Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075934/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report
Distinctive title: Work of the Florida Forest Service
Florida forestry
Florida forestry and park progress
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 18-28 cm.
Creator: Florida Board of Forestry
Florida Board of Forestry
Florida Forest Service
Florida -- Forest and Park Service
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1934
Frequency: biennial
Subjects / Keywords: Forests and forestry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st- 1928/30-
Numbering Peculiarities: Period covered by reports ends June 30.
Issuing Body: Reports for 1928/30, 1934/36, 1940/42-1946/48 issued by the board under an interim name: Board of Forestry and Parks.
General Note: Some vols. have also distinctive titles.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001746447
notis - AJF9242
lccn - a 59002387 //r
System ID: UF00075934:00001

Full Text










JULY 1, 1934-JUNE 30, 1936


Tallahassee, Florida


General Administration ................................... 3
Branch of Publicity, Information and Education .............. 11
Branch of Fire Control .................................... 25
Emergency Conservation Work-Forestry ................... 34
Branch of Applied Forestry .......................... ..... 37
State Parks .............................................. 48
Emergency Conservation Work State Parks ................ 58
State Forests ......................................... 60

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The members of this Board are, left to right, front row: S. BRYAN JENNINGS; JOHN B. GLEN, President; MRS. LINWOOD
JEFFREYS, Secretary; STANLEY S. SHEIP, Vice-President; and JOE FOLEY. State Forester and Park Executive (
HARRY LEE BAKER is standing in the rear. A
The members have rendered a real service to the citizens of Florida by exerting their efforts and giving unstintingly of
their time to formulate a sound and progressive forestry and pirk program for the State. The Board, in directing the activi- -
ties of its department, The Florida Forest and Park Service, is concerned with the development of practices leading to the
best utilization of the 22,072,500 acres of forest land which represents 63 per cent of the total land area of the State.

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best utilization of the 22,072,500 acres of forest land which represents 63 per cent of the total land area of the State.

SFlorida Forest and Park Service


The Legislature of 1927 recognized forest conservation as a State
function and passed a law creating and establishing a Board, known
as the Florida Board of Forestry. Following the enactment of laws
by the 1935 Legislature, the Board assumed the additional function
of acquiring, developing, and administering a system of State forests
and parks. The members of this Board are appointed by the Governor
for four-year terms. The Board determines policies, prescribes regu-
lations, and has general supervision over the department it has chosen
to call the Florida Forest and Park Service. From the beginning, the
Board has selected the personnel for this organization on a basis
of technical training, merit, and experience. The past and present
members of the Board are listed below:

From To

Present members:
S. Bryan Jennings, Jacksonville September, 1927 Serving
John B. Glen, Chipley March, 1928 Serving
Stanley S. Sheip, Apalachicola January, 193'2 Serving
Mrs. Linwood Jeffreys, Jacksonville March, 1933 Serving
Joe Foley, Foley* September, 1936 Serving
Past members:
Simon F. Williams, Jacksonville August, 1927 September, 1932
A. A. Payne, Panama City September, 1927 September, 1931
N. J. Wicker, Coleman September, 1927 September, 1931
E. W. Thorpe, DeFuniak Springs October, 1927 One month (deceased)
Roy V. Ott, Ocala January, 1932 January, 1933
Iarold S. Foley, Foley February, 1933 September, 1936

*Appointed to fill unexpired term of Harold S. Foley, resigned September, 1936.

Mr. Jennings served as president of the Board from September,
1927, to iNovember, 1934, and Mr. Foley from November, 1934, to
September, 1936. He was followed by Mr. Glen who is now serving
as president.

The members of the Board have rendered a real service to the citi-
zens of Florida by exerting their efforts and giving unstintingly of
their time to formulate a sound and progressive forestry and park
program if or the State. The Board, in directing the activities of its

Biennial Report

department, the Florida Forest and Park Service, is concerned with
the development of practices leading to the best utilization of the
22,072,500 acres of forest land which represent 63 per cent of the
total land area of the State.
Board members do not receive any compensation for their services.
They are reimbursed for actual and necessary expenses incurred in
connection with the official business of the Board. The total amount
paid to members to cover actual subsistence and traveling expenses
incurred in attending meetings during the period of this report was
$1,217.81-$634.00 for the fiscal year 1934-35 and $538.81 for the fiscal
year 1935-36. The sum represents an expenditure of $243.56 per
member for the two-year period, or $121.78 per member per year.
This expense is well below actual cost as members of the Board made
expenditures for which reimbursement was never claimed.

President of the Florida Board of Forestry
Fire Control Work
From April 1, 1928, the date on which Harry Lee Baker assumed
his duties as State Forester, it has been the policy of the Florida Board
of Forestry to extend organized fire prevention and control to as much
of the forested area of the State as possible. At the outset this pro-
gram met with strong opposition. The landowners could think of
many reasons why fires could not or should not be controlled. This
was natural, as it had been the custom of our rural people for genera-
tions to turn fire loose in the woods to green up the range, or to protect
trees which were being turpentined. This had led to general indiffer-
ence and carelessness on the part of the smokers, railroads, loggers,
highway crews, those who cleared land or built warming fires, and
many others. The Board truly had begun its work in a land of fire

Today the situation has changed somewhat. Nearly four hundred
landowners are cooperating with the Board in the control of woods
fires; also Duval, Hillsborough, and Highlands counties. As of June
30, 1936, more than two million acres of land were under contract with
the Board for fire control. Adding in .public forest lands operated
by the U. S. Forest Service, Resettlement Administration, and U. S.

Florida Forest and Park Service 5

Biological Survey, more than three and a half million acres are being
protected in Florida. While this is not enough, it represents about
one-sixth of the forest area of the State and is a substantial start
toward the goal of state-wide fire control. The landowners and
counties are advancing funds for this work year after year, indicating
that they are satisfied with results. These fire control areas serve as
demonstrations as to what nature will do in the way of restocking idle
lands, if given half a chance. All that is needed today to convince a
skeptical person is for him to make a trip over the property of one of
our cooperators where there will be found hundreds of young trees
an acre, which would have been conspicuous by their absence had there
been fires. Today most people are not thinking of why fire control
should not be attempted. Instead, they are wondering if they can
afford fire protection or if a referendum vote will be taken in their
We have gone about one-sixth of the way toward the goal of state-
wide protection. It is not enough, but it represents progress. The
work of the Board of Forestry is firmly established. The fire laws
have been strengthened and a basic set-up has been provided for
county cooperation. Progress will be more rapid in the future, if the
State can increase appropriations in keeping with the demands of
landowners and counties.
Many people interested in driving "wildfire" from the woods of
Florida do not understand why fires continue to burn unattended
over the other five-sixths of the forested area of Florida. To tliese
well-meaning citizens, I commend the reading of the Board's fire con-
trol policy statement beginning on page 26 of this report. Obviously,
the State cannot provide funds for fighting woods fires everywhere.
Our expenditures, except for general fire prevention educational
work, necessarily must be limited to areas where organized fire con-
trol work has been arranged with the landowners or counties. It is
the policy of the Board to help those who help themselves. The
problem is to impress upon the landowners and county commissioners
that they have a definite responsibility in the solution of their own
problems and that the Florida Board of Forestry, with the aid of the
Federal Government, is ready and willing to assist them if they can
find a way to finance one-half of the cost of fire control work.

Biennial Report

The Governor's Forest Conservation Committee
The following telegram sent by Governor David Sholtz to the
twenty committee members indicates his keen interest in forest conser-
vation and desire to cooperate with President Roosevelt in his land-
planning program for the nation:
Tallahassee, Florida
March 26, 1935

.I I

Interested spectators are Harry Lee Baker, State Forester and Park
Executive; W. L'E. Barnett, Executive Secretary of the Florida
Forestry Association; and Harold S. Foley, President of the
Florida Board of Forestry.

Florida Forest and Park Service

Resulting Legislation
This committee recommended the enactment of seven forest and
park laws. They were supported by Governor Sholtz, passed the
legislature, and were approved by him. These seven laws constitute
the broadest and most constructive group of conservation measures
ever enacted in this State. They provide:
1. For county-wide organized fire prevention and control
2. More adequate forest fire laws
3. The teaching of the conservation of natural resources in the
schools of Florida
4. For a forestry department at the University of Florida
5. A State Park Service under the Florida Board of Forestry
6. A system of State forests and parks
7. A Forest Lien Act to safeguard the State in its investment in
forest fire protection

Created Seven State Parks and Four State Forests

Seven State parks have been created under the new law. Negotia-
tions are under way for one more. They are the outdoor wonder spots
of this State. They will provide recreation for our people and place
outdoor Florida on display. The State park system will provide an
opportunity for our winter visitors to see and know Florida, the land
of flowers and palms, moss-covered oaks, and winding waterways, as
they have pictured it.
Four State forests have been established. These forest areas will be
managed for the purpose of demonstrating profitable forestry practices
which the private forest landowners in the State will be able to apply
to their forests. Proper management and utilization of the forests
and their products will result in more financial returns to the owner
and State, as well as continue the supply of timber. In this con-
nection, your attention is directed to the discussion beginning on
page 48.

Provided Work Projects for CCC Camps

The fire control units and State parks established during the
biennium have made it possible to obtain additional CCC camps, or
to retain camps already in the State by transferring them to new

Biennial Report

locations. There are fourteen CCC camps now working on private
fire control units and State parks, under the direction of the Florida
Board of Forestry. These camps have provided work for thousands
of young men, brought millions of dollars into the State, and have
stimulated the business of the State and Nation.

The Board's Appreciation

The Florida Board of Forestry acknowledges with grateful appre-
ciation the cooperation extended by President Roosevelt through his
Emergency Conservation Work program; the friendly cooperation ex-
tended by Governor David Sholtz in bringing about the passage of the
seven forestry and park laws; the sympathetic consideration given by
the Legislature to our problems; the assistance of the National Park
Service in planning State parks; and the advisory and financial as-
sistance extended to Florida by the Federal Government under the
provisions of the Clarke-i\icNary law. These individuals and agencies
have been responsible in a large measure for the progress which I
have been able to report in behalf of the Florida Board of Forestry.
The public is invited to scrutinize the pages that follow dealing with
the various branches of work administered by the Board.

Florida Forest and Park Service 9


JULY 1, 1934--June 30, 1935

Debit Credit
Appropriation ........................................ $ 44,000.00
Expenditures ........................................ $ 43,995.98
Balance- June 30, 1935 ............................... 4.02

$ 44,000.00 $ 44,000.00

Balance- July 1, 1934 .................................$ 6,442.16
Receipts-from U. S. Government ..................... 70,610.00
Receipts-from Landowners ........................... 44,574.45
Receipts-State Nursery.............................. 3,937.30
Expenditures ........................................ 107,592.43
Balance-June 30, 1935 ............................... 17,971.48

$125,563.91 $125,563.91

Expended from State Appropriation ................................. $ 43.995.98
Expended from Cooperative Fund ................................... 107,592.43
Private Expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest and Park Service...... 7,673.90


JULY 1, 1935-June 30, 1936

Appropriation Forida'Board of Forestry
General Forestry and Park .........................$ 84,200.00
Acquisition State Forests ............................. 25,000.00
Acquisition State Parks............................. 25,000.00

Balance- July 1, 1935 ............................... $ 17,971.48
Receipts-from U. S. Government. .................. 69,235.00
Receipts-Highlands Hammock ..................... 4,155.02
Receipts- Landowners ............................ 53,894.10
Receipts- Nursery .............................. 4,892.67
E expenditures .......................................
Balance- June 30. 1936 .............................

$ 84,200.00



$150,148.27 $150,148.27
Expended from State Appropriation ................................ $134,200.00
Expended from Cooperative Fund ................................... 102,375.03
Private Expenditures (direct) under cooperative agreements and
largely under supervision of Florida Forest and Park Service....... 7,615.65


July 1, 1934-June 30, 1936
In the administration and supervision of an average of 14 forestry and park
Civilian Conservation Corps camps during this biennium, the State Forester
and Park Executive supervised an expenditure of Emergency Conservation funds
totaling $971,700.30, which combined with the expenditures reported above, made
the State Forester and Park Executive responsible for an annual expenditure of

10 Biennial Report


Board of Forestry

HAROLD S. FOLEY, President, Foley
JOHN B. GLEN, Vice-President, Chipley
STANLEY S. SHEIP, Secretary, Apalachicola
S. BRYAN JENNINGS, Jacksonville

Office of State Forester and Park Executive
Tallahassee, Florida
HARRY LEE BAKER, State Forester and Park Executive
C. H. COULTER, Associate State Forester
JANE ALLEN, Chief Clerk
Fire Control-
R. R. WHITTINGTON, Assistant State Forester
Publicity, Information, and Education -
H. J. MALSBERGER, Assistant State Forester
Applied Forestry -
C. H. COULTER, In Charge
J. E. McCAFFREY, Forest Management and Utilization
H. D. COOK, Cooperative Agent Naval Stores
Naval Stores Station, Olustee
State Forests and Parks -
C. H. SCHAEFFER, Park Director
FELIX BENTON, Technical Assistant

District Organization
District 1 -District Forester, Panama City
District 2 -District Forester, Tallahassee
District 3 District Forester, Gainesville
District 4 -District Forester, Jacksonville
District 5 District Forester, Lakeland

State Nursery
Address the Nurseryman, Olustee

Florida Forest and Park Service 11


Only one per cent or less of the forest fires in Florida is caused
by lightning. The remaining 99 per cent, which inflict the greatest
damage to the forests, are man-caused, and can be prevented when each
individual assumes the responsibility to control his own fires.
In our effort to reach all classes of individuals with the message of
forest conservation, meaning wise and proper use of the forests, the
work of this branch divides itself into three major divisions.
Forestry is brought to the people's attention through the press, mag-
azines, parades, and radio, and by conducting tours through areas
where forestry is being practiced. Bulletins, leaflets, and other in-
formative materials are distributed to those interested in obtaining
more information concerning the forests-one of the State's most val-
uable natural resources. A great deal of educational work is necessary
among the children of today because natural resources are funda-
mental to their very existence. 7'he children should know about them
now in order that they can make intelligent decisions for the perpetua-
tion of these resources when they become the leaders of our State.
Newspaper Publicity
The 185 newspapers on our mailing list cooperated thoroughly in
carrying our 281 news releases for a total of 15,024 column inches of
publicity. Four pictures of the work of the Florida Forest and Park
Service appeared in 104 papers, or an average of 26 papers for each
Several of the administrative districts conducted intensive news-
paper campaigns through the papers in the counties within their dis-
tricts. The articles stressed all the activities of the Florida Forest
and Park Service in those districts and received wide circulation in
the local daily and weekly papers.
The Emergency Conservation Work personnel contributed materi-
ally to the newspaper publicity by preparing and publishing articles
on the accomplishments and values of the forestry and social work of

12 Biennial Report

the CCC in each of the eleven forestry camps in the State which are
under the direction of the Florida Forest and Park Service. These
articles appeared in the local papers serving the communities within
the work areas of the camps.

Forest Fire Prevention Week
The outstanding single concentration of publicity efforts for the
period covered by this report was Forest Fire Prevention Week, the
week of December 2-8, 1934, planned and engineered by the personnel
of the Florida Board of Forestry and Florida Forest and Park Service.
It was inaugurated by a proclamation issued by Governor Sholtz, set-
ting aside this week to acquaint the people of the State with the value
of Florida's forests in their everyday life. The Governor also called
upon all State departments to cooperate with the Florida Forest
and Park Service in the week's activities and for law enforcement
officers to prosecute violators of Florida's forest fire laws.
The newspapers played an important part in the success of the
drive. Basic materials relating to forestry, which appeared in the
editorial columns, were supplied editors. Mats of the pictures and
cartoons on forestry subjects were published. Twenty-six releases
were sent to the newspapers advertising, announcing, and following
up on all the activities of this week.


Florida Forest and Park Service

Schools, civic organizations, women's clubs, Scout troops, and other
juvenile organizations were requested to present suitable programs or
prepare exhibits for the occasion. The response was gratifying.
Forty Sparks theaters in the State ran a panel of scrip informing
the public of Forest Fire Prevention Week, and practically all of the
twenty-three CCC camps in the State at the time paraded in the
communities in and adjacent to their work areas. This publicity
reached thousands of people.
The radio was used extensively and the feature of the week was a



Floats contributed by the CCC and paraded during Forest Fire Prevention Week.
fifteen minute broadcast by the Governor over a State-wide hook-up
consisting of the cities of Orlando, Clearwater, Gainesville, Pensacola,
Miami, and Jacksonville. In addition, thirty-eight other speakers
were heard on local stations. These stations contributed about eight
hours for the purpose.
The cooperation of railroads and county commissioners was solicited
in preventing and controlling fires along railroad and road right of
Each of the five districts conducted motorcades through the out-
standing forestry projects in their districts.
An average of 100 to 150 people on each motorcade saw demonstra-
tions in the woods of successful examples of forest fire control, plan-
tations, and profitable forestry practices employed by various land-
owners cooperating with the Florida Forest and Park Service.

14 Bieniial Report

Magazine and Newspaper Articles
Fifteen articles on forestry were prepared by the personnel and
printed in magazines and newspapers.

Through the cooperative assistance of the U. S. Forest Service, Dr.
H. N. Wheeler, chief lecturer, delivered ten illustrated forestry lec-
tures during the period of this report. The itinerary of the tour and
the arrangements with the U. S. Forest Service and forestry and Army
personnel of the CCC were made by the Florida Forest and Park
Service. The lectures reached the enrollees and officials of fifteen CCC
camps and the public for a total of twenty-five hundred people.
Members of the Florida Forest and Park Service also addressed
schools, civic clubs, women's clubs, and other public gatherings during
the biennium.

County-Wide Publicity
An intensive educational campaign of one week's duration was con-
ducted in each of Hillsborough and Duval counties. The objective
was three-fold, namely, (1) to acquaint residents of the damages
caused by woods fires; (2) to define clearly the areas upon which or-
ganized fire prevention and control is effective; and (3) to stress the
necessity for each class of woods burner to control its own fires, for
individuals to stop setting fires, and to report them to make effective
law enforcement possible.
The campaign extended into all fields of publicity. As a result of
these campaigns, fourteen radio speeches were made by members of
the Florida Board of Forestry, Florida Forest and Park Service, co-
operators, and other individuals; two parades were conducted which
reached at least twenty thousand people with a forestry message; five
forestry motion picture shows were given in the schools in addition to
forestry programs; thousands of pieces of literature and rulers were
distributed; forestry programs were given in women's and civic clubs
and P.T.A. organizations; feature articles with maps and some
editorials were printed in the papers of these counties; trailers carry-
ing information concerning the programs were shown in all the
picture houses of Jacksonville and Tampa; and an intensive personal
contact campaign was made among the rural residents informing them
of their responsibilities in controlling fires.

Florida Forest and Park Service

Numerous requests are received for forestry information from civic
organizations, school teachers and children, and other persons residing
within and outside the State who are interested in forestry and the
forest industries. The variety and quantity of publications, especially
leaflets and other special materials, have been materially increased
during the past two years to meet this demand. In addition to dis-
tributing the informative material to the mailing list, maintained by
the department, and other normal avenues of distribution, leaflets,
such as The Public and Forest Fires, were distributed to schools, at
fairs, and to railroads, and the leaflet, Highway Crews and Forest
Fires, was distributed to the State and County Road Crews and to the
Chairmen of County Boards of Commissioners. A copy of The Public
and Forest Fires was sent to each doctor and dentist in the State, and
they requested 24,000 copies which were distributed from their waiting

Prepared and Printed:
Third Biennial Report. ................................ 5,000
Forest Conservation Laws, 1935. ......................... 5,000

Revised and Reprinted:
Planting Forest Trees in Florida......................... 10,000
,Florida Naval Stores ................................... 5,000
Common Trees of North and Northwest Florida...... ..... 25,000

Prepared and Printed:
Pine Trees Grow When Fires Are Kept Out ............. 30,000
SAn Appeal to You..................................... 30,000
Growing Children Need Growing Trees .................... 10,000
The Public and Forest Fires .............................51,000
Highway Crews and Forest Fires..........................25,000
Landowners and Forest Fires ....................... .. 25,000
SHillsborough County Fire Control.........................15,000
SDuval County Fire Control.............................15,000
Cooperative Fire Control Policy of the Florida Forest
SService.............................................. 30,000

Biennial Report

"The Child and a Garden". ............................ 1,000
"Forest Fire Control as Related to Individual and Public
Welfare" .......................... .. .......... 5,000
"Forestry -A Cash Crop for Farmers".................. 5,000

Educational Outlines
Conservation outlines for use in the first six grades ......... 12,000

License Envelopes
Distributed to County Judges for issuance to sportsmen when
purchasing hunting and fishing licenses .................. 85,000


This type of shield sign will be used
to designate county and individual fire
control areas.
Prepared and Printed:
Careful Cupping Pays.......... ....................... 1,000
Fire Law ........... ....... .............. ........... 3,000

Florida Forest and Park Service

Stop .......................................... 2,000
Stamp Out That Spark ................................... 2,000
Forest Fires Make ..................................... 1,000
How a Tree Grows..................................... 5,000
(Obtained from U. S. Forest Service)
Prepared, printed and distributed which carry a forestry
message .............. .................. ...........25,000
Purchased and distributed............................. 200
(Issued to honorary and paid forest fire wardens)
Forest Fire Prevention Week Proclamations................. 4,500
Florida Forest and Park Service School Code Certificates..... 3,000
Forest Fire Warden Certificates ............................ 500
Honorary Forest Fire Warden Certificates ................. 500
Certificate of Merit, Scout Forests Project .................. 50
The major educational accomplishment during the period of this
report was the passage of the law requiring the study of the conser-
vation of natural resources in the ninth grade of the public schools
commencing September, 1936. This department prepared the forestry
material for the publication. It is obvious that proper management
of our forests and all other natural resources will progress only as
rapidly as the oncoming generations have a knowledge of these re-
sources and a realization that they are fundamental to their very
existence. It can then be expected that proper care will be exercised
to maintain their productivity and value.
Over four thousand certificates, "School Children's Code for
Florida's Forests," were distributed to school teachers and displayed
in an equal number of school rooms. This code sAt forth desirable
actions school boys and girls should follow to conserve our forests.
The percentage of the pupils favoring the code was included on the
certificates which were signed by the President of the Florida Board
of Forestry, State Forester and Park Executive, and District


Biennial Report


School children
trees for the

;v: -'&- f
^ -- -4 .
^=~ -' -^ -^

Signboards painted
erected calling
attention to forest
and park

School children
what they
learned about



-; ,F rL t ,

Florida Forest and Park Service

NYA Forestry Project
This project became effective January, 1936, and is now in opera-
tion. It is a project using youths from relief families on educational
forestry and training projects conducted primarily in the schools.
By the end of July, 1936, the NYA had employed 210 youths and had
expended $9,950 for labor and materials with an estimated contribu-
tion of $1,750 by the Florida Forest and Park Service for initiating
and supervising the work. The NYA printed two Florida Forest and
Park Service leaflets, one booklet, and two posters, and distributed
through their organization 330,000 pieces of these materials.
Various other activities were carried on in the schools, including
forestry programs, preparation and display of exhibits and posters,
and planting pine seed in small containers for the study of germina-
tion, et cetera, by the pupils.
Educational school forest tree plantings by the pupils, supervised
by NYA youths, were the outstanding feature of the school work. A
total of 111,000 seedlings, furnished by the Florida Forest and Park
Service, were planted by 30,000 pupils at 147 schools. A part of this
work was done by members of the Florida Forest' and Park Service in
the year previous to the inauguration of the NYA project.
In addition to the NYA forestry programs in the schools, their
work extended into making house to house contacts distributing
forestry literature and posters, erecting and maintaining signboards
on fire control areas, and preparing and erecting exhibits at county
and state fairs. A great deal of newspaper publicity was obtained
through the cooperation of the NYA and the Florida Forest and Park
Service in the forestry project.

Vocational Agricultural Project
The elementary forestry training given the farm boys has a two-fold
purpose, namely, (1) to stress the need for the application of sound
and practical forestry practices on the farm woodlands and (2) to
appreciate the importance of well-managed forests in the land-use
problem of the State.
Forestry teaching outlines, reference bulletins, and other supple-
mentary information have been forwarded the vocational agricultural
teachers for their use in teaching the forestry subjects. A member of
the Florida Forest and Park Service visits these schools and assists in
the classroom work and in the establishment of demonstrational plots
in the woods which serve as teaching devices.


trees by

Learning how
to survey
and map

Making forester's
tools to cruise
and estimate
timber on the
farm woodland.


Guest Cabin

Dining Hall

Campers' Cabin

- a6-7

22 Biennial Report

These vocational agricultural boys
are preparing a seed-bed as part
of their forestry project.

The project has reached an average of 1,336 boys in 49 schools
scattered over the State. The boys were supplied with and planted
a total of 82,000 forest tree seedlings on school forests and at their
homes as a demonstration of what can be accomplished by planting
trees on their idle, sub-marginal, or other unproductive crop lands.
They were also furnished one hundred pounds of tree seeds to be
raised in their seed-beds and later transplanted in the woods.

Scout Forests Project
Region Six, Boy Scouts of America, the Florida Lumber and Mill-
work Association, the American Forestry Association, and the Florida
Forest and Park Service are cooperating in this project. Scout troops
are encouraged to obtain a lease on forty acres of land upon which they
plant seedlings, prevent and control forest fires, and develop camping
facilities such as cabins, et cetera. This area is used as an outdoor
laboratory for the study of nature and natural resources. It reaches
the urban boy whereas the vocational agricultural forestry project
reaches the rural boy. A handbook is furnished each participating
troop outlining the forestry work it is expected to perform on the
Scout forest.

Boy Scouts use the Scout Forests
for recreation as well as for the
study of nature and the forests.

Florida Forest and Park Service 23

An average of twenty-seven troops, which reached an average of
seven hundred boys, were in the project during the period of this re-
port. They have eleven hundred acres set aside for forestry and
recreational purposes upon which fifty-three thousand forest tree
seedlings have been planted. They have been very successful in pre-
venting and controlling forest fires on these areas.

Forestry Training Camp
The Florida Forest and Park Service, in developing and providing
a forestry training camp for the advancement of forestry to the youth
of this state, has taken the lead among the southeastern states. The
camp is now practically completed and has been extensively used
during the spring and summer of 1936. It consists of fourteen camp-
ers' cabins, two leaders' cabins, guest cabin, hospital, recreation and
dining hall, caretaker's cabin, and bathhouse which are equipped with
electric lights, and some with running water and bath facilities. The
camp area consists of 160 acres.
President Roosevelt's relief program was instrumental in making
this camp possible. It was erected at a cost approximating $25,000
of which the Florida Forest and Park Service furnished $5,647.94 and
the remainder was expended by FERA, WPA, and ECW and con-
tributed by people owning land adjacent to the camp, civic organiza-
tions from Gainesville, and the city of Lake City.
The camp is operated by the Florida Forest and Park Service for a
two weeks' period each year at which time the boy performing the
outstanding work in the forestry program of each of the vocational
agricultural schools and Scout troops entered in the Scout Forests
project attends as the guest of the Florida Forest and Park Service.
The Florida Lumber and Millwork Association contribute, as their part
of the cooperation in the Scout Forests project, toward the expenses
of the Scouts attending. During the remainder of the year, the camp
is made available to public and private agencies for organization
camps on a rental basis.
In the past two years, 197 boys and 20 vocational agricultural
teachers in addition to the camp staff have attended the camps. Four
hours of each day except Sunday are devoted to the study of forestry
subjects, such as tree identification, surveying and mapping, timber
cruising and mensuration, making forestry tools, methods of organ-
ized fire control and damages of fires, forest management, tree plant-

Biennial Report

ing, and turpentining practices. Field trips are also made to the ad-
joining National Forest, State Nursery, Naval Stores Experiment
Station and wood utilization plants. The remainder of the day is spent
in athletics and other forms of recreation with evening programs.

Visual Education
Motion Pictures:
A total of thirty-seven motion picture shows were given during the
biennium, principally at schools. These shows reached 4,652 men,
women, and children.


Similar exhibits are displayed at state and county fairs.

Four exhibits were prepared and displayed at seventeen cities
throughout Florida at county and state fairs, and educational and
civic meetings. These exhibits were the means of distributing many
thousands of pieces of forestry materials which reached a total of
S19,800 persons.

Florida Forest and Park Service 25



Forest fires do not stop of their own accord at the property lines
of the land upon which they have been set. When these fires deplete
the land and reduce the quantity and quality of forest products de-
rived from the soil, the nation, state, and community sustain an
economic loss with the landowner because a natural resource is in-
volved. Forest fires are destroying forest benefits and products which
everybody uses in his everyday life. This branch, therefore, concen-
trates its activities upon rendering advisory and financial assistance
to those landowners and counties that are interested in preventing
and controlling forest fires on their lands.



Annual woods burning has prevented the establishment of seedlings
on this area. Such unproductive lands are a burden to
the owner, county, and State.

** .

., .
* U '
.. .. .

* .

26 Biennial Report

The financial assistance consists of allocating Federal and State
funds matched by those from landowners and counties, according to the
policies -discussed later in this report, with which to erect lookout
towers, construct telephone lines, fire breaks, roads, bridges, purchase
trucks and other fire fighting equipment, and employ an organization
to prevent and suppress forest fires. In addition, violators of the
forest fire laws are prosecuted, whether the trespass be on the lands
of owners cooperating with the Florida Forest and Park Service or not.

Under the terms of Section 2 of the Clarke-McNary Act, the Fed-
eral Government contributes funds for fire prevention and control
work. The State appropriates funds to the Florida Board of Forestry
for this purpose. The balance is obtained from counties and land-
owners upon whose lands fire control work is being carried on. This
financial arrangement is frequently referred to as the "triple
Individual Demonstration Agreement
The purpose of the individual fire control policy is to offer con-
tinuous cooperation to any landowner who can provide resident man-
agement to supervise the work, guarantee whole-hearted cooperation
on the part of the lessees, has reasonable cooperation of stockmen and
neighbors in the fire control program, assumes full responsibility to
mobilize adequate man power to suppress all fires, and is prepared and
agrees to continue his own forest protection if and when it becomes
impossible for the Florida Forest and Park Service to continue to
assist him. The listing of small tracts of land is conditional upon
their location with regard to existing fire control areas.
The minimum assessment rate for the landowner is 3# per acre per
year but may exceed that sum. The Florida Forest and Park Service
never contributes more than 3S per acre per year, making a minimum
budget of 60 per acre per year. When ECW works on the land, the
Florida Forest and Park Service allocates only 11/ per acre per year
because no charge is made for ECW services and this fund is used to
cooperate with additional landowners. Of the remaining 11/. per acre
per year which is cagh.contributted,to the budget by the Florida
Forest and Park Soervicel'..)e t areri''r.year is deducted for the
salary and .t l1 .f-the ranger who sdupeise'el he work, /2 per acre
per year ~s.deAilcted for the salary of the lokbAoutV.ho locates and re-
: .": *.. .** .

Florida Forest and Park Service 27

ports fires on the area, and when ECW is not working on the lands
1/4 per acre per year is deducted to maintain the telephone system if
one exists. T'he remainder of the budget is spent for the construction
and maintenance of roads, bridges, fire lines, and other improvements
and the purchase of fire fighting equipment. Landowners may con-
tribute labor in lieu of cash for plowing fire lines and reworking roads
and receive credit on their assessment at the same rate that the Florida
Forest and Park Service charges for this work.

Group Unit
The group unit fire control agreement is for the purpose of offering
protection to absentee owners and/or resident owners who cannot
economically and practically protect their own lands. Under this policy
two or more landowners can pool their lands to form a group unit
which permits small interior holdings being listed for protection.
The Florida Forest and Park Service assumes all responsibility for
organizing the areas for the prevention and control of fires.
No group unit of less than 30,000 acres will be considered for pro-
tection. The Florida Forest and Park Service will match cooperative
funds on a 50-50 basis up to and including 3# per acre each. All pro-
tection costs above a total of 60 per acre per year is paid by the co-
operator. When ECW works on the land, the Florida Forest and Park
Service allocates only 11/2 per acre per year but this does not
operate to increase the landowners' share.
Since it is more economical to protect large blocks of land, the
landowners' annual assessment varies according to the size of the unit
on the following basis:
90,000 acres and up................ .5 per acre
70,000 to 90,000 acres ................ 6 per acre
50,000 to 70,000 acres. ............... .7 per acre
30,000 to 50,000 acres ............... 80 per acre
This means, for instance, that a 30,000 to 50,000 acre unit may cost
a total of 110 per acre per year: 30 from the Florida Forest and Park
Service and 80 from cooperators. If and when it is demonstrated that
adequate protection can be obtained for less money, and when a reserve
equalling 10 per acre for the protected lands has been accumulated
for emergencies, the owner's rate will be reduced. The assessment
of the Florida Forest and Park Service will remain at 3#, provided,
however, that at no time shall the assessment of the Florida Forest
and Park Service exceed that of the owner.


(Photo by United States Forest Service)

Slash pine saplings on right established from seed trees after eight years' pro-
tection. Note the absence of any reproduction on the left due to annual burning.
Same seed trees furnished seed for both areas. Which do we want?

(Photo by United States Forest Service)

Longleaf seedlings are not always killed outright by woods fires but annual woods
burning causes a great deal of damage by stunting the growth and malforming
the survivors.

Florida Forest and Park Service 29

A definite county-wide cooperative policy was not written during the
period of this report because the work was in an experimental stage.
Three counties have cooperated, placing parts of their acreage under
intensive protection, and carrying on only educational work (no fire
fighting) on the remaining acreage. The Florida Forest and Park
Service and the Boards of County Commissioners have cooperated in
financing the projects. There is a definite trend, before listing any
more counties, to have the people vote on the matter and, if the vote
is favorable, to concentrate fire control activities on those areas
where the people signify a demand for protection. The administra-
tion of the county-wide fire control units is similar to that of the
group units.

The number of cooperators and net acreages protected during the
biennium are listed:
No. Acreage No. Acreage No. Acreage No. Acreage
Contr. Contr. Coop. Contr.

June 30, 1934 280 592,621 70 269,135 2 351,587 352 1,213,343
June 30, 1935 292 750,266 88 288,521 3 348,394 383 1,387,181
June 30,1936 310 1,103,861 79 356,444 3 559,154 392 2,019,459

Per Cent
Increase 9.7 46.4 11.4 24.5 33.3 37.2 10.3 40.0
*In addition to the area listed for intensive protection, there are 560,888 acres
of forest land in Duval, Hillsborough, and Highlands counties on which the
rangers are carrying on only forest fire prevention educational work.
During .the two-year period 160 contracts were cancelled, but 200
new contracts were signed. The cancellations were due partly to the
financial embarrassment of cooperators and because resident man-
agers were moved and not replaced, but the largest percentage oc-
curred in the intensely protected areas of Duval, Highlands, and Hills-
borough counties. In these counties the county plan of protection was
substituted for the individual type of protection making it un-
necessary to continue to cooperate under the individual agreement
policy. Consequently, the individual agreements were cancelled with-
out causing a reduction in protected acreage. No agreements were
executed with landowners in counties where county-wide fire control
is in effect.

Biennial Report

An increase of 40 per cent in the total protected area represents a
substantial gain in maintaining the productivity of forest lands to a
maximum by controlling fires. It is interesting to note that the greater
percentage of the increased protected area was under the classification
of individual demonstrations.

Number of Fires, Acreage Burned, and Percentages

1934-1935 1935-1936
No. Per Acreage Per No. Per Acreage Per
Fires Cent Burned Cent Fires Cent Burned Cent

Indiv. 740 25.5 45,857 6.36 669 34.4 34,850 3.16
Group 318 10.9 10,871 3.76 306 15.7 8,651 2.43
County 1,848 63.6 76,468 26.65 972 49.9 18,025 3.22
Total 2,906 100 133,193 9.08 1,947 100 61,526 3.04

The figures in the table show that the fire record for 1935-36 was
far better than for 1934-35 both in a reduction of the number of fires
and acres burned. Of the 1,387,181 acres protected during 1934-35,
9.08 per cent burned, while of the 2,019,459 acres protected during
1935-36, only 3.04 per cent burned, demonstrating that organized
forest fire prevention and control is possible and highly successful.

The greater percentage of losses incurred during 1934-35 oc-
curred in the county-wide fire control areas where the protection
system was new and in the experimental stage. The fire statistics for
1935-36 show a reduction in area burned in these counties. This
progress is largely due to increased funds which made possible the
purchase of an adequate supply of fire fighting equipment, and the
employment of an organization.of sufficient size to cope with the

Of the 310 demonstrations in the State, totaling 1,103,861 acres,
243 demonstrations, totaling 269,502 acres, and amounting to more
than half of all contracts signed, had no fire losses. Only 14 per
cent of the individual demonstration cooperators suffered losses of
more than 3 per cent.

Fire Law Enforcement
At the beginning of this biennium forest fire law enforcement was
scarcely beyond the educational stage. The attitude of the Florida
Forest and Park Service toward fire law enforcement is to awaken the

Florida Forest and Park Service

public to the fact that there are fire laws which must be observed in
respecting the property and rights of others. This necessitates active
prosecution of those woods-burning cases which come to the attention
of the Florida Forest and Park Service and which are supported by
good evidence.
A forest fire law, fixing the individual's responsibility in setting
woods fires and known as the Forest Protection Act, was passed by
the 1935 Legislature. It reaches all classes of fire setters and makes
it possible to prosecute violators for fires set for various reasons, in-
tentionally or carelessly. We can hope for little definite progress in
curbing this indifference and fixing responsibility on individuals for
setting fires until employees of state and county governments set a
good example. It is of utmost importance that they place their own
houses in order in the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The
governmental agencies will recognize it as the proper thing to do from
the standpoint of civic duty, as well as to encourage private land-
owners to follow their lead.
An active law enforcement campaign during 1935-36 was considered
to be of sufficient importance to justify the employment of a law en-
forcement officer for about three months. This officer cooperated
with the district foresters in preparing fire law cases and assisted in
prosecuting these cases before the courts. Numerous contacts were
made by him with county commissioners and railroad and State high-
way officials and employees all over the State. The State Forester
and Park Executive requested all Boards of County Commissioners
to cooperate in the prevention and control of woods fires along
county roads, with the result that thirteen Boards of County Com-
missioners passed resolutions instructing county highway crews to
hold fires set for clearing or other purposes to the road right of ways
and to fight fires on lands adjoining highways. Nine other Boards
expressed willingness by letter to cooperate in the prevention and
control of fires as prescribed by law. The law enforcement officer
followed these with letters distributing literature. This literature
was also mailed to judges of criminal courts, county judges, county
court judges, justices of the peace, prosecuting attorneys, sheriffs,
and constables.
In the past two years, forty-two arrests have been made for viola-
tions of the forest fire laws. Of this number fifteen have pleaded
guilty, making a trial unnecessary, three have been convicted, fifteen
acquitted, two nolle pressed, one was not bound over for trial, and
six are pending.

Biennial Report


The ECW furnishes materials and constructs improvements upon
lands where they are working. The cooperative assessment of the
landowner remains the same the first year as though ECW were not
working on the lands. However, the landowner's assessment may be
reduced thereafter according to expenditures. Certain limitations
of the ECW program, however, do not allow as intensive a construc-
tion of fire breaks, for instance, as considered desirable by the Florida
Forest and Park Service. Therefore, this organization continues to
plow and maintain a number of fire lines. During the past two
years, the Florida Forest and Park Service tractors, financed from
cooperative budgets, have maintained 136 miles of truck trails and
constructed and maintained 23,479 miles of 8', 10', 16', and 20' fire
breaks. The number of fire fighting trucks in the State was in-
creased by fifteen since June 30, 1934.

r .

to extinguish it.

The rest of the fire control improvements such as telephone lines,
towers, buildings, et cetera, were constructed by ECW and are re-
ported under that division of this report.
The circles represent the location of towers. The towermen report
their location of the smoke to the dispatcher, who by triangulation
locates the exact position of the fire and dispatches a crew
to extinguish it.

The rest of the fire control improvements such as telephone lines,
towers, buildings, et cetera, were constructed by ECW and are re-
ported under that division of this report.

Florida Forest and Park Service

There is a concentration of organized forest fire control activities
in some sections of the State. This is because the landowners or
counties in these areas are willing to expend private or county funds
in cooperation with the Florida Forest and Park Service to prevent
and control fires. The landowners or counties must be ready to help
themselves by expending effort and funds before the Florida Forest
and Park Service can assist. The fire control areas will spread over
the State only as fast as the landowners and counties manifest a desire
to protect their timber lands.
The greatest progress can be made in organized forest fire pre-
vention and control only when the majority of the people in the
protected area are favorable toward the work. The trend toward
county-wide units is growing on account of the permanency of the
projects. It is very necessary, however, before establishing protec-
tion on these areas, that the wishes of the people are ascertained by a
public vote. By the same token, the work should not be discontinued
unless the majority of the people express their opposition by a public

Biennial Report


The many benefits made possible by President Roosevelt's Emer-
gency Conservation Work program have continued to aid the extension
of private forestry in
Florida during the
past two years. The
work has provided
improvements such
er as roads, bridges, fire
b lines, et cetera, which
SP ." have made possible
More effective fire
S control. Through the
program private
Landowners have
Sa e been able to enter
into long time man-
agement plans with
more assurance of
economical and phy-
forest areas than
Towermen are stationed in the towers at all seasons
of the year to locate forest fires promptly. This ever before. The
enables fire crews to extinguish fires while small, labor and certain ma-
terials are furnished
by ECW, at no cost to any cooperative budget, but the landowner
and State must continue to spend as much as they did in the past on
fire control work and furnish assurance that the improvements will
be maintained in future years.
During the period of this report an average of twelve CCC camps
were operating on private forest lands. To make the ECW service
available it is necessary that these lands be under cooperative fire con-
trol agreement with the Florida Forest and Park Service. The opera-

Florida Forest and Park Service 35

Towerman's residence and garage adjoining tower erected on ten-
acre site. The towerman farms the area and carries on other
subsistence activities while not locating forest fires.

tion of the forestry ECW work on private lands afforded employment
to eighty-six supervisory personnel in the Tallahassee office and in the
camps, and 2,684 enrollees. This work caused the expenditure of
$797,490.67 which was disbursed by the Tallahassee ECW office in
the administration of the camps.
The major accomplishments of the CCC camps during 1934-36 are
indicated in the following tabulation.

Bridges constructed.................... ......... ... 823
Towerman's houses and other buildings constructed ............ 22
Lookout towers erected ....................................... 20
Fences, rods............................ .. ............. 17,688
Telephone lines, miles constructed.............................. 413
Truck trails, miles ........................................... 788
Educational tree planting, acres............................. 7,482
Tree seed collection, bushels .. 2,567
Fighting forest fires, man-days.................................21,901
Fire breaks, miles constructed ................... .............. 6,079
Fire hazard reduction (road and trails), miles.................. 539
Fire hazard reduction (other), acres ..........................52,360
Fire presuppression, man-days.................................. 44,320
Fire prevention (educational), man-days ...................... 3,639
Water holes, reservoirs, etc.................................... 23
Tree insect pest control, acres .................................. 182
General clean-up, acres ....................................... 104
Landscaping, acres ............................ .............. 128
Public camp ground development, acres ........................ 146
Surveys, linear miles.............. ........ ................ 4
Surveys, topographic, acres........................ ......... 28,509
M aps, topographic, acres ............... .............. ........ 207,000

36 Biennial Report

Private landowners can now reach sections
of their woods heretofore inaccessible.
This road system permits fire crews to
reach fires and suppress them before they
can spread over large areas.


B ridges ................. I .................. .... 21
Lookout towers..... ............ ....................... 1
Fences, rods ... ... ... ... .. 10
Telephone lines, miles ......................................... 264
Truck trails, miles............................................ 882
Fire breaks, miles............... ........................... 6,205

Florida Forest and Park Service 37


T'he activities of this branch are directed toward demonstrating im-
proved forestry practices on the forest lands of the State through
assistance rendered individuals, owners, and communities. Another
major activity, which was initiated during 1935-36, is the assistance
offered the various landowners and wood-using industries in the State
in forest management and utilization. The value to the owner, com-
munity, and State of keeping forest lands productive by adopting
these improved forestry methods, and the necessity of maintaining
an abundant, cheap, and available supply of raw forest products to
sustain the wood-using industries are discussed under the various
projects undertaken by the branch.
The major projects include maintenance and operation of the
nursery, planting extension, forest management and utilization, im-
proved naval stores practices, thinning, pruning, cone collection, the
forestry and grazing experiment, and tests and demonstrations of
good forestry practices.

Buildings and Improvements
The nursery is located three miles east of Olustee on the Lake City-
Jacksonville Highway, with a mile and a quarter frontage on the
highway. An additional tract of ninety acres was purchased south of
the highway, bringing the total to one hundred sixty-six acres. How-
ever, ten acres were donated to the State Road Department to widen
the highway, reducing the net area to one hundred fifty-six acres.
The buildings constructed include a packing house, pump house,
heeling-in shed, seed extraction plant, nurseryman's residence, garage,
and assistant nurseryman's residence. The Federal Emergency Relief
Administration, Emergency Conservation Work, and Florida Forest
and Park Service cooperated in constructing the buildings and de-
veloping the nursery.
Direct telephone connection between the nursery and the express
and telegraph office at Olustee expedites placing orders and shipping

38 Biennial Report

An overhead sprinkler system serves that portion of the nursery
upon which seedlings are being raised.

Overhead sprinkling system waters an area four beds wide.

Slash pine seedlings are the major product of the nursery, followed
in importance by longleaf pine and by various other species grown
primarily for experimental plantings. The seed are obtained from
pine cones which were, during the period of this report, collected by
CCC enrollees.

The operating costs of the nursery were reduced during this bien-
nium by the use of improved tools which replaced labor in many
operations. These improved methods also contributed toward making
a higher grade product available to the farmers and forest land-
owners at a lower cost. These improvements covered such activities
as spraying the seed beds for the control of diseases and insects,
sowing the seed beds, weeding, fertilizing, packing and shipping, and
culling to produce a more sturdy seedling.

Several tests were carried on at the nursery using different types of
fertilizer in various combinations. These tests included the use of wax
emulsion for reducing the mortality in planting, raising exotic seed-
lings considered to have promise for planting in this State. and con-

Florida Forest and Park Service

ducting cooperative experimental work with the Southern Forest Ex-
periment Station. All these tests were established for the purpose
of improving nursery or planting practices.

Seedlings packed in wet moss, waterproof paper, and burlap.

The Federal Government, through Section 4 of the Clarke-McNarl
Law, allocates funds to the Florida Forest and Park Service for the
growth and distribution of forest tree seedlings to farmers and land-
owners wishing to restock idle and unproductive lands.

The Emergency Conservation Work program has materially aided
in the operation of the nursery for the two years covered by this re-
port. An average of thirty CCC enrollees, working five days a week
under the supervision of the Florida Forest and Park Service nursery-
man and his assistant, have been available for the operation of the
nursery and to assist in necessary construction work. In addition,
equipment and building materials were purchased for the nursery.

40 Biennial Report


Each year, the number of forest tree seedlings planted in the State
has gradually increased. There are several explanations for this fact.
The plantations established eight years ago, when the Florida Forest
and Park Service
p began functioning,
have demonstrated
the growing power
of the land to the
complete satisfac-
tion of the farmers
a n d landowners.
The forest areas
on which it was im-
Spossible to obtain
seedlings by nat-
ural reproduction
cn account of a
T IThs lack of seed trees,
sub-marginal agri-
Planted eight by ten feet near Chipley, Florida. Forty sb a nal
acres planted six and one-half years ago. Example of cultural lands,
putting idle lands to work. and lands on which
species might reseed, have been made productive by planting. It has
been demonstrated that the seedlings will live and can be planted at a
very reasonable cost. Another significant reason for increased plant-
ings is the reduction in the risk of having the plantings destroyed by
fire due to more effective fire control measures on forest lands. The
educational planting program, authorized for the CCC camps, and
supervised by the personnel of the Florida Forest and Park Service,
also gave considerable impetus to the planting program and resulted
in planting 1,200,000 seedlings on the lands of forest owners in the
vicinity of these camps.

This phase of the planting program was very important, not gauged
so much by the number of seedlings planted as by the educational
value of the work. It broadened the idea of forestry among the en-
rollees to something more than fire fighting and digging stumps. In-
structions were given in the planting and care of plantations and
growth and financial returns over a period of years.

Florida Forest and Park Service

During the past two years, nearly five and one-half million trees have
been planted throughout the State. The majority of these were slash
pine. These seedlings were sold at prices ranging from $3.00 per
thousand for quantities under two thousand, with a reduction of 20
cents per each additional thousand, to $1.80 per thousand for quan-
tities of fifteen thousand or more. All prices are f. o. b., Olustee

About sixty-five signboards have been erected calling attention
to demonstrational plantings along main traveled highways.

It is interesting to note that up to June 30, 1936, there have been
987 plantations established, using 8 million seedlings, and covering
15,817 acres.
Over sixty-five demonstrational plantings along State and county
highways have been well marked with thirty by sixty-inch signboards.
These were painted and erected by the workers on the NYA forestry
project and the personnel of the Florida Forest and Park Service.

Burned and Unburned Plots
The established burned and unburned plots clearly demonstrate that
no slash pine seedlings will live on areas burned annually. Longleaf
seedlings withstand fires better and will sometimes survive fires, but
their ability to' grow is checked when subjected to fires. These plots
are definite examples that burning will largely nullify any attempt
to practice forestry successfully.

42 Biennial Report

Axe, saw, and shears were ex-
perimented with. The purpose is
to make saw logs free of knots,
and measurements will be made
comparing growth of pruned and
unpruned stands.


A few landowners who have
planted seedlings are now
undertaking to prune the side
limbs. Some have harmed
the tree growth by removing
too many branches. Tests
are being conducted to de-
termine how much to prune,
the comparative costs of
pruning with shears, pruning
saw, and axe, and records are
being kept comparing the
growth of pruned and un-
pruned saplings.
Measurements on thinning plots, with adjoining check plots re-
maining unthinned, are being made from time to time to contrast

UNTHINNED s, 1" 0 F'
The trees were iden-
tical in size four
years ago, measuring
4.1 inches in diameter
4% feet from the
ground. The thin-
ned section on the
left now measures
6'/ inches in diam-
eter while the un-
thinned on the right
measures 4%', inches
in diameter-an in-
crease of 2 inches in
four years.

the growth and
development be-
tween thinned and
unthinned stands.

Florida Forest and Park Service 43

Samples from some of these plots indicate that in four years' time
the thinnings have accounted for two inches additional diameter
growth over the unthinned trees.

Forestry and Grazing Experiment

This work is being continued by annually measuring the growth of
saplings and counting the establishment of seedlings on the experi-
mental plots in both the burned and unburned areas. Tentative
results of the forestry work show that no seedlings, slash or long-
leaf, survive on the seedling plots in the burned area, while a stand
ranging from seven hundred to three thousand trees per acre is
established on the unburned areas. The growth of the saplings in
the plots on the burned area shows an annual increase of 0.6 to 0.7
feet, while saplings on the unburned area have increased at the rate
of 2.0 to 2.2 feet per year.

The requisites to the successful management of any tract of timber
are the quantity and quality of the existing growing stock and fire
control. Complete reforestation of the tract can be accomplished
through natural seeding or planting combined with fire control. After
these are established, thinning, pruning, et cetera, follow, but proper
management, using improved forestry practices, is not the end. It
must be followed by sane utilization of forest products. There must
be a practical relationship between the management of the forests
to assure the landowner maximum returns, and the utilization of the
forest products to assure the woods operators and industries a profit.
Forestry in all aspects must pay its way commercially. The Florida
Forest and Park Service is now able to supply assistance on these
matters to forest landowners and wood-using industries.
Over ten landowners have been aided in thinning demonstrations
or furnished information on the subject. Forty other landowners have
been given information on cruising timber, scaling logs, and selling
Considerable time has been spent in cooperating with the U. S.
Forest Service in developing management plans for large areas of
forest lands in the State. The branch has also cooperated with the
Emergency Conservation Work timber type mapping project. A

44 Biennial Report

simplification of types and a standardization of field and mapping
standards have resulted from this cooperation.

Six sawmills have been given advice and assistance for the improve-
ment of their operations. Three crate mills have been assisted in
locating additional stumpage, and a project for the utilization of veneer
cores has received some very favorable comments, with several plants
planning to install a small amount of equipment to save from $30 to
$40 per day for lumber which they need in their process. Six manu-
facturers have been assisted in the sale of lumber, and a market was
created for certain special scattered species by locating a supply of
logs for an exporter. T'he officials of two pulp mills, which have now
located in Florida, were assisted in their preliminary surveys of sites.
Several special articles, with messages to sawmill operators and the
trade, were prepared and distributed. Another important activity
has been directed toward promoting the use of grade-marked lumber.



and fire protection are illustrated.
A forest management plot where thinning, pruning, planting, and

fire protection are being practiced by the Florida Forest and Park
Service is located in Suwannee County, west of Live Oak. Another
plot, demonstrating fire control and thinning, is located on State Road
No. 1, four miles east of Madison. There are approximately 600,000
acres of forest land in the State upon which private landowners are
applying simple forest-management measures.

Florida Forest and Park Service

The U. S. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils and the Florida Forest and
Park Service cooperate in the employment of a naval stores agent whose
duties are to keep the naval stores operators informed of improved
woods work and stilling practices. The information obtained through
the experiments conducted at the Naval Stores Station of the Bureau
of Chemistry and Soils and the Southern Forest Experiment Station,
near Olustee, are carried to the naval stores operators in order that
they may apply them to their operations to save expenses and increase
the quality and quantity of naval stores products.


This modern plant, near Gainesville, Florida, has one of the Government
style still settings and approved Bureau type shed, which takes the
lowest possible insurance rate. Approximately ninety Government style
still settings have been built but this shed represents recent modern
developments. Note the protective tin roof over the wing walls.

The agent made over 293 contacts with naval stores operators, at
which time still design and operation and proper woods work in tur-
pentining were discussed. From July, 1934, to July, 1936, forty-
eight Government style fire stills and six still sheds were erected,
using the latest type of construction for permanency, low fire in-
surance rate, and efficiency of operation.

Forty-seven separator covers, which prevent loss of turpentine
through evaporation; five dehydrators, which reduce the cost of
handling turpentine; and twelve thermometers, which help the stiller

Biennial Report

This up-to-date plant has covered separator, covered dehydrator, and a
recording thermometer. The hinged glass lid permits the stiller to
look at the tail-pipe and to check the spirits in the 10-ounce glass. The
dehydrator is fitted with a flexible pipe which helps reduce wastage of
turpentine. This layout saves an average of 2.2 gallons per charge as
shown by tests run at the Naval Stores Station.

to make the best product from the charge and greatly reduce the in-
surance cost, were installed under the direction and assistance of the
cooperative agent. Other assistance rendered operators included aid
in rosin straining, construction of cooper's winches for proper barrel
making, and the holding of seven stilling demonstrations for operators
interested in learning the most recent methods of operating their stills.

Thirty-two operators were assisted in cup hanging and raising as a
part of the forestry and woods work activity. Four gum producers
were aided in the preparation of turpentine tools, cupping of timber,
and proper operating methods to assure a substantial cash income from
the few trees producing gum.

Florida Forest and Park Service 47

Model lease forms, which set a standard for the conservative tur-
pentining of timber, were distributed to twenty landowners and

Tree gauges, indicating the size of trees unprofitable to be worked
for naval stores, were distributed to all operators in the State through
the cooperation of the Naval Stores Control Committee, Florida Forest
and Park Service and Emergency Conservation Work organization.

No wood exposed below. Tins Wood slabbed off exposing tree
supported underneath by bark to fire and insects. Tin support
and wood. inadequate.

A research project for the investigation of the chemical possibilities
of naval stores was conducted in cooperation with the Chemistry De-
partment of the University of Florida. A number of individuals in-
terested in seeing this study carried on and assisted by the Federal
Emergency Relief Administration were instrumental in inaugurating
the project. The lack of funds caused the discontinuance of the work
after considerable data were secured.

Biennial Report


It has been estimated that Florida receives an annual income of
$200,000,000 from tourists visiting the State. The delightfully mild
climate during the winter months attracts these winter visitors. What
has Florida done on an extensive scale to increase their enjoyment of
the many recreational activities offered in the great "outdoors" of
Florida? A well-planned system of State parks will set aside areas
having botanical, historical, scenic, and recreational values. These
will be developed and maintained for the use of our permanent popula-
tion and winter residents and visitors which will do a great deal to-
wards meeting the situation. The State parks, where the visitors can
view pleasant scenes of Florida's woodlands, rivers, lakes, and marine
life, in addition to enjoying the recreational facilities, such as camping,
picnicking, swimming, boating, et cetera, will entice many visitors.
Many of these spots now exist in their natural beauty but are prac-
tically unknown or rarely used because they are inaccessible. The
State park program includes making the areas accessible and avail-
able for use by the greatest number of people.

The first definite step toward the establishment of a system of State
parks commenced in July, 1934, under the direction of the State
Forester and Park Executive. There were no State funds available
to purchase lands. Consequently, acquisition was slow because the
areas had to be donated by individuals, companies, and communities.
The work was inaugurated at this time on account of the obvious
need for a State-wide park system and because of the wonderful
opportunity for the State to develop the parks with CCC camps
through the cooperation of the State Park Division of the National
Park Service.
The Conservation Committee, appointed by Governor Sholtz at the
request of President Roosevelt to study forest conservation matters,
appointed a special committee to submit recommendations concerning
State forests and parks. This committee drafted laws, passed by the
Legislature of 1935, authorizing the acquisition, development, and
management of a system of State forests and parks, and appropriating
funds for this purpose which were to be directed by the Florida Board


Florida Forest and Park Service 49

of Forestry. These laws provide the real basis for an active program
of State forest and park acquisition and development.

The Florida Emergency Relief Administration and the State Plan-
ning Board cooperated with the Florida Forest and Park Service in
making preliminary reconnaissances of possible park sites. The in-
vestigations were concentrated on those areas which showed the most
promise of meeting the standards for State parks.
These surveys furnished information which is of great value in de-
termining the suitability, appropriate limits, features, ownership, and
desirability of areas which have outstanding State park characteristics.
The Florida Forest and Park Service also made surveys and examina-
tions independently of other agencies.

Myakka River State Park
This park is located on the Sugar Bowl road between Sarasota and
Arcadia. It includes the Upper Myakka Lake, a stretch of the Myakka
River. and all of the Lower Myakka Lake. It is one of the finest
scenic spots in Florida and under protection has become noted for the
large number and variety of waterfowl and bird life which now fre-
quent it. The area is rich in tropical and subtropical beauty, con-


50 Biennial Report

training a wealth of palms, oaks, and wild flowers of variegated hues.
The total State lands amount to 26,910 acres, of which approximately
8,300 acres are ideal for park purposes, while the remainder is better
adapted for grazing and forestry. Some of these lands were acquired
through purchase and donation. The majority of them, however, were
already State-owned lands in the possession of the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund.


The property has been safeguarded against forest fires by the con-
struction of exterior and interior fire lines; scenic and service roads
have been constructed to make the area accessible to the public; and
overnight cabins, latrines, a picnic pavilion, tables, benches, and fire-
places have been completed. These improvements make the area very
attractive for those who want to spend some time in the out-of-doors.

Hillsborough River State Park

It is located on the west side of the new, partially completed high-
way between Zephyrhills and Tampa where the highway crosses the
Hillsborough River. The park is ideally located for large usage by
the people of Tampa when this highway is completely hard surfaced.

Florida Forest and Park Service

The 760 acres in the park were acquired mainly through donation, but
some land was purchased. The
beauty, variety, and utility of this
park will make it increasingly
The site is attractive on account
of its location on the beautiful
Hillsborough River, and is inter-
esting because of the presence of
unusual subtropical growth.
Camping and picnicking facili-
ties are provided by a picnic pa-
vilion, trailer and camping
grounds, cabins, and picnic tables.
Foot paths and bridle trails lead
to points of interest in the park.
The bare and unattractive areas
are being landscaped. The area is
completely fenced and protected A VIEW OF THE TROPICAL SCENERY
from fire. Swimming, made pos- ALONG THE BEAUTIFUL
sible by providing bath houses HILLSBOROUGH RIVER
and bathing facilities, can be enjoyed in the clear Hillsborough
Gold Head Branch State Park
This park, which was acquired largely by donations from interested
companies, lies between Penney Farms and Keystone Heights on the
east side of the highway being constructed from Middleburg to Key-
stone Heights. It contains 880 acres with suitable acreage on Lake
Johnson and controls Gold Head Branch from its source to its mouth.
The park is located in a region of beautiful lakes and sandhills here-
tofore little known or visited.
The outstanding feature of the park is a deep ravine in which
are growing species of hardwoods not found on surrounding lands.
Gold Head Branch, a small, crystal-clear stream, trickles through
the ravine, culminating in an old mill dam. This dam, as well as the
grist mill, will be reconstructed.
Picnic grounds have been constructed at Lake Johnson, parking
areas have been provided, and trails are being constructed to make the
ravine accessible for hikers.

Biennial Report



Torreya State Park
It is located on the high bluffs on the east side of the Apalachicola
River between Bristol and River Junction, near Rock Bluff postoffice.
There are 520 acres in the park which includes Battery or Neal's
Bluff, and Rock Bluff Landing. This park was acquired by donations
from the Neal Lumber and Crate Company, the Jackson Estate heirs,
Alvin McDaniel, Dora McDaniel, Henry J. Wiggins, Frank Conner,
David Lee, Coquse Lee, Sarah Stewart, and Lucindie Williams.
This site was selected due to its unusual botanical interest, top-
ography, and historical value. It is the home of the Torreya tree,





Florida Forest and Park Service 53

from which the park derived its name, which is native in the State to
a territory only twenty miles long and four miles wide on the eastern
side of the river. Some of the boldest and most rugged topography
in the State is found in the park. The variety of hardwood trees,
shrubs and flowers, found on the area, makes it interesting territory
for the lover of nature or the student of science. All these distinctive
characteristics make the park an area hardly able to be visualized by
many of the population of our own State and scarcely at all by
out-of-the-State visitors.
It is also rich in history due to the Confederate gun emplacements
on Rock Bluff, the antebellum warehouse at Rock Bluff Landing, and
the re-erection of a historic plantation mansion transferred from
across the Apalachicola River to Neal's Bluff.

Fort Clinch State Park

This park contains outstanding historical and recreational features.
It is located north of Fernandina with frontage on Amelia River,
Cumberland Sound, and the Atlantic Ocean. Local individuals, civic

Enjoy surf fishing and bathing at this park in addition to
inspecting the interesting fort

54 Biennial Report

organizations, and the city of Fernandina cooperated in their efforts
to obtain 980 acres for the park. Interesting old Fort Clinch, a five-
bastioned fort which was started in 1854, was about to be dismantled
and salvaged before the citizens intervened and the park was estab-
lished. Visitors will also enjoy the park's mile and a half of bath-
ing beach splendid fishing opportunities, camping locations, and the
scenic trails through dense hammocks and giant, shifting sand dunes.
Development of the area thus far has been concentrated on re-
habilitating the old buildings, parade grounds, and other places of
historical interest, and in providing roads to make the area accessible.

Highlands Hammock State Park
This area, located near Sebring, was acquired and developed by
Highlands Hammock, Incorporated, through the interest and gener-
osity of Mr. and Mrs. John A. Roebling. On August 1, 1935, the
Florida Forest
and Park Ser-
vice commenced
operating High-
lands Hammock
as a State park.
The park was
formally accept-
ed for the State
by Mrs. Lin-
wood Jeffreys,
member of the
Florida Board
of Forestry, in
impressive "Ac-
30, 1936.
The park consists of an area of 1,052 acres and has a unique and
unusual growth of semi-tropical palms and hammock species of trees
although located in almost the center of the so-called "Ridge" section
of the State. Some of the finest and largest of Florida's native trees
are to be found in this park. The area also abounds in a variety of

Florida Forest and Park Service


Extensive surveys
conducted along the
total length of the
Suwannee River in
Florida revealed that
there was one out-
standing location ad-
mirably adapted to
form the nucleus of
a State park. It was
possible to obtain
the greater portion
of this site which is
the first concrete
step towards acquir-

bird and other wild life, flowers, shrubs,
and fruits.
Incomplete records indicate that over
six thousand automobiles and twenty-five
thousand people visited the park during
this biennium. The park is also used by
the residents and visitors of surrounding
communities for the purpose of holding
vesper services beneath the shade of the
waving palms and stately oaks. There is
a great demand for picnic and overnight
camping facilities which exceeds the
present accommodations. The paths and
cat-walks make it possible to enter the
heart of the hammock and are very
popular with visitors .
An added attraction of the park is the
presence of fifteen deer and many alli-
gators which the visitors are delighted
in seeing. The park is partially self-
sustaining through the sale of citrus on
the area.

uwannee River State Park


Biennial Report

ing the park, thus focusing state and national attention upon the
area due to the already established interest in the Suwannee River.

Work will be concentrated upon acquiring the following proposed
State parks during the next biennium: Tomoka River, Santa Rosa
Island, Caverns, Lower East Coast, and Middle Ridge.

The press was very cooperative in publishing information acquaint-
ing the public with the fact that the Florida Board of Forestry was
enabled to acquire, develop and maintain a system of state forests
and parks. These releases also explained the nature of the work
being done on State parks and forests, called attention to the out-
standing features, and kept the public informed of the desirability
of acquiring other areas having high park value.

Four radio speeches covering the objectives and work of the Florida
Forest and Park Service, and describing respective parks, were made
by members of the Florida Board of Forestry and the Florida Forest
and Park Service over WTAL, the Tallahassee station. The State
Park Division of the National Park Service broadcast two programs
from Atlanta describing two of our parks.

Printed and distributed:
Florida State Park News (one issue) ................ 30.000
Highlands Hammock State Park ................... 30.000

An exhibit of a typical park area with the improvements was dis-
played at the State Fair at Tampa in 1934-35. A photographic ex-
hibit showing various scenes of the State parks and of the work ac-
complished was used at the annual meetings of the Florida Federa-
tion of Garden Clubs and State Association of School Board Mem-
bers, and at flower shows at Pensacola and Chipley.

Florida Forest and Park Service 57

Through the courtesy and cooperation of the State Road Depart-
ment, directional road signs have been erected within twenty-five to
thirty miles of each of the established State parks. Additional signs
have been provided by our department and interested citizens and
Bumper Strips
Over twenty-five hundred bumper strips advertising Highlands
Hammock State Park were placed on the cars of people visiting the
park. The personnel of the Florida Forest and Park Service also
displayed this bumper strip. The Junior Chamber of Commerce of
Fernandina has printed and distributed bumper strips advertising
Fort Clinch State Park.

Miscellaneous Publicity
Many of the gasoline companies have located the State parks on
their road maps while the State Road Department is doing the same.
Merchants, hotel men, and citizens have carried advertisements of
the parks on printed statements, menus, stationery, show cards, et

58 Biennial Report



The progress which has been made in the development of our State
parks during this biennium was made possible largely through the
technical advice, assistance, and aid of the State Park Division of the
National Park Service. The latter, through the Emergency Con-
servation Work program, was able to provide CCC camps accom-
panied by directing and planning personnel.

This assistance was especially valuable in 1934-35 when it would
have been practically impossible for the State to have launched a State
park program without it. In addition to the assistance previously
mentioned, the inspection service provided has made it possible for us
to develop our parks according to the standards recognized by State
park experts.

At the end of this biennium there were four park CCC and one
forestry CCC camps working on six State park projects.

The allocation of these camps, with the employment of supervisory
personnel and approximately eight hundred CCC enrollees and funds
for materials for the various projects, has made it possible to proceed
with development of State parks in Florida at a very rapid rate in
spite of the fact that no camps were assigned to this work prior to
November, 1934. The National Park Service EOW forces cooperate
with the State in the planning and construction of these parks. Dur-
ing the biennium a total of $105,062.43 was expended from Federal
funds for the supervisory and facilitating personnel, operation of
equipment, purchase of tools and purchase of materials for the State
parks. In addition, the Procurement Office acted as fiscal agent for
the CCC camp assigned to the Florida Botanical Garden and Arbore-
tum project at Sebring, Florida, and disbursed $69,147.20 of Federal
funds on this project.

Accomplishments of these camps in this work were only made pos-
sible through the foresight of President Roosevelt in establishing the
Civilian Conservation Corps; through the technical supervision and
inspection of the Branch of Planning and State Cooperation of the

Florida Forest and Park Service 59

National Park Service; through the interest and efforts of the pro-
ject superintendents and their staffs; through the hearty cooperation
of the Army officers assigned to the camps; and above all, through
the efforts and interest of the CCC enrollees, consisting of veterans,
white junior enrollees and colored junior enrollees.

A statistical tabulation of the work accomplished by camps working
on State parks during the biennium is listed below.

Telephone line, miles ......................................... 61.6
Fire presuppression, man-days .................................. 1,292
Fire breaks, miles ........................................... 219.4
Fire hazard reduction, acres .................................. 2,625
Fire hazard reduction, roads, miles .................. .......... 7.6
Clean-up, other than fire prevention, acres ..................... 23
Roads, miles ................................................. 50.9
Buildings ...................... ......................... 15
Buildings, partially completed .................. ............... 1
Planting forestationn), acres.................................. 800
Field planting or seeding, acres ................................ 117
Surveying, linear, miles....................................... 101
Surveying, topographic, acres.................................32,143
.Surveys, grade line, miles..................................... 4.5
Fighting forest fires, man-days............................... 394
Pipe lines, linear feet .......................................... 3,680
Camp fireplaces............................................... 7
Table and bench combinations ... .. 19
Fine grading, square yards................................. 1,460
Stream improvement, miles .................................... .5
Vehicle bridges (repair)...................................... 1
Vehicle bridges ............................................... 1
Signs, markers, etc........................................... 80
Landscaping, acres........................................... 2
Moving and planting trees and shrubs........................ 137
Razing undesirable structures.................................. 6
Maps, type and topographic, man-days......................... 379
Preparation and transportation of materials, man-days......... 5,017
Fence, rods ... .............. ......................... ... 3,420
Cattle guards.................... .. ........................ 3
Obliteration roads, miles.. .......................... ........... 5.1
Obliteration dumps, man-days ................................. 1,691
Parking areas, square yards .................................. 5,300
Public picnic ground development, acres ....................... 3
Seeding and sodding, acres.................................... 1
Soil preparation, acres........................................ .9
Education, guide, contract station work, man-days.............. 100
Stream protection, square yards....................... ........ 800
Ditches, diversion, linear feet .................................. 250
Tree insect pest control, acres.................................. 450
Mosquito control, acres ....................................... 20

60 Biennial Report

Florida has millions of acres of unproductive and tax delinquent
lands at the present time. These lands are creating no wealth nor
contributing anything to the support of the various governmental
agencies. Acquisition of State forests will materially assist in cor-
recting this condition.

State forests serve as demonstrations of timber growing which will
assist private landowners to derive a greater profit from their forests;
they are managed to produce a maximum amount of forest products
with which to sustain the wood-using industries; they remove forest
land from the market, thereby stabilizing land values. The areas are
developed for their greatest use, such as hunting, fishing, camping,
grazing, summer homes, and other recreational activities, and in gen-
eral put the land to use for the greatest good of the greatest number
of people.

Work commenced on this project in 1934 under the direction of the
Applied Forestry Branch and was transferred to the Branch of State
Forests and Parks during the last year of this biennium. The per-
sonnel was very limited and hence no great progress could be ex-
pected. The State forest legislation was enacted into law at the
same time as that of the State parks and provided funds which en-
abled the purchase of forest areas for State forests. The U. S.
Forest Service assisted in the preliminary survey of desirable State
forest areas for the purpose of determining whether they were
suitable for possible purchase through the provisions of the Fulmer
Bill. (National legislation to assist states in acquiring State forests.)
No moneys were available from this bill during the period of this

Through the State appropriation, it was possible to purchase three
forests, thus providing a nucleus for a State forest program. These
are known as the University, O'Leno, and Pine Log State Forests.

Florida Forest and Park Service 61

University State Forest
This forest is located on the east side of State Highway No. 13, be-
tween Fairbanks and Gainesville, and comprises 1,519 acres. It was
selected in cooperation with officials of the University of Florida,
Florida Board of Forestry, and Florida Forest and Park Service. This
forest will be used by the forestry students of the University of Florida
as an experimental and research laboratory in connection with their
forestry studies and affords an excellent opportunity for the forestry
students to obtain practical knowledge concerning the management
of forests in Florida. It will be turned over to the University for the
use of the School of Forestry.

O'Leno State Forest
The 160-acre site of the Forestry Training Camp, located seven
miles north of High Springs and two miles west of the road to Lake
City on the Santa Fe River, was the nucleus for this forest. Includ-
ing the camp area, the forest now contains 1,410 acres. The sink of
the Santa Fe River and considerable river frontage were acquired
through purchase. The area will provide additional facilities for the
forestry training camp, will provide recreational facilities for the
public, and will enable the demonstration of forestry practices for
both hardwood and pine typical to this area.

Pine Log State Forest
This forest is located in Bay and Washington counties between the
towns of West Bay and Redland. It has a four-mile frontage on the
highway between Panama City and Freeport and is a typical flat woods
area, consisting of 6,729 acres, which are well suited for reforestation
purposes. Good roads through and adjoining the property make it
desirable for publicity purposes and facilitates the transportation of
forest products to markets. The proximity of the pulp and paper mill
at Panama City will enable us to demonstrate proper management
methods, especially thinnings, plantings, and salvage cuttings, on this
Myakka Tract
The highest land use of approximately 18,610 acres of the Myakka
River property is considered to be for forestry and grazing purposes
with grazing the dominant use.