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Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Officers of the Sixth Southern Forestry Congress
        Page 3
    Editor's note
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Main
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 63
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    Appendix I: Certificate of incorporation of the Southern Forestry Congress with list of charter members
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Appendix II: By-laws of the Southern Forestry Congress
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Appendix III: List of patrons of the Sixth Southern Forestry Congress
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Appendix IV: List of registered delegates attending the Sixth Southern Forestry Congress
        Page 79
        Page 80
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Full Text





PROCEEDINGS
OF THE

Sixth
Southern Forestry
Congress


HELD AT
SAVANNAH, GEORGIA
JANUARY 28-30, 1924





































THE SEEMAN PRINTERY, INC.
DURHAM, N. C.
1925


















OFFICERS

OF THE

SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS



PRESIDENT..................BONNELL H. STONE, Pfister & Vogel Land Co.
BLAIRSVILLE, GA.
VIcE-PREsIDENT....................P. R. CAMP, Vice-President Camp Mfg. Co.
FRANKLIN, VA.

SECRETARY-TREASURER.......................................... R. D. FORBES,
Director Southern Forest Experiment Station
NEW ORLEANS, LA.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY..............................J. ROLAND WESTON,
H. Weston Lumber Co.
LOGTOWN, MISS.

CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE............JOSEPH HYDE PRATT,
Director Geological and Economic Survey
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.

CHAIRMAN FINANCE COMMITTEE.............................J. K. JOHNSON,
Forester, Great Southern Lumber Co.
BOGALUSA, LA.

CHAIRMAN PUBLICITY COMMITTEE............J. S. HOLMES, State Forester
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
CHAIRMAN LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ......................A. B. HASTINGS,
Assistant State Forester
CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE-The above officers, together with all former
Presidents of the Congress, constitute the Executive Committee.

THE FORMER PRESIDENTS ARE: Elected
COL. JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Chapel Hill, N. C................... 1916
HON. HENRY E. HARDTNER, Urania, La........................... 1920
MR. ROY L. HOGUE, Jackson, Miss............................................. 1921
MR. W D. TYLER, Dante, Va........................ ....... ...... .... 1922




















EDITOR'S NOTE
In view of the delay of twelve months in getting these pro-
ceedings published, and because it is necessary to keep the cost
of publication within the means of the Congress, it has been
decided by the Executive Committee to publish only such part
of the proceedings of this Congress as relate to the Naval Stores
Industry. This seems most appropriate, not only because
Savannah, where the Congress met, is in the heart of the
country where this industry has been flourishing for the past
fifty years, but even more because the Naval Stores operators
attended the Congress in such numbers and contributed in such
large part to the success of the meeting. Not only, therefore,
have a number of very interesting and valuable papers con-
tributed by the speakers named on the program been omitted,
but a considerable part of the discussion as taken by the stenog-
rapher has been cut out. The Editor and the Executive Com-
mittee of the Congress herewith desire to extend their apologies
for taking this liberty with the Proceedings.
J. S. HOLMES, Editor
March 15, 1925.













CONTENTS
PAGE
PROGRAM OF SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS............ 7
INTRODUCTORY BY MAYOR SEABROOK AND COL. PRATT.......... 11
LETTER FROM PRESIDENT COOLIDGE.......................................... 12
LETTER FROM SECRETARY WALLACE.......................................... 14
LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT'S PRIVATE SECRETARY,
Hon E. T. Clarke--.....------....... .--- -......-......... 15
"THE FRENCH NAVAL STORES SYSTEM AND ITS LESSONS,"
Col. W B. Greeley................- --- ---- .........-.......17
"PROLONGING THE LIFE OF THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY:
THE PRODUCERS PART," L. V. Pringle................................ 27
"CAN THE FACTOR PREVENT RECKLESS TURPENTINING?"
H. L. Kayton.....................-----------------. 30
DISCUSSION: "THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY"
Mr. Thomas Gamble, Temporary Chairman...................... 33
Mr. C. F. Speh--..................... .---------..--. .. 36
Mr. A. K. Sessoms................................. ---------....... 36
M r. C. S. Hodges...........-....----. ----- ......... .......... 37
M r. A V W ood................................ ....... ................ 39
M r. A S. Carr....................................... .......................... 40
M r. Thomas Gamble................................ ..... ............... 41
M r. J. G Pace..................................................... ............... 41
Mr. Thomas Gamble................................................42, 49, 52
R solution ....................... .......... .. .......... ..................... 43
D r. F. P. V eitch.................................................................... 44
Mr. O. H. L. Wernicke.............................. 47, 49









6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

M r. J. E. Lockwood.............................................................. 50
M r. J. S. Holmes..............................................................51, 52
D r. A ustin Cary.................................................................... 53
PERSONNEL OF COMMITTEES..................................................53, 54
RESOLUTION ON DEATH OF MR. M. L. ALEXANDER................ 55
REPORT OF LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE....................................... 56
REPORT OF RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE...................................... 58
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLACE OF MEETING...................... 62
REPORT OF TREASURER............................................................63, 64
APPENDIX I. CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF THE
SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS WITH LIST OF CHARTER
M EM BERS ................................................................................ 65
APPENDIX II. BY-LAWS OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY
CONGRESS .......................................... ....................... ......... 73
APPENDIX III. LIST OF PATRONS OF THE SIXTH SOUTHERN
FORESTRY CONGRESS.............................................................. 76
APPENDIX IV. LIST OF REGISTERED DELEGATES ATTENDING
THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS...................... 79









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


PROGRAM


MONDAY, JANUARY 28
10:00 A. M.
Invocation-Rev. W. A. Jonnard, St. John's Episcopal Church,
Savannah.
Address of Welcome-Hon. Paul E. Seabrook, Mayor of
Savannah.
Reply-Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt, President Western N. C.
Inc., Asheville, N. C.
President's Address-Bonnell H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land
Co., Blairsville, Ga.
Topic-The Naval Stores Industry:
"Prolonging the Life of the Industry-the Producer's
Part." Address by L. V. Pringle, Vice-President
Gillican-Chipley Co., Inc., Biloxi, Miss.
"Can the Factor Prevent Reckless Turpentining?" Address
by H. L. Kayton, Vice-President Carson Naval Stores
Co., Savannah.
Discussion, led by Thomas Gamble, Editor Naval Stores Re-
view, Savannah.
Appointment of Committees.
1:30 P. M.
Automobile tour of Savannah, followed by an oyster roast at
the Savannah Yacht Club, and drive to Tybee Beach.
8:15 P. M.
Illustrated Lecture-"What Goes on Inside a Turpentined
Tree," by Miss Eloise Gerry, Forest Products Labo-
ratory, U. S. Forest Service, Madison, Wis.
Motion Pictures-Louisiana Department of Conservation, and
U. S. Forest Service.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


TUESDAY, JANUARY 29
10:00 A. M.
Topic-Forestry and the South's Business:
"Forest Fires-a Menace to the South Atlantic Ports."
Address by Matthew Hale, President South Atlantic
Maritime Corporation, Washington, D. C.
"A Business Man's View of the Cut-Over Land Problems."
Address by O. H. L. Wernicke, President Pensacola
Tar and Turpentine Co., Gull Point, Fla.
"Florida's Forests and Florida's Agriculture." Address
by R. W. Bennett, Secretary Standard Container Man-
ufacturers, Jacksonville, Fla.
"The Surest Crop on the Farm." Address by H. M. Cur-
ran, Extension Specialist, Raleigh, N. C.
"The Interest of Banks and Trust Companies in Forestry."
Address by Eliot Norton, Interstate Trust & Banking
Co., New Orleans, La.
Discussion of each paper as presented.

2:00 P. M.
Topic-The Responsibility for Forestry:
"Forestry-a Problem for Us All." Address by David L.
Goodwillie, Chairman National Forestry Policy Com-
mittee, National Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, Ill.
"The State's Part." Address by member of State Forestry
Board, Alabama.
"Can the Hardwood Manufacturer Practise Forestry?"
Address by Phil D. Houston, Houston Bros., Vicks-
burg, Miss,
"Forestry for the Pine Manufacturer." Address by J. M.
Camp, Vice-President Camp Manufacturing Co.,
Franklin, Va.
Discussion of each paper as presented.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


8:15 P. M.
Introductory Address-Hon. Clifford Walker, Governor of
Georgia, Chairman.
"The Newspapers' Interest in Forestry." Address by Major
James A. Holloman, Managing Editor, Atlanta Con-
stitution, Atlanta, Ga.
"France Points the Way to America." Address by Col. Wm. B.
Greeley, Chief Forester, United States Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 30
10:00 A. M.
Report of the Secretary-R. D. Forbes, New Orleans, La.
Reports of Standing Committees-Executive, Col. Joseph Hyde
Pratt; Finance, J. K. Johnson, Great Southern Lum-
ber Co., Bogalusa, La.; Legislation, A. B. Hastings,
Asst. State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.; Publicity,
J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Resolutions.
Elections. 2:00 P. M.

Round Table Conference-State Delegations from South Caro-
lina, Georgia and Florida.
Presiding Officers:
South Carolina-Prof. Andrew C. Moore, University of
South Carolina, Columbia, President South Carolina
Forestry Association.
Georgia-A. V. Wood, The Downing Co., Brunswick,
Vice-President Georgia Forestry Association.
Florida-W. L'E. Barnett, Mount Dora, President Florida
Forestry Association.

4:00 P. M.
"The South's Opportunity"-Illustrated Lecture by Dr. Austin
Cary, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.










10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

8 00 P. M.
Tree Identification Contest for pupils of Fifth, Sixth, Seventh,"
Eighth, and High School Grades, Savannah Schools-
Conducted by J. S. Holmes, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Motion Pictures of Wild Life-Louisiana Department of Con-
servation.
Announcement of Prize Winners.













Proceedings
OF THE

SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS
HELD AT SAVANNAH, GEORGIA
JANUARY 28-30, 1924.

The Sixth Southern Forestry Congress was called to order
by the President, Mr. Bonnell H. Stone, of Blairsville, Ga.,
at 10:00 A. M., January 28th, in the Municipal Auditorium,
Savannah, Ga. After an invocation by Dr. S. B. McGlohon
of St. Paul's Church, Savannah, the Mayor, Hon. Paul E.
Seabrook, gave a cordial welcome to the Congress. "You
have wisely selected Savannah as the place of this meeting,"
he said, "as she is known as the Forest City of the South. We
have centered here, as you know, many activities that depend
on the raw materials of the forest and you will find here ready
sympathy and willing cooperation in the advancement of every-
thing looking to the protection and conservation of the raw
materials on which we here are so dependent. You know, no
doubt, that Savannah is the premier Naval Stores port of the
world. Her lumber interests are also extensive, and there
are other activities that are dependent on the raw material that
we get only from the forests."
In his reply to the Mayor's courteous words of welcome,
Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, President of Western North
Carolina, Inc., and Chairman of the Executive Committee of
the Congress, spoke in part as follows:
Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, Asheville, N. C.: The restora-
tion of the Naval Stores Industry, or perhaps I had better say
the increase of the Naval Stores Industry, in Georgia is of such
importance to Savannah that every man, woman and child in
the City and surrounding sections should be asking what can I
do to bring this about. The Port of Savannah is largely
dependent upon the Naval Stores Industry and no one thing
that the City of Savannah and the State of Georgia can do tc
reestablish the importance of the Port of Savannah will be giver
greater results than to build up the Naval Stores Industry.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


The first step towards this is for the State to pass adequate
legislation for the protection of the forests of Georgia from
fire.
The question of re-forestation is being agitated throughout
the whole country but no State is in a position to undertake or
even to consider re-forestation until legislation has been passed
that will insure the protection of the forest from fire. Re-
forestation is necessary not only for the Naval Stores industry,
but to insure the South of an adequate supply of lumber.
Through the investigations of expert Foresters of the U. S.
Forest Service it has been determined that not only can the long
leaf pine be reproduced in Georgia and other Southern States,
but that the Slash Pine which is a more rapid growing tree
than the Long Leaf Pine and almost equal in its turpentine
product, can be grown successfully in the South.
The cooperation of the Federal Government in acquiring
large areas of land in the South for the production of timber
which are designated as National Forests should be an incentive
for the State to acquire areas for State Forests to be used for
the same purpose. The Federal Government has already ac-
quired 1,500,000 acres of land in the Southern States for
National Forests. Of this amount 360,000 acres are in North
Carolina, and during 1923 there were disbursed amongst the
Counties of North Carolina, in which National Forest areas
occur, sums of money representing 25 per cent of the income
of the National Forests which was equal to approximately the
property tax of the County on the land area in the County at
an assessed valuation of $5.00 per acre. This is the promised
income in lieu of taxes.
The following communications were then read.

LETTER FROM PRESIDENT COOLIDGE TO THE
CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
November 13, 1923.
My dear Colonel Pratt:
It is a matter of sincere regret to me that I am unable to attend the
meeting of the Southern Forestry Congress to be held at Savannah next
January. This organization has undertaken a most commendable public











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


enterprise in awakening the people of the South to the value of their
forest resources and in bringing them together for mutual counsel to
the end that these resources may be perpetuated. I am informed that
the Southern Forestry Congress has been identified with most of the
progressive developments toward forest protection and reforestation
which have been launched in the Southern States during recent years;
and that its recurring sessions have become clearing houses for the dis-
cussion of public and private developments in forestry, thus rendering
an admirable service both to your own region and to the entire Nation.
It is scarcely necessary for me to emphasize the importance of refor-
estation in the United States. The American people came into the
possession of the greatest wealth in virgin timber with which any people
in the history of the world was ever endowed. Our unstinted use of
our forests has made us dependent upon their products in agriculture,
manufacturing industries, and living standards to a degree that is not
paralleled elsewhere in the world. But, because we have not as yet
learned to grow timber in any degree commensurate with our use of
timber, we find ourselves confronted with an approaching shortage of
raw forest materials.
The necessity of moving aggressively toward the growing of timber
both as a public activity and through the encouragement of private
reforestation is probably greater in the States covered by the Southern
Forestry Congress than in any other portion of the Union of comparable
size. With an aggregate area of forest land or potential forest land in
excess of 220 million acres, with a remarkable variety of valuable forest
trees, and with climatic conditions exceptionally favorable to the growth
of timber, it is not wide of the mark to say that this region contains
more than half of the future wood producing resources of the United
States. A large portion of the forest land of the South has already
been cut over. In many sections you are experiencing the exhaustion of
the original supplies of virgin timber, the moving out of sawmills, and
the consequent loss of industry and population. You are face to face
with the problem created by enormous areas of denuded and idle land.
In the economy of the South itself and in the economy of the entire
country, it is imperative that the portion of these areas which is unsuited
for agriculture shall not remain land without a crop.
The development of practical ways and means for securing timber
growth is a matter of the highest importance which should more and
more enlist the efforts of our national and state governments and of our
citizens. Consequently, I can but wish God-speed and the largest measure
of success to the Southern Forestry Congress.
Very sincerely yours,
(Signed) CALVIN COOLIDGE.
Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Chairman
Executive Committee,
Southern Forestry Congress,
Chapel Hill, North Carolina.











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WASHINGTON
January 17th, 1924.
Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt,
Chairman, Executive Committee,
Southern Forestry Congress,
Chapel Hill, N. C.

Dear Colonel Pratt:
Let me express through this letter my very real appreciation of your
invitation to be with the Southern Forestry Congress at its meeting in
Savannah this month, and also my profound regret because I am not
able to do this.
Although I shall not actually be with you I need not say, I hope, that
I am heartily with you in your aims and purposes. To my mind, the
Southern Forestry Congress is performing a very real, a very necessary,
and a very vital service not only to the South but to the entire country.
So far as the forestry situation is concerned, this country has but
little time to delay before applying remedial measures. We have danced
overlong to the tune of "Endless Resources," little realizing that the
piper must some day be paid. We have reduced our original 822,000,000
acres of virgin forest land to less than 138,000,000. This land is being
cutover now at the rate of about 10,000,000 acres yearly.
It would seem bromidic indeed to say today, especially to such a gath-
ering as this, that forest land is one of our basic national resources and
that our national welfare depends upon its productivity. Yet the fact
that from a quarter of a century to more than a century is required to
mature the forest crop has a significance that is neither widely nor
deeply realized. Shortages in forest-grown material cannot be rectified
in a season or two like shortages in wheat or cotton. If the people of
the United States wait until the injury to social and industrial well-
being for lack of wood crops is overwhelming, the loss in time before
any remedy could be made effective would create little short of a national
disaster.
In furthering tree growth on a national scale it must be realized that
an obligation rests upon the public to reduce the forest hazard by legis-
lation and by policy functions directed at the origin of forest fires, and
also to assist land owners in the cost of fire control and fire suppression.
The public has a very specific obligation to adapt the taxation of forest
growing land and what it produces to the reasonable requirements of
an undertaking which requires for its harvesting more than a quarter of
a century.
The results of treating our timber as a mine rather than as an ever-
renewable crop has been to leave 81,000,000 acres of forest land largely
barren, 250,0000,000 acres that are only partially productive, and each
year add to these from 5,000,000 to 10,000,000 acres.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Through the establishing of forests that are permanent, abundant,
and well distributed, this country must and shall be placed upon a self-
sustaining basis. I hope and confidently trust that this day may not be
too long delayed. I know that the farsighted, well directed efforts of
such an organization as yours can do much toward hastening the dawn.
Very sincerely yours,
(Signed) HENRY C. WALLACE, Secretary.

LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY TO THE
PRESIDENT

THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
January 12, 1924.
My dear Mr. Forbes:
Your letter of December 29th, transmitting resolutions adopted by
the Fifth Southern Forestry Congress, is before me. I have been at
some pains and effort to examine into this matter somewhat carefully.
I think I can best answer it by forwarding to you the substance of a
letter written by the Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. Wallace, to whom
the resolutions were referred. The essential features of Secretary Wal-
lace's letter I am enclosing herewith.
Most sincerely yours,
(Signed) E. T. CLARK, Secretary.
Mr. R. D. Forbes,
Secretary, Southern Forestry Congress, Inc.,
323 Customhouse,
New Orleans, La.
Enclosure.

