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 Officers and committees of the...
 Table of Contents
 Proceedings of the Fifth Southern...
 Resolutions adopted by the...
 Officers of the Sixth Congress

Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.
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Title: Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Southern Forestry Congress.
Publisher: Southern Forestry Congress,
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Officers and committees of the Fifth Southern Forestry Congress
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    Table of Contents
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    Proceedings of the Fifth Southern Forestry Congress held at Montgomery, Alabama, January 29-31, 1923
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    Resolutions adopted by the Congress
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    Officers of the Sixth Congress
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Full Text


II llp






-) 6

hem Forestry

JANUARY 29-31, 1923

S.I_....I .... t .. ..lt..] ....I....l.....




President:-W. D. Tyler, Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante,
Chairman of the Executive Committee :-Colonel Joseph Hyde
Pratt, Director, North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
Secretary:-R. D. Forbes, Director, Southern Forest Experiment
Station, New Orleans, La.
Assistant Secretary:-Alfred B. Hastings, Assistant State Forester,
Charlottesville, Va.

Executive Committee
The Chairman
The chairmen of the committees on Finance, Legislation, and
The President; Secretary, and Assistant Secretary.

Finance Committee
H. W. Shields, General Manager, Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co.,
Roanoke, Va., Chairman.
I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, Ala.
E. A. Hauss, President, Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century,
M. H. Foerster, Consolidation Coal Co., Jenkins, Ky.
Major Geo. L. Wood, R. E. Wood Lumber Co., Baltimore, Md.
Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Mo.
W. B. Townsend, President, Little River Lumber Co., Townsend,
L. D. Gilbert, General Manager, Southern Pine Lumber Co.,
Texarkana, Tex.
C. W. Boyd, White Oak Lumlber Co., Putnam, Va.

Legislation Committee
J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C., Chairman.
Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Mo.
R. L. Hogue, Manager Interior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miss.
E. O. Siecke, State Forester, College Station, Tex.
B. H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville. Ga.

Publicity Committee
H. E. Hardtner, President, Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La.,
A. A. Coult, Secretary, Florida Development Board, Jackson-
ville, Fla.
R. S. Maddox, State Forester, Nashville, Tenn.
J. E. Rhodes, Secretary-Manager, Southern Pine Association, New
Orleans, La.
C. S. Ucker, General Development Agent, Seaboard Air Line,
Savannah, Ga.

Alabama Committee
I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery,
E. F. Allison, President, Allison Lumber Co., Bellamy.
Geo. C. Hamilton, Manager, Ark-Ala Lumber Co., Wetumpka.
Jas. H. Jones, Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century, Fla.
B. M. Lufburrow, Forest Supervisor, Moulton.
W. T. McGowin, Mac Lumber Co., Jackson.
E. L. More, President, Horseshoe Lumber Co., River Falls.
W. T. Neal, Manager, T. R. Miller Mill Co., Brewton.
H. H. Patterson, President, W. M. Carney Mill Co., Atmore.
Sellers Vredenburgh, Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh.


P re face ...................................................... .................................................. 8

Address of Welcome.................... .......................... 9
Governor W. W. Brandon of Alabama.

Reply to Governor's Welcome.................. ........................... 14
M. L. Alexander, Commissioner of Conservation, New Orleans, La.

President's A address .................................. ....................................... 18
W. D. Tyler, Cllnchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va.

Secretary's R report ............................................................................ 24
R. D. Forbes, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans, La.

Financial Statement ................................. ........................... 25

Report of Executive Committee................................................... 27
Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, Geological and Economic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C.

Report of Legislation Committee................................................. 30
J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.

Comment by Committee Members................................................ 37
Roy L. Hogue, Manager, Interior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miss.;
B. H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville, Ga.; E. O.
Siecke, State Forester, College Station, Texas; Frederick Dunlap,
Secretary, Missouri Forestry Assn., Columbia, Mo.

Address-Research in Forest Fires.............................. ........ 41
R. D. Forbes, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans, La.

Address-Grazing as Affected by Range Fires in the
Longleaf Pine Belt............................ .................................... 47
S. W. Greene, Superintendent, Coastal Plain Experiment Station,
McNeill, Miss.

Address-Organization or Methods in Fire Protection... 55
Chapin Jones, State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.

Address-Forest Fire Problems in the Southern Ap-
palachians ............................... ................................................... 64
E. F. McCarthy, Silviculturist, Appalachian Forest Experiment
Station, Asheville, N. C.

Address-Forestry for the Private Landowner.................. 72
Henry E. Hardtner, President, Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La.

Address-Forestry Work of the Great Southern............ 77
J. K. Johnson, Superintendent of Forestry Department, Great
Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa, La.

A d d ress ...................................................................... ........................... 8 6
W. K. Williams, Forester, Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett,

Address-Conservation from a Hardwood Manufac-
turer's Standpoint .................................................... ........... 89
C. H. Sherrill, President, Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute,
New Orleans, La.

Addresses before the Senate and House of Representa-
tives, Alabama Legislature:
J. G. Peters ........................................... .............................. .... 10 4
M. L. Alexander ................. ... ....... ......................... ..... 110
Henry E. Hardtner .................................. ............................ ..... 1 5

Address-Forestry and Homes.................................................. ... 1 18
C. B. Harman, Secretary, Southern Sash, Door and Millwork
Manufacturers' Assn., Atlanta, Ga.

Address-How Some Southern Business Men View
F forestry ...................................... ............................................ 123
Austin Cary, Logging Engineer, U. S. Forest Service, Washing-
ton, D. C.

Address-The Development of Fire Protection in
Texas ..................................... 137
Page S. Bunker, Assistant State Forester, College Station, Texas.

Address-Development of Forestry in the States............... 141
J. G. Peters, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.

Address-Forestry in Alabama................................................... 147
John L. Kaul, President, Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham, Ala.

Address-Alabama's Forestry Problems.................................... 152
I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, Ala.

D discussion ............................................... .............................. ............ 15 7

Address-What the National Forests Mean to the
S outh ............................................................................................... 16 1
Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, Geological and Economic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
A d d ress ............................................................................................................ 6 7
Mrs. J. L. Starke, Chairman, Committee on Conservation, Alabama
Federation of Women's Clubs, Troy, Ala.
A d d ress ........................................................................................................... 17 1
Mrs. John D. Winter, State Chairman, Daughters of the American
Revolution, Montgomery, Ala.

