-using industries to
survive and profit, for communities exist only when industry
or agriculture produces goods so that people may derive an
income for their existence. With these features at stake, a
public agency is justified in extending cooperation to land-
owners so that they may maintain their land in productive
condition.
The Clark-McNary Law passed by Congress in 1924 ac-
cepted the principle that the public was willing to cooperate
in preventing and controlling fires with private landowners of
forest land. When the Florida Board of Forestry was created
in 1927, one of its first acts was to extend its cooperation in
forest fire prevention and control to private forest landowners.
Although it has broadened its functions since then, the con-
trol of forest fires has continued to be the most important
activity of the Florida Forest and Park Service, as measured
in terms of dollars expended annually. The recent establish-
ment of large wood-using industries has demonstrated the
wisdom of public interest-national and state-in maintain-
ing the forest lands in productive condition. With the control
of fires and the presence of seed, desirable pine species re-
produce themselves readily in Florida. Without fire control,
successful reseeding is impossible.
Florida landowners have gradually taken advantage of the
cooperation the public has extended as shown in Figure 13.
There has been a steady increase in the acreage of private
land protected from fire and the number of cooperators. The
increased local public interest is also evidenced by the co-
operation of whole counties in protecting forest lands within
the county from forest fires.
There are indications that the demands for cooperation in
forest fire prevention and control will shortly exceed the
facilities of the Department. There are groups of people








FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


in several counties who are very much interested in having a
poll taken in the fall of 1938 on the matter of county co-
operation with the Florida Forest and Park Service in pro-
tecting forest land from fire. There is a possibility, there-
fore, that cooperation may be asked for in fire control by six
counties, namely-Baker, Columbia, Hamilton, Pinellas, St.
Johns, and Suwannee. To accommodate such a marked in-
crease, additional facilities need to be provided by the State
Legislature.

3500 600

30ooo 0 Q.500


2 500




Stood

0500
ZZ /000


400



too
300


~p------
r-
--
r'

p---___~


1929 1930 193/ /932 /933 /934 1935 1936 1937 1938
TOTAL PROTECTED AREA
TOTAL NUMBER OF COOPERATORS-------

Figure 13. A ten year increase in protection of Florida lands.

METHODS OF COOPERATIVE FOREST FIRE CONTROL
The cooperation given by the Florida Forest and Park Ser-
vice to the private landowner takes very definite form through
financial assistance, advice, active prevention work, law en-
forcement, and even responsibility for the control of fires
under certain conditions. The three methods in which the
Florida Forest and Park Service cooperates with landowners
are: (I) through individuals; (II) through a group of indi-
viduals who have lands within a limited radius, and (III)
through the Board of County Commissioners.

(I) Individuals

Where the cooperation is extended to an individual whose
area lis comparatively small or isolated and landowner will
assume responsibility for fire prevention and firefighting, the
landowner agrees to pay an assessment at the rate of 3c per
acre. The Florida Forest and Park Service contributes ser-







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


vices or cash in equal amount so that a total of 6c per acre is
available for expenditure. One cent per acre is allocated to
the salary and travel of an extension ranger. When the ser-
vices of a lookout tower for the detection of fires is available,
_ cent per acre is allocated to the seasonal salary of the
towerman. When CCC labor is expended on the project, the
Florida Forest and Park Service is credited with 1/c per
acre for the supervision given in executing the work such as
the construction of firebreaks, truck trails, or lookout towers.
If there is no CCC activity and telephone service between the
tower and the headquarters of the landowner or his resident
management is provided, 1 cent per acre is set aside in the
maintainance budget of the phone line concerned. After
charges for the services rendered by the Florida Forest and
Park Service just listed have been deducted from the 6c per
acre, the available balance is used for the purchase of fire-
fighting equipment and the plowing of firebreaks. The value
of this plowing is set at $2.50 per tractor mile. The land-
owner is wholly responsible for the control of fires. No
monetary credit is allowed the landowner for the expenditure
of funds for fire-fighting. When there is an unexpended
balance at the end of a fiscal year, the landowner and the
state share in it equally.
In this plan of cooperation, there is a minimum limit of ten
acres, but no maximum as to size of the area covered by the
agreement. There is a considerable variation in the size of
the demonstration area. In the fiscal year 1937-1938 the
largest area protected under this plan was 93,718 acres and
the smallest, ten acres owned by one cooperator. It is under-
stood, however, that when a cooperative area is less than 640
acres, the Florida Forest and Park Service assumes no re-
sponsibility for the plowing of firebreaks with its own equip-
ment. These breaks will be plowed, however, when the area
is not too isolated. If not convenient for the forestry depart-
ment to do the plowing, it is the responsibility of the land-
owner to have the firebreaks plowed.

(II) Group Unit
Under this plan of cooperation, the Florida Forest and Park
Service again contributes funds or services to the amount of
3c per acre. Contrary to the plan first described, in the Group
Unit form of cooperation, the Florida Forest and Park Service
assumes responsibility for the control of fires on the private
owner's land. The landowner pays 3c per acre plus an addi-
tional levy to defray the cost of supervision and firefighting.
The landowners' assessment rate is based on the total acreage
involved and operates on a sliding scale as follows:







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


30,000 acres to 50,000 acres ........ 8c per acre
50,000 acres to 70,000 acres ........ 7c per acre
70,000 acres to 90,000 acres ........ 6c per acre
90,000 acres to unlimited amount .... 5c per acre
The cost per acre decreases as the acreage increases, be-
cause of the greater areas over which the costs are distributed.
The descriptive term "group unit" and "individual" coopera-
tive plans serve to distinguish the responsibilities of the two
classes of cooperating landowners rather than to convey the
idea that a group of people pool their resources for the pur-
pose of securing protection. In two cases, the respective
"group units" cover 30,000 acres, the minimum area accepta-
ble under this plan. In the one case, however, there is only
one landowner; in another, four. In two other cases, a
"group unit" of 102,401 acres is made up of 49 cooperators;
in another with 208,700 acres, there are four cooperators.

(III) County Cooperation
There are several states in the union where the State has
assumed the responsibility for protecting all forest land from
fire. Indications are that Florida is tending in this direction,
although the future must decide whether Florida is justified
in a program of such magnitude.
There are two tangible proofs that Florida's public opinion
is increasingly disposed toward forest fire prevention and con-
trol. There are (a) constantly increasing state appropria-
tions for this purpose, and (b) an increasing number of coun-
ties which have taken advantage of the statute that permits
the County Board of Commissioners to enter into a coopera-
tive agreement with the Florida Forest and Park Service for
the prevention and control of forest fires within the boun-
daries of the county.
A recent (1935) statute has prescribed that the County
Board of Commissioners may cooperate only after a referen-
dum has been taken at a special or general election. A fa-
vorable referendum, however, does not make cooperation
mandatory with the County Board. The statute covering this
type of cooperation also specifies that the county shall con-
tribute at the rate of 3c per acre of land within the confines
of the county. An equal amount is contributed by the State,
made up of State and Federal money, so that a total of 6c per
acre may again be expended for prevention and control. As
of the close of the 1936-1938 biennium, five counties; namely,
Bay, Duval, Highlands, Hillsborough and Volusia were co-
operating on this basis.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


LIEN LAW
A legislative act that has contributed materially to protect-
ing the financial status of the public funds in cooperation with
private agencies is the lien law. This provides that unpaid
assessments levied against private lands for fire control pur-
poses shall have prior dignity to all other liens accruing there-
after. As mentioned before, however, the contract and as-
sessment are both voluntary with the owner.
RECENT FIRE CONTROL DEVELOPMENT
Radio
Within recent years the radio has made a material contri-
bution to fire control work. Although the various forestry
agencies have employed the telephone for a long time as the
means of communication, it has its limitations because of its
rigidity. With the tele-
phone as the only R
means of communica-
tion, contact between
towers is satisfactory,
but much travel time
is required, keeping in
touch with the towers
during bad fire peri-
ods. For example, a
ranger would have a
fire reported to him in
a remote area of the
protected acreage, four
miles to the nearest
Figure 14. The Radio Dispatcher
from the lookout tower broadcasts
a fire report.

telephone. While he attends
the fire, another fire located
in a more potentially danger-
ous area starts to burn and his
services are needed there im-
mediately. The lookout can-
not possibly communicate
with the crew unless the
ranger travelled to the near-
est telephone. By the time
the ranger leaves the first

Figure 15. The Ranger equipped
with a radio receiving set picks up
a fire report.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Figure 16. Carpet grass strips make good pasture and, when close
grazed, are an effective fire break.

fire and contacts the nearest lookout the second fire may
have been burning for thirty or more minutes. By the time
the ranger could arrive at the second fire, another thirty min-
utes may have elapsed. This whole picture is changed, how-
ever, with the use of radio which is a much more elastic means
of communication than the telephone, although admittedly it
is not without its limitations. With the use of radio, the look-
out tower from which man-power is dispatched can be main-
tained constant communication with the rangers. In the ex-
ample cited above, the use of radio would have enabled the
dispatching station to communicate with the ranger on the
fireline of the first fire. The ranger could have left promptly
for the second fire and thus saved much valuable time, result-
ing in much less acreage burned.
A one-way or tower-to-truck radio communication system
was set up in 1936 on a county-wide unit. Since its installa-
tion, it has functioned unusually well and has made it possible
to control fires more quickly in periods when speedy control
was necessary. Based upon the experience and results ob-
tained from this radio system and from another similar system
nearby, a considerable extension of this type of activity has
been planned in other protection areas that justify the instal-
lation of this sort of communications equipment. The Federal
Communications Commission has issued permits for two more
stations and application has been filed for an additional sta-
tion. If this last request is granted, the Florida Forest and
Park Service will operate four radio broadcasting stations
exclusively for fire control purposes.









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Figure 17. This Florida fireline plow makes an 8-foot break at a single trip.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Firebreak Plows
With approximately 16,200 miles of firebreaks to maintain
annually on 3,135,000 acres of land as a pre-suppression meas-
ure, the execution of this work has become a very important
phase of fire control work. Ever since work in the construc-
tion of firebreaks commenced in 1929, various types of plows
have been evolved. Each year or two an improved type of
plow was designed and built. Each new plow had some de-
ficiency. With the wide experience gained in this work,
members of the fire control personnel have now perfected a
plow admirably adapted to flatwoods or pine ridge use. This
plow removes all vegetation or fuel from a strip nine feet
wide, provides a flat cleared strip over which trucks and
wagons may pass easily and small trucks may use as trails
through the woods. The plow is so built that the mainten-
ance cost is low with breakage of parts at a minimum. The
required motive power is a 30-horse tractor, gasoline fueled,
or its equivalent in drawbar capacity.
Central Repair Shop
.In order that the heavy duty equipment-the 25 tractors,
28 plows, and 53 trucks-may be adequately maintained, a
central repair shop has been established at Lake City. This
fills a need that has grown with each year. It is extremely
important that the equipment be maintained in good running
condition at all times. A plow or tractor out of commission
because of lack of repair facilities during the busy plowing
season from October to January may have serious effect on
plowing schedules.
Subsistence Tower Sites
Detection service is necessary most of the year. Figure 18
illustrates that fires occur in each month of the year, espe-
cially from November through March, or in five of the twelve
months. With peculiar climatic and vegetative conditions,
the forest fuels of Florida may arrive at a point of dryness
so that they are actively inflammable at almost any period of
the year. With some days of high probability of fires occur-
ring throughout the year, it is desirable to have the lookout
readily available at all times. This means that the observer
should reside on the ground adjacent to the tower. To make
this possible, subsistence areas of ten acres each have been
established in connection with the towerman's residence so
thatihe may do a small amount of farming when not actively
on duty in the tower, but still readily available when needed.
The standard plan for the development of these subsistence
tower sites includes a towerman's residence, combined barn
and garage, chicken house, smoke house and improved
fencing.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


, /50
Soo




f /00

50



JULY AUG. SEPT OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE
AVERAGE NUMBER OF FIRES
5 YEAR PERIOD JULY 1933-JUNE 1938
(PROTECTED AREA ONLY)

Figure 18. The normal peak of the fire season occurs during
early March.

Wooden Lookout Towers
Of the 51 primary lookout towers in the State 6 are wooden.
These are 80, 100 and 120 in height. These wooden towers
have been constructed of pine timbers treated with creosote
under pressure to resist weathering or of heart cypress and
joined with the use of wooden connectors, a relatively new
method of fabricating timbers. The Florida Forest and Park
Service has pioneered in this field of treated wooden towers
but costs have not yet been reduced where they are com-
petitive with the much-used steel tower. It was felt, how-
ever, that if wood is used more for this purpose, costs can be
reduced to a point competitive with steel.
New Features on Light Fire Trucks

The 3/ ton truck, equipped with a power-take-off pump has
been used extensively for fire suppression purposes, with the
truck taken to the fire-line to "cool" the fire with water
pumped from the tank mounted on the truck. There has
been considerable difficulty in having the motor run at a high
enough speed to obtain the necessary nozzle pressure and yet
have the truck travel slowly enough for the man with the
hose nozzle to do efficient work in knocking down the flames.
This difficulty has been overcome by the use of a four-speed-
forward transmission.






FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT 37


3


^^^^^------- L .j^


Ii~ "l


Figure 19. A towersite subsistence farm is equipped with a dwelling,
barn, and similar improvements.


C5~L~ I
-~c~.






FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


FOREST FIRE LAW ENFORCEMENT

An important function of the Florida Forest and Park Ser-
vice is the prosecution of violations of the legislative acts per-
taining to wilful or careless use of fire in the woods. The
individual landowner is powerless to take action against
neighbors or others who deliberately or carelessly set fire to
his woods. The landowner lacks authority to enforce laws.
He may appeal to local law enforcement officers who may or
may not be inclined to cooperate. The Florida Forest and
Park Service, however, can provide cooperation to the land-
owner to see that the law is enforced when all other measures
have failed to prevent the occurrence of fires.
Laws relating to uncontrolled forest fires have been in ex-
istence for a sufficient amount of time for people to learn of
them. With this in mind, there has been an increasing ten-
dency to prosecute violations. For the period covered by this
report, the record stands as follows: number of arrests, 35;
number of convictions, 5; nolle pressed 12; acquitted 6; pleas
guilty, 9; pending, 12.
Because of increased public interest in forest fire protection,
more local law enforcement officers have taken the initiative
in making prosecutions independently of requests for such
action from the Florida Forest and Park Service. Law en-
forcement is desirable when all other measures of forest fire
prevention have failed.

EXTENSION OF FORESTRY INFORMATION
An important function of the department is the distribution
of information so that landowners may maintain their lands in
productive condition through protection from fires, chipping
conservatively for naval stores, and cutting the timber for
forest products such as pulpwood, poles, piling, and sawlogs
so that the area remains in productive condition.
Forest Fire Prevention
One of the most serious obstacles to the successful practice
of forestry has been fires. Because of the peculiar nature of
the fuels that make fires possible, and Florida's unique cli-
matic conditions, fires may at times start rapidly and spread
rapidly. The landowner seldom is responsible for these, the
public usually being the guilty party. By "public" is meant
those people who may or may not be residents, but who are
not harmed, but may be benefited by fires because of their
non-ownership status.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Prevention Projects
Most of the work of the department in preventing forest
fires is based on projects designed to reach a number of adults
and juveniles in a somewhat intensive way. In order that the
juveniles may be contacted, work programs have been de-
veloped in the 91 vocational agricultural schools in the


Figure 20. Farm boys learn how to grow their own pine seedlings
for reforestation.

State. This project reaches the country boy who generally
can put to practical use the information he receives. The
project was begun in 1928 and has operated continuously ever
since. In the period the project has operated, approximately
7,000 rural boys have been contacted. Along with receiving
information on the effects of forest fires and their influence on
him he learns about natural and artificial reforestation, what
the several forest products are, how to determine their value,
and how to produce them. These are demonstrated on the
school forest when one is available. It is of growing import-
ance that the farm boy be given instruction in this field so that
he may obtain an income from the farm woodlot that may
vary from 10 acres to more than a thousand acres. The
small landowner is entitled to know how to manage his wood-
land as well as his agricultural land.
Although the city boy seldom has a direct interest in forest
fire prevention, as a future citizen he has need for a know-







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


ledge of the contribution
of natural resources to
maintaining social well-
being. The Boy Scout BOY SO
project was designed to faRS i
bring the urban boy into
intimate contact wit h
woods conditions. It has
been adapted to Scouting
needs. In the six years
the project has been in
operation more than 1500
Scouts, all city or town pr.
boys, have gotten into con- .
tact with the require- a
ments of timber produc-
tion, with emphasis on
forest fire prevention.
The above two projects,
namely the Vocational
Agriculture and the Scout Figure 21. The Boy Scout Forest
Forest Projects, annually provides the Scout troop with a camp
site, outdoor activity and forestry
culminate in a two-weeks experience.
training camp situated on
the O'Leno State Forest. The outstanding forestry student
in each of the 91 vocational agricultural schools is the guest
of the Florida Forest and Park Service for this period. While
in camp, the technical personnel of the Service provide in-
struction in the several phases of forestry. The outstanding
Boy Scout in each troop that has cooperated in the Scout For-
est project also spends a two-weeks period in the camp. In
this manner, boys who have a genuine interest in the forest
are given an opportunity to receive practical instruction that
can be of personal benefit to them as well as their community.
With increasing use for timber, instructional activity of the
sort provided to these groups of boys should result in more
intelligent use of forest land, especially since the majority of
boys in the camp come from agricultural areas.
Forest Conservation in the Public Schools
There is planned activity to impart to the elementary stu-
dent in the public school information on forestry placed on a
level that the pupil may comprehend it. Florida has a law
that requires the teaching of conservation of natural resources
in the public schools. The State also requires that the teacher
be qualified by having a background of instruction in this
field. To fill this need, the colleges and universities in the
State, especially those financed by the State, provide instruc-
tion in conservation of natural resources.






As mentioned above, there is a Florida
statute requiring that conservation be
taught in Florida schools. In order that
it may be adequately taught in the ele-
mentary and high schools, however, those
who are charged with this phase of teach-
ing should specialize in instruction in this
field at those institutions that produce the
teachers of the State. For conservation to
be well taught, only those teachers should
be permitted to teach who have demon-
strated their capacity to teach this ma-
terial either by virtue of receiving college
credit for it or by passing an examination
that proved they have sufficient know-
ledge to teach the subject. The appendix
contains a tabulation of the courses offered
at the several Florida colleges and uni-
versities designed to supply those students,
who are preparing to be teachers, material
on the conservation of natural resources.
The Florida Forest and Park Service has
supplied to the State Department of Edu-
cation material suitable for instruction of
elementary and high school students. The
demand for instructional material in for-
estry is constantly increasing.
Visual Education
Visual education was the chief means
of getting forestry information before the
public in the first few years of the exist-
ence of the department. This was ac-
complished through motion picture slides,
newspaper items, displays, posters, signs,
game license containers and publications.
The motion picture was employed less and
the slide more for the period covered by
this report. The reason for this departure
from past procedure was because of less
need for extensive work and because of
the adaptability of slides to specific needs,
particularly in the schools. There has
been an increasing demand for slide units
for school use. Motion picture reels
.adapted to local requirements are not
available; this means that special reels
would have to be prepared. Lantern slides
have been effectively used for educational
work in the schools. When carefully ar-
Figure 22. The O'Leno Training Camp near
High Springs.


Ito


E4a ell








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Figure 23. The Unburned woods are the home of Wild Life.


Figure 24. Fire-killed forests harbor no wildlife and fishing
streams dry up on treeless land.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


ranged, lantern slides are as effective for school use as
motion pictures.
The use of posters has been restricted largely to fire control
units where there was a need for them to inform the public
on the existence and purpose of the fire control unit.
The newspaper continues to serve as a medium of keeping
the public informed on new developments in forestry. Active
support was extended in this respect by the preparation of
special forestry editions in 1937 and 1938 by the Jacksonville
Journal, The Florida Times-Union, and the Panama City
News Herald.
It has been the practice of the Florida Forest and Park
Service to cooperate with the State Commission of Game and
Fresh Water Fish in making available to the hunters and fish-
ermen of the State containers for the license. These contain-
ers carry an appropriate message relative to forest fire pre-
vention, something in which each sportsman is or should be
interested.
Twelve-inch rulers were distributed to schools. These
rulers have a fire prevention slogan. The constant use of
these rulers conveys ultimately a message to the user.
Whenever an opportunity presents itself, a forestry exhibit
is displayed at such gatherings as the Inter-State Fair at Pen-


Figure 25. The Forestry exhibit at the State Fair, 1938.







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


sacola, the Southwest Florida Fair at Fort Myers, the State
Fair at Tampa, the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, and
the Duval County Fair, where large numbers of people
assemble.
Publications
New publications have been prepared and old ones revised
in order that the demand for information may be supplied.
The leaflets and bulletins prepared in the period 1936-1938
are as follows: The Public and Forest Fires, The Woods that
the Farmer Owned, Vocational Forestry Bulletin No. 11, the
Biennial Report for the Department's activities in 1935 and
1936, The Scout Forest Handbook, and Forestry: Course in
Conservation of Natural Resources. This last-mentioned bul-
letin was the contribution of subject matter on forestry in
compliance with the request for this material from the De-
partment of Education as a part of the teaching of conserva-
tion in the public school system.

Cooperation with Adult Clubs
Aid was extended in the preparation of the conservation
programs of those women's organizations who wished such
cooperation. This cooperation has been extended consist-
ently to the State Conservation or Forestry Chairman of the
Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Florida Federation of
Women's Clubs, and the Florida Chapter of the Daughters of
the American Revolution.

Naval Stores
Florida produces 27%' of the total naval stores of the United
States. Because of this, the Florida Forest and Park Service
cooperates with the Federal Bureau of Chemistry and Soils in
extending information to naval stores operators so that they
may improve the quality of their product, use more conserva-
tive working methods, and increase the effectiveness of their
operations.
In September 1932 this cooperation began and has been in
effect ever since. In making the contacts, the naval stores
extension agent instructs the operators and their workers in
the improved technique in chipping, cupping, improved still
settings, and stilling methods to raise the quality of rosin.

Improved Manufacture and Utilization
In addition to the naval stores operations in Florida, such
wood manufacturing and utilization plants as the sawmills,
the veneer plants and paper companies also play an outstand-
ing role in using Florida's timber.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Figure 26. A naval stores crew gathering "scrape".


With the large tracts of virgin timber almost all exploited,
the large sawmill with a daily productive capacity in excess of
100,000 feet board measure of lumber will soon be non-exist-
ent. Attention has been given to several small sawmill op-
erators in an effort to improve the output as well as the
quality of the product. The consuming public has been ac-
customed to receive a well manufactured product, the result
of the operation of the large mills. With this type of mill
disappearing however, the burden of producing well manu-
factured board or dimension stock will fall on the shoulders
of the small sawmill that produces somewhere between five
and thirty thousand feet per day. In general, this type of
mill can improve its operation considerably, not only in
manufacturing but in grading as well.

Aid was extended in marketing the hard South Florida pine.
Although the trade is not accustomed to this type of timber
it has qualities that have outstanding merit for special con-
ditions, especially when in contact with salt water.
The wood paneling used in the new Tallahassee office
quarters was installed to demonstrate the potentialities in
this field for solid as well as veneer stock. A description of
the panels and photographs of several of them were supplied
to Florida's architects and building contractors in the hope


" 1







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


that these people might take advantage of using some of
Florida's wood products in interior house and office design.
Extension to Large and Small Landowners in
Forest Management
An agent was employed on June 16, 1938 to assist particu-
larly the small landowner whose forest area is essentially a
"woodlot", or area less than a section in size. There are
many forest areas of this size throughout the State, most of
which are unmanaged for continuous timber production.
Many of these landowners wish to practice forestry on their
woodlots but need guidance and encouragement in their en-
terprise. This type of extension carries information and
demonstrations to private landowners of woodlots so that
naval stores and cutting practices are used, so that reforesta-
tion by planting and forest fire prevention may be done and
aid provided relative to marketing forest products. With the
increased demand for small-sized timber in some parts of the
State, the "woodlot" is being exploited to contribute to the
demand. Frequently the landowner is uninformed relative
to good forest management practices. Extension of informa-
tion to landowners of this sort, although the service is all too
limited in light of the need, is inadequate where only one
man's services are available. Educational work of this sort
is designed particularly to aid the small landowner to supple-
ment his income from the usual agricultural crops by utiliz-
ing fully his land with timber on it, or sub-marginal agricul-
tural land, for sustained tree growth.
Ever since tree planting has been done in the State, it has
been the custom of the Florida Forest and Park Service to
assist the landowner to select satisfactory planting sites and
provide instructions in good planting practices. An effort is
made for a representative of the Service to be on hand at the
time planting is to be done by the landowner who has no
previous experience in the matter. This action enables the
landowner to secure better survival of his planted trees be-
cause he has been informed of good practices. Poor survival,
due usually to such controllable factors as poor planting
technique, selection of poor planting sites, or lack of protec-
tion from fire and goats, is generally so discouraging that the
landowner stops planting trees. Good survival, on the other
hand, encourages the landowner to continue with his re-
forestation by planting.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


M* -9- -


'i ii ;"


.*.


Figure 27. Native Woods are featured in the new offices of the Service. Top left,
the lobby, paneled in clear Cypress; top right, the office of the State Forester and
Park Executive finished in black Cypress. Center, left, a room paneled with tupelo
gum; right, one in Longleaf Pine. Bottom, left, a room in Pecky Cypress; right,
one in Ash horizontally paneled.


dk.$~







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


QUARTERS AND PERSONNEL

Quarters
Another recent step forward that has facilitated admin-
istrative work in the Tallahassee headquarters was the con-
solidation of the several activities of the department under
one roof in June, 1938. The office in the Martin Building
had been outgrown several years ago. This resulted in the
renting of scattered office space elsewhere in town. The re-
cent construction of a building facing Pensacola Street, just
west of the capitol building, permitted the unification of the
several branches of activity.
A unique feature of the new quarters is the paneling of each
room with a distinctive wood representative of Florida's board
products. The species used for this seven-foot vertical panel-
ing are black cypress, yellow cypress, pecky cypress, and
knotty cypress; veneered red gum, quartered red gum, and
tupelo gum; yellow pine and sand pine; knotty juniper;
quartered white oak, pecan, red cedar, magnolia, ash, yellow
poplar, and soft maple.

Personnel
There were several resig-
nations and replacements
among the Tallahassee per-
sonnel. Earl Porter succeed-
ed R. R. Whittington as Chief
of the Branch of Fire Control.
H. J. Malsberger, former
Chief of the Branch of Public
Relations, succeeded C. H.
Schaeffer, Park Director when
the latter resigned. W. F.
Jacobs, formerly a district
forester, succeeded H. J.
Malsberger as Chief of the
Branch of Public Relations.
Hugh D'Anna was appointed
Fiscal Agent, handling ac-
counts and purchases.
There were several changes
in the field, but replacements
were made as quickly as pos- Figure 28. Harry Lee Baker,
sible. The teaching of for- State Forester and Park
estry in vocational agricul- Executive.
tural schools and the establishment of a School of Forestry at
Gainesville have made it possible to employ several Florida
residents who have had special forestry training.







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


Personnel as of the close of the Biennium
Administrative
Harry Lee Baker, State Forester and Park Executive
Applied Forestry
C. H. Coulter, Assistant State Forester
Lewis E. Staley, Forest Management Specialist
Fire Control
Earl Porter, Assistant State Forester
Fiscal
Hugh D'Anna, Fiscal Agent
Public Relations
Wm. F. Jacobs, Assistant State Forester
State Forests and Parks
H. J. Malsberger, Director, State Forests and Parks
CCC
Harry L. Goodrich, Forestry Director
H. J. Malsberger, Park Director
Administrative Districts
District No. 1
District Forester
Headquarters, Panama City
Counties: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton,
Holmes, Washington, Bay, Jackson, Calhoun,
Gulf.
District No. 2
District Forester
Headquarters, Tallahassee
Counties: Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, Taylor, Madison,
Franklin, Liberty and Gadsden and that portion
of Lafayette County lying west of the new route
of State Road No. 69 and of the Suwannee
River from the point where it is crossed by State
Road No. 69.
District No. 3
District Forester
Headquarters, Lake City
Counties: That portion of Lafayette County lying east of
the new route of State Road No. 69, Suwannee,
Hamilton, Columbia, Baker, Union, except Rai-
ford unit, Dixie, Gilchrist, Alachua, Levy and
Marion.
District No. 4
District Forester
Headquarters, Jacksonville







FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


Counties: Nassau, Duval, St. Johns, Clay, Flagler, Put-
nam, Volusia, Bradford, and part of Union em-
bracing Raiford unit.
District No. 5
District Forester
Headquarters, Lakeland
Counties: Pinellas, Pasco, Polk, Hillsborough, Hernando,
Citrus, Sumter, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Osce-
ola, Indian River, Brevard, Highlands, Mana-
tee, Hardee, Okeechobee, St. Lucie, Martin,
Glades, DeSoto, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee,
Hendry, Palm Beach, Broward, Collier, Dade,
and Monroe.


COOPERATION EXTENDED TO FLORIDA BY THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT THROUGH THE
FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE
a. Direct Financial Assistance
The Federal Government cooperates with private forest
landowners in forest fire prevention and control and in tree
planting from funds originally made available by the enact-
ment of the Clark-McNary Law of 1924. Each year, com-
mencing in 1928, Florida has received an allotment of Fed-
eral funds for the two purposes mentioned above. To be
eligible for an allotment, however, the State of Florida and
private landowners must show that there is being expended
by these two agencies money for protection and reforestation.
The amount of Federal money available for this purpose is
dependent upon the sum appropriated by the State and pri-
vate landowners. As shown in the tabulation below the Fed-
eral Government has made substantial financial contributions
for advancing forestry practice in the State of Florida.
Fiscal For Forest Fire For Forest Tree
Year Protection Planting
1928-1929 ........... $35,000.00 ...
1929-1930 ............ 37,017.00
1930-1931 ............ 76,230.00 $ 2,000.00
1931-1932 ............ 65,826.00 2,210.00
1932-1933 ............ 66,901.00 1,782.00
1933-1934 ............ 67,760.00 1,500.00
1934-1935 ............ 69,000.00 1,610.00
1935-1936 ............ 67,760.00 1,475.00
1936-1937 ............ 70,680.00 1,600.00
1937-1938 ............ 71,780.00 1,834.00
TOTAL ............ 627,954.00 14,011.00







FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


b. Contributed Labor, Materials, and Equipment
The CCC-
The greatest amount of Federal assistance is contributed
through the Civilian Conservation Corps camps. These camps,
operating under the direction of the Florida Forest and Park
Service, are maintained entirely from Federal funds for the
development of forest fire protection on private and state-
owned forest lands and on state parks. Considerable equip-
ment has been made available through the CCC for forest
fire protection purposes. In addition to contributed labor, 13
lookout towers and 457 miles of telephone lines have been
turned over to the Florida Forest and Park Service during
this biennium.
At the beginning of the biennium, July 1936, there were
10 CCC forestry camps; at the close of the period, the forestry
camps had been reduced to 5. In the meantime, 4 CCC park
camps were increased by one, and reduced by one, making 5
camps effective on 6 State park areas.
The existence of the CCC camps has made a tremendous
contribution to the development of forest management and
recreational areas in Florida. Without these camps, the
progress of forest management and state park development
would have been infinitely slower. The specific contribu-
tions of the CCC camps for the biennium may be seen in
Table XIV of the Appendix.
In December 1935, the Forestry CCC "P" camps established
a central repair shop at Perry for the maintenance of its heay-
duty equipment such as trucks, and graders located in the ten
camps. This shop was maintained successfully until July
1937 when it was moved to Lake City and installed in a shop
on State owned land. The shop increased its usefulness by
reviewing equipment from "F" camps in Florida and some
Georgia "P" camps. The outstanding contribution of this
shop is the training enrollees get in mechanical skill neces-
sary to repair and overhaul tractors and trucks. A regular
training course has been installed for training those enrollees
who have shown aptitude for this kind of work. On June 15,
1938 the administration of the repair shop was transferred
to the National Forest Branch of the United States Forest
Service.
In the biennial period, the forestry CCC enrollees have
conducted a survey on approximately 5,000,000 acres of pri-
vate land that will contribute materially to the preparation
of maps for forest fire control use.








FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


-ASHEMBLEHDIN PLAC F-i I T


I C


Figure 29. The CCC raises a tower in one piece by means of a gin
pole, cables, and tractor power.


-NE T"OD









FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


APPENDIX


~i~i'









FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1936-June 30, 1937
STATE APPROPRIATION
Debit Credit

Appropriation 134,200.00
Expenditure 121,700.00
Balance-June 30, 1937 12,500.00
$134,200.00 $134,200.00

COOPERATIVE FUND

Balance-July 1, 1936 47,773.24
Receipts-from U. S. Government .............. 72,280.00
Receipts-Highlands Hammock 5,200.15
Receipts-Landowners 66,831.07
Receipts-Nursery 7,252.89
Receipts-P. R. Camp 359.88
Receipts-Interest on Deposits 117.45
Expenditures 191,876.94
Balance-June 30, 1937 7,937.74
$199,814.68 $199,814.68
TOTAL EXPENDITURES

Expended from State Appropriation 134,200.00
Expended from Cooperative Fund 191,876.94
Private Expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements
and largely under supervision of Florida Forest & Park
Service 7,862.30
$333,939.24









FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
July 1, 1937-June 30, 1938
STATE APPROPRIATION

Debit
Appropriation 170,000.00
Expenditures
Balance-June 30, 1938

$170,000.00


Credit


169,999.00
1.00

$170,000.00


COOPERATIVE FUND
Balance-July 1, 1937 7,937.74
Receipts-from U. S. Government .............. 73,714.00
Receipts-Landowners 128,820.12
Receipts-Highlands Hammock 5,415.40
Receipts-Nursery .. 8,807.07
Receipts-P. R. Camp 944.01
Receipts-Unanticipated 4,490.08
Expenditures 201,622.03
Balance-June 30, 1938 28,506.39

230,128.42 230,128.42

TOTAL EXPENDITURES
Expended from State Appropriation 169,999.00
Expended from Cooperative Fund 201,622.03
Private Expenditures (Direct) under cooperative agreements
and largely under supervision of Florida Forest & Park
Service .... 9,700.07

381,321.10
Inventory of value of equipment material, improvements, and land
$285,696.00 as of June 30, 1938.










FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


TABLE I

PLANTING SUMMARY
1929-1938, inclusive


Year


No. of Planting
Cooperators


1928-29 .................................... 12
1929-30 ..................................... 102
1930-31 .................................... 176
1931-32 ..................................... 98
1932-33 ..................................... 154
1933-34 .. 150
1934-35 ..................................... 127
1935-36 ............. 125
1936-37 ..................................... 192
1937-38 ..................................... 234

Total ......................................... 1,370




TABLE II

EFFECT OF SEEDLING QUALITY ON
OF GROWTH


No. Seedlings
Produced

10,784-
392,051
589,220
580,321
590,057
1,078,915
2,120,740
3,242,145
3,908,688
5,588,987

18,101,908


SURVIVAL AND RATE


(Measurements taken four years after planting)


METHOD OF PRODUCTION IN NURSERY
Rows spaced 12 inches in beds Rows spaced 6 inches in beds


Quality
Number Survival
Planted Number
Numbers %o

1 50 46 92
2 50 46 92
3 50 40 80
Cull 40 32 80


Average Number
height Planted
in feet

9.2' 50
7.7' 50
6.7' 50
5.5' 50


Survival Average
height
Number % in feet

46 92 8.8'
49 98 7.4'
48 96 6.9'
47 94 5.6'


TABLE III

INFLUENCE OF SPECIES PLANTED ON RATE OF SURVIVAL

Percentage of Total
Rate of Number of Plantations Number of Plantations
Survival
Slash Longleaf Slash Longleaf

0.20% 95 25 15.4 45.1
21%-40% 81 14 11.2 25.2
41%-60% 146 12 20.5 18.7
61%-80% 290 4 38.9 6.9
81%-100% 112 1 14.0 0.


Acreage
Planted
17
707
1,464
1,520
1,369
2,383
4,060
8,371
6,936
9,478

36,305


Seedling


I








FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE IV
PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE
STATE OF FLORIDA FOR THE YEAR 1936


Kind of Product
Lumber
Cross ties .........................
Poles and piles ...............
Pulpw ood ........................
Turpentine and oils* ......
R osin ..............................
Veneer
Fence posts
Cooperage ......................
Fuelwood
M miscellaneous ...................


Quantity


Estimated value
f.o.b. loading point


938,000,000 board feet ,..........$21,396,000
3,246,000 pieces 1,947,000
182,000 pieces .................. 182,000
300,000 cords 7,500,000
303,265 barrels ................ 3,897,661
505,157 barrels ................. 6,066.289
124,900,000 board feet ........... 4,683,750
2,814,200 posts ................... 140,710
68,600 cords ................... 857,500
1,307,400 cords ................... 2,614,800
54,200 cords ................... 108,400

$49,394,110


*Both gum and wood, steam and destructively distilled.


TABLE V
EXTENSION OF FORESTRY INFORMATION THROUGH
VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL HIGH SCHOOLS

No. of Schools No. of Students
Year Participating Participating

1928-29 43 ................................... 822
1929-30 ...................................... 35 .................................... 763
1930-31 ...................................... 37 .................................... 850
1931-32 ..................................... 40 .. 963
1932-33 .. 40 985
1933-34 44 1165
1934-35 48 1229
1935-36 57 .... 1493
1936-37 .. 59 ..................................... 1705
1937-38 ................ 91 ............ 2528



TABLE VI
EXTENSION OF FORESTRY INFORMATION THROUGH
FLORIDA BOY SCOUTS

No. of Troops No. of Scouts Trees
Year Participating Participating Acres Planted

1932-33 17 400 710 34,000
1933-34 25 625 1,030 48,338
1934-35 26 660 1,070 25,500
1935-36 27 700 1,100 28,000
1936-37 28 730 1,140 10,960
1937-38 36 920 1,380 11,540









TABLE VII
COURSES OFFERED IN FLORIDA COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES FOR
PREPARING TEACHERS AND PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS TO INSTRUCT IN
ELEMENTARY SCIENCE AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

INSTITUTION Elementary Science Conservation of Natural Resources
INSTITUTION
Name Course No. Instructor Name Course No. Instructor
Florida Southern Elementary Conservation Geo. 121
College Science in Ed. 237 Peel of Natural Geo. 131 Ogden
ge Education Resources
Methods in Utilization & Becker
Florida State Elementary Ed. 222A Eyman and Conservation Geog. 210 and
College for Women Science Ed. 222B Kelley of Natural Eaton
Resources
Elementary Miller, Hjort, Conservation
Miami University Science ........ Phillips, Clouse, of Natural ........ Gifford
West Resources
Conservation
Rollins College ............ ..... ............ of Natural Biol. 363 Uphof
Resources
Teaching of Conservation
Stetson University Elementary ........ Burns of Natural ........ Vance
Science Resources
Conservation
Tampa University ........... ...... ............ of Natural Geog. W 5 Phelps
Resources

University of Teaching of Man and the Geog. 285
Florida Elementary Ed. 209 Goette Biological Geog. 387 Atwood, Chr.
Science World








FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE VIII
LIST OF AVAILABLE PUBLICATIONS
Numbered Bulletins
Planting Forest Trees in Florida by C. H. Coulter, Bulletin No. 8; 30
pages, 1931.
Florida Naval Stores by Lenthall Wyman and C. H. Coulter, Bulletin
No. 9; 59 pages, 1933.
Forestry and Timber Laws of Florida: Compiled by Rosa Stanaland,
Bulletin No. 10; 44 pages, 1934.
Vocational Forestry by H. J. Malsberger and E. L. Matthews, Bulletin
No. 11; 92 pages, 1937.
Growing and Marketing Pulpwood by Lewis E. Staley, Bulletin No. 12;
26 pages, 1938.
Numbered Circulars
Good Naval Stores Practices by C. H. Coulter, Circular No. 1; 4 pages,
1934.
Planted Pines Pay by C. H. Coulter, Circular No. 2; 8 pages, 1937.
Leaflets
Fire in the Turpentine Orchard by Harry Lee Baker; 4 pages, 1929.
Elementary Science Teaching Units by Clara I. Thomas; 1932.
Grade 1-The Rabbit
Grade 2-The Bob-White
Grade 3-The Woodpecker
Grade 4-The Honey Bee
Grade 5-The Pine Forest
Grade 6-Reproduction of the Pine Tree
Common Trees of North and Northwest Florida; 16 pages, 1930.
Common Trees of South Florida; 16 pages, 1930.
The Public and Forest Fires; Florida's forest fire law; 12 pages, 1936.
The Woods That the Farmer Owned by William F. Jacobs; a color leaflet
for elementary schools; 8 pages, 1936.
Suggested Natural Science and Conservation Teaching Aids, by William
F. Jacobs; 4 pages, 1938.
Miscellaneous Publications
Common Forest Trees of Florida by Wilbur R. Mattoon; 98 pages, 1925.
Forestry: Course in Conservation of Florida's Forests by H. J. Malsber-
ger; 91 pages, 1937.
The Scout Forest Handbook by William F. Jacobs and Hulan E. White-
head; 36 pages, 1937.








60 FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE
TABLE IX
EXHIBITS 1936-37

Date Place Nature of Est.
Exhibition Attendance
Oct. 12-13, 1936...........Jacksonville...........Planning-Seminole Hotel 500
Oct. 25-31, 1936..........Jacksonville............Naval Stores-Lobby At-
lantic, Florida and Bar-
nett National Banks and
Roosevelt Hotel ............ 50,000
Oct. 27-31, 1936...........Perry......................Combined Florida Forest
Service and ECW ......... 5,000
Nov. 1-7, 1936.......... Pensacola.............Interstate Fair ............... 10,000
Nov. 2-7, 1936.............Live Oak................Suwannee County Fair.... 12,000
Nov. 3-7, 1936.......... Tallahassee............ West Florida Exposition 5,000
Nov. 10, 11, 12, 1936..DeFuniak Springs..Walton County Fair ...... 4,000
Nov. 10-15, 1936..........Waycross, Ga........Slash Pine Festival ....... 8,000
Nov. 18-21, 1936........ Bonifay.................Harvester Festival ........ 1,500
Dec. 11-12, 1936..........Brooksville.............FFA County Fair .......... 3,000
Nov. 16-21, 1936..........Blountstown..........Garden Club Conserva-
tion Program .................. 300
Jan. 5-9, 1937............Eustis .Lake County Fair ......... 7,500
Jan. 12-16, 1937..........Largo .Pinellas County Fair ...... 25,000
Jan. 26-Feb. 6, 1937.....Tampa Florida State Fair ..........200,090
Feb. 1-6, 1937...............DeLand........ ....Volusia County Fair ...... 10,000
Feb. 9-13, 1937............Ft. Myers............Southwest Florida Fair.. 17,500
Feb. 15-20, 1937..........Orlando.................Central Florida
Exposition 30,000
Mar. 17-18, 1937..........Tampa Flower Show ................. 2,000
Mar. & Apr., 1937.......Gainesville.............P. K. Yonge School ........ 1,500
Mar. 31-Apr. 1, 1937..Pensacola..............State Convention Florida
Federation Garden Clubs 2,400
Apr. 15-25, 1937..........Jacksonville...........Duval County Fair ........135,000
May 14-15, 1937 Bonifay..........Bonifay.. .......Flower Show .................. 750
June, 1937...................Cleveland, Ohio.....Great Lakes Exposition.. -
Sept. 6, 1937..............Port St. Joe..........Sportsman's Day ............ 600
Oct. 4-8, 1937..............Pensacola................Inter-State Fair ............. 18,000
Oct. 21-23, 1937..........Chipley..................Washington County Fair 9,000
Nov. 1-6, 1937..............Live Oak...............Suwannee County Fair.... 12,000
Nov. 22-27, 1937..........Waycross, Ga........Slash Pine Festival ........ 14,000
Dec. 1-5, 1937............Gainesville.............Univ. of Fla. Dept.
of Forestry 400
Dec. 2-5, 1937..............Brooksville............. FA County Fair ......... 4,000
Jan. 11-15, 1938..........Largo Pinellas County Fair ...... 60,000
Jan. 17-22, 1938..........Winter Haven.......Florida Orange Festival 35,000
Jan. 25-Feb. 5, 1938.....Tampa Florida State Fair ..........350,000
Feb. 7-12, 1938............Sarasota............... National Tin Can Tourist
Convention 7,500
Feb. 14-19, 1938 rlando..........Orlando..........Central Florida
Exposition 65,000
Feb. 22-27, 1938..........DeLand..................Volusia County Fair ...... 10,000
Feb. 28-Mar. 5, 1938.... Melbourne.............Brevard County Fair .... 7,500
Apr. 16-24, 1938.........Jacksonville............Duval County Fair ........110,000
Mar. 12, 1938..............Ft. Pierce..............Garden Club ............. 800
Mar. 24-25, 1938.........Jacksonville...........State Convention, Florida
Federation Garden Clubs 700
Estimated
RECAPITULATION Attendance
July 1, 1936-June 30, 1937 .................. 530,950
July 1, 1937-June 30, 1938 ................. 704,500

Total for Biennium 1,235,450








TABLE X
STATE PARK INFORMATION

Outstanding Recreational Facilities Currently Available
Name Acreage County
Bathing Picnicking Fishing Historic Botanical Overnight Scenic Wildlife
camping
Myakka 8300 Sarasota X X X

Gold Head Branch 1080 Clay X X X

Torreya 520 Liberty X X X

t4
Fort Clinch 980 Nassau X X X X

Highlands Hammock 1105 Highlands X X X X

Hillsborough 720 Hills- X X X 3
borough

Suwannee 1621 Hamilton X
zuwannee

Volusia Hammock 525 Volusia X

Florida Caverns 723 Jackson

Overseas Parkway Dade X









FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


TABLE XI
STATE FORESTS DATA
Name of County Acreage
Forest
Myakka Sarasota 18,610
Pine Log Bay 6,960
O'Leno Columbia-Alachua....... 1,410
Cary Nassau-Duval................ 2,733


TABLE XII
RECORD OF CCC PARK CAMP OCCUPANCY
Number of camps on State Parks, July 1, 1936 ........... 5
Number of camps on State Parks, June 30, 1938 .......... 5
Camp Occupancy and Evacuation


Camp
Number
SP-4


Vicinity

Sarasota


SP-5 Clay

SP-6 Liberty

SP-8 Nassau

SP-10 Highlands


P-71*


Hillsborough


Park
Project

Myakka River State
Park
Gold Head Branch
State Park
Torreya State Park

Fort Clinch State
Park
Highlands Hammock
State Park
Hillsborough River
State Park


Date of
Occupancy

Oct. 17, 1934


Date of
Evacuation
............


July 2, 1935 ............

July 1, 1935 Oct. 1, 1937

July 1, 1937

May 14, 1934 ............

May 15, 1934


*(40% more days expended on park work, 60% expended on fire
control cooperation private lands).

TABLE XIII
RECORD OF CCC FORESTRY CAMP OCCUPANCY
Number of camps on State and private land July 1, 1936 10
Number of camps June 30, 1938 .......... 5
Number of camps lost during biennium ........ 5


Camp
Number County
P-53 ...................... Hamilon ............. ...
54 ..................... Duval ..........................
66 ..................... Polk ............................
67 .................... Baker ..........................
68 ..................... Madison ..........................
69 ..................... Holmes ........................
71 .................... Hillsborougn ..............
74 .................... Nassau .......
75 ..................... Taylor ....
76 ..................... Gadsden
79 .. Duval


Occupancy
5-26-33
5-20-33
5-29-34
5-24-34
8-13-34
6-14-34
5-15-34
7-15-35
8-22-35
8-2-35
2-15-37


80 Bay ................................. 11-30-37


Acquired

1934
1936
1936
1937


Date of Date of


Evacuation
10-5-37
2-15-37


3-24-37
3-31-37
7-8-38
12-15 37

10-23-37








FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE XIV
July 1, 1936 to July 1, 1938
ACTIVITY RECORD OF CCC CAMPS IN FOREST MANAGEMENT
Number of Foot bridges constructed 1
Number of vehicular bridges constructed 252
Number of overnight cabins constructed 2
Number of ranger and lookout dwellings constructed ................ 15
Number of garages constructed 16
Number of latrines and toilets constructed 8
Number of lookout towers erected 13
Number of other buildings constructed 25
Number of cubic yards of cribbing 200
Number of feet of fence constructed 84,661
Number of miles of power line constructed 5
Number of sewage and waste disposal systems installed ............ 2
Number of miles of telephone lines constructed 457
Number of water supply systems installed 3
Number of other structural improvements installed .................. 16
Miles of truck trails constructed 375
Miles of foot trails constructed 1
Cubic feet of earth moved in excavation 255
Number of acres of seedlings planted 4,099
Acres of timber stand improvement 10
Number of man days contributed to forest tree nursery ............ 20,999
Bushels of pine cones collected 4,882
Man days of fire fighting 5,265
Miles of firebreak constructed 1,663
Miles of roadside hazard reduction 268
Acres of roadside hazard reduction 17,575
Man days of fire pre-suppression 4,873
Man days of fire prevention 41
Acres of general cleanup .... 9
Towersite landscaping 132
Square yards of parking area constructed 13,275
Man days used for transporting materials 30,020
Man days used for reconnaissance 210
Man days used for type map survey 35,529
Acres of land type mapped .......... 5,157,469
Cattle guards constructed .. 12








TABLE XV
FOREST FIRE CONTROL
Number of Cooperators, Area Protected, and Percent of Protected Area Burned

Number of Cooperators Area Protected % of Area Burned
As of close of
fiscal year Individual Group County Individual Group County Individual Group County State

1928-1929 209 670,285 8.4 8.4

1929-1930 254 1,073,427 7.7 7.7

1930-1931 279 1,469,440 8.5 8.5

1931-1932 26 77 124,110 947,365 3.5 17.1 17.1

1932-1933 139 64 1 653,919 443,066 3.4 4.05 3.6

1933-1934 121 68 2 584,560 833,448 79,000 10.7 3.9 5.8 8.0

1934-1935 91 68 3 791,848 402,962 347,395 6.3 2.9 22.0 8.7

1935-1936 308 72 3 1,103,861 356,444 559,154 3.2 2.4 3.2 3.0

1936-1937 345 64 3 1,257,994 489,017 581,394 1.8 1.1 4.0 2.2

1937-1938 390 59 4 1,726,600 527,657 881,394 3.4 1.5 4.4 3.4


TOTAL FOR
1937-1938 453* 3,135,651

*Exclusive of actual individual ownerships in counties.









FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE XVI
IMPROVEMENTS AND EQUIPMENT OPERATED AND MAINTAINED
FOR FIRE CONTROL PURPOSES
Number of primary lookout towers, 80', 100', 120'
Wooden 4
Steel .. 47
Miles of telephone line ........................ 1249
Miles of truck trail 400
Number of fire fighting trucks ........... 47
Number of other trucks ............................. 8
Number of miles of firebreak ...................................... ..................... 18,000
Number of tractors ........................ 25



TABLE XVII
BUDGETED FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL FUNDS

Fiscal Federal State Private Total
Year Funds Funds Funds

1927-1928 $9,000.00 $4,760.00 $4,240.00 $18,000.00

1928-1929 35,000.00 8,564.00 40,325.00 83,889.00

1929-1930 37,017.00 18,759.00 40,325.00 96,101.00

1930-1931 76,230.00 29,895.00 47,837.00 153,962.00

1931-1932 65,826.00 29,570.00 34,255.00 129,651.00

1932-1933 66,901.00 30,000.00 28,643.00 125,544.00

1933-1934 67,760.00 28,915.00 39,271.00 135,946.00

1934-1935 69,000.00 30,378.00 39,042.00 138,420.00

1935-1936 67,760.00 54,554.00 72,605.00 193,919.00

1936-1937 70,680.00 56,969.00 77,933.00 205,582.00

1937-1938 71,780.00 87,287.00 94,871.00 253,938.00










FLORIDA FOREST AND PARK SERVICE


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