QUOTATION FROM A LETTER OF SECRETARY
WALLACE

"As to Federal forestry legislation, the resolution covers practically
the provisions of the bill introduced in the House of Representatives on
February 7, 1923, by Hon. John D. Clarke, of New York. Before intro-
ducing this bill, Mr. Clarke submitted a draft copy to President Hard-
ing, who gave it his approval in a letter to Mr. Clarke, dated January
24, 1923. I also heartily approved that bill, and am now prepared to
advocate the passage of the bill (S. 1182) similar in many respects,
introduced on December 15 by Senator McNary, Chairman of the Select
Committee on Reforestation of the United States Senate, which, for the
past year, has held hearings in our different forest regions and given
much thought to the subject. This bill would authorize, among other
appropriations, appropriations as large as $2,500,000 each year for co6p-
eration with the States in protecting forest lands from fire and in study-











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


ing the effects of present tax laws upon forest perpetuation, which is an
amount more nearly commensurate, in my opinion, with the importance
and seriousness of these problems.
"The resolution refers to research conducted by the Forest Products
Laboratory and also that of the Federal Forest Experiment Stations.
The purpose of the latter is to secure a technical basis for the growing
of timber, and of the former to secure the scientific information neces-
sary to reduce waste and permit the effective utilization of wood. The
present drain upon the forests of the United States through cutting
and fire is estimated at approximately 25 billion cubic feet annually. At
the present time this drain is being replaced by new growth only to the
extent of 6 billion cubic feet, or approximately one-fourth. By a series
of simple measures, such, for example, as universal fire protection and
the leaving of seed trees where necessary to insure a new timber crop, it
would be possible ultimately to increase the growth of the forests of the
United States to approximately 14 billion feet. The gap between a pos-
sible growth of 14 billion and 25 billion cubic feet can be made up only
by intensive forest management. Such management must depend upon
a technical knowledge of trees and forests of a character which can be
secured only by forest experiment stations. With the necessary basic
information, it would be possible ultimately to grow upon the present
area of forest land an amount of timber slightly in excess of the present
drain. The place of the forest experiment station is, therefore, to fur-
nish the scientific basis upon which, alone, timber growth can be in-
creased from 14 billion to 25 billion cubic feet. In a number of important
forest regions we now have no forest experiment stations, and in all of
the remainder the force and equipment is so limited as to make it pos-
sible to cover only a part of the most urgent problems and that in an
unsatisfactory and inadequate way.
"Twenty-two and one-half billion cubic feet are cut from our forests
each year and out of this total we waste, avoidably and otherwise, about
9 billion. By the elimination of obvious waste in the woods, the manu-
facture of lumber, and in its remanufacture and use by the general appli-
cation of technical knowledge already available, and by thoroughgoing
research in the properties, protection, and utilization of wood, it should
be possible to save at least 6% billion board feet of lumber alone each
year and additional amounts of other material. This saving is essential
to extend the life of our present timber supply and thus help to bridge
the gap between the existing virgin forests and new timber crops. Such
a saving should mean greater profits to manufacturers and by increasing
the preparation of the crop which can be utilized it should help to make
timber growing more profitable. The research which will make possible
a large part of the saving is, broadly, the function of the Forest Products
Laboratory. But the Laboratory with its present personnel and equip-
ment is able to cover only a part of the most urgent problems which
underlie the effective utilization of timber and the reduction of waste.
"The recommendation for the continued acquisition of forest land by
the Federal Government and for an appropriation for that purpose of
at least two million dollars is in accord with the views of the National










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Forest Reservation Commission and of the Forest Service. While pren-
ent financial conditions operate against an appropriation as large as that
recommended, the members of the Southern Forestry Congress no doubt
will be gratified to know that the budget for the fiscal year 1925 carries
an item of one million dollars for that purpose, this representing an
increase of $550,000 over the appropriation for the present year.
"There is complete accord between the War Department and the
Department of Agriculture on the subject of devoting to National Forest
uses the areas suitable for such uses which were acquired for military
purposes during the war but not at present needed for such purposes.
Careful examinations have been made of the majority of the more
important of such areas; the reports thereon have been reviewed by a
joint committee representing both Departments, and the Secretary of
War has already given his approval to legislation which will make a
number of larger camps National Forests, subject, however, to unham-
pered use for military purposes should the need arise. I am sure that
the progress in this line is in complete accord with the wishes of the
Southern Forestry Congress and that the results will meet their highest
expectations."

THE FRENCH NAVAL STORES SYSTEM AND
ITS LESSONS
COL. W. B. GREELEY
CHIEF, U. S. FOREST SERVICE
It is apparent to all students of the situation in the southern
pine forests that the time has come for the naval stores industry
of the South to look very keenly into its future, to take stock
of its methods, and to give thought to the natural resources
upon which it is dependent, with a view to shaping its course
to meet a radical change in circumstances. I believe that our
industry has much to learn from the French in this preparation
for the future. In order that we may fairly decide whether or
not this is true we might take a look at the present situation in
the American naval stores industry and compare it with the
situation in France. Then, if possible, we will ascertain the
factors that are accountable for the great differences that exist.
When the principles that underlie the success of the French
industry have been clearly set out where we can see and weigh
them, we can consider the practicability and desirability of their
application to our conditions.
The American naval stores industry has dominated the
world's trade in those essential commodities, rosin and turpen-









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


tine, since early colonial days, but the industry is now on the
wane. The crest of production has passed and the end of the
industry as a major activity of the South is definitely in sight.
The industry as we have known it, is doomed for the simple
reason that the old stand of longleaf and slash pine from which
the raw product is obtained is about to be exhausted and no
adequate second crop has come to take its place in continuing
the supply. Such second growth as is present bids fair to be
removed from consideration at an early date through the use
of methods not adapted to realizing its full value.
The once green forest of longleaf pine that covered the
coastal plain from Virginia to Texas is now sadly depleted.
The best figures available show that of the original longleaf
pine forest which covered one hundred to one hundred and
thirty million acres, only fifteen million acres are still uncut
and this remainder is being cut over at the rate of two million
acres per annum; a decade will see its practical finish. Second
growth timber is being cut also as fast as it reaches merchant-
able size. Wood turpentine can be produced from stumps and
tops and this form of production, undoubtedly, has a future of
promise, but the gum turpentine and rosin industry must have
green timber to work on, and the passing of the longleaf pine
forest automatically chokes it off at the source.
The output of naval stores fluctuates from season to season
but has been gradually falling since the peak year of 1909. The
number of turpentine farms is decreasing. Each year an in-
creasing number of turpentine operators must give up turpen-
tining and go into something else, because no timber can be
found on which to place cups. Operators have followed the
longleaf south-ward to the Everglades of Florida and west-
ward to the plains of Texas and, being thrown back by these
outward limits of the species, are now combing over afresh
their hunting grounds of long ago, picking up scattered pieces
passed by before as too insignificant or too poor to work and
supplementing them with crops of cups placed on saplings that
have grown up since the first operation. In the last five years
operators, particularly in Georgia and since 1920 in the Caro-
linas, have been depending upon second growth, frequently
immature, for a large part of their output. Unfortunately
because of the method of working followed, they are rapidly
destroying the main hope for the future.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


While the distribution and financing of naval stores has
been a stabilized part of the industry for a great many years
as is shown by the history of this city, the operations in the
woods have been of a transient nature, always on the move,
ever in the backwoods. The thought and practice have been
to get the maximum amount of gum out of the trees in the
minimum of time and move on to pastures green. There was
ever, until the last few years, plenty more timber just beyond
the horizon, westward or southward, ready to be worked and
nobody worried much about the future. Trees were seldom
worked more than four or five years and stills were seldom
operated in one location for more than ten years, many for less.
The longleaf pine belt from Virginia to Texas is spotted with
thousands of old turpentine camps, of which nothing exists
now save a few bricks where the old still kettle stood. While
there may be some, I do not know of a town that has grown up
from a turpentine still and has been maintained permanently as
such by woods operation for naval stores. I know of no per-
manent system of roads nor of any permanent schools or
churches that have been built and maintained by or for a
population depending upon turpentine operations.
The typical turpentine camp is of flimsy, temporary con-
struction set away off in the wilderness. Such a place usually
fails to satisfy the natural cravings of the average American
citizen for what he considers the common necessities of life.
Partly due to the isolation and the comparative hardships of the
life, the woods end of our industry is frequently embarrassed
by the labor situation. The only class of common labor at-
tracted is difficult to hold; the annual labor turn-over in the
average camp is enormous. Recruiting his force often takes as
much of a manager's time as any phase of the operation. The
supply of labor is fluctuating and often insufficient, and by the
same token, wages, the biggest item in the cost of naval stores,
may vary tremendously from year to year.
Now let us take a look at the French Industry. I shall not
attempt to describe here the French methods in detail nor burden
you with statistics of yields, costs, etc. I simply want to give
you a bird's eye view of the industry as a whole. As you know,
French naval stores are produced almost exclusively in the
Landes Region of France from an area of less than two million










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


acres. The Landes was originally an enormous swamp in the
rainy season and an arid, sandy desert the balance of the year.
It was reclaimed, drained and planted to maritime pine, starting
about one hundred and twenty-five years ago. The project
was carried on in the face of many obstacles and the reclama-
tion of this land and its afforestation stand today as one of the
greatest and most successful efforts on the part of man to
radically change the face of nature.
The maritime pine is not as good a producer of gum, nor is
it nearly so valuable for saw timber as our longleaf and slash
pines. If you can imagine such a thing, it looks like a cross
between a loblolly and a spruce pine. Is is a fast grower and a
prolific seed bearer. The French originally planted this trees
in the Landes, though by far the greater bulk of the present
forest is the result of natural reproduction, the forests origi-
nally planted having been worked out and cut for saw timber
and their place taken by a second crop. The pine reaches saw
timber size at around seventy years from seed, when it is cut,
yielding from seven to ten thousand feet per acre of saw timber
and a considerable amount of ties, poles, cordwood, and char-
coal in addition. This alone is a mighty good crop for a soil
originally as poor as beach sand, but the raising of saw timber
is really a side issue with the French timber owner in the
Landes. His main crop is turpentine and rosin.
The French developed their method of gum extraction and
the system of management of their turpentine orchards on the
basis of timber production rather than timber mining. Their
methods are the result of over a century of experience in which
there has been ever present the grim necessity of replacing old
crops with new on the same ground, for they have never had
any reason to believe that their stock of turpentine timber was
inexhaustible. One hundred years ago they were where the
naval stores industry of the South now finds itself, only in a
very much harder case.
Now after a hundred years or more of existence what are
the conditions existing in the French industry? Let me, as
briefly as I may, paint a word picture of the Landes as I saw it
in 1917 and 1918. It is a gently rolling sandy plain roughly
triangular in shape, containing slighlty less than two million
acres, in the southwest of France near the coast, covered from










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


boundary to boundary with an unbroken forest of maritime
pine in all stages of development from seedling to saw timber,
every acre of which has either been planted or is the result of
seed from planted trees. North and south through the heart
of this area runs one of the main trunk line railroads of France
from which, every ten or twelve miles, feeder rail lines branch
out to the east and west penetrating to the outer boundaries of
the region. As extensive as this system of railroad transporta-
ion is, it is supplemented by an even greater mileage of roads,
of which the greater part is hard surfaced. I doubt if there is
a body of timber in the whole region that is more than three
miles from a railroad or a paved highway.
Every few miles along these railways and roads one comes
on a little village set in a narrow fringe of fields and grass land
and surrounded by woods. The heart of each village is a tur-
pentine still and a wood using plant of some kind. The villages
are of brick and stone with red tile roofs. Large churches,
schools and public buildings adorn their plazas and business is
brisk indeed on their well paved "main streets." These vil-
lages correspond directly with our turpentine camps but with
what a difference! Every now and then the traveller comes to
a small city of from twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants, of
which there are several in the Landes. These are the centers
of marketing, distribution and government for the adjacent ter-
ritory; and the bustle and stir of business reminds one more of
some wide-awake western city than of what we would naturally
expect in old and settled France. The Landes supports a per-
manent population of 1,400,000, half as many people as the
whole state of Georgia, although Georgia contains nearly nine-
teen times the area; and these folk are considered among the
most prosperous and contented in the whole of France. It is
no exaggeration to say that every man, woman, and child of this
population derives his daily bread directly or indirectly from the
maritime pine forests that surround him, and it is a mighty
good living I assure you.
Since the forests are permanent, the turpentine plants are
permanent. The structures are of steel, brick and concrete and
embody the latest thought in the processes of manufacture.
The continual use, over and over of the same land for grow-
ing timber crops and extracting gum and timber products









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


requires and justifies an extensive and permanent system of
roads; the continuous production of turpentine, rosin, lumber,
mine props, and cordwood maintains standard guage railroads,
and the never failing opportunity for labor year around and in
fixed location attracts a steady localized supply which many
years ago became the permanent population of the country.
The output of naval stores from the Landes has been steady
and uniform for many years. It was, of course, somewhat
upset during the war, but seems to have fully recovered since.
The two million acres of the Landes, no larger than four or
five average Georgia counties, produces one-fourth as much
naval stores as does the whole South. The future of the indus-
try and of the region is assured and the outlook is all the
brighter because of the gradual weakening of America's domi-
nance in the world's naval stores markets that must take place
as we near the exhaustion of our source of supply.
Now what is the secret of the success of the French indus-
try? Does the answer lie in the soil or the climate, or the
species, or in intensive European conditions generally? It does
not. Their climate is not as good as ours; our season is longer
as a rule and a good deal warmer. Their soil is very much
inferior to even that of our poorer sand hills and they have none
in the Landes that compares with our better clay soils. The
maritime pine is inferior to longleaf and slash pine in every
respect. It does not produce as much gum; its lumber is poor
indeed compared with that from our pines; it is not as hardy
against fire, insects, and disease; and on our better soils both
slash and longleaf pine should grow as rapidly, and under
proper care, more rapidly than the maritime pine. Is it the
method of extracting the gum, or the way the gum is converted
into turpentine and rosin, or is it the happy combination of these
two features and the high yield and value of the additional
forest products such as lumber, mine props, poles, etc.? These
all bear an important part but the prime factor in the French
success is their acceptance of the principle that timber grow-
ing comes first, that there must be an uninterrupted succession
of forest crops, and that each operating unit must be built up
on a continuous yield of gum as well as lumber and wood by
grouping about it a suitable acreage of each stage of forest,
from seedlings to full grown trees. All the rest of their sys-









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ter has been worked out to fit in with this governing principle,
or has followed as a natural result. It is this principle, rather
than any detail of cupping or chipping or climate or manufacture
that marks the fundamental difference between our practice
and the French system.
It is perhaps true that the French, keen thinkers as they are,
were driven to the adoption of this principle by the limitations
of the situation as they found the Landes a hundred years or
more ago. It may be contended that, facing no such limitations,
but on the contrary finding themselves possessed of an appar-
ently inexhaustible supply of turpentine timber, already mature
and often in demand for lumber, the pioneers of our industry
were fully justified in following a different principle. We won't
quarrel over that; what has passed is history but we are now
facing a set of conditions that differs radically from what our
forebears found. The inexhaustible timber is about gone and
the gum naval stores of the South must in the not far distant
future be derived from second growth timber. We are today
where the French were when they started, and the fundamental
principle they have followed so successfully is now as sound
for us as it has proved to be for them.
Not only is it sound, but, in the opinion of men much more
closely in touch with the conditions in the southern pine region
than I am, it is now possible of application over a considerable
portion of the naval stores belt.
To apply the principle of continuous production profitably,
either here or in France, it must, of course, be brought down
to the individual unit of operation, and the methods of extract-
ing gum and utilizing timber must be adapted to take full advan-
tage of the conditions in the particular operation without seri-
ously affecting the welfare and growth of the timber. This
is about how it is done in the Landes. A well established tur-
pentine plant owns its timber in the form of fifteen or more
tracts or lots, each of which has a stand of a different age-
for instance, tract number one will be covered with a stand of
five year old seedlings; tract number two with young saplings
ten years old; tract three, fifteen years old, and so on. Tract
fifteen will be a stand seventy years old. The stands below
twenty years of age, which are nearly always the result of
natural seeding and very dense, are gone over periodically and









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


thinned out by cutting to speed up the growth. In the tracts
that contain stands twenty to thirty years old the thinning con-
tinues but the trees to be removed are first turpentined heavily,
then cut and sold. The object of each of these thinnings is to
remove the poorer trees and leave the best trees to grow at an
accelerated rate. As a consequence the tract that contains the
thirty year old timber shows a fine, evenly spaced stand of fast
growing, big crowned trees, each as sound as a dollar and ready
for the long time working now to commence. There are as a
rule from seventy to one hundred and twenty of these trees to
the acre, depending on the quality of the soil.
Each of the tracts that contain thirty year and older timber
is worked as follows. One face three and one-half inches wide
is placed on each tree and is worked for four years. The tract
is then abandoned for from two to three years in order to rest,
the operation being shifted in the meantime to some other lot
that has had its rest. After the period of rest, another face is
made on the back of the tree and working continued four years.
The tract is again rested, then a new face is started; and so on
during a period of forty years until the tree reaches seventy
years of age when it is generally ready for the sawmill and is
felled and manufactured. There is always sufficient seed
in the duff after the felling to bring on a heavy growth of seed-
lings within a year after felling. Planting is only resorted to
in case fire sweeps over a young stand before it has reached
seed bearing size.
The chipping is done every five days, oftener in July and
*August, with a tool that looks something like a twisted foot
adze. The chipping is about one-half inch deep and the face
resembles somewhat a shallow gutter extending up the tree.
The gum is caught in a earthenware cup like ours, but smaller.
The narrowness of the faces and the rapid growth of the trees
allow a rapid healing of the face so that continued working is
possible without seriously retarding the growth of the tree or
rapidly reducing its productive capacity.
By this process of management and chipping the still re-
ceives a steady income of gum, the sawmill a steady income of
sawlogs, and the wood yard a steady income of mine timbers,
poles, posts, ties, fuel wood and charcoal, and at the same time










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


the worked out lots are being reforested; and a new crop is
being grown with which to continue the circle of production.
I have given you this account of French chipping methods
simply to round out the description of their manner of oper-
ating. I am certainly not going to advocate any wholesale
acceptance of French methods for use in this country for I am
satisfied that once the principle of continuous forest production
by units of operation is accepted, American ingenuity will invent
methods of chipping, cupping and utilization that will give the
desired results and at the same time be adapted to the circum-
stances of labor, markets and finances peculiar to our country.
The Forest Service has been conducting a comparative test of
the French method of chipping on the Florida National Forest
for the past several years, and a bulletin concerning it is now
being prepared for the press. The author of that bulletin, Mr.
E. K. McKee, is at this meeting and I will not steal his thunder.
I am sure you will find his conclusions interesting. Seeing is
believing. Proposal for trip to France.
To start one of their sustained yield units of operation, the
French had to go through the laborious process of draining the
land and then planting it. Men of vision have the opportunity
now and right here in Georgia, as well as in other parts of the
naval stores belt, to build up such units by the purchase of land
already satisfactorily stocked with young growth at the price
of the land alone. The greater part of the vast acreage of cut-
over pine land in the South will not be needed for agriculture
for many years; a very large part of it will never have a higher
use than that of growing timber crops. With soil, climate,
species and location near the great markets all in its favor, the
opportunity for profitable timber growing on these lands is
unquestionably great. When we add to these favorable factors
the possibility of making the trees pay their way, and a profit
besides, through producing naval stores while they are growing
to maturity. It can be said with truth that the South stands
first in the United States as a field for forestry.
Nor is the production of naval stores the only medium
through which pines may be made to pay early returns and
yield revenue while growing to maturity. The paper industry
is confronted by the necessity of finding new woods from which
to manufacture pulp and it is spreading south. Already seven-










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


teen pulp and paper mills are in operation in the longleaf belt
with a capital investment of over $15,000,000, and more are
coming. Pulp mills make a ready market for the small trees
worked out and cut in the process of thinning the growing
stands as well as for the older material that sawmills cannot
utilize. Then, too, there is the wood turpentine industry with
its demand for stump wood and light wood as a market for one
of the products of timber growing. Properly managed grazing
of cattle and sheep is another source of profit from forest lands.
A large proportion of the income of the Government's National
Forests is derived from this source.
There is every reason to look with optimism for steady
advances in the value of standing timber in the country at large,
and especially of longleaf pine with its dual use. Average
stumpage prices for this species have doubled since 1910 and
the value of the second growth has increased even more in the
same period. As an indication of the rise in the values of tur-
pentine leases, I may cite our experience on the Florida National
Forest. In 1909 we granted three year leases on virgin timber
at the rate of $50 per thousand cups. In 1924 our leases were
made on the basis of $275 per M for virgin timber. When our
foreign customers have covered their purchasing power, it is
reasonable to look forward to a greatly increased demand for the
products of our pineries and I believe that we may expect that
the trend in values will continue to be upward for a number
of years to come.
If I have made myself clear, it must be apparent that the
production of naval stores should be an essential part of the
practice of forestry in the southern pineries. It has been, I
know, the fashion for many years to damn turpentine orchard-
ing as a destructive agency in our pine woods, but as I said
before, let's forget the past and prepare for a new era. To
continue to exist at all, this industry must radically change its
viewpoint and its methods. By so doing it will at once cease to
be an agency of destruction, a plague of locusts as it were, and
become a direct and powerful factor in forest conservation,
the key industry that will make the rejuvenation of southern
pine lands a practicable and profitable thing. When this comes
to pass-and not before-we will see the chief emphasis placed
upon the continuous production of resin-making trees rather










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


than where it is now, upon the marketing of their products.
Then we will see turpentine farming acquire the standing it
has in France as a permanent, progressive and lucrative calling
in which men engage generation after generation with profit
to themselves and with the satisfaction and self-respect that
comes of knowing that they are building and not destroying.

"PROLONGING THE LIFE OF THE NAVAL STORES
INDUSTRY-THE PRODUCER'S PART"
MR. L. V. PRINGLE
VICE-PRESIDENT GILLICAN-CHIPLEY CO., INC.
This is a very important problem which confronts one of
the great industries of the South in which there is engaged
about 1,200 producers and many thousand employees all of
whom are face to face with the problem of prolonging the Naval
Stores Industry producing gum turpentine and rosin from liv-
ing pine trees, if not they must find other means of livelihood.
The naval stores industry is an essential industry. Essential
in the economic life of the South as it represents actual creation
of wealth to the extent of forty-five to sixty millions of dollars
annually. Essential to the consumer as it furnishes him with
a raw material much cheaper than other raw materials which
he would be compelled to use. It replaces fats and tallows so
that oils are available for edible purposes. Replaces imported
fossil gums and makes possible the use of china-wood oil, mak-
ing a cheap, efficient, waterproof varnish. Many industries are
built on the expectation of having available a continual supply
of these materials.
It is necessary, therefore, that our raw material-the tree,
be made available for future production. This means the effi-
cient utilization of the trees now standing and this in turn means
to work a tree in such a way that it will produce the amount
of turpentine and rosin which it is capable of producing before
being cut. This cannot be done by tapping the small, immature
tree. This practice means the using of the tree ahead of time
and, therefore, depriving the country of a source of supply in
later years.
There is another phase to the question and that is, the work-
ing of the small timber creates an erratic ratio of supply and


27









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


demand, giving in one year an over-supply with a low market
and the next year an under-supply with a high market, with the
consequence that neither the producer or consumer are bene-
fited. Moreover, putting it on the ratio basis, it takes an invest-
ment or expense of 100 cents operating such timber and the
best returns possible to expect at the prices which the consumer
can afford to pay would be about 75 cents, causing a loss of 25
cents. Therefore, instead of actually creating wealth those pro-
ducers are absorbing wealth from the South. Moreover, it is
not good business. Operators should inform themselves better
as to the statistical position of their product and operate with a
view of stabilizing market conditions and prevent violent fluctu-
ations existing from over production.
The producers for many years past have gone along in a
careless and wasteful way paying little or no attention to con-
serving the timber, disregarding Ihe fact that the supply is
being rapidly depleated by wastefu methods of operation. The
chief of which is the working of mall immature trees which
are not large enough to make a pr fitable yield, thereby, mak-
ing a loss to the producer and in many cases consuming all the
profit derived from larger trees wh ch not only results in a loss
to the operator doing the work but orks an injury to his neigh-
bor as well as all who are engaged i the business, as the product
from small unprofitable trees is pl ced on the market and re-
duces the price. When the sensible thing to have done would
have been to work only such size trees as will produce sufficient
to give a profitable return on the o erator's investment.
The worst feature of operating a small tree is the fact that
an asset has been consumed that if left until it becomes of
proper age and size would be of gr ater value and prove instru-
mental in prolonging the life of he industry on a profitable
basis.
The size tree from which a pr table yield can be expected
has been worked out and fully demonstrated by the Forestry
Department under the able supervision of Mr. Austin Cary
which clearly shows that no tree nder 10 inches-15 inches
from the ground should be worked for turpentine. I make the
assertion without fear of successful contradiction that if only
trees of the size above mentioned had been worked since the
close of the World War that the o erators would not be in the









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


deplorable financial condition the majority of them find them-
selves today. I fear the operators are not profiting as they
should from the splendid work being done by the Government
in the National Forest Reserve at Crest View, Florida, which
is further developed by practical experiments being made at
Stork, Fla., and other points from time to time by Mr. A. Cary.
I strongly recommend that all operators procure and study
closely all bulletins covering these experiments. If the life of
the industry is to be prolonged as it should be more conservative
methods of chipping must be adopted. It has been clearly
demonstrated by the Government in experiments conducted by
its efficient Microscopist, Miss Olose Gerry of Forest Products
Laboratory, that we have been chipping too deep and climbing
the tree too fast both of which detracts from the vitality of the
tree and retards production and consumes chipping surface on
the tree that should be conserved for later production. A place
under my supervision has been operated this season with the
chipping done by the method recommended by Miss Gerry
namely Y2 x /2 with most gratifying results as to yield and
conserving of timber. I think all factors and bankers should
cooperate in the matter of conserving small timber to the extent
that no advances would be made any operator who would not
agree to only work timber of the proper size. Think how
foolish it is to spend 100 cents operating timber that at best
can only produce 75 cents which only results in reducing the
price and in so doing labor is being used that should be utilized
for other profitable work.
If we hope to prolong the life of the industry the time is
now at hand when we must resort to reforestation and conser-
vation of the young timber which the South Atlantic and Gulf
States are so wonderfully blessed with soil and climatic con-
ditions suited for reproducing.
Let's all return to our homes with a firm resolve to co6per-
ate to the utmost to conserve our young timber for the benefit
of present and future generations.









30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

CAN THE FACTOR PR VENT RECKLESS
TURPENTINING?
MR. H. L. KAYTON
VICE-PRESIDENT CARSON NAVAL STORES COMPANY
In order that I may properly approach the subject which
has been assigned to me, it will fir t be best to consider exactly
what is meant by "reckless turpentining." I should say that
the term would apply not only to t e wasteful cutting and cup-
ping of small timber, the rapid draining of the trees by chip-
ping too deeply and too frequently, but also the failure to
properly protect the timber from :he winter and early spring
fires which annually visit the forests. Factors may exercise
actual control only over a comparatively small percentage of
operators and are loath to apply pressure even under conditions
where they are in position to dictate to the operator the meth-
ods which he should employ. The factor would much prefer
adopting a policy of education for a producer who is not sus-
ceptible to the improved methods which are now being evolved
is naturally an undesirable patron and one who must eventually
fail to survive.
It may not be amiss to take a step backward into the past
and trace the naval stores business from the early days up to
the present time. We find record s showing that naval stores
were made through the efforts of the early English settlers,
who secured pitch tar and rosin from the then vast pine forests
which overspread the Virginia shores. The industry has been
migratory and has steadily moved southward, then westward,
as the virgin forests fell before the axes of the lumbermen,
after having been first bled for rosin and turpentine. It has
been barely fifty years since the naval stores business was firmly
established in this territory and it is less than fifty years since
the pioneer factorage house was established in Savannah. For
the first twenty-five or thirty years of that period production in
this territory developed rapidly an timber was so plentiful and
so readily available that turpentine leases could be obtained at
very low cost and as a consequence slight capital only was nec-
essary for the establishment of a tturpentine still.
As the timber became depleted farther north, the North
Carolina operators moved into Georgia and factorage houses in









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Savannah were organized and prepared to furnish such accom-
modation as was needed by the naval stores producers. The
facilities required for concentrating and distributing receipts
of rosin and turpentine were promptly established and Savan-
nah has remained the chief port for naval stores and bids fair
to maintain her premier position.
In view of the low cost of turpentine leases and supplies,
loans by factors were comparatively small. Losses were neg-
ligible and despite the fact that producers generally were men
of little or no education and had not been afforded the oppor-
tunity of business training, the profits accruing to them and
consequently to the factors were sufficiently remunerative to
warrant the factors taking what we would today consider
unsound risks. The factors were prepared to furnish their
patrons with their entire requirements of supplies, food-stuffs,
tools and equipment and as few of the operators enjoyed estab-
lished credits they were not in position to secure their needs
from sources other than the factors. At that time there were
practically no country banks, hence banking accommodation was
not available, and even actual payroll money was obtained from
the factors, who sent it out by express or registered mail as
needed.
Conditions gradually changed and the personnel of the naval
stores producer has been developed into a type which in intel-
ligence and business capacity compares favorably with the per-
sonnel in other lines of industry. Many producers are men of
substances who have acquired a goodly share of wordly goods,
in fact, must be men of means to control considerable acreage
of timber at present values. They are frequently leaders in
their communities and many hold public office. They can secure
their supplies where they please, can market their product when
and as they see fit, and need not market through the factor
unless they consider it to their best interest to so do. The inde-
pendent operator is no longer the exception, though possibly
not yet the rule.
Naturally the factor has changed also and where formerly
his hold upon his patron was through the purse strings, today
his hope for success lies in his ability to perform service. His
supply business is obtained only in the keenest competition with
modern merchants and in many cases he finds it impossible to









32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

sell goods to an otherwise staunch patron. He must himself
be familiar with modern improvements and discoveries and
acquire knowledge in such way as he can so that he may intel-
ligently discuss with his patrons the newer thoughts and sug-
gestions which are being thrown out by the research workers
of the U. S. Forest Service. Improved methods of chipping
the trees have been discovered through painstaking tests extend-
ing over a period of years, modifcation of the tree workings
are recommended by the Forest Products Laboratory Micro-
scopist, who has exhaustively st died the structure and pro-
cesses of the pine, better gathering and stilling methods are
taught by the Department of Agriculture's Naval Stores demon-
strator, and the factor who desires to prove of value to his pro-
ducer patrons must cooperate with the various governmental
agencies, exchange experiences therewith and act as an inter-
mediary in the dissemination of practical, useful and beneficial
discoveries. The factor must further take upon himself the
duty of educating his clientele in t e desirability and necessity of
fire prevention, and creating amor g the naval stores producers a
sentiment in favor of a state organization for forest fire con-
trol. Therein lies the hope for pe-manence of the industry.
I think I may safely assert that fifty per cent of the present
day producers are men who operate entirely upon their own
capital and are independent. Possibly another 25 per cent seek
some accommodation, and borrow from factors since the terms
of repayment are more liberal than those offered by banks, but
these men could readily secure the funds from other than fac-
torage sources if they so desired. Many of the remaining
twenty-five per cent offer their business on a desirable basis
and only a small number of pre ent day operators are of the
wholly dependent type. It should be obvious, therefore, that
the power of the factor to control the volume of production is
highly circumscribed and limited( mostly to such influence as
he can exert in the way of advis ng for or against curtailment
or augmentation of operations. The factor is called upon con-
stantly for his views on market conditions, his ideas about the
size of the next crop, and is look, d upon as a fount of wisdom
from which the likely happenings of the future may be freely
drawn in copious streams. He must keep himself well-posted
on world conditions and continuously study the changing situ-










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


nations which effect the demands for rosins and turpentine. Even
with the small group of dependent operators his control goes
but little farther than an expression of opinion as to the desir-
able course, for not infrequently, despite a desire for crop re-
duction, the situation of the dependent is so precarious that the
attempt to force curtailment might cause disaster. A turpentine
location heavily involved must necessarily produce liberally in
order to utilize the only means or hope of salvation. Over-
head expense and interest would otherwise quickly bring about
bankruptcy. Sharp curtailment of production by the minor
producing group would fail in any event to bring about the de-
sired end, hence the responsibility devolves upon the major
group of independent and semi-independent producers. It is
my experience that these men seek the views of their factors,
listen intently to the summing up of the situation, but heed them
not in actual practice. Inability to resist the temptation of avail-
able timber, necessity of cupping under leases already con-
tracted for, pressure from timber owners who are in need of
funds and must cash in their holdings, are some reasons which
impel enlarged operations. The desire to be a "big operator"
sometimes is the cause of better judgment being suppressed,
while always the hope springs eternal that "maybe prices wont
be so bad anyway." Agreements among the operators them-
selves have proven of no avail in the past and conditions in the
naval stores industry do not lead to the belief that a co6per-
ative movement along the lines followed in several of the fruit
and vegetable industries could prove effective.
The salvation, so far as conservation of timber is concerned,
lies in the operators themselves, who individually must study
conditions and act intelligently. The factors will gladly aid
and will supply such information as will assist their patrons in
reaching wise conclusions, but the final decision as to the volume
of production lies almost entirely in the hands of those who
actually manufacture the goods.

DISCUSSION
Mr. Thomas Gamble, Editor of the Naval Stores Review,
Savannah, Ga.: I know the industry and trade appreciate the
great courtesy this Southern Forestry Congress has shown to










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


it in assigning an entire day to t
regarding the protection and need
Those who have followed the histo
a tremendous slump has come in
when there has been another forw
movement in the production this
gated this matter feel, has been
utilization of the small timber tha
boxed. In South Carolina, for in
to the rescue of the industry, a
thirty or more years young timber
there has been a tremendous inc
perhaps forty or fifty stills being
probably there were not eight or
ago.
Men who have recently trave
growth timber lands of South Ca
have been made sick by the desi
that section, trees that if left alone
been enormously profitable as tui
also have been valuable as lumbi
holds true in Georgia, where the
cupping of new timber, as a res
large increase in receipts at Sa
has been especially noticeable in
In fact, the activity of Georgia ir
has been astounding, and to som
tions and done material damage, c
the market value of the upper grain
laid special stress, and very prc
cutting of young trees. The C
conclusively that the working o
unwise but unprofitable to the o0
on every small tree on which he I
asked a factor in Savannah the i
of cutting young trees was to coi
short time before one of his best i
he said to him, "Why are you ope
are not sources of profit to you,"
vince the operator that that was


he consideration of questions
5 of the naval stores industry.
iry of naval stores know what
receipts, until the last year,
ard movement. The forward
year, those who have investi-
to a great extent due to the
t should not have been cut or
;tance, where nature has come
nd where for twenty-five or
has been growing prolifically,
-ease in production this year,
operated in that State where
ten in operation a few years

rsed a great deal of the new
-olina tell me that their hearts
ruction of the small trees in
e for a few years would have
pentine producers and would
;r trees. The same doubtless
re has been great boxing and
ult of which we have seen a
annah and Brunswick. This
the production of pale rosins.
the production of pale rosins
: extent has upset all calcula-
ne might say, in holding down
les. Mr. Pringle, in his paper,
perly so, on this boxing and
government has demonstrated
E immature trees is not only
aerator, for the operator loses
outs an axe or hangs a cup. I
other day, if this bad practice
itinue, and he said that only a
operators was in the office, and
-ating these small trees? They
but it was impossible to con-
:he case. "Why," he said, "I










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


have leased this timber, it temporarily belongs to me, to work
for three or four years, and I am going to work everything on
the place," and it was utterly impossible to convince him that
he wasn't even getting the cost of labor expended out of the
small trees. Not only does the working of young trees destroy
the future prospects of the producing timber that would be of
great value, but by the increasing of the crop it serves to bring
down and hold down the prices of the turpentine and rosin
derived from the larger and more mature trees-so that it works
two ways. The operator works such trees at a loss to himself,
and at the same time by overproduction he reduces the value
of the output from the trees that would be profitable. The
Georgia crop this season is said to be increasing somewhere
between 25 and 30 per cent, to a great extent due to the work-
ing of young trees that ought wisely have been left to a future
time. The Government showed a year or so ago that there
were in sight in the United States, out in the woods and at the
ports, in the hands of the producers and otherwise, about one
million two hundred and fifty thousand round barrels of rosin.
This excess supply of rosin has been hanging over the United
States market, as we all know, for several years, and the result
has been the holding down of the market to a point that the
production of rosin and turpentine has been unprofitable. This
morning I asked three large operators whom I saw here what
the conditions were in their section. They said there was a
very bad feeling of depression as a result of the unsatisfactory
rosin prices that are ruling this year.
Mr. Kayton has shown in his paper that this cannot be con-
trolled by the factor, that the factor is not in a position where
he can dictate any more, though he might have done so at one
time,-to the operators as to what they shall do, and that the
remedy lies entirely in the hands of the producers. The demand
for naval stores has been more active during the past year. The
foreign demand for turpentine is 50 per cent greater than a
year ago, and practically the same for rosins, but while the out-
side world is taking so much more rosin and turpentine than it
did during the previous season, it is not taking enough to take
the increased production of 20 per cent, and to bring down the
visible supply that was brought over, so that we have not bene-
fited very much from the improvement in consumption, and if










36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

we go on another year and increase the crop, it looks as if it is
perfectly hopeless to expect bett r prices from the operations
of the naval stores industry. |
Mr. C. F. Speh, Turpentine & Rosin Producers Association,
New Orleans, La.: The factor and the banker-I say banker,
because he furnishes the money--but the factor essentially, has
it within his power to remedy the situation. It may not be that
he can dictate to the producer ana say, "You must only operate
so many trees," but the producer needs a little outside educa-
tion. The solution of this problem is going to be not so much
in dictation as in education. If |we can bring about a change
through education we are going to have much more easy sailing
than if we try to force it. So I think we have a perfect right,
as producers in the industry, to look to the factor, the man
who has always a common interest, to try the educational rem-
edy,-to educate the producer that it is unprofitable to work
these small trees. He can do that ih several ways, by always tell-
ing them that it is to their advantage. He can always have it
in his mind to point out to the producer that there is no sense
in any business man operating an unprofitable enterprise. It is
merely a question of dollars and cents, the foolishness of put-
ting a hundred cents into something and getting back from it
only seventy-five cents. We would not do it in the timber busi-
ness, and we would not do it at anything else. Why, that's not
the way we do any of these things. Furthermore, it is unfair, it
is wrong for any man to take upon himself to withdraw from
our wealth of one hundred years and destroy it just simply as
a means of keeping himself in labor, when we know that he
cannot possibly add thereby to his wealth. So I really believe
I am going to pass the buck to the factor, that it is up to him
to pass the education on to the producer. I believe you will
get the more advanced operators to listen to you, and they
might help you and take on themselves the work of educating
the smaller producers.
Mr. A. K. Sessoms, Cogdell, Ga.: I know this, that a great
destruction of small timber has been going on in the woods, but,
as to how to best control that, ray own views are that it is a
matter of education. Now, whether the operator, or whether
the factor can best educate him to do it, or go after the man
that owns the land, I hardly k ow, but possibly all of them










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


together could do something. In my opinion it is a question
of education of the man owning the timber, or owning the land,
to prohibit that gross destruction of his own resources, and
that it is not profitable.
Mr. C. S. Hodges, Cyrene, Decatur Cownty, Ga.: Out of
thirty years experience in the yellow pine belt of Southwest
Georgia, I have observed that necessity is a severe schoolmaster,
but I have learned that the turpentine operator will learn in no
other than the school of experience. In my own county, De-
catur, which is right at the southwest point of Georgia, and in
Douglas and Early and other counties in this section, the yel-
low pine has been the chief source of wealth. It has been heart-
rending to see the destruction of the yellow pine in southwest
Georgia. It is surprising to me that the great Giver of all gifts
has allowed the reproduction of that yellow pine harvest. It
has been in spite of our efforts, for we have lent nothing to it.
We have not protected the yellow pine from the forest fires.
In our operations we have been guilty as a man who would pull
up young corn. We have cut everything that you could stick a
cup on. I thought one time,-and I am sure that we were cor-
rect-that when we got cups for the timber it would be a bless-
ing, and I guess it was, but the trouble is that we have not
profited by it, because we would stick a cup on a little tree that
we could not get a box in. r heard a man say last year that
thousands of those which were cupped were so small that it
took two men to do the job,-one to hold the tree steady while
the other put the cup on; and that is very nearly true.
The forest in our Southwest Georgia is fast reproducing
itself. We have thought the turpentine operators were due no
protection, for they use no common sense, you might say, but
only greed for gain. We destroy the very thing that would in
time be of value to the rising generation and to the State and
to ourselves. I do not know how to conserve the forests, though
I have made it a study for years. I have tried it in a small way
on a few thousand acres of cut-over lands, and the reproduction
of that forest has been phenomenal. I have ridden through the
holdings of other men near me. I have watched the reproduc-
tion there and in the adjoining counties to me, and it is wonder-
ful there, with nothing save what Nature has done. No effort
or no man's hand has been turned to save the tree. We live in









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


a country where the piney-woods rooter runs at large, and every
turpentine man knows what that means when it comes to the
destruction of new trees only a year or two old, and sometimes
four and five. They will go down and get them and tear them
out by the roots. The pine tree, as every one knows, is not like
the sassafras or some other trees. If you break it up even with
the ground it will not produce itself any more, and therefore,
the destruction alone of the piney-woods rooter has been more
than we can calculate, but it has not been as much or as exten-
sive as the destruction of us operators, I am sorry to say.
The question of taxation was brought up in Mr. Pringle's
paper. I believe that the tax on cut-over lands in the territory
that I live in, and in several counties like mine, will not amount
to more than 20 cents per acre. I think that is low. Six or
seven dollars per acre is the valuation. In Mr. Pringle's coun-
try the millage is thirty-five or forty, and I believe that will
amount to more than 20 cents per acre. That condition itself
will pre-ent conservation and discourage men to reproduce
forests, because the lands there are not so very valuable, other
than the pine trees that grow on them. It is poor land, and
the good Lord has given us one thing that will grow on poor
land, and that is yellow pine. How we can do this, how we can
bring about a system of thinking and education among our peo-
ple with reference to the burden of taxation, I don't know, but
I do know that it takes from 15 to 20 years for a forest to
reproduce itself to where you can saw mill it again, and that is
only where it has not been sawn over too close. There is a saw
mill in our county now that will cut timber down to where it is
only eight or nine inches, right at the ground too. Now, it will
take that forest forty years to reproduce itself. Where it is
cut to 10 and 12 inches, and the trees left, it can be worked and
turpentined, if it is worked conservatively, in 15 years. Pardon
me for taking so much time, but I want to say one thing. A
few years ago I went to an old farmer to lease his timber. He
said, "How small are you going to cut it?" I said, "Well, we
are not going to cut it below eight or nine inches." He said,
"You cannot cut my timber that low." That old man got me
to thinking. I finally traded with him on the basis of cutting
his timber down to 10 inches. I thought somebody had been
talking to him and he would not bother about watching the









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


woods, but that old creature was out there the day we started.
He ran the negroes out of the woods. He would not let me
cut it under ten inches. I said, "We can't measure every tree."
He said, "You will have to do some good guessing, then. You
can't cut my timber under ten inches." Mr. President, I made
more money on that than I ever made on a lease proposition in
my life, because I got results froni the trees that I did work.
On the other hand I can show you thousands of these little
trees worked elsewhere. Let turpentine go to one dollar and a
half and two dollars, and every turpentine man will lease any-
thing he can lay his hands on, that he can put a cup on, and I
can show you trees where they were worked four years, and
they are broken off where they cut them. Now, that is a de-
struction that the factor cannot control, and gentlemen, we can-
not expect anybody else to control it, except the man that is
operating it. Turpentining has been too easy,-it has been too
easy to make a living. Now, that is a fact. We all know it.
A fellow can get a nice check-book in his hip pocket and get in
his automobile and ride around and have a good time, and get
incompetent men to look after it, just so that he breaks even in
the fall, and is able to borrow money from some bank or some
factor. But we haven't paid any attention whatever to the very
thing from which we have been deriving a livelihood. We have
paid no attention whatever. Let it go, let it go. If I had what
has been burned up in the territory where I am working,-I
wont go any further than that,-if I had what has been burned
up down there, I would have more than we can work out of the
live trees.
Mr. A. V. Wood, Vice-President Georgia Forestry Associ-
ation, Brunswick, Ga.: I am one of those young men like Mr.
Kayton, who has only had a few years in the business. I
began sometime in 1868. I have watched the turpentine busi-
ness in a way during those years, and have followed the flag,
you might say, only at Brunswick instead of Savannah, for
forty-eight years. I am thoroughly in accord with the ideas
and the remarks of these gentlemen on the question of educa-
tion. It is a matter of education entirely, as to what we could
do. I thought we could educate our legislators in the first place
to the enormous possibilities that they have of correcting some
of the evils we have been confronted with. How we are going









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


to do that I do not know. I was in the Legislature but once in
my life, and then I quit. I tried to get a bill passed in the
Legislature some years ago to establish a State Board of
Health,-and of course it has been established since.
Education of the operators is coming gradually. As Mr.
Kayton said we have a great many more intelligent operators
in the forests now than we have ever had before. Conservation
is growing there, but it has not grown to the extent that it should
grow. To many of us it sometimes appears as if it were almost
stagnant. I don't know very much about the naval stores busi-
ness, but I am an observer, and one of the great things that is
being done now and has been done for the last few years has
been the educational work by Mr. Austin Cary. Those of us who
have been in the business see the revelations of this man work-
ing all the time. The operator in the country is seeing it, those
that he comes in touch with all the time. Many of them are
profiting by his researches and the experiments that he is mak-
ing, and certainly that is going to be one of the big results, the
conservation of the timber already standing. It is already show-
ing results.
I went into the business, as I say, in 1868. In 1871 the
senior member of the concern that I was working with came to
me very dolefully, I suppose we had had a bad year,-and said,
"The naval stores business will last about five years more." It
was very doleful to me, a young man, only to have five years
lease of life in that particular business. However, it jogged
along. I traveled on down to Brunswick, and after I had been
there about ten years, one of the members of our firm came in
one afternoon, called me in his office, and said, "Woods, what
are you going to do ?" He felt as if the industry was going to
stop. He said, "I will give it about ten years." So I really
have become an extreme optimist. I don't believe there is any
stopping point in the naval stores industry. I am certain that
there wont be any lessening of naval stores production if an
organization like this, and people like we have in this organiza-
tion, keep themselves thoroughly alive to the situation and push
it forward as it should be pushed.
Mr. A. S. Carr, President A. S. Carr Co., Bainbridge, Ga.:
I am in line with Mr. Pringle's views, and Mr. Seph, about the
production from the small tree, the small immature pine tree,









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


so many of which are being operated in our country. I suppose
at least 15 to 20 per cent of the total production is produced
from immature trees that do not produce any profit. The life
of that tree is destroyed, preventing future growth that would
make it good for lumber. In working these small trees we do
not produce any profit, but destroy wealth and make an over-
production of turpentine. I have always been in favor of let-
ting the small tree grow until more mature when we can make a
profit out of it. I have kept an account of the costs and I know
for a fact that you put more money into a small tree than you
get out of it.
Mr. Gamble: When the cup system came in I remember
talking with Mr. Shotter, who certainly was one of the ablest
who ever handled naval stores. He had been carefully looking
into the cup system, and he said it would bring about two
things,-bring about overproduction and bring down the price
of the pale grades to a point where they and the low grades
would be on a level; and Mr. Shotter's prediction has very well
been demonstrated. He saw that the cup would enable them to
work smaller trees, and that the industry would be guilty of
all sorts of overproduction.
Mr. J. G. Pace, President, Pace Lumber Co., Pensacola,
Fla.: I have belonged to this Southern Forestry Congress for
a number of years. I was with it last year in Montgomery. In
regard to naval stores, I am glad to see these turpentine people
connected with it. We have been turpentining for thirty years
like Mr. Hodges said. I went through Southwest Georgia
about thirty years ago, out by Cordele, Americus and Abbe-
ville, and I told my wife when I left Pensacola yesterday that
I was going to come through Georgia in day-light. I came to
Montgomery Saturday morning, and got on the train,-came
by the Seaboard all the way through. Thirty years ago it was
a beautiful country with timber on it. Today in all those vast
acres there is nothing left but denuded land, land not fit for
farming or making anything, nothing but stumps left on that
land. Well, sir, I was never more surprised, to see the land
between Americus and Cordele and over here at these rivers,
cleared up down to the branches. They are turpentining right
along in these spaces, cutting right in the little small spaces that
were left. There is a growth of timber there large enough for









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


turpentining, and a gentleman I was talking with last night on
the train said they were getting 48 to 55 gallons of turpentine
per acre. That beats Florida.
Now, whether we take the command and go forward or
not, I do say this, that the man who owned timber, and stood
still, has got more than the man who has gone forward in the
effort for gain. That is my experience. To illustrate that, I
am going to tell you a little coincidence in my own business.
A young man once came to me, about the time I lived in Geor-
gia, about 22 or 23 years ago, and said, "Mr. Pace, I want to
borrow $150 to buy a piece of land." I said, "Is there any-
thing on it ?" He said, "Nothing but a second growth of tim-
ber." This was 22 years ago. I loaned him $150, and he
bought something like 450 acres of land. Now, these turpen-
tine people had already turpentined a small amount of adjoin-
ing timber. I said, "Now Mills, these turpentine people will
be nosing up by you before long,-just hold your timber." He
did. And six or eight years later he sold that timber to the
turpentine people for $1500. He kept his land and had a pretty
fair growth of small timber.
Reforestation is no individual or no corporation concern. It
is a community interest. No one individual, no one corporation,
no several corporations can do it alone.
Taxes at 20 cents per acre, while you have got a young
growth of timber on it, seems to me pretty high. It is dis-
couraging for a man to try to hold a tract of land to reforest
with the high rate of taxation you have to pay. However, I
believe I had just as soon have money invested in cut over
pine land as to have it put in anything else, even at 20 cents per
acre, when I consider the number of trees growing on the land.
The lease system is bad. A turpentine man takes a short
lease. Labor is scarce and hard to manage. He will do any-
thing to try to cut it all before his three year lease expires. That
is a bad system, but most of us work that way.
Mr. Thomas Gamble: Just as a little interlude between
hearing from the operators, I am going to introduce a resolu-
tion to bring the matter right before the meeting. All of you
know that the Government is doing a good deal for the turpen-
tine industry. Ever since Dr. Herty began his investigation
which opened up interest in the naval stores industry, more and










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


more attention is given to it by the National Government and
in various operations throughout the South, but we all realize
that the Government is not doing as much as it should do, that
these investigations are hampered very much by the absence of
adequate appropriations. In the matter of uses of naval stores,
for instance, the Government could do a great deal of work
toward broadening the uses of rosin and turpentine and in find-
ing out what they can be used for. A gentleman came to my
office a week or ten days ago. He is one of the largest buyers
of rosin in the world. His concern handles one hundred to
two hundred thousand round barrels of rosin,-quite a batch
of stuff for one concern. He told me the Eastman Kodak Co.
was importing three to five thousand barrels of French rosin
every year because they couldn't get sufficiently fine rosins in
the United States. I do not vouch for that statement, I am giv-
ing it to you as given to me. He says we don't make the fine
rosins for the needs of that concern, and they had gotten a
French rosin, which they call AAAA, a grade about four or
five grades lighter than our best water white rosin. There may
be others in this country who would use a No. 4A grade if it was
called to their attention. It might be this quality of rosins
could be enormously developed in this country. These are the
things that the Government could and ought to do for us in the
rosin and turpentine and various other trades. Now, to bring
that before the meeting, the following resolution has been
prepared:

*TO URGE CONGRESS TO MAKE PROPER APPROPRIATIONS
FOR RESEARCH TO AID THE NAVAL STORES
INDUSTRY
WHEREAS, The Naval Stores industry of the United States, includ-
ing the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, in its production of spirits
turpentine and rosin and allied products represent a gross aggregate
value of fifty million dollars annually, of which approximately one-half,
or twenty-five million dollars, is exported to foreign countries yearly, and
WHEREAS, This industry furnishes constant employment to many
thousands of men and represents an invested working capital of many
millions of dollars, and is a source of prosperity to large sections of
the Southern States referred to, and a large element in the freights of
railroads and steamship lines, and
This resolution is here given in its amended form as finally adopted by the
Congress.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


WHEREAS, These naval stores products are essential elements in
the manufacture of many commodities used in domestic consumption
and extensively exported, and thereby assist materially in the employ-
ment of many thousands in manufactories located in other sections of
our country, and
WHEREAS, The perpetuation of this naval stores industry and its
profitable operation depend upon reforestration and the establishment of
improved methods of production, and
WHEREAS, The Federal Government in recent years has undertaken
investigations and furnished valuable cooperative assistance in efforts
to promote the industry, but has permitted such vitally important co-
operative work to be seriously hampered by inadequate funds, thereby
preventing the industry from deriving the full benefits that should accrue
from governmental cooperation of this character; therefore, be it
RESOLVED, By the Southern Forestry Congress, assembled at
Savannah, Georgia, in its Sixth Annual Congress, and on a day devoted
entirely to the naval stores industry, that a committee of seven repre-
senting the several sections of the naval stores belt, and including repre-
sentatives of the naval stores sections of the Savannah Board of Trade,
Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce and Pensacola Chamber of Com-
merce, be appointed by the President of the Congress to memoralize
the United States Congress and communicate directly with the Senators
and Representatives from the naval stores states, urging larger and con-
tinued appropriations for the naval stores industry, and that in particular
appropriations be made for research work looking to new and broadened
uses for spirits turpentine, rosins and allied products, and for field and
laboratory work that will promote the practical industry and encourage
and establish reforestation as the means of its perpetual continuance,
such Committee in its memorial to present facts and arguments and
elaborate on the work the Government can satisfactorily and effectively
do in this connection.

Dr. F. P. Veitch, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C.: I think it is needless to say that we are deeply
interested in your industry, and that the Department of Agri-
culture has the greatest desire to be of all possible help to you
in making it a success, not only for the present, but for the
future years. Perhaps I should give you a brief outline of
what we in the Bureau of Chemistry are trying to do. I think
it is of the greatest importance and greatest service to you, a
work that ought to be done, and that work we are trying to
supply or carry on further both at the still and in the uses of
your products. Now, our work is divided in general into three
main lines,-that of domestic research work and the enforce-
ment of the recently enacted Naval Stores Act. The purpose
of our domestic work is at the individual places to carry to the









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


individual operator and his force the best methods known to the
Department of Agriculture, to develop by the Forest Service,
wherever we can supply that work, our own rule and the best
methods known to the industry itself. Wherever we see a good
thing in the hands of an operator we steal it from him and give
it to the rest of them. That is what we want to do. He has
no objection there. Bear that in mind. He is perfectly willing
that the good thing that he finds out may be passed on for the
use of the whole industry. So we are trying, among other
things, to stop these tremendous losses that occur after the gum
is drawn from the tree. It has been very clearly brought out
here this morning, and should have been known a long time,
that the larger that loss the less we got from a diminished or
small tree. It has been shown that this is the least productive.
I am perfectly convinced that we are losing money also on all
the larger trees because of the wasteful processes that are so
generally used through a large section of the industry. I am
frank to say that at least ten per cent will be a low estimate of
the increased value that you could get from a thorough careful
control and saving of the wastes that now occur in the industry,
and that increased return is profit, because you have already
had all your expenses.
In this demonstration work which we have been doing ever
since we have had operation of naval stores the government has
been fortunate in securing the services of a man who knew
naval stores from a to z. This man at present is located here
in Savannah. He is at your service, to visit your places and
help you in every way that it is possible, to point out where
he thinks you can improve your outturn and receipts and make
more money. He is here for you to call on at any time, either
here or at your places, and I hope that a large number of you
Swill do this. We want to extend that work and make it more
useful to you, as funds are available. We are seriously handi-
capped this year in that work, and I am a little fearful that we
will have difficulty in raising funds to assist you in the field as
we would like to do during the present year, but we are making
our best efforts to get funds from our present resources.
Now, in addition to that, we are doing constantly a great
amount of research work, looking to a better production, the
reasons why we are getting lower grade articles, the reasons









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


why these products give trouble in certain uses, and also to
extend the uses of these various products. This all takes money,
and we haven't enough money to do this as thoroughly and as
vigorously as we would like. It is surprising to find how many
problems come up from the users of turpentine and rosin, things
that they have used for years and years, and yet every once in
a while there is a little unexplained difficulty that they have with
it. And they are presenting these things to us, and we cannot
always tell them the answer. First, perhaps, it is a maker of
dentists' supplies, and then again a maker of varnish, and so it
goes. Another time it is a maker of a turpentine drum. What
is the trouble? What is the difficulty here that we are encount-
ering? And we are trying to solve these problems,-difficulties,
to extend the uses and explain flaws in the old uses, why these
things have turned up, and to try to eliminate the difficulties
that are coming about in some cases with these well known
useful materials.
Mr. Gamble and other speakers have referred to the use of
rosin in place of fossil gums. You know that the varnish enter-
prise has been able to use fossil gums. It is only comparatively
recently that good varnishes have been made from rosin. Now,
we can extend the market for rosin by determining what are
the characteristics that are required for a first-class varnish, and
try to give rosin those characteristics. I am sure that it can be
done, it is the coming thing, and it can be done. One of the
things that has been very dear to my heart for many years and
one of the things that as soon as we are in funds I want to
inaugurate is the combination of demonstration and research
work. I want to see the Government have at some centralized,
easily accessible locality, where local conditions are right,-a
first-class demonstration still, in order to show the best methods
for production and in the uses of turpentine and rosin. The
Bureau of Chemistry is prepared now to introduce some, I
think, decided improvements along that line, and to cooperate
with the Forest Service and other governmental agencies, and
with the turpentine operators and producers, in the full exploit-
ation and running of such a still, a place where every item of the
turpentine production can be clearly visualized and fully under-
stood, from acquaintance in the very beginning, and from the
very production in the beginning of the tree to the final making









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


of the product. I hope we will be able to do that at an early
date, but it is all going to depend on the funds to do it with. It
will probably take $15,000 to even establish such an institution
and $5,000 more to run it.
Now, I want to say a few words in conclusion about the
enforcement of the Naval Stores Act. That work has been
assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry. No appropriation has so
far been made for carrying it out, but estimates have been made
and we will soon be actively engaged in enforcing that work.
You know what we have done in the way of providing rosin
standards and that these have been adopted by an Act and made
Federal grades. Our regulations under the Act are now in the
hands of the printer, to be available to you in a short time. I
am confident that we will be able to make you some money by
a vigorous enforcement of this act. We are going to decrease
the supply of so-called turpentine I think very materially, and
increase the price of turpentine, because there is a lot of adulter-
ated stuff that is being sold in this country, and it is being sold
generally where it is very, very difficult to reach. That is, it is
sold to you and me over the counter of the small store, especially
the country store where we have got no opportunity of finding
out the source, whether it is pure turpentine or heavily adulter-
ated turpentine, and the law is going to enable us to get at that,
and I think very much good will result to the producing industry,
to the dealing industry, and to the final user of the turpentine
who pays the bill, that is, the householder.
Mr. O. H. L. Wernicke, Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co.,
Gull Point, Fla.: I have been quite close to the Southern tur-
pentine and rosin producers for thirty years, and am somewhat
posted as to your local conditions and your viewpoint; I have
also been a consumer of those products to a greater or less
extent. Dr. Veitch has told us about the work the Government
is doing and also mentioned the Naval Stores bill. I hope the
naval stores business will get some benefit from the bill. We
will take turpentine as an example, where it is used for a thinner
or dryer, if we were dependent on turpentine alone we would
have to close up most of our finishing materials industry, be-
cause there is not enough turpentine to go around. We only
make about 500,000 barrels of turpentine and much of it is
exported, other thinners and dryers are extensively used and









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


this must be so regardless of sentiment. It has not been popular
to talk of mixing turpentine with other dryers. Petroleum
spirits are acceptable to the trade and if naval stores people
would encourage the use of turpentine and petroleum com-
pounds, it would surely increase the popularity of turpentine
and extend its use, and probably stabilize the price. I have no
quarrel with the United States in regulating things, if we put 25
barrels of turpentine and 25 barrels of petroleum spirits to-
gether making a product that is useful to somebody else, we
should be willing to label it properly so there could be no
deception, but the present bill prohibits the use of the word
turpentine in combination with any other chemical, whether the
result is good, bad or indifferent, and the results of it is that
wood turpentines have declined and have to be sold at a heavy
sacrifice since that bill was enacted. Those are the facts, gentle-
men, and they do not help the general turpentine situation. The
purpose of the bill is all right but its effect is not what was
anticipated; its administration will be a very difficult matter. I
do not believe men like Dr. Veitch who are charged with the
administrative features of the bill would knowingly do a harm-
ful thing, but they can not know all the conditions that we have
to face in this industry.
There can be no overproduction of turpentine except as a
result of under-consumption. Turpentine is a small part of the
total of paint varnish material, particularly in the line of sol-
vents and dryers. There is nobody in this hall who can tell why
turpentine rather than petroleum or coal tar dryers and thinners
should be used. They are all good solvents. Of course turpen-
tine is used and generally preferred but there is no use deluding
ourselves. If a varnish manufacturer can get along with ninety
per cent of other solvents and dryers he can use them altogether,
that is nobody's fault, but it is a fact that we have got to face.
If we dry up every source of turpentine in the United States, it
will not stop the making of finishing materials. The makers of
automobiles, vehicles, and part of our railroad cars use no tur-
pentine. Ford doesn't use turpentine. Studebaker, who used to
buy it to finish his wagons does not use turpentine, they all go
right on making more vehicles and cars than ever and are get-
ting along without turpentine. But there are other uses for









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


turpentine that have not been developed and it is part of the
work of Dr. Veitch and his department to discover in what form
it can best be used.
There is another great waste going on in our commercial
activities with reference to color. If a man makes black or
brown varnish, why in the world does he need water white
turpentine? Be it government standard or any other standard,
what does he want with water white turpentine?
You may depend on the technical industries to call for the
kind of color that suits their particular product, there is no use
in suggesting to them that everything must be water white. The
color adds nothing to the quality.
The United States government specifies water white turpen-
tine to paint the bottom of a ship and it must distill 90 per cent
off at 1700C. What has that got to do with the bottom of a
ship? Absolutely nothing whatever, except to retard the use
of turpentine.
I think the turpentine producers ought to get together and
make some experiments of their own; they could employ men
like Mr. Pace and Mr. Hodges who spoke to us, and send them
to Washington with Dr. Veitch to work out these problems
from a practical point of view. They could say to him, "We
have 50,000 barrels of excess turpentine, and as many barrels
of rosin that we must get rid of and we want you to tell us in
what form we can sell it to somebody." We must broaden our
consumption rather than restrict our production.
Mr. Gamble: Why did Studebaker quit using turpentine?
Mr. Wernicke: Studebaker found that if everybody used
turpentine they could get it only thirty days in the year, and the
rest of the time would have to use something else. So when
they found that they couldn't get turpentine all the time, they
sought and found a substitute. There was a time when the
sleeping car people used turpentine. There was a time when
the railroads were large users of turpentine. That was before
the days of development of petroleum spirits in varnish and paint
mixing. The amount of thinning material then used was rela-
tively small, and turpentine was relatively cheap. It was eco-
nomical to use.
Take lime, everybody thought it was a simple product since
the time of King Tut until the lime association was organized








PROCEEDINGS OF THE


and took a fellowship in the Mellon Institute of the University
of Pittsburg. Speaking of lime, I want to tell you that we are
finding it possible now to use rosin in varnish and paint because
we learned something new about lime in connection with it.
Not so long ago rosin varnish was unpopular but now the very
best grades require the use of rosin. We did not know how to
use Chinese wood oil, but we discovered that by using a lime
combination we could dispense with linseed oil. We now make
a fair varnish from cheap materials, which it was thought could
only be produced from genuine linseed oil, costly gums and pure
turpentine.
At one time we thought if we bought a hundred million dol-
lars worth of automobiles it would bankrupt this country. I
heard a wise banker say so. At this time we are spending for
automobiles and accessories something like four or five billion
dollars a year and we have just recently spent thirty billion dol-
lars on the World War and it hasn't killed us. We have more
automobiles now than we had before the war and we are buying
them now at a greater rate than ever before. I mention that to
show that it is an artificially developed industry. There is no
normal demand; nobody had ever thought they needed such a
thing as an automobile. They didn't even know that they
wanted them until they had been demonstrated and advertised.
In earlier days the horse and the wagon carried our produce to
market, but today we couldn't keep house without autos and
radio. All you have to do is to make more people want naval
stores, rosin and turpentine in the particular branches where its
use will answer the purpose a little better than something else,
and it need not be cheap.
The big soap people buy your rosin at about two cents per
pound, but you buy their soap at 25c per bar. What are the rosin
producers doing to protect conditions in that field? Absolutely
nothing in an organized way. It would not be difficult to
expand the uses of rosin so that instead of there being a surplus
there would be a demand for more.
Mr. J. E. Lockwood, Hercules Powder Company, Wilming-
ton, Del.: I am very much impressed with what has been said
today. I believe in the economical utilization of the pine trees,
and the talks we have had today regarding the conservation of
the pine trees or forests in this country. I believe the economy









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


should also include the utilization of the stumps and the dead
wood, so that as a man produces timber it will be fully utilized,
and then reforestry reaches the circle of repeating. We are
seeking at all times in what ways we find possible and what
suggestion we get from others, to find out how we can better
produce naval stores or find possible uses for them; and one
thing that has rather impressed me forcibly today is this,-that
so much has been said of one dollar being invested in a part of
the operation where only seventy-five cents is returned. It
occurs to me that if we would take the money that has hereto-
fore been invested where it did not produce the logical and
proper result, and invest that in finding and developing the
possible and proper uses of naval stores, we would be doing
more to conserve our resources and to develop possible profit
from them than we can in many other ways. I believe, as Mr.
Wernicke said, that much can be done that would open up the
possibility of larger consumption, and we would be very glad
if every one of those interested in the naval stores industry
were to get together and exchange views. We would be very
glad to bring up various things that we believe might possibly
lead to a larger demand, possibly to recovering markets and
uses which have been lost. If we can all get together, not rely-
ing on the Federal government, but taking hold ourselves, doing
what we can, investing our money in a logical profitable way,
we will get the promised result.
I would like to add as one concrete fact which was recently
brought to my attention, namely that the slogan, "Save the sur-
face and you save all," with the entire paint and varnish in-
dustry in this country behind it, has doubled and trebled the
paint and varnish business in this country at a cost to everybody
of less than one per cent. Compare that to investing one dollar
and only getting back 75 cents for it. I believe in combination,
it holds a great deal of promise.
If further meetings are held of people interested in naval
stores, when they get ready to exchange views and get the com-
mon combined experiences of the business, we would be very
glad to come with you, because we are trying to advance and
double our profits in the naval stores industry.
Mr. J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.: In
seconding those resolutions may I say just a word in regard to








PROCEEDINGS OF THE


them. I come from a State where the children in the schools
have for the past 100 years been taught that some of the lead-
ing products are tar, pitch and turpentine. Of course we have
had no appreciable amount of these for many years, but the
fiction is still perpetuated. I have been tremendously interested
in the vital talks this morning, and I realize that perhaps what
you gentlemen say is correct. But I realize, and want it ex-
pressed in the resolution, that the end of this business is in sight
unless something is done to perpetuate it. We have destroyed
the industry in North Carolina, and our meeting here today was
particularly for the purpose of seeing if something cannot be
done. I believe our purpose is to try and perpetuate this indus-
try. I have noticed that most of the discussion has dealt with
increasing the output, increasing the markets and uses of tur-
pentine, but very little has been said about perpetuating the
supply. I would suggest that something be added to that reso-
lution, asking the Government to investigate methods whereby
the land-owners and the operators themselves can help perpetu-
ate the supply. I think it is very important that we who are all
interested in the Naval Stores industry should also emphasize
that side of the problem in these resolutions.
Mr. Gamble: Are you offering that as an amendment?
Mr. Holmes: Yes, I would like to see it amended in that
way.
Member: Would it not be wise to refer these resolutions,
pending further development of the purposes of this meeting, to
the Resolutions Committee?
Mr. Gamble: Except for this reason, that this is peculiarly
the naval stores day, and the rest of the days, after half an
hour or so, will be too taken up with other matters, and there
will be no opportunity to get to this again.
The President: Mr. Gamble, if you will allow me, would it
not be well to get an expression of opinion while we are all
here on the gist of the resolution, and then the Resolutions Com-
mittee can incorporate that in their report after they have per-
fected it?
Mr. Gamble: It goes to the Committee of Seven to prepare
an amendment.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


The President: Does anybody desire the resolution read
again before presenting it for action? The resolution is now
before the body. Those in favor will say aye, those opposed no.
The ayes have it, and the resolution is adopted. The Presi-
dent will appoint a committee of seven as provided for in the
resolution.
Dr. Austin Cary, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.:
Mr. Wernicke has shot into this meeting some ideas of a very
wholesome and important character, and I want to acknowledge
that, and emphasize their importance. One is in regard to the
turpentine enterprise in the South, that all Naval Stores inter-
ests ought to get together. He also stated yesterday that the
turpentine industry is an enterprise that has just begun, and
with a possibility of markets for its products that we do not
yet realize. That is startling, because men have been thinking
of this industry as a failing one.
In compliance with the resolution calling for the appoint-
ment of a Special Naval Stores Committee of Seven the Presi-
dent appointed the following:

SPECIAL NAVAL STORES COMMITTEE OF SEVEN
M r. J. C. Nash, Chairman......................... .............. ...... .... Savannah, Ga.
Mr. A. V. Wood................... ... .....Brunswick, Ga.
Mr. J. G. Pace...................------Pensacola, Fla.
Mr. J. W. LeMaistre.. ......................-----Lockhart, Ala.
Mr. L. V. Pringle................. ................New Orleans, La.
Mr. E. C. Gay....-................---. -------....Biloxi, Miss.
Mr. Harry Wilson... ............ ............. ....Jacksonville, Fla.
The President also appointed the following Committees:

COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS
Mr. E. O. Siecke, Chairman................. .. .............Texas
M r. C. B. Harman............ .... .... ...................... Georgia
Mr. A. B. Hastings......... ...--- ..--..............-Virginia
Mr. George Wrigley........... ..... .....South Carolina
Mr. E. C. Gay..............................---------....Mississippi
Mr. W. L. Barnett........................ ......Florida
Mr. E. H. Frothingham............------ ......-----------...... North Carolina
Mr. Phillip D. Houston ............... .. .....---Tennesee
M r. A. A Benson........ ..................... .................... .... ... Alabam a











54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

COMMITTEE ON SELECTION OF NEXT PLACE
OF MEETING
Mr. H. L. Kayton, Chairman...........................................................Savannah
Mr. J. S. Holmes................ ...............---........ ......North Carolina
M r. P. R. Cam p ............................................ ........................ V irginia
M r. C. F. Speh .................................................... .........Louisiana
Prof. T. D. Burleigh..... .............-....................................... Georgia
M r. J. H L. Henly ................................ .................................Alabama
M r. E. R. M cK ee................................. .......... .. ................................ Florida
Dr. A. C. M oore................... .. ........ .........................South Carolina

COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS
M r. W D. Tyler, Chairman................................. .........................Virginia
M rs. M E. Judd .......... ........................ .. .. .........................Georgia
M major J. G. Lee........................... ... .................................Louisiana
Mr. O. M. Butler......................................Washington, D. C.
M r. J. R. W eston.................................. ..................... ....... M ississippi
Mr. W. E. White................................................ Florida
Mrs. Julia Lester Dillon...................................... .................South Carolina









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


DEATH

of

M. L. ALEXANDER

Marcus Lafayette Alexander was Commis-
sioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana
from January 1912 to the day of his death on
March 18, 1923. He was born in Mecklenburg
County, Va., and died in New Orleans, La., at
the age of 58 years.

By motion of the Congress the following reso-
lution is to occupy a page of these proceedings:

RESOLUTION
WHEREAS, this Congress has lost since its last
session, by the death of Colonel M. L. Alexander,
one of its most useful, active, and lovable mem-
bers, one who has left his indelible imprint on
the forestry work of not only Louisiana but the
entire Nation, therefore
BE IT RESOLVED, that this Congress hereby ex-
presses its great sorrow at the irreparable loss
which it has sustained.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


REPORT OF LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE.
The chief function of a Legislative Committee of this Con-
gress, as I see it, is to act as a clearing house for information
on National and State forestry legislation for the use of all
states in our group, especially, but by no means solely, for the
states where state action looking toward systematic forestry
practice is contemplated. Such a Committee to be of use to
the Congress must have help from interested and informed men
in each state and from the Forest Service. I wish to suggest
that the Committee for the Seventh Congress be organized
immediately after this session and to urge that each member
of the Congress who is in touch with legislative matters in his
state, keep the new Chairman informed. Such information can
be sent direct or through the Secretary, and can be used effec-
tively when a call comes to any officer of the Congress.
It is easy to get the impression that in the case of the States
now organized for forestry work, the several legislative meas-
ures are all worked out and are operating adequately. This is far
from true and it is becoming increasingly important for indi-
vidual and concerted action to be taken looking toward more
adequate forestry practice in the States where forestry depart-
ments have longest been established.
No attempt will be made in this brief report to describe the
legislative situations in the various states. It will be of inter-
est, however, once more to call the roll,-Maryland, West Vir-
ginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana and
Texas have forestry departments which are holding their own
and gaining ground each year, with Alabama now added to the
fold. Kentucky, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi,
Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri are yet to take up forestry
as a State activity, although legislation is now pending, or soon
will be, in most of these States.
The experience of Mississippi and other States has taught
the lesson that initial forestry legislation should be simple and
direct, providing for:
(1) A non-political Commission with representation from
vitally interested groups;
(2) A technically trained and experienced forester;
(3) The investigation of existing conditions;










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


(4) The education in the protection and development for con-
tinuous use of the forest resources;
(5) The control of fire;
(6) Such equitable taxation as will relieve growing timber
from the unequal burden of the general property tax.
(This is not, in fact, and should not be called, tax
exemption.)
It will sometimes be neither possible, nor advisable, to in-
corporate tax legislation into the forestry bill. Doubtless in the
future, as in the past, it will in some states be necessary to
make a start with a law which provides no tax relief. It seems
certain, however, that little real progress can be made in refor-
estation if the general property tax can be levied each year upon
the full value of young growth.
Alabama has enacted, during the past year, a remarkably
comprehensive law as its initial legislation. It should be borne
in mind, however, that Alabama already had a source of revenue
from occupational, license, or privilege taxes imposed for engag-
ing in business dealing with timber, without which a less com-
plete program only might have been possible. This same advan-
tage is available to some other states and might point the way
to a start in such states.
In the States which impose a severance license tax on the
cutting of timber or privilege license taxes on businesses deal-
ing with timber or other forest products, it is urged that all of
the funds thus collected be set aside in a special State Forestry
Fund to be devoted to the protection and development of the
forest resources of these States.
In closing, it is desired to urge as essential that the simple,
direct legislation for the establishment of a department, be
backed with sufficiently adequate financial and moral support
from the start, so that the few things attempted can be
thoroughly and well done, first for their own sakes, and sec-
ondly, in order that the new department may have a fair chance
to gain the confidence of the citizens, through which alone,
healthy expansion in the future can be assured.
A. B. HASTINGS,
Assistant State Forester of Virginia.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS
The following resolutions were recommended by the Com-
mittee and after some discussion were adopted by the Congress.
Resolutions on the Naval Stores Industry and on the death of
M. L. Alexander will be found elsewhere in these proceedings.

1. THE CLARKE-MCNARY BILL
Whereas, a Select Committee on Reforestation of the United
States Senate has, during the past year, toured the country,
visited practically all of our large forest regions, held hearings
at a number of points, and submitted a report on the forest sit-
uation in the country; and
Whereas, the Chairman of this Committee, Senator McNary,
has introduced a bill in the United States Senate, and Repre-
sentative Clarke, of New York, has introduced a companion bill
in the United States House of Representatives, which include
the recommendations of that Committee concerning coopera-
tion with the States and the acquisition of lands for National
Forests;
Be It Resolved: that the Southern Forestry Congress urges
the passage of these bills, and
Be It Further Resolved, that a copy of this resolution be
sent to the President of the United States and to the members
of the Congressional Committees to which these bills were
referred.
2. FOREST EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Whereas, we recognize that the safety of investments in
forest raising cannot be assured without definite, detailed, and
reliable information upon all phases, and that this can be satis-
factorily secured only as a result of systematic forest investiga-
tions such as are being carried on in the coastal pine region
by the Southern Forest Experiment Station, in the Appalachian
hardwood region by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Sta-
tion, and generally by the Forest Products Laboratory;
And Be It Resolved, that we urge upon the Federal and
State legislators and upon educational institutions, associations
and forest landowners in the States concerned the necessity of










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


enlarged facilities for forest investigations, particularly by in-
creased funds and cooperative participation in the work of
the two Stations and of the Laboratory.
And Be It Further Resolved, that copies of this resolution
be brought to the attention of Federal and State Senators
and Congressmen of the Southern States.
3. A STATE FOREST POLICY
Whereas, the Southern States contain more than one-third
of the idle forest lands of the United States, which now con-
stitute a grave state and national menace, but which can be con-
verted into one of the greatest assets of the South through
the adoption of a practical state forestry policy.
Therefore, Be It Resolved, that the Southern Forestry Con-
gress assembled in its Sixth Annual Meeting in Savannah, Ga.,
urges the Southern States immediately to adopt a state forest
policy to include in the main:
(1) A non-political State Board of Forestry or Commis-
mission representing the forest, agricultural, stock-rais-
ing, and other interests which may be chiefly concerned,
to supervise the development of state forestry work
under the immediate direction of a trained and competent
forester.
(2) The establishing of a Forest Fire Protection System.
(3) Provisions for encouraging and inducing private par-
ticipation in reforestration through cooperation with pub-
lic agencies and by modification or readjustment of the
existing system of taxing forest property, or lands de-
voted to reforestation; and
(4) Provisions for properly financing the state's forestry
department and work.
And Be It Further Resolved, that, in the opinion of the
Southern Forestry Congress, the forestry law enacted in 1923
by the State of Alabama, embodies, to a great degree, the essen-
tials above enumerated and that therefore, this Congress urges
the Southern States now without proper forestry laws, care-
fully to consider the Alabama law as a basis for forestry
legislation.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


4. THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION
Recognizing that vigorous and widespread education is es-
sential to the progress of forestry both locally and nationally,
and that there is great need for a continuous campaign of edu-
cation throughout all sections of the United States, to the end
that a proper appreciation of our forests may be instilled
into every man, woman, and child in this country; and recogniz-
ing that the American Forestry Association, through its
monthly magazine, American Forestry and Forest Life, and
through its other facilities for disseminating information, is
carrying to the people in every State in the Union accurate, in-
teresting, and informative material regarding our forests, their
uses and their needs, and is thereby molding a sound and con-
structive public sentiment in behalf of State and National
forestry, and that the Association is an agency by which con-
certed action can be taken in behalf of public forest meas-
ures throughout the country, the Southern Forestry Congress
herewith commends and endorses the work of the American
Forestry Association and pledges the support of the Congress
to the objects and activities of this Association, and it urges its
members to support the association by becoming active mem-
bers and by aiding in increasing the membership of the Asso-
ciation and the distribution of its magazine.

5. THE MCNARY-SMITH BILL
Whereas, the Southern Forestry Congress, while primarily
engaged in the promotion of forestry, affirms that there is no
conflict, as regards forestry progress and agricultural prog-
ress, and that consistent and proper development of such cut-
over lands as are agricultural in character constitutes sound
public policy.
Therefore, Be It Resolved, that this Congress endorses the
principles of the McNary-Smith Bill, the purpose of which is
to stimulate the development of agricultural land now in an
unproductive state.

6. COMMITTEE ON FEDERAL LEGISLATION
Whereas, we, the Southern Forestry Association in con-
gress assembled, feel that a real crisis has arrived in the de-
velopment of a National Forestry Program, and that it is
now the time to act,









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Therefore, Be It Resolved, that the President of this Con-
gress be and is hereby empowered to appoint a suitable com-
mittee to meet at Washington, D. C., and appear before the
proper authorities with a view to hastening in every possible
way the enactment of constructive and progressive forestry
legislation.

7. ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION IN FORESTRY
Be It Resolved, that the Southern Forestry Congress hereby
urges that elementary instruction in forestry be given in all
graded schools, universities, agricultural colleges, and normal
schools in the Southern States, and recommends that the South-
ern Forestry Congress prepare brief statements concerning the
forestry situation for distribution to civic organizations, fed-
erated clubs, and all other agencies that should be interested
in forestry progress.

8. FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SOUTHERN LANDS
Whereas, the timber resources of the Nation are rapidly dis-
appearing, and
Whereas, the forest land in the Southern States comprises
one of the best and most rapid growing timber regions in the
United States, therefore,
Be It Resolved, that it is the sense of this Congress that a
bill should be passed by the National Congress authorizing and
directing the Forest Department of the Government to pur-
chase suitable cut-over lands in the Southern States of such
size as will be adapted to economic and profitable operation.
for the public welfare and to demonstrate forestry possibilities
to the private owner.
9. BENNING NATIONAL FOREST
Whereas, on December 12, 1923, there was presented in the
United States Senate by the Hon. Wm. J. Harris, Senator,
from Georgia, a Bill, S-1033, entitled "To Establish the Ben-
ning National Forest in the State of Georgia,"
It Is,Resolved, that the said Bill is given the endorsement
of this Congress, that the Secretary so inform Senator Harris,
and that he also request all Senators and Congressmen from the
Southern States to cooperate in securing its adoption.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


10. APPRECIATION AND THANKS
Resolved, that the Congress hereby expresses its apprecia-
tion and thanks to
(a) The Honorable Clifford Walker, Governor of Georgia,
for his cordial welcome to the Sixth Congress, and for his strong
endorsement of its purposes.
(b) The Honorable Paul E. Seabrook, Mayor of Savannah,
for his hearty welcome, and to other members of the city ad-
ministration for numerous courtesies.
(c) The Savannah Board of Trade, especially Manager E. B.
Walker, and Mr. Nelson Stephens, Secretary of the Convention
Bureau, for the wide publicity and care in arrangements which
they gave the meeting; Mr. Thomas Hoynes, chairman of the
entertainment committee; Mr. Robertson, chairman of the com-
mittee on decorations, and Mr. W. J. Pierpont, Jr., chairman
of the committee on exhibits, and to all members of these com-
mittees, whose untiring work has made the Sixth Congress
memorable and enjoyable beyond any previous Congress; Dr.
S. B. McGlohon, and to the Auto and other clubs, the hotels,
and many private citizens of Savannah, for courtesies extended
to the Congress and its delegates during our most delightful
stay in their city.
(d) The daily press of Savannah, and the Weekly Naval
Stores Review and its editor, Mr. Thomas Gamble.
(e) The Georgia Forestry Association, and particularly its
division chairman at Savannah, Mr. H. L. Kayton, for their
untiring support.
(f) Our president, Mr. Bonnell H. Stone, and our Sec-
retary, Mr. R. D. Forbes, for the splendid material condition
of this organization; the Patrons, for their generous financial
support; and those who have presented the inspiring papers
and participated in the discussions of the Sixth Congress.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NEXT PLACE OF
MEETING
Your Committee has considered the requests from various
cities for the holding of the Seventh Congress, invitations hav-
ing been received from Richmond, Va., Columbia, S. C., Jack-
sonville, Fla., St. Louis, Mo., Little Rock, Ark., Asheville,










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 63

N. C., Nashville, Tenn., and Louisville, Ky. Representatives
from such of these cities as cared to do so appeared in person
before the Committee, which carefully weighed the arguments
submitted and considered the advantages both from the view-
point of convenience to delegates and desirability from a stand-
point of the greatest good to all concerned.
The invitation from Richmond was extremely cordial and
your Committee believes that Virginia is entitled to considera-
tion, but in view of the fact that the forestry situation in Arkan-
sas can be greatly aided by the holding of the next Congress
at Little Rock, and in view of the fact that both Louisiana and
Missouri, although applicants, were willing to yield in favor of
the Arkansas capital, your Committee deemed it best to recom-
mend Little Rock as the location for holding the Seventh South-
ern Forestry Congress, which we hereby do.
Respectfully submitted,
(Signed) H. L. KAYTON,
Chairman.

REPORT OF THE TREASURER
FIFTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS
Expenditures
Reporting .............................................................$ 157.00
Local Expense ............................... .................. 31.95
P program ..................... ............................ ............................... ........ 24.30
Proceedings:
Printing ........................................... .................... 752.30
Forw arding .................................... .......... ...... .. ........ 84.27

Total ..... ......................................... ......... .......................$1049.82
Forw ard ............................................ .... .. 418.13

$1467.95
Receipts
Balance ...................................... ... ........... ... $ 891.30
Contributions from Patrons ................. .. .... ................. 250.00
Sale of Proceedings:
Single copies (113) ......... .... ........... .. .......... 169.50
In bulk ................................ ........................... 157.15

$1467.95










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS, INC.
Expenditures
C charter ..........................................................................................................$ 38.30
P stage ......................... .......................................................................... 117.24
Telephone Service ............................................................. .................... 33.87
Stationery and Supplies ...---........................... ....................... 150.74
Stenographer and Clerk ................................................ 113.20
Bank Exchange, Etc. ............................................................. 10.00
Officials Expenditures .... .............................................................. 111.45
Badges ............................................................................... ........................ 36.00
Forestry Instruction in Savannah Schools ........................................ 125.00
Use of Theatre ................ ................................... ....................... 113.00
Savannah School Children's Tree Naming Contest ........................ 60.60
Program s and Posters ............................................................................ 39.00
Local E expense ........................................ ......................... ..................... 41.59
Speaker's H onorarium ............................................................................ 140.00
R reporting ........................................ ............................... .................. 202.00

Total ................................---------................... ................--..................$1331.99
Forw ard ........................................ ..... .................... 404.47

$1736.46
Receipts
B balance ................................................................ ..........................$ 418.13
Contributions from Patrons ............................. ........................ 1225.00
Co6p. Savannah School ........................................................ 80.00
M miscellaneous Receipts .................................................... .................. 13.33

$1736.46
Balance on hand, April 23, 1924, $404.47.













Appendix


23921
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF
SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS,
INCORPORATED

THIS IS TO CERTIFY, that we, the undersigned, do
hereby associate ourselves into a non-stock corporation under
and by virtue of the laws of the State of North Carolina, as
contained in Chapter 22 of the Consolidated Statutes, entitled
"Corporations," and the several amendments thereto, and to that
end do hereby set forth:
1. The name of this corporation is SOUTHERN FORESTRY
CONGRESS, INC.
2. The location of the principal office of the corporation in
this State is in the City of Asheville, County of Buncombe.
3. The objects for which this corporation is formed are as
follows:
(a) To promote the practice of forestry in the South by
disseminating information as to its objects, needs, and methods,
and its relation to the development of idle lands; to promote the
conservation of the forests of the South in such a way that
they may furnish an unfailing supply of growing timber and
a home for game and birds, and that they may protect the
upper sources of streams; and to promote and encourage re-
forestation and the prevention of forest fires.
(b) To cooperate with and to bring about a closer coopera-
tion and unity between national, state, county, municipal, corpo-
rate and private forestry agencies and organizations.
(c) To support federal, state and local legislation which will
promote, directly or indirectly, the practice of forestry in the
South.
And in order properly to prosecute the objects and purposes
above set forth, the corporation shall have full power and











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


authority to purchase, lease and otherwise acquire, hold, mort-
gage, convey and otherwise dispose of all kinds of property,
both real and personal, both in this State and in all other States,
Territories and dependencies of the United States, and gen-
erally to perform all acts which may be deemed necessary for
the proper and successful prosecution of the objects and pur-
poses for which the corporation is created.
4. The corporation is to have no capital stock.
5. The names and post office addresses of the incorporators
are as follows:


Name
Joseph Hyde Pratt
J. S. Holmes
Miss Minnie Queen
Miss Grace White
Mrs. Mary Bayley Pratt
Mrs. J. S. Holmes
Fred B. Merrill
George Howe


Post Office Address
Chapel Hill, N. C.

tcc 6 it c
it it it cc


tt cc t t cc
"t t f" tt


6. The period of existence of this corporation is limited to
50 years.
7. Members may be admitted after organization upon the
following terms:
Upon election and payment of dues in such manner as the
corporation may determine. The persons whose names and
addresses are included in the attached list are to be the charter
members of the corporation.
8. The following is a list of the charter members of the
corporation:


The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co.
Edward A. Hauss, Pres.,
Century, Fla.
Dr. C. P. Ambler,
Asheville, N. C.
0. L. Ayrs,
1512 Brown-Marx Bldg.,
Birmingham, Ala.
Gordon T. Backus,
Box 629, Asheville, N. C.


Hugh P. Baker, Secretary
American Paper and Pulp Ass'n.,
New York.
W. L. E. Barnett,
Care Bankers' Trust Co.,
3 and 5 Place Vendome,
Paris, France.
Dr. S. Westray Battle,
Asheville, N. C.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Miss Alice Baxter,
31 East Fourth St.,
Atlanta, Ga.
J. M. Beal,
Professor of Botany,
A. and M. College, Miss.
H. H. Bennett,
U. S. Bureau of Soils,
Washington, D. C.
F. W. Besley,
State Forester,
815 Calvert Bldg.,
Baltimore, Md.
J. B. Bishop,
Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Pinola, Miss.
T. S. Boswell,
So. Ry. Co.,
Brevard, N. C.
Governor Wm. W. Brandon,
Montgomery, Ala.
R. G. Breland,
L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co.,
Moss Point, Miss.
B. A. Buck,
Mobile, Ala.
Thos. D. Burleigh,
University of Georgia,
Athens, Ga.
O. M. Butler,
914 Fourteenth St., N. W.,
Washington, D. C.
Camp Manufacturing Co.,
Franklin, Va.
J. Phil Campbell,
State College of Agriculture,
Athens, Ga.
W. A. Candler,
Chancellor of Emory University,
Atlanta, Ga.
G. A. Cardwell,
Agri. and Indus. Agent,
A. C. L. Ry. Co.,
Wilmington, N. C.
Austin Cary,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
John J. Cathey,
Gadsen, Ala.


Champion Fibre Company,
Canton, N. C.
H. H. Chapman,
Yale Forestry School,
New Haven, Conn.
Clinchfield Coal Corp.,
Dante, Va.
Mrs. S. T. Cohen,
Treasurer City Federation Wom-
en's Clubs,
4000 Canal St.,
New Orleans, La.
Forrest H. Colby,
Bingham, Me.
Department of Conservation,
New Orleans, La.
Mrs. Edwin P. Cox,
Richmond, Va.
Edwin P. Cox,
Richmond, Va.
Crossett Lumber Co.,
Crossett, Ark.
H. M. Curran,
Farm Forestry Specialist,
Raleigh, N. C.
D. T. Cushing,
Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Bogalusa, La.
A. D. Daneel,
A. B. & A. R. R. Co.,
Atlanta, Ga.
W. J. Damtoft,
The Champion Fibre Co.,
Canton, N. C.
Henry S. Drinker,
Merion Station, Pa.
Mrs. Geo. Drolet,
Tuscaloosa, Ala.
George Drolet,
Kaul Lumber Co.,
Tuscaloosa, Ala.
Frederick Dunlap,
Care Missouri Forestry Ass'n.,
Columbia, Mo.
Hon. Robert C. Ellis,
Tifton, Ga.
W. D. Faucette,
Chief Engineer,
S. A. L. Railway Co.,
Norfolk, Va.












PROCEEDINGS OF THE


F. H. Fechtig,
A. C. L. R. R. Co.,
Wilmington, N. C.
Prof J. A. Ferguson,
The Penn State College,
State College, Pa.
R. T. Fisher,
Harvard University,
Weston, Mass.
Florida Development Board,
Jacksonvilla, Fla.
R. D. Forbes,
Sou. Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans, La.
John H. Foster,
State Forester,
Concord, N. H.
E. H. Frothingham,
Box 1518,
Asheville, N. C.
Thos. H. Gill,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Henry S. Graves,
Yale University,
New Haven, Conn.
Col. W. B. Greeley, Forester,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
S. Winford Greene,
McNeill, Miss.
Miss Juliet Emily Hardtner,
Urania, La.
Miss Violet Urania Hardtner,
Urania, La.
Mrs. Henry E. Hardtner,
Urania, La.
C. B. Harman, Secretary,
Sou. Sash, Door and Millwork
Mfrs. Ass'n.,
Atlanta, Ga.
R. M. Harper,
University, Ala.
W. O. Hart,
134 Carondelet St.,
New Orleans, La.
Frank E. Haskell,
Yale Forestry School,
New Haven, Conn.


Alfred B. Hastings,
Asst. State Forester,
University, Va.
A. M. Henry,
Tallahassee, Fla.
Hon. Frank R. Hewitt,
311 Montford Ave.,
Asheville, N. C.
A. E. Hickerson,
Supt. Delta Land and Timber Co.,
Conroe, Texas
John Sprunt Hill,
Durham, N. C.
Mrs. S. W. Hills,
Robinson Road, R. 3,
Grand Rapids, Mich.
W. R. Hine,
Urania, La.
Roy L. Hogue,
Interior Lumber Co.,
Jackson, Miss.
J. S. Holmes,
State Forester,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
H. B. Holroyd,
Agriculturist and Forester,
L. and N. R. R. Co.,
Louisville, Ky.
Robert R. Hope,
Georgetown, S. C.,
Care James D. Lacey & Co.,
350 Madison Ave., New York.
Ralph D. Hosmer,
Cornell University,
Ithaca, N. Y.
E. E. Jackson Lumber Co.,
Baltimore, Md.
Max Jasspon, Forest Engineer,
Box 203, Savannah, Ga.
J. K. Johnson,
Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Bogalusa, La.
W. Goodrich Jones,
21114 Barnard St.,
Waco, Texas
Chapin Jones, State Forester,
Charlottesville, Va.
John L. Kaul,
Kaul Lumber Co.,
Birmingham, Ala.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Kaul Lumber Co.,
Birmingham, Ala.
Milton Klein,
Atlanta Hoo Hoo Club,
Atlanta, Ga.
H. H. Kopman,
Asst., Game Division,
Department of Conservation,
New Orleans, La.
Krause & Managan Lbr. Co., Ltd.,
Westlake, La.
Otto Katzenstein,
Atlanta, Ga.
W. M. Lambert,
1102 Southwest Ave.,
Johnson City, Tenn.
Rev. Geo. W. Lay,
Beaufort, N. C.
Leas & McVitty, Inc.,
Salem, Va.
J. G. Lee, Prof.,
A. and M. College,
Baton Rouge, La.
J. W. LeMaistre,
Lockhart, Ala.
J. W. Lewis, Gen. Mgr.,
The Long-Bell Lumber Co.,
Lake Charles, La.
Lock, Moore & Co., Ltd.,
Westlake, La.
E. N. Lowe, Director,
Mississippi Geological Survey,
Jackson, Miss.
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, La.
B. M. Lufburrow,
Acting Forest Supervisor,
Forest Service,
Moulton, Ala.
R. S. Maddox, State Forester,
Nashville, Tenn.
J. M. Mallory, Gen. Indus. Agent,
Savannah, Ga.
Mrs. Annie D. Martin,
Woddfields,
Hendersonville, N. C.
E. D. Mays,
S. A. L. R. R Co,
Jacksonville, Fla.


J. Alfred Mitchell,
Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Sydney L. Moore,
Jacksonville, Fla.
R. F. Morse, Gen. Mgr.,
Long-Bell Company,
Quitman, Miss.
Mrs. Louis A. Neill,
446 Jackson St.,
Albany, N. Y.
J. G. Pace,
Pace Lumber Co.,
Pensacola, Fla.
Charles Lathrop Pack, Pres.,
American Tree Association,
Lakewood, N. J.
H. H. Patterson,
Artmore, Ala.
John L. Patterson,
Richmond, Va.
The Pennsylvania State College,
State College, Pa.
J. G. Peters,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Karl E. Pfeiffer, Asst. Forester,
815 Calvert Bldg,
Baltimore, Md.
Mrs. Mary Bayley Pratt,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
Col. J. H. Pratt,
Director Geological and Eco-
nomic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
J. H. Price,
Price & Price,
Magnolia, Miss.
Miss Minnie Queen,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
I. T. Quinn, Com. of Conservation,
Montgomery, Ala.
E. E. Randolph,
State College,
Raleigh, N. C.
Mrs. Ora M. Randolph,
State College,
Raleigh, N. C.











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Harris A. Reynolds,
4 Joy St.,
Boston, Mass.
Verne Rhoades,
U. S. Forest Service,
Asheville, N. C.
C. L. Ritter Lumber Co.,
Huntington, W. Va.
H. H. Burns, Treas.,
C. L. Ritter Lumber Co.,
Huntington, W. Va.
Hon. Lee M. Russell, Governor,
Jackson, Miss.
Thorndike Saville,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
Jas. R. Schick,
Engineer Branch Lines N. & W.
R. R. Co.,
Roanoke, Va.
Walter G. Schwab, Dist. Mgr.,
Glatfelter Pulpwood Co.,
La Plata, Md.
W. D. Faucette, Chief Engr.,
S. A. L. R. R. Co.,
Norfolk, Va.
Edmund Secrest, State Forester,
Ohio Agr'l Experiment Sta.,
Wooster, Ohio.
A. Sessoms,
Bank of Bonifay,
Bonifay, Fla.
Edmund Seymour,
The American Bison Society,
45 Wall St., New York.
D. F. Shull,
206 South 41st St.,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Jos. S. Silversteen, Pres.,
The Gloucester Lumber Co.,
Rosman, N. C.
Howard C. Smith,
Union Springs, Ala.
Jas. Sinclair,
A. C. L. R. R. Co.,
Waycross, Ga.
Hon. John H. Small,
940 Munsey Bldg.,
Washington, D. C.


V. H. Sonderegger,
Supt. of Forestry,
Department of Conservation,
New Orleans, La.
Andrew M. Soule, Pres.
State College of Agriculture,
Athens, Ga.
Southern Pine Lumber Co.,
Texarkana, Texas
Miss Vera M. Spuhler,
Southern Forest Experiment Sta.,
New Orleans, La.
Mrs. W. W. Stark,
Federation of Women's Clubs,
Commerce, Ga.
Office of State Forester,
College Station, Texas
Mrs. A. F. Storm,
Morgan City, La.
E. F. Stovall, Gen. Agt,
L. C. R. R.,
Birmingham, Ala
Mrs. Alice Strickland,
Duluth, Ga.
Henry P. Talmadge, Pres.
Sale-Davis Co.,
52 William St.,
New York City.
Miss Julia A. Thorns,
Asheboro, N. C.
E. W. Thorpe,
De Funiak Springs, Fla.
J. W. Toumey,
Yale Forestry School,
New Haven, Conn.
W. B. Townsend,
Little River Lumber Co.,
Townsend, Tenn.
Mrs. W. D. Tyler,
Dante, Va.
W. D. Tyler, Pres.
Southern Forestry Congress,
Dante, Va.
Union Sawmill Co.,
Huttig, Ark.
S. H. Vredenburgh,
Vredenburgh Sawmill Co.,
Vredenburgh, Ala.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Hon. Zebulon Weaver,
Asheville, N. C.
J. Roland Weston,
Logtown, Miss.
Wm. P. Wharton,
Mass. Forestry Association,
Groton, Mass.
Wier Long Leaf Lumber Co.,
Houston, Texas
J. C. Williams, Mgr.,
Development Service
Southern Ry. Co.,
Washington, D. C.


James A. Wilson,
Box 304, Shelby, N. C.
Mrs. John D. Winters,
Montgomery, Ala.
Theodore S. Woolsey, Jr.,
242 Prospect St.,
New Haven. Conn.
Geo. Wrigley,
Greenville, S. C.
L. J. Young,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, Mich.


In Testimony Whereof, We have hereunto set our hands
and affixed our seals, this the second day of November, A. D.
1923.


Joseph Hyde Pratt
J. S. Holmes
Minnie Queen
Grace White
Mary Bayley Pratt
Mrs. J. S, Holmes
Fred B. Merrill
George Howe


(SEAL)
(SEAL)
(SEAL)
(SEAL)
(SEAL)
(SEAL)
(SEAL)
(SEAL)


Signed, sealed and delivered in
the presence of M. B. Utley, Witness.

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, S
County of Orange,

This is to Certify, that on this 2d day of Nov., A. D. 1923,
before me, a Notary Public, personally appeared Joseph Hyde
Pratt, J. S. Holmes, Minnie Queen, Grace White, Mary
Bayley Pratt, Mrs. J. S. Holmes, Fred Merrill, George Howe,
who, I am satisfied, are the persons named in and who executed
the foregoing certificate of incorporation of Southern Forestry
Congress, Inc., and I having first made known to them the
contents thereof, they did each acknowledge that they signed,
sealed and delivered the same as their voluntary act and deed,
for the uses and purposes therein expressed.









72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and
affixed my official seal, this the 2d day of Nov., A. D. 1923.
M. B. UTLEY, Notary Public.
Com. exp. Sept. 7, '24 (Notarial Seal)
Filed Nov. 5, 1923.
W. N. EVERETT,
Secretary of State.













Appendix II


BY-LAWS OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY CON-
GRESS, INCORPORATED. ADOPTED BY VOTE
OF THE SIXTH CONGRESS, AT SAVANNAH,
GEORGIA, JANUARY 30, 1924.
1. Name: The name of this corporation shall be the South-
ern Forestry Congress, Inc.
2. Object: The objects for which this corporation is formed
are as follows:
(a) To promote the practice of forestry in the South by dis-
seminating information as to its objects, needs, and methods,
and its relation to the development of idle lands; to promote
the conservation of the forests of the South in such a way
that they may furnish an unfailing supply of growing timber
and a home for game and birds, and that they may protect the
upper sources of streams; and to promote and encourage re-
forestation and the prevention of forest fires.
(b) To cooperate with and to bring about a closer coopera-
tion and unity between national, state, county, municipal, cor-
porate and private forestry agencies and organizations.
(c) To support federal, state and local legislation which
will promote, directly or indirectly, the practice of forestry in
the South.
3. Membership and Dues: Any person interested in the
objects of the Congress may become a member, as hereinafter
provided.
a. Members shall be of four classes:
Annual Members, who shall pay a fee sufficient to cover the
cost of a copy of the Proceedings, to be decided by the Execu-
tive Committee, but not to exceed $2.
Associate Members, consisting of State Departments and
Associations, who shall pay a sum not to exceed $25, to be
decided by the Executive Committee.
Contributing Members, consisting of persons, firms and cor-
porations, who shall from time to time make material cash
contributions to the expenses of the Congress.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Honorary Members, persons eminent in some line of work
more or less closely connected with the objects of the Congress.
Honorary members shall be elected by the annual Congress
after being considered and recommended by the Executive
Committee. They shall not be subject to annual dues, but shall
have every other privilege of full members.
b. Only members shall be eligible to office and entitled to
vote; provided that unless the point of order is raised and sus-
tained all persons who have registered for any regular meet-
ing of the Congress may vote at that Congress. Associate and
contributing members will be considered to have voted when
their representatives have voted. Associate members may have
not to exceed four voting representatives for annual dues of
$10, up to ten voting representatives for dues of $25. Con-
tributing members may be represented according as to whether
they are persons (1 voting representative), firms (2 voting
representatives), or corporations (4 voting representatives).
4. Officers: The officers of this corporation shall be a
President, a Vice-President, a Chairman of the Executive Com-
mittee, a Secretary, a Treasurer, but the Secretary and Treas-
urer may be one and the same person, and as Assistant Sec-
retary, each of whom holds office for one year, or until his
successor has been duly elected and qualified.
5. Committees: There shall be four regular standing com-
mittees: an Executive Committee and Committees on Finance,
Legislation and Publicity. The Executive Committee shall con-
sist of the Chairman, who is elected by the Congress, the four
other officers of the Congress and the Chairmen of the three
other standing Committees, and the past Presidents of the Con-
gress. It shall decide the policy of the Congress and be respon-
sible for its activities.
At all formally called meetings of the Executive Committee
three members shall be qualified to transact any business that
may come before it. The Chairmen of the other three Com-
mittees shall be appointed annually by the incoming President.
Each Chairman shall appoint the members of his own Commit-
tee and be responsible for its activities, subject to the approval
of the President.
At each annual meeting the President shall appoint regular
Committees on Auditing, Resolutions and Nominations, each













SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


committee to be entrusted with the duties usually devolving on
such committees. The President shall appoint such other spe-
cial committees as may be called for by the Congress.
6. Publications: The Proceedings of the Congress, in as full
a form as seems advisable to the Executive Committee, shall
be published as soon after each annual meeting as is practicable
and distributed, one to each member who has paid his annual
dues. Contributing and associate members may receive addi-
tional copies in accordance with the decision of the Executive
Committee. Complimentary copies may be sent out as decided
by the Executive Committee.
7. Meetings: The Congress shall meet annually or as nearly
so as is practicable, at such time and place as may be decided
on by the Executive Committee. At any regular meeting of
the Congress twenty members, or a majority of those registered,
will be considered a quorum. Meetings of the Executive Com-
mittee shall be held before each annual meeting of the Congress
and at such other times as the Chairman may deem necessary.
8. Amendments: These By-Laws may be amended by a
three-fourths vote of the members present and entitled to vote
at the annual meeting of the Congress.













Appendix III


PATRONS*

SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS

ALABAMA
Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham.
The Scotch Lumber Co., Mobile.
Jackson Lumber Co., Lockhart.
W. P. Brown Lumber Co., Fayette.
Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh.
Horse Shoe Lumber Co., River Falls.
Lathrop Lumber Co., Birmingham.
Deal Lumber Co., Buhl.
Allison Lumber Co., Inc., Bellamy.
W. T. Smith Lumber Co., Chapman.
FLORIDA
Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century.
J. Ray Arnold Lumber Co., Groveland.
Putnam Lumber Co., Jacksonville.
Taylor Co. Lumber Co., Springdale.
Standard Lumber Co., Live Oak.
Brooks-Scanlon Corp., Eastport.
St. Andrews Bay Lumber Co., Millville.
Bagdad Land & Lumber Co., Bagdad.
Weaver-Loughridge Lumber Co., Boyd.
W. B. Harbeson Lumber Co., De Funiak Springs.
KENTUCKY
Combs Lumber Co., Lexington.
Ruby Lumber Co., Madisonville.
Langstaff-Orm Lumber Co., Paducah.
Sherrill-Russell Lumber Co., Paducah.
Hon Lumber Co., Winchester.
J. N. Russell Lumber Co., Bowling Green.

Those who contribute towards the expenses of the Congress are termed
Patrons.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


W. J. Hughes & Sons Co., Inc., Louisville.
Fred G. Jones & Co., Inc., Louisville.
C. W. Brickly Lumber Co., Louisville.
Norman Lumber Co., Louisville.
LOUISIANA
L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co., New Orleans.
Powell Lumber Co., Lake Charles.
Hillyer-Deutsch-Edwards, Inc., Oakdale.
Lock, Moore & Co., Ltd., Westlake.
W. G. Ragley Lumber Co., Ragley.
Gulf Lumber Co., Fullerton.
J. A. Bel Lumber Co., Inc., Lake Charles.
Vernon Parish Lumber Co., Inc., Kurthwood.
Louisiana Central Lumber Co., Clarke.
Natalbany Lumber Co., Ltd., Hammond.
Peavy-Byrnes Lumber Co., Shreveport.
Industrial Lumber Co., Elizabeth.
Frost-Johnson Lumber Co., Shreveport.
Great Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa.
MISSISSIPPI
Interior Lumber Co., Jackson.
Houston Bros., Vicksburg.
Long-Bell Co., Quitman.
H. Weston Lumber Co., Logtown.
Finkbine Lumber Trustees, Jackson.
L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co., Gulfport.
Rosa Lumber Co., Picayune.
MISSOURI
John H. Himmelberger, Cape Girardeau.
Delta Land & Timber Co., Kansas City.
Bowman-Hicks Lumber Co., Kansas City.
Long-Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City.
Ozark Land & Lumber Co., Winona.
Thomas & Proetz Lumber Co., St. Louis.
MARYLAND
E. E. Jackson Lumber Co., Baltimore.










78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

NORTH CAROLINA
Gennett Lumber Co., Asheville.
Suncrest Lumber Co., Sunburst.
OHIO
W. M. Ritter Lumber Co., Columbus.
VIRGINIA
Clinchfield Coal Corp., Dante.
Pocahontas Fuel Co., Inc., Pocahontas.
Guyan Lumber Co., Roanoke.
Norfolk & Western Ry. Co., Roanoke.
Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co., Roanoke.
WEST VIRGINIA
Norwood Lumber Company, Welch.
R. D. FORBES, Treas.,
April 23, 1924.













Appendix IV


LIST OF REGISTERED DELEGATES

ATTENDING THE
SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS

Acosta, St. Elmo W.................. Jacksonville, Fla.
Anderson, Mr. ............................Anderson Hardwood Lumber
Co.,
Marion, S. C.
Babcock, C. F...............................Babcock Bros. Lumber Co.,
Babcock, Miller Co., Ga.
Bailey, M L................................ Gresston, Ga.
Baker, C. E. ...............................303 East Huntington,
Savannah, Ga.
Baker, Mrs. C. E........................303 East Huntington,
Savannah, Ga.
Barbee, H. V..............................Gresston, Ga.
Barnes, J. W. .............................Mendal Building, Box 228,
Savannah, Ga.
Barnett, Mrs. B. H....................Florida Forestry Ass'n.,
735 Riverside Ave.,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Barnett, W. L'E.........................Florida Forestry Ass'n.,
Mt. Dora, Fla.
Barnett, Mrs. W. L'E..............Florida Forestry Ass'n.,
Mt. Dora, Fla.
Bauer, E. ...................................2610 Blossom St.,
Columbia, S. C.
Beale, C. Bernard .....................Division of Forestry,
University of Georgia,
Athens, Ga.
Bennett, Russell W. ................ Secretary-Manager,
Standard Containers Mfrs.,
Sec'y, Florida Forestry Ass'n.,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Benson, A. A....... ........ Lockhart, Ala.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Blitch & De Loach.....................Blitchton, Ga.
Boyarth, W. A. ........................ Williamsburg, Va.
Brooke, R. H..............................Little Rock, Ark.
Ark. Soft Pine Bureau, Rep.
Bruen, H. H...............................Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Bruner, E. Murray......................Inspector, U. S. Forest Service,
Asheville, N. C.
Burleigh, Thos. D.......................Division of Forestry,
State College of Agriculture,
Athens, Ga.
Burrage, C. H.............................James D. Lacey & Co.,
Timber Land Factors,
New York.
Butler, O. M...............................American Forestry Ass'n.,
Washington, D. C.
Cain, Mrs. J. R.......................... 108 Park Ave., East,
Savannah, Ga.
Calvert, W. C...............................W. J. Snead Lumber Co.,
Greenwood, S. C.
Caples, M. J.................................Vice-President, S.A.L. Ry. Co.,
Norfolk, Va.
Cargill, G. S.............................---Superior Court Chamber,
Savannah, Ga.
Carr, A. S..................................President, The A. S. Carr Co.,
Bainbridge, Ga.
Carr, Wm. B...............................Bainbridge, Ga.
Carson, J. A. G., Jr., .................Vice-President,
Carson Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Cary, Austin ..............................U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Coker, J. L..................................Carolina Fibre Co.,
Hartsville, S. C.
Colly, J. A. .................................Blackshear, Ga.
Coleman, F. J...............................Cobbtown, Ga.
Comings, W. D...........................Box 595,
Georgetown, S. C.
Cook, J. M ...................................M ilan, Ga.
Cooper, Robert L.........................Savannah, Ga.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Coult, A. A.................................Secretary,
,Florida Development Board,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Cossels, A. Gordon............... President, The Cossels Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Council, K. Clyde........................Wananish, N. C.
Curran, H. M.............................Agricultural Extension Service,
Raleigh, N. C.
Dabbs, E. W...............................Mayesville, S. C.
De Loach, R. C.........................Furman, S. C.
Dent, Gratz ................................County Agent, Savannah, Ga.
Derby, L. H.................................Warren, Ark.
Dill, C. W.....................................New York (Naval Stores)
Dillon, Mrs. Julia Lester..........City Forester,
Sumter, S. C.
Doherty, Chas. P.--.......................295 Henderson Ave.,
Athens, Ga.
Dorman, Miss Caroline C.........Chm. Conservation,
La. Federation Women's Clubs,
S Saline, La.
Drawdy, S. L.............................Homerville, Ga.
Drew, D. S...................................Dunlevie Pine Products Co.,
Allenhurst, Ga.
Drew, Herbert J.........................Standard Lumber Company,
Live Oak, Fla.
Dudley, C. H ...............................Atlanta, Ga.
Dunlap, Frederick ......................Secretary, Mo. Forestry Ass'n.,
Columbia, Mo.
Dyal, J. E.....................................Baxley, Ga.
Eaton, J. L...................................Viola, Tenn.
Ellis, W P...................................Furman, S. C.
Forbes, R. D................. ..............Southern Forest Experiment
Station,
New Orleans, La.
Frampton, W. E.........................Charleston, S. C.
Frothingham, E. H.....................Appalachian Forest Experiment
Station,
Asheville, N. C.
Fowler, James ............................Soperton, Ga.
Foster, J. A.................................308 East Hall St.,
Savannah, Ga.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Fell, Mrs. H. L...........................506-37th St. West,
Savannah, Ga.
Farie, A. L., Jr...........................Savannah Bank Bldg.,
Savannah, Ga.
Farie, A. L.................................President,
A. L. Farie Company,
Savannah, Ga.
Garrett, George A.....................Professor of Forestry,
University of the South,
Sewanee, Tenn.
Gay, E. C.....................................Biloxi, M iss.
Garroson, J. E.............................Ludowici, Ga.
Gerry, Dr. Eloise ........................Forest Products Laboratory,
Madison, Wisconsin.
Glenn, E. C.................................Big Salkehatchie Cypress Co.,
Varnville, S. C.
Glover, Joseph..............................421 E. 45th St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Goodwillie, D. L. ........................838 Otis Building,
Chicago, Ill.
Gordon, H. H.............................McGregor, Ga.
Hale, Matthew ............................Greenville, S. C.
Harrell, E. C...............................Secretary,
Ga., Fla. Saw Mill Ass'n.,
Jacksonville, Fla.
Holland, W. D.............................Collins, Ga.
Harman, C. B..............................Atlanta, Ga.,
(Ga. Forestry Ass'n.)
Hastings, Alfred B.....................Assistant State Forester,
Charlottesville, Va.
Henly, J. H. L.............................Lockhart, Ala.
Hodges, C. S ..............................Cyrene,
Decatur County, Ga.
Hodges, W. C.............................Hinesville, Ga.
Holmes, J. S.................................Chapel Hill, N. C.
State Forester, N. C. Geological
and Economic Survey.
Houston, Philip D......................Randolph Bldg.,
Memphis, Tenn.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Howard, T. L...........:.................Ludowici, Ga.
Hunter, K. W.............................Sewanee River Cypress Co.,
Box 434,
Jacksonville, N. C.
Huxford, Folks ..........................Homerville, Ga.
Israel, Albert R...........................Southern Pine Association,
New Orleans, La.
Jackson, J. P. ..............................General Agricultural Agent,
Central of Georgia Rwy.,
Savannah, Ga.
Jasspon, Max ............................. Savannah, Ga.
Johnston, Don P.........................Johnston-McNeill & Co.,
Okeechobee, Fla.
Jones, Jas. H..............................Land Agent,
The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co.,
Century, Fla.
Jordan, R. F...............................Glenwood, Ga.
Judd, Mrs. M. E.........................Dalton, Ga.
Kayton, H. L..............................Vice-President,
Carson Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Kenney, A. R.............................-- Chief Tie and Timber Agent,
A. C. L. R. R.,
Waycross, Ga.
Kirklighter, S. J.........................Glenville, Ga.
Kirkland, J. B........................ Waycross, Ga.
Kirkland, D...................................Kirkland & Co.,
Denton, Ga.
Leffiteau, E. E............................T. P. & F. A.,
Merchants & Marine Trans. Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Landry, M. B...............................339 Carondelet St.,
New Orleans, La.
Lee, M aj. J. G.............................L. S. U .,
Baton Rouge, La.
Lockwood, J. E...........................Mgr. Naval Stores Division,
Hercules Powder Company,
Wilmington, Delaware.
Loughridge, J. H.........................Perry, Fla.
Lott, Dan ....................................Waycross, Ga.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Macfarland, F. H.......................1130 E. Henry St.,
Savannah, Ga.
McCaffery, J. E....... ...........Savannah River Lumber Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
McKee, E. R...............................Deputy Forest Supervisor,
Florida National Forest,
Valparaiso, Fla.
McLendon, H. S......... .... Agricultural Agent,
F. E. C. Railway,
St. Augustine, Fla.
Mallory, J. M.............................General Industrial Agent,
Central of Georgia Rwy.,
Savannah, Ga.
Marks, R. P., Jr.........................1119 East 32nd St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Miller, D. C...............................Lambert, Ga.
Miller, E. C.................................Senator, 2nd District,
Hinesville, Ga.
Monighan, Francis.....................650 Reese St.,
Athens, Ga.
Moore, A. C............................ Columbia, S. C.
Moore, A. G. T...........................Southern Pine Ass'n.,
New Orleans, La.
Morgan, Henry C.......................Homerville, Ga.,
Senator 5th District.
Morgan, J. Wm..........................Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Morton, Jas. W.......................... Athens, Ga.
Moseley, W. S.............................Collins, Ga.
Mensby, C. L...............................Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Musgrove, W. V.........................Homerville, Ga.
Nash, J. G.................................. President,
Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Newsome, T. A...........................Tuscaloosa, Ga.
Newton, D. C...............................Claxton, Ga.
Norton, Eliot ..............................Interstate Tr. & Banking Co.,
New Orleans, La.
Nuite, Chas. W...........................Department of Forestry,
University of Ga.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Ounler, Mrs. S. H..................703 Whitaker St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Overstreet, M. O.........................Orlando, Fla.
(Member Florida State Senate)
Pace, J. G................................Pace Lumber Co.,
Pensacola, Fla.
Peeples, Miss Doris ..................303 E. Huntington St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Pendleton, Lawson, Corp...........Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Peters, J. G.............---.................---U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Potter, L. B.................................Columbia Naval Stores Co., ,
Savannah, Ga.
Pratt, Joseph Hyde ...................Asheville, N. C.
President Western N. C. Inc.
Pringle, L. V...............................Biloxi, Miss.
Rains, G. S......... .....................Southern Freight Ass'n.,
Atlanta, Ga.
Rahn, A. ....................................Glennville, Ga.
Ray, G. A.....................................Baxley, Ga.
Rice, Miss ...... ...................Scott, Ga.
Rice, S. P...............................Scott, Ga.
Rice, Mrs. S. P..........................Scott, Ga.
Rietz, Paul R.............................State College of Agriculture,
Athens, Ga.
Robertson, E. H.......................Guyton, Ga.
Rogers, J. F..........................Cochran, Ga.
Rose, E. P.................................Valdosta, Ga.
Rountree, J. Leonard................ Summit, Ga.
Sapp, J. M.................................. Savannah, Ga.
Saunders, W. C.........................Walterboro, S. C.
Schick, James Reese ..................Engineer Branch Lines,
N. & W. Rwy.,
Roanoke, Va.
Schick, Mrs. James Reese.........Roanoke, Va.
Sessoms, Alex K......................Cogdell, Ga.
Sheppard, James ................................Edgefield, S. C.
Shingler, Geo. P., Jr..................U. S. Customs House,
Savannah, Ga.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Shoemaker, Mrs. Z. T.................Massillon, Ohio.
Siecke, E. ...............................---..State Forester,
College Station, Tex.
Simons, Harriet P. (Mrs. Al-
bert) ......................................--84 South Bay St.,
Charleston, S. C.
Sinclair, C. W.............................Madison, Fla.
Sizer, Mrs. John H.....................425 Bull St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Skeele, H. B.................................116 W. Gaston St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Smith, D. A...............................Wytheville, Va.
Smith, Hogan ........................Sampson City, Fla.
Smith, Howard C.......................Union Springs, Ala.
Smith, R. H..............................Hawthorne, Fla.
Snead, W. J................................W. J. Snead Lumber Co.,
Greenwood, S. C.
Snooks, B. R..............................Ailey, Ga.
Spahr, H. G.................................Atlanta, Ga.
(Georgia Forestry Ass'n.)
Speh, Carl F.............-...................Turpentine & Rosin Producers'
Ass'n, New Orleans, La.
Spell, C. J...................................Lyons, Ga.
Spell, G. S.................................-Lyons, Ga.
Spell, T. P..................................Lyons, Ga.
Stevens, J. P.................................Savannah, Ga.
Stillwell, Wm. B.........................Savannah, Ga., Box 522,
(Southern Pine Co. of Ga.)
Stone, Bonnel H............. ............Bairsville, Ga.
(Georgia Forestry Assn.)
Strain, W. H ........................1602 E. Henry St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Sumner, J. W. ............................Scott, Ga.
Tilghman, H. L...........................Marion, S. C.
Thomas, D. R.............................Agricultural and Industrial
Agent, Tenrille, Ga.
Tillett, A. C.............................-- -Asst. to Vice-Pres., Seaboard
Air Line Rwy.,
Norfolk, Va.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Tison, R. R..............................Ridgeland, S. C.,
Supt. of Education,
Jasper County, S. C.
Tyler, W. D.................................Clinchfield Coal Corp.,
Dante, Russell Co., Va.
Tyler, Mrs. W. D.....................Dante, Va.
Veitch, F. P...............................U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
Veal, W. L........... ......... Baxley, Ga.
Ucker, Clement S., Jr..................Cogdell, Ga.
Ulmer, M. W....................... Largo, Fla.
Woodruff, A. J........................Decatur, Ga.
Williams, W. K........................Crossett Lumber Co.,
Crossett, Ark.
Wood, A. D..............................Champion Fibre Co.,
Canton, N. C.
Willet, N. L............................Agricultural Agent,
C. & N. C. R. R.,
Augusta, Ga.
Ward, J. O. ..............................Blacksburg, Ga.
Wernicke, O. H. L................Pensacola Tar & Turpentine
Company,
Gull Point, Fla.
Weston, J. Roland....................H. Weston Lumber Co.,
Logtown, Miss.
Weston, Mrs. J. Roland............Logtown, Miss.
Whatley, Mrs. E. T................119 E. Duffy St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Representing Lachlan McIntosh
Chapter of D. A. R.
White, W. E................................Citrus Fruit Growers,
New Port Richey, Fla.
Whittin, J. L..........................Hinesville, Ga.
Willcox, W. A.........................Milan, Ga.
Williamson, Wm. W..................26 Bay E., Savannah, Ga.
Wood, A. V............. ............1707 Gloucester St.,
Brunswick, Ga.
Wood, B. O.......................... Pavo, Ga.
Woods, John B.....................Forest Engineer,
Long-Bell Lumber Co.,
Kansas City, Mo.









88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

Wrigley, George ........................Greenville, S. C.
Electrical Engineer,
J. E. Sirrine & Co.
Wyman, Lenthall .......................U. S. Forest Service,
Starke, Fla.
Young, W. D............................521 College Street,
Fort Valley, Ga.