Address-The Agricultural Development of Cut-Over
L an d s ..................................................................... ........................... 1 7 5
Roy C. Bishop, Secretary-Manager, Alabama Farm Bureau Feder-
ation, Montgomery. Ala.
D discussion .......................................................... .......................... 177

Resolutions Adopted by the Congress.......................................83

Officers of the Sixth Congress.......................................................88

Patrons, Fifth Southern Forestry Congress.................. 190
List of Delegates, Fifth Southern Forestry
Congress .................................................................................... 193


The Fifth Southern Forestry Congress aimed to return
to the precedent of the first two Congresses in keeping down
the number of prepared addresses and encouraging the
informal discussion of each paper or speech as it was
presented. This aim was largely carried out, and injected
a spontaneity and variety into our somewhat lengthy pro-
gram of three days which could have been achieved in no
otherway. It furthermore tended to keep the meeting out
of the hands of a small group of set speakers-men and
women whose interest and support were already assured
-and to place it in the hands of the entire audience.
As the Congresses are avowedly held with the purpose of
reaching the ears and minds of those who have hitherto
not espoused our cause, the large amount of informal
discussion indulged in by the Fifth Congress was the source
of great satisfaction to all of our friends.
Unfortunately these proceedings as here presented in-
clude by no means all of the discussions which took place.
An unforseen breakdown in our arrangements for a steno-
graphic report of all six sessions is partly to blame. But
had a verbatim transcript of all that was said at Mont-
gomery been available, it would probably have been im-
possible for the Secretary, whose task it is to edit the
proceedings, to arrange a complete and orderly account.
Like all other officers of the Congress, the Secretary per-
forms the work which he has assumed in its behalf at
such times as he can spare from his regular and official
duties. His ability to do the work at all depends on his
limiting the time spent within reasonable bounds. These
proceedings suffer somewhat in consequence. In fact, with-
out the help of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Weston, and
of Miss Vera M. Spuhler of the Southern Forest Experi-
ment Station, this volume could not have been com-
pleted at all within the time allowed.
It is a matter of particular regret to the editor that for
the reasons given in the text of the proceedings we are
unable to print the notable addresses of the Reverend
P. A. Simpkin, Chaplain of the Concatenated Order of
Hoo Hoo, and of Mrs. Louis A. Neill, President of the
Alabama Federation of Women's Clubs.


Fifth Southern Forestry Congress
JANUARY 29-31, 1923

Monday, January 29
Morning Session, 10:00 A. M.
The meeting was called to order by President Tyler,
in the auditorium of the Montgomery Chamber of Com-
Doctor Charles A. Stakely, Pastor of the First Baptist
Church, Montgomery, delivered an invocation.

Governor of Alabama.

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a great plea-
sure for me to welcome this body of thoughful men and
women to what I choose to term the greatest state in the
American Union. You meet not only in a great state
but perhaps in the most historic city in the South. It was
here that Davis took the oath of office as President of the
Confederacy. But thank God those days of struggle have
passed, and today as I stand in this presence, from the
dome of that old Confederate capitol floats the stars and
stripes of our American Union, and we in the South yield
to no men more loyalty to that flag or to that Union than
the descendants of the Confederate veterans.
Alabama is perhaps one of the greatest states in natural
resources of any Southern state. Her fertile fields, her
smooth meadows, her navigable rivers, her mountain mines,
her timbered forests, all speak in thunder tones of her
material wealth. The beautiful valley of the Tennessee


that lies on her northern border can nowhere be surpassed,
while the hidden treasures of the outlying hills in the Bir-
mingham district find comparison nowhere. The fertility
of her soil in the Black Belt is equal to that of the Valley
of the Nile. Her timbered forests are excelled nowhere,
while down upon the glittering sands of Mobile's Bay we
find an outlet to the world for a market. What then is
lacking? We should with energy sow and reap, mine
and manufacture, export and import, and fill the earth
with the material blessings of Alabama.
But you thoughtful men, catching a vision of the future,
have gathered in your Congress in order that these natural
advantages of Alabama and of the South should not be
destroyed with negligent hands, but shall be conserved in
order that the South may take its proper place in in-
dustry and in the development and conservation of its nat-
ural resources.
It is a privilege then for me to greet you as the rep-
resentative of the people of this great Commonwealth.
The South, long noted for its hospitality, Alabama particu-
larly, welcomes you to her borders, opening her heart
and her hand to you while you deliberate, not only for
her interest but the interest of the people whom you rep-
resent in this great Southern country of ours.
It might not be amiss for me to say to you that so
far as the particular industry which you represent is con-
cerned, that in 1910 Alabama ranked first in lumber pro-
duction. In 1910 Mobile's port on our Southern border
ranked first in the exportation of lumber of any port in
this country. In 1919 Alabama ranked third in lumber
production, falling from first to third place. In 1919
Mobile's port ranked sixth in the export of lumber, falling
from first to sixth place, due largely perhaps to lack of
conservation of our natural resources in this country and
the ruthless cutting of timber. Alabama now ranks
seventh in production. These figures indicate to the mind
of the thoughtful man that it is high time that the thought
of this Congress should take cognizance of the fact that if
we continue and do not make some preparation for the
future that the generations to come will be lacking these
great material industries and these benefits from our tim-
ber that we now enjoy. We do not legislate, Mr. President,
for a day; we do not think for a day. I have respect,
gentlemen, for that man or woman who sees more in
the tree than the bark that encases it, but sees in the trees


a mighty mill that fashions the unfinished product into
the finished product; who sees in the tree a city builded
and its teeming thousands, busy and happy in industrial
pursuits; yea, verily, who sees in the heart of the tree the
casket, gentlemen, that takes him to his lasting resting
place. Men who have that vision are really statesmen
and patriots. I have respect, ladies, for the woman who
riding through the fields of the South and seeing the
blossom on the cotton, sees more in that cotton than its
fleecy beauty, but sees in it a cotton dress for the citi-
zen of our country. I have respect, Mr. Chairman, for
that man who sees more in the grain of wheat than its
kernel, but sees the loaf of bread that is to feed our teem-
ing thousands. Therefore, I take it that this Congress
has a vision for the future. In Alabama today, due possi-
bly to the fact that she ranked first back yonder in 1910,
there are six and a half millions of acres-think of it,
Mr. President,-six and a half millions of acres of cut-
over lands that are valueless today to the Commonwealth
or to its citizens, because of lack or preparation for the
future. These cut-over lands are in the pine area of the
state. Fifty per cent of these lands are non-cultivable.
It seems that when God Almighty created this earth, gen-
tlemen, he designed that the mighty timbers of the for-
ests should be rooted in the soil and give to generations
yet unborn the privileges that we have enjoyed. This
can be done and ought to be done by proper legisla-
tion, so as to insure these lands beginning to produce
timber for the future, as I recommended in my recent
message to the Legislature. We have here in Alabama
men who know the lumber business, men who perhaps
have lost money in the lumber business, certainly after
the war when prices slumped and lumber was piled at
mills and there was no transportation for it. And trans-
portation is essential, and these cut-over lands are not
far from the port of Mobile. So Alabamians arose in
their might and passed a bill authorizing the issuance
of bonds in the State, for the State to lend its credit in
order to open the port of Mobile and build there the
best port in the South. Let us conserve these lands for
the future that we may utilize our water power and our
transportation facilities in order that the lumber indus-
try of this country may not come to an end.
I do not know how it is in your state, Mr. President,
or in your state, Mr. Delegate, but I am sick and tired


in this state of hearing the cry of hard times. It is set
to music in this country. I went out recently when I was
candidate for governor-and I went out frequently then
-to see an old farmer friend of mine. I alighted and
went into his barn and said "How are you, Bill?" He
said "It is hard times." I began to untie the hame string
that loosely held the collar on the neck of his old horse
and found that the leather out of which that string was
made came from the back of a cow that was raised in
Tennessee. I cut open a sack of corn and found that
it was raised in Illinois. I broke the band from a bale
of hay and found that it was raised in Kentucky. I
caught the fumes of the supper from the little room
called the kitchen of the farmhouse and there found,
ladies, the good housewife cooking on a stove that was
made in Chattanooga. We went into the dining room
and she brought me some great big biscuits like mother
used to make, as big as a saucer, and I found that the
wheat from which they were made came from Indiana.
She brought in a little strip of bacon, fried to a crisp,
and I found that it came from the body of a hog that
was raised in Nebraska. She then brought in some coffee
that came from the Lord knows where, I don't, and some
sugar that came from Louisiana. I stirred it with a pew-
ter spoon that was made in Boston, and began to dream
about "hard times in Alabama." She took me to the
living room and he read to me out of a book that was
made in Richmond, Virginia. I was then led to the lit-
tle room where I was to sleep and I jumped into an old-
fashioned feather bed and sank down about two feet,
and found that the feathers in the ticking came from a
gander that flew across Texas. I looked at the bed quilt
and found that it was made in Cincinnati, and again be-
gan to dream about "hard times in Alabama." About
11:30 that night I was awakened by a fearful noise on
the outside and looked out of the window and saw by
the light of the moon an old hound that was so thin you
could almost see through him, and found that it was
the only thing on the place raised in Alabama.
And yet, gentlemen, with the resources within her bor-
ders there is no reason why all the commodities I have
mentioned could not have been raised and made in Ala-
bama for the benefit of our Commonwealth.
Oh men, you thoughtful men, you busy men, you in-
dustrial men, let us now together, as men who are think-


ing not only for a day but for the future, conserve our
God-given resources and make the Southland blossom.
as God intended it, as the rose. We can do it, we must
do it, and it is for you thoughtful men to work out the
plans. There are many things that have come in to
cripple the great industrial life of our State and the pro-
gress of our State. These things should be eliminated.
Therefore, Mr. President, I welcome you to our borders.
I was born in this Commonwealth, there is not a breath
of air that sweeps across her hills that is not dear to me,
her people are my people and I am proud of their his-
tory, but with all the glorious history of the past it is your
privilege and mine to conserve and preserve for the future
our God-given natural resources. In the name of the Com-
monwealth of Alabama, Sir, I welcome you to her bor-
ders, praying that God's richest blessings may rest upon
this Congress, and that plans may be worked out by
which we may save these cut-over lands and make them
produce for the future generations, and then we will hear
the plaudit "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."

Mr. Tyler:
I think all the members of this Congress will agree that
we have heard a wonderful speech of welcome. The
Southern Forestry Congress always likes to have that sort
of thing replied to by the proper party. Therefore, we
have selected as the speaker to reply to Gov. Brandon
Mr. M. L. Alexander, who for years past has been Commis-
sioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana, the state
that makes us all turn green with envy when we think about
what she has really accomplished under the laws of con-
servation. Mr. Alexander has been president of the
American Fisheries Association, and is now a vice-presi-
dent of the American Forestry Association, and is also
an ex-president of the National Association of Fish and
Game Commissioners, and is a tower of strength, as he
will prove to you when he rises to his feet.


Commissioner of Conservation, New Orleans, La.

I think the committee has given me quite a task-to
respond to so eloquent and forceful an address as has been
made by the Governor of the great State of Alabama-and
I want to say that we are sincerely appreciative not only
of the very cordial expressions of welcome which the
governor has tendered us for our visit to Alabama, but
we are also more than appreciative of the expressions
that came from the chief executive of this great state as
to his views on the important questions which we are to
discuss at this time. We are also glad to be assembled
in this historic city of Alabama and of the South, the city
which has impressed itself so deeply upon the tablets of
the past. We feel sure that our welcome here will be a
most cordial and hospitable one, because of Alabama's
reputation in the past as well as the reputation of all the
states of the Southland for hospitality.
I want to say to you, ladies and gentlemen, that the
question of conservation, the question which we are as-
sembled here to discuss, is the all-important question facing
the country today, because after all the natural resources
of the nation are the foundation of the nation's wealth
and the basis of the nation's credit. So it is with the states,
that the natural resources of the states if properly con-
served mean their future prosperity and upbuilding. The
South especially has been given great wealth in its natural
resources, but my friends, we have been drawing on that
natural wealth to such an extent that the time has arrived
when we should take reckoning, because some of these
great natural resources which have been given us are
nearing the stage of depletion, and that particularly ap-
plies to the question of conservation of the forests, which
we are here specifically to discuss.
This is an earnest body of men that has gathered here
to discuss and to outline policies on this so all-important
subject, an earnest body of men representing state and
federal governments, professors of colleges, state officials
and state employes, who recognize that the time has ar-
rived when we have got to take reckoning of the very
rapid depletion of the forests of this country, which have
meant so much to the wealth and prosperity of the South.


I think that there originally existed about one hundred
and thirty-five millions of acres of virgin forests in the
Southern states. I am told today that there is less than
twenty-five million acres of these virgin forests left stand-
ing. Take your own state of Alabama, originally with
between fifteen and sixteen million acres of virgin trees.
Your Governor has said that at one time Alabama stood
first in the production of lumber, but now it stands seventh.
Why is it? It is because these great virgin forests have
been cut away so rapidly that today, of the fifteen or six-
teen million acres that you originally had, you have practi-
cally only a million acres of virgin trees left. And so
it is in my state of Louisiana, where we originally had
about sixteen million acres of virgin forests, today we
have over twelve million acres of cutover lands and about
three and a half million acres of virgin trees left. There-
fore, is it not time that we should take notice of these
conditions? Is it not time that we should look some-
what to the future with a vision, as the Governor has
expressed it? Have we a right to go on in the reckless
way which we have done, without looking forward to
the treasuring and protection of some of these resources
for the people that are to come aftei us, our children and
our children's children?
We have no criticism to offer of the lumbermen who
have cut these forests; they have been cut legitimately
and under the law. It was their right. It has meant a
great deal to the prosperity and the industrial life of our
section, and we have no criticism to offer of them.
I have found in the administration of my office in the
State of Louisiana that one of the greatest co-operative
influences we have had has come from the lumbermen.
I find that amongst the most patriotic citizens we have
are the lumbermen. The lumbermen are willing to go
hand in hand with you in the protection and the develop-
ment of these conditions. The lumbermen of the State
of Louisiana voluntarily taxed themselves so that they
could create a fund for the purpose of protecting the
great forest areas of the State of Louisiana from fire; and
so it is that we are working hand in hand with them, and
we are seeking their cooperation and support so that we
can continue to work hand in hand with them.
It is necessary, my friends, that we have laws, but
these laws should be reasonable, and not oppressive. We
should seek the passage of laws that will guarantee the


owners of these large areas of denuded lands, a fair and
reasonable basis of assessment and taxation, so that they
could afford to wait for the growing of this crop. which
takes twenty-five, thirty or forty years to mature, as it
may be. It is neither reasonable nor fair that laws should
be passed that would be so oppressive, or taxes so excessive,
that these men could not reproduce, if they so desired,
a crop of timber on these lands. The state and the land
owner, whether it be lumbermen, or stockman, or who-
ever it may be, should go hand in hand in great coopera-
tion in the development of these conditions. And it is
necessary that they should be developed, because as your
governor has said there is approximately fifty per-cent
of these cutover or denuded lands that are not suitable
for agriculture. We all want to see all the agricultural
development that it is possible for us to have. But take
the state of Louisiana, settled for two hundred years, with
the most fertile land under the sun, situated in the valley
of the Mississippi river, a land more fertile than the famous
valley of the Nile, yet in that two hundred years, with
every possible ideal condition of soil and climate, we have
put on the agricultural list less than five million acres of
land, and now we have twelve million acres of denuded or
cutover land, cut over from the harvesting of the forest
crop. What are we going to do with them if we cannot
develop them agriculturally? Are we going to let them
go to barren waste? Are you in Alabama going to let
them go to barren waste, and all these other southern
states in a like condition? Is it not our duty and is it
not our obligation to see what we can do, to determine
what is the best crop we can grow on these lands, and how
it would be best to encourage the growth of that crop?
I think Louisiana possibly has one of the most ideal
forestry laws of any state in the Union today. Louisiana
has made great development of these forest areas. I be-
lieve that I can say without egotism that Louisiana stands
today as one of the leaders in the administration and prac-
tice of forestry and the growing of trees, but it has taken
long years of struggle and effort for us to reach the con-
dition which we now occupy. This has been accomplished
by the advocacy of proper and reasonable laws, with
our state authorities going hand in hand with the lumber-
men and land owners in the reforestation and agricultural
development of these denuded sections. As far as possible
we encourage the individual owner to re-forest his hold-


ings. We also think it is a question that should be taken
hold of strongly by both state and federal authorities.
We believe the states themselves should recognize the
necessity of growing trees and bringing back this great
asset of the state, the forests. We believe, and have so
advocated before the Legislature of Louisiana, that if these
denuded pine lands could be bought by the state in limited
acreage, distributed equitably throughout the state, at say
the assessed valuation of the lands and bonds given in
payment, thirty or forty year bonds, at a small rate of
interest, the state itself could create its own forests and
recreate in a large measure its own wealth, and that when
the bonds had matured that the crop itself would have
matured and it would pay itself out with much profit to
the state. We believe also that it is proper that the National
government should own forests throughout the nation.
Thus, through all these great co-operative influences,
through National government and State government, and
individual owner, this great movement of reforestation
will go forward. And so it is, my friends, we are here
today, sitting in conference, to counsel with each other as
to what we can do, as to what it will be best to do, so
that we can guarantee to the future and to the people
that come after us, to our children and our children's
children, some of the benefits of this great wealth that
has been placed in our hands in trust.


Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va.

The next number on the program is one that I should
gladly omit if I could.
The president of this Congress does not expect to pose
as an orator alongside of Governor Brandon, nor does
he possess the information that is the property of our
friend Alexander, but it is necessary that those of you
who may be here who have never been in a meeting of
this Congress before should know something of the Con-
gress and how it came to exist, and it will not hurt those
of us who have been at every meeting of the Congress since
its organization to cast an eye backward and refresh our
minds a little as to how this Congress came into being
and what its progress has been.
In the year 1916, at Asheville, North Carolina, in the
month of July, was held the first meeting of what is now
the well established Southern Forestry Congress. That
meeting was called by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, who for
years has been in charge of the Geological Survey of the
State of North Carolina, and he was assisted by Dr. Holmes,
the State Forester of North Carolina. We have both these
gentlemen with us today.
The man whose brains conceived this plan and con-
ceived this organization I have had the pleasure and honor
of knowing for the past sixteen years. I first met him
in the flesh at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907, where
he had charge of the North Carolina Geological exhibit
at that world show. He has stood in the forefront of
everything that has meant progress in North Carolina ever
since he was old enough to begin to make a fuss, and I
imagine that was pretty early. He has found time to dip
into the road question of North Carolina; he found time
to go overseas and serve his country in France, and he
came back from that service marred and broken, but
we are glad to say he is now recuperating splendidly.
The Congress that was held at Asheville was in many
ways a very remarkable meeting. It got together for the
first time representatives from practically all of the south-
ern states for the purpose of discussing the forestry ques-
tion, forestry conservation, forestry protection and for-


estry reproduction, and the meeting was truly a wonder-
ful one. Following the meeting at Asheville the United
States got into things in Europe, and in common with a
great many other matters the Southern Forestry Congress
for the time being had to take a back seat, while we
attempted to help to make the world a safe place to live
in. The second Congress met at New Orleans, and there
again we had a very remarkable meeting. Governor John
M. Parker, today the chief executive of Louisiana, had
at that time just been nominated for the office which he
now holds, and I had the pleasure the other day of hav-
ing a letter from Governor Parker in which he expressed
his deep regret at not being able to be with us here at
this meeting.
The third meeting of the Congress was held some little
time after the meeting at New Orleans, at Atlanta, Georgia,
a year ago last July, and here we had a revival of what
had happened at the two previous meetings.
Last year it was agreed that our meeting should be
held at Jackson, Mississippi, and it was so held in the
early part of February, 1922, just about a year ago, or
not quite a year ago. One of the particular developments
that showed for itself at Jackson was the fact that nearly
fifty per-cent of our attendance at that meeting of the
Congress was made up of Mississippi lumbermen.
If anyone should say to you that this Congress is made
up of a bunch of theorists or a bunch of college professors
and a bunch of technically trained foresters, who come
together to talk over their affairs-ideas of conservation,
reproduction and protection-please say to them for us
that such an idea is absolutely erroneous. We have had
as president of this Congress, to begin with, Colonel Pratt.
True, he has been a college professor, but he is in charge
of a department for the State of North Carolina which
means a great deal more than pure theory. Our second
president was Mr. Henry E. Hardtner of Louisiana, one
of the largest lumbermen in the state. The third presi-
dent of the Congress, Mr. Roy L. Hogue of Mississippi,
has personally been connected with the actual production
of lumber in Mississippi for years. The present president
of the Congress is interested in the actual production of
lumber, as well as the actual production of coal, and one
of my chief reasons for being as much interested in this
Congress as I am is that I have charge in the State of
Virginia of three hundred thousand acres of coal and tim-


ber lands for the largest land-owning corporation in that
state, where our forests are being rapidly cut, and because
they are hardwood forests we have in front of us a question
of reproduction the seriousness of which you people who
are accustomed to dealing with longleaf pine know little
As to the objects of the Congress, I have already stated
them in a way, except that I should possibly put more
stress on the one word which is the keynote of everything
that we do, and that is "education." The prime object
of this Congress is to educate all who come within its
reach and within its touch, in order that they may ap-
preciate the seriousness of the present lumber situation
not only of the United States, if you please, but of the
whole world, and in order that they may prepare them-
selves to take an active part in the program of protection
of the forests from fire, protection of the forests from im-
proper handling and improper cutting, the protection of
the product of the forests from waste, undue waste, un-
necessary waste. Later on, maybe, prepared by the educa-
tion that they may receive from this source and other
sources, they will take an active part in the program of
reproduction, which is certainly a program which is star-
ing us in the face and must within a very few years form
a very /important part of any forestry movement, the
purpose of which may be to continue the supply of lumber
for the uses of our people.
In connection with the matter of education it is neces-
sary to have cooperation, and this Congress has and has
always had the cooperation of the Federal Department
of Forestry. We have with us today representatives of
that department, who will be with us throughout this en-
tire Congress. We have always had such representatives
present at every meeting of the Congress. Again, we
must have the cooperation of the states, and we have with
us representatives from almost every state within the pur-
view of this Congress. We figure that we can properly
include, as composing the Southern Forestry Congress, the
sixteen states south of the Mason and Dixon Line, extend-
ing to and including the State of Texas; and unless I am
misinformed I believe we have or will have with us at this
Congress representatives from every one of those states.
It is not the purpose of this Congress to go into any
state with any intention whatever of attempting to dictate
to that state, to its governor, to its senators or represen-


tatives, as to what they should do as to forestry matters.
That thought has never entered our minds. We are an
organization formed for the purpose of helping. If we
can be of any service or assistance to any state or any
of its officials or representatives, we want to be able to
step into the gap and supply whatever information it may
be possible for us to give. It is necessary and absolutely
essential that any program of conservation shall have legis-
lative cooperation, and therefore the members of this Con-
gress and those who will address its meetings do so with
the hope that something that they may say or do will be
of actual help to those who are interested in and respon-
sible for, in the case of this meeting, the situation in
Just to give you an idea of the things that the South-
ern Forestry Congress has been asked to help with at
various stages of the game, it might be well for me to
mention the fact that although North Carolina had a
forestry association before the formation of the Southern
Forestry Congress, I think Colonel Pratt and Dr. Holmes
will agree with me that their association has been strength-
ened, its hands have been upheld, and it has been helped
in every way, by the Southern. Forestry Congress. When
it comes time to speak of Louisiana and what they have
done there, we must take off our hats, as we do to North
Carolina, and say thaf Louisiana was ahead of us. The
second president of this Congress, the Honorable Henry
E. Hardtner, was the first Commissioner of Conservation
of the State of Louisiana, and that was before the South-
ern Forestry Congress existed, and a good many years
before. The plans for which he was primarily responsible
have been so developed and carried out in the State of
Louisiana, and so amplified by Mr. Alexander and others
who have intervened in the meantime, that today I be-
lieve there is no gainsaying the statement that Louisiana
has the best conservation laws of any state in these United
States and that the administration of those laws is the very
We held a meeting, as I have said, at Atlanta, Georgia.
One of the outcomes of that meeting was an immediate
endeavor to form a forestry association in the State of
Georgia, and that association has now been definitely or-
ganized. A legislative commission was appointed to look
into the question of forestry, and that commission acted


and made its report to the general assembly of the State
of Georgia.
In Oklahoma a forestry association has been established,
the development of which has been assisted by the South-
ern Forestry Congress, and there is now pending before
the legislature of the State of Oklahoma, which is today
in session, a bill looking to the protection of the forests
of Oklahoma.
South Carolina has during the past year gone actively
into the question of formation of a forestry association
and the preparation of bills for the protection of the forests
of South Carolina. In October of last year I had a personal
invitation, as did others connected with our Congress, from
the Governor of South Carolina to meet him for a con-
ference. Unfortunately I had a previous engagement to
be present at the meeting of the American Mining Congress
at Cleveland, Ohio, and was unable to attend the South
Carolina conference, but it was attended by members of
the Southern Forestry Congress and their advice sought,
given, and taken.
The State of Missouri has also drawn on the Southern
Forestry Congress for he.p, and they have today before
their legislature a bill the purpose of which is the pro-
tection of the forests of Missouri.
And so, from a beginning which took place amongst
the hills of Western North Carolina, than which there is
nothing more beautiful, we have travelled over the South
trying to place our meetings so that at some time we may
have covered the entire area which we include as the
boundaries of our Congress, always with the purpose of
trying to help, never with the purpose or desire to sug-
gest anything that is arbitrary or impractical, never with
a desire to insist on theory in preference to well accepted
practice, but always with the desire, as I have said, to
help; and if perchance we can answer any question that
may be troubling the mind of any man as to what is the
proper thing to do, if the experts that we have here with
us, those experts of the United States Government, those
experts of the states that have well established forestry
departments, if these men can answer any question that
may be bothering anybody, that is what we are here for.
We want at all times to maintain the attitude that we
have assumed from the very beginning, of wanting to


help every one that we can, with the prospect in view
of some day seeing every state within the boundaries of
our Congress taking such measures as will result not only
in conservation and protection, but in the perpetuation,
of the forests of the South.


Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La.

I can make a very brief report indeed of the activities
of the Secretary's office, which is also that of the Treasurer
of the Association. About all that it is necessary for me
to say is something with regard to the efforts that have
been put forth to give publicity to this Congress. There
is a good deal of creaking machinery behind any meeting
of this kind and I am not going to weary you with any
account of the letters written or anything of that sort. I
will say, however, that I think this meeting, thanks to
the efforts of a great many people, has been better adver-
tised than any meeting the Congress has ever held. That
may be a broad statement, but I think it is correct. Not
only, for example, has Mr. Tyler sent out personal letters,
he tells me, to some three hundred people all the way
from Maine to California, many of them his personal friends,
but Mr. Henry E. Hardtner, of Louisiana, Chairman of our
Publicity Committee, who will speak for himself in a minute,
has sent out a tremendous number of letters to friends and
people interested in the work of the Congress. Mr. A.
B. Hastings, our Assistant Secretary, has notified every-
one who has ever attended any of the meetings of the
Southern Forestry Congress, and has followed it up with
one of the preliminary programs. Then, in addition to
all that, I as Secretary have called upon the secretaries
of the State Forestry Associations of Texas, Louisiana,
Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, Georgia, and North Caro-
lina to send out notices of the meeting to every one of
their members.
We have had the most cordial cooperation from these
gentlemen, but the thing I am really proudest of is the
cooperation we have had from the secretaries of the various
lumber and forest industries associations. I think every
one of these associations has sent out our programs, and
written letters not only to their own membership but in
many cases to their entire mailing list. These are the
associations: the Southern Pine Association of New Or-
leans (Mr. Rhodes is here today); the Georgia-Florida
Saw Mill Association; the North Carolina Pine Association;
the Southern Cypress Manufacturers Association; the Tur-
pentine & Rosin Producers' Association; the Southern Sash,


Door & Mill Work Manufacturers' Association, whose Sec-
retary, Mr. Harman, will address us tomorrow; the Hard-
wood Manufacturers' Institute (we will hear from Mr.
Sherrill, its president, also tomorrow); and an organiza-
tion known as the Standard Container Manufacturers, of
Jacksonville, Fla. So that all told I think we have proba-
bly had notice of this meeting sent to at least two thousand
people. Now, that is the Secretary's report, and my
Treasurer's report can be as brief.
Because the chairman of our Finance Committee, Mr.
Shields, has been unavoidably detained at home, I am
just going to say a word that will take the place of his
report, or try to. I want to thank the members of the
Finance Committee, headed by Mr. Shields. There have
been local chairman or members of that finance committee
in several of the states, and they have done splendid work.
For example, we have Mr. L. D. Gilbert of the Southern
Pine Lumber Company, who acted in Texas; Mr. E. A.
Hauss of the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company, in Florida;
Mr. W. B. Townsend of the Little River Lumber Com-
pany in Tennessee; Commissioner Quinn here in Alabama;
Mr. G. L. Wood of the R. E. Wood Lumber Company in
Maryland; and there have been a number of others who
have been active although not perhaps officially connected
with the finance committee. Mr. Tyler, for example, has
done yeoman service in securing contributions to the Con-
gress. The concrete proof of it all is this:
Balance reported to 4th Congress..............................$ 10.35
Contributions from individuals, firms, State
Associations and Departments.
A labam a ...................... .......... .............. 145.00
Florida ..................................................... 105.00
K entucky ......................................................... 25.00
L ouisiana ................................................................................ 10.00
M aryland ............................ ...................... 40.00
M ississippi ..................................... ................... .. 30.00
M issouri .............................................................................. 20.00
N orth Carolina .................................... ........................... 75.00
O klahom a ...................................................................... 10.00


P ennsylvania ............ ..... ............................................... 25.00
Tennessee ...................................................... 135.00
T exas .................................................................................. 9 0.00
V irginia ......... ......... ....................................................... 375.00
W est V irginia ........................................... ....................... 75.00
Contributions, regional associations............................... 72.50
Contributions, railroads .................................................... 70.00
Miscellaneous receipts .................... ..................... 37.00

T otal.............. ......................... ................................. $ 1,349.85
Programs, 4th Congress ..................................................$ 21.65
Proceedings, 4th Congress .......................................... 301.04
Postage ....... .... ............................................................. 2 1.85
Express .............. ... ............. ............. ...... 10.43
Telephone and telegraph .......................... ...... 8.75
Office supplies .......................... ................. 1.35
Exchange on checks ......................... ........ : ...... ........... 1.93
L better heads .......................................................... .................... 52.75
Stenographic work .......................................... ...................... 32.60
P osters ......................................................................... .................. 3.00
Miscellaneous expenditures ................................... ... .2

Balance, excess of receipts over expenditures,
January 29, 1923 .......................... ........................... $891.30
Against this balance we have approximate
liabilities as follows:
Programs, Fifth Congress ...........................................$ 20.00
Postage due Asst. Secretary .................................... 15.00

T otal............................................... ............................... $ 35.00

Mr. Tyler:
In order that the Secretary may be properly satisfied
that his accounts are correct and thereby be relieved from
anxiety on the subject, I am going to appoint Mr. Hogue
and Dr. Holmes as a committee of the Congress to audit
the Secretary's financial report, and to report at such later
hour in the meeting as may suit their convenience.


Director, Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C.

The members of your executive Committee have tried
in every way to further the work of the Southern Forestry
Congress and to carry out the objects for which the Con-
gress was organized. Members of the Committee were
in Washington early in 1922 and appeared before the
House Committee on Agriculture and discussed certain
legislation that was before the Committee in the interest
of Forestry in the Southern Appalachain states under the
Week's Law. They also had conferences with various
Senators and Congressmen in regard to forestry measures
that were being considered by Congress. It is believed
that the information presented by members of this Con-
gress had considerable weight in securing the passage of
some of the Forestry Legislation that was passed by Con-
gress in 1922.
Members of this Committee have also assisted in the
organization of the Georgia Forestry Association, the South
Carolina Association, and the Oklahoma Forestry Associa-
Your Committee has also tried to keep in touch with
the forestry situation throughout the South; has advised
by request with several states in regard to legislative meas-
ures and tried in every way to give information and en-
couragement to those who have been working for the
protection and conservation of our forests.
A meeting of the Committee was held in Asheville
August 24th and 25th and plans discussed and arrange-
ments made for the Fifth Congress to be held in Mont-
gomery, Alabama, January 29th to 31st, 1923.
Your Committee has also given considerable thought
and study to the influence of, condition and future suc-
cess of the Congress and wish to recommend for the con-
sideration and approval of this Congress the following:
1. That the personnel of the Executive Committee of
the Congress be changed so as to include all past Presi-
dents of the Congress, the elective Officers and the Chair-
men of the Standing Committees.
2. That the number of elective officers of the Con-
gress be increased by two, i. e. a Vice-President and a Treas-


urer; but the Secretary and the Treasurer may be one and
the same person.
3. That the President appoint with the approval of
the Executive Committee a State Vice-President from each
state interested and taking part in the work of the Congress.
4. That the Southern Forestry Congress be incorporated
under the laws of some state to be selected by the Execu-
tive Committee.
5. That if the members of the Congress decide on
its incorporation that all persons, corporations, associa-
tions and institutions that have been in any way associated
with the Congress by attendance and registration at any
of its meetings, by contribution to its support or by assisting
in its work, shall be invited by letter to become charter
members of the Congress; and the names of the charter
members be published in the next issue of the proceed-
ings of the Congress.
6. That there shall not be any membership dues; but
that members desiring copies of the proceedings of the
Congress shall pay such price per copy as shall be deter-
mined by the Executive Committee.
7. That those making contributions for carrying on the
work of the Congress and the publication of its proceedings
shall be designated Patrons of the Congress, and that a
list of the Patrons for each year shall be published in the
proceedings of the Congress for that year.
8. That the members of the Congress assist in every
way possible in bringing about the organization of state
forestry, associations in Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi,
Alabama, and Florida, as it is believed that such organi-
zations can exert a wonderful influence in creating through-
out a state an interest and desire for forestry legislation
that will protect our forests from fire and will insure a
satisfactory reproduction of timber on our cutover land.
Such forestry associations have been organized in Mary-
land, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee,
Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.
(At the afternoon session of the Congress on January
30, Colonel Pratt moved the adoption of the first seven
of the foregoing recommendations, and after some dis-
cussion, the motion was unanimously passed by the Con-


Mr. H. E. Hardtner, Chairman of the Publicity Com-
mittee, when called on for a report from his committee,
stated that its activities had already been covered by
the Secretary.
The report of the Legislation Committee, which follows,
was actually delivered at a later session, but is inserted
here as originally planned. Because of the absence from
the meeting of two members of his committee, Chairman
Holmes was unable to secure unanimous assent to his re-
port, and comments from his co-workers are given at its


Chairman, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.

Advisable forestry legislation for the Southern States
occupies two separate fields, Federal and State. The re-
port of this committee has, therefore, been divided into
these two parts, dealing with:
A. Federal Forestry Legislation.
B. Advisable forestry legislation as generally appli-
cable to the States of the South.
A. Federal Legislation: As was expected, the hearing
on the Snell Bill before the congressional committee in
Washington, January 9-12 of last year resulted in abandon-
ing the measure. There was too much difference of opinion
among experts as to the effectiveness of the so called con-
trol measures. On the other hand, there was remark-
able unanimity among all present, foresters, lumbermen and
public officials as to the need for certain measures such
as protection from fire, federal acquisition of forest lands,
forest planting-especially in the Prairie States-and further
scientific research into the growth and utilization of tim-
ber. These, it will be recalled, are measures urged in the
resolutions of our last Congress.
The Secretary of Agriculture has recently recommended
to the Chairman of the House Committee on Agriculture,
at the latter's request, the following five measures and ap-
propriations, as the most practical step which can be taken
in forestry legislation at the present time:
Fiscal Proposed
Activity year author- Increase
1923 ization
Cooperation with States
in forest protection...$400,000 $1,000,000 $ 600,000
Cooperation with States
in tree planting............ 100,000 100,000
Promotion of timber
growing on farms...... 100,000 100,000
Purchase of forest lands 450,000 2,000,000 1,550,000
Forest research .................. 425,000 600,000 1 75,000

$1,275,000 $3,800,000 $2,525,000


1. Cooperation with the States in Forest Fire Pre-
vention under the Weeks Law is of the greatest value to
the South. So far only seven Southern States have been
able to take advantage of the offer made by the Forest
Service because no money is being expended by the other
States for protection. The States could use to advantage
much larger apportionments of Federal money in this work
and with the prospect of several additional States needing
help the present appropriation of $400,000 a year is
inadequate. The million dollars advocated by the Sec-
retary of Agriculture is much more commensurate with
the needs of the work.
2. Cooperation with States in tree-planting is a new
measure, but one which would be of very great advantage
to many States in stimulating this branch of forestry. The
greater part of this appropriation would probably go to
the Prairie States but there seems no reason why the
Southern States, none of which have started planting, should
not benefit from this fund.
3. The promotion of timber-growing on farms is a
branch of forestry which needs rapid and universal exten-
sion. A number of the States already specialize in this
work, but most States are handicapped by the lack of
appropriation because the need for farm forestry is not
realized. If the Federal Government could offer money
inducements for the support of this work it would mean
much to all of the Southern States.
4. The purchase of forest lands under the Weeks Law
has been going on for the past eleven years, with an ap-
propriation averaging about one million dollars per year.
Last year the Budget Commissioner recommended a cut
in this appropriation to $50,000.00, which would have
very seriously crippled the work. Fortunately, through
the efforts of the friends of this work, especially Senator
Keyes of New Hampshire, and Senator Overman of North
Carolina, the item was increased to $450,000. This year
the budget commission recommended this latter sum, and
though an effort was made to increase it to one million
dollars it has passed both House and Senate in its origi-
nal form. A very real effort should be made to secure
the amount recommended by the Secretary, namely two
million dollars, for the following year. The Southern
States are vitally interested in this measure as already
considerable areas have been purchased in several of them


and if the restrictions as to headwaters of streams pro-
vided in the Weeks Law can be removed, practically every
Southern State would get direct benefit from this measure.
5. The forest research mentioned in this item is not
cooperative but is under the direct management of the
Forest Service. The two forest experiment stations es-
tablished, one in the Southern Appalachians and the other
in the Gulf States, have proved popular and are already
doing much constructive work. There is great need for
similar stations in the Lake States and in New England.
The establishment of these should be provided for at once;
while the stations already established should be more liber-
ally provided for as they are seriously handicapped for
lack of funds.
The Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wis., has
proved of the greatest use to the lumber and wood-using
industries, and there is a universal demand among them
for a considerable enlargement of this phase of experi-
mental work. The present laboratory should be consider-
ably enlarged or branch laboratories should be established
in connection with it in other parts of the United States.
The proposal of the Secretary to raise this item to
$600,000 seems, therefore, inadequate, and your com-
mittee would suggest that one million dollars be provided
for forest research.
6. Transfer of Public lands to the National Forests.
The transfer of all unreserved lands in the public domain
and all unappropriated lands in Indian Reservations to
the National Forests should be authorized by Congress.
While large areas of these lands are valuable chiefly for
grazing their administration by the Forest Service as graz-
ing lands would add greatly to their value to the public.
The regulation of grazing is needed and has been strongly
advocated by livestock interests of the West, so that it
is reasonable to have such lands administered by a divi-
sion of the government already successfully administering
such lands.
The forested areas, some of them very considerable,
should be managed as are the National Forests at the pres-
ent time. There may be certain restricted areas which
may be found of greater value for recreation than for tim-
ber production, and these would be managed as are simi-
lar areas in the National Forests with the end in view of
the greatest benefit to the public. There seems no ex-


cuse for transferring these public lands to the National
Park System, which is concerned only with the recrea-
tional and scenic value of certain restricted areas.
7. Other Federal Measures. Last year at this time
there seemed considerable danger of a transfer of the
National Forests from the Forest Service to the Depart-
ment of the Interior. The Southern Forestry Congress
and other interested organizations all over the country
protested against this proposal. The Brown report to
the President made public last fall did advocate this change,
which was apparently inspired by the Secretary of the In-
terior. It appears certain that no attempt will be made
to carry out this recommendation, for with the resigna-
tion of Secretary Fall, the main reason for it will have
Federal Water Power Act. Foresters and conservation-
ists generally have been greatly interested in the proper
regulation of our water powers, and the passage of the Fed-
eral Water Power Act of 1920 was the result of a strenuous
campaign by the friends of conservation all over the country.
This act prevents monopoly and safe-guards public rights,
and the hydro-electric industry says of it that it is work-
able and just. It is nevertheless under attack both in the
courts and in Congress, and it must be defended until it
becomes firmly established as an indispensable part of our
economic system. Any attempt to break it down by se-
curing the passage of legislation exempting interests from
certain of its provisions should be strenuously opposed and
B. State Forestry Legislation for the States of the
South: Although one-third of the Southern States now
have functioning forestry departments, general forestry
legislation means starting from the beginning. So far as
this committee is aware, no very comprehensive forestry
law has ever been enacted without being preceded by
earlier legislation. Such legislation grows and does not
come into being through one all-inclusive enactment. On
the other hand, many comprehensive laws have failed be-
cause of their so-called drastic provisions. It seems, there-
fore, advisable to recommend a minimum number of pro-
visions, which shall be briefly and clearly worded which
will secure the necessary machinery for starting effective
forestry work, and this looks to the gradual prevention
of forest fires and the securing of adequate reproduction
on cut-over and devastated forest lands.


A state forest law should provide at the least for (1)
an appropriation, either direct or special, sufficiently large
to start work on an effective scale; and (2) a sound, non-
political organization including forest fire protection and
administration units.
The principal obstacle to the adoption of a forestry
program in every quarter of the South is the problem of
financing the work. If a satisfactory method of securing
adequate funds can be worked out a good start can be
made in every case and the work will then grow as the
needs become apparent.
Different methods for raising money by the State for
forestry work are being advocated by foresters and pub-
lic men, and while one may be most acceptable in one
State another method may be favored somewhere else.
(a) Direct appropriation: Up to the present time
most States have started and maintained their forestry
work through direct appropriation by the legislature. It
is the quickest way of financing the work and when the needs
are thoroughly understood probably the most satisfactory
way, because appropriations can be increased from year
to year as the work grows and the demand for exten-
sion increases. No special legal fight can be made against
a direct appropriation after it is once made. The objec-
tions to a direct appropriation come chiefly from the leg-
islative body itself. The members are usually interested
in many other projects which call for increased appropri-
ation and are obliged to urge strict economy. A first ap-
propriation is often very difficult to secure and is apt to
be much too small to start the work effectively. For these
reasons, the two other methods are somewhat more gen-
erally favored by foresters, though where it is possible
to secure a direct appropriation this is urged.
(b) The Severance Tax. Louisiana has been called
the pioneer in this method of raising funds for forestry
but even there the plan has not been an entire success.
The severance tax is a tax on all timber cut and on other
natural resources taken from the ground. This tax, amount-
ing to some 12 12c per thousand bd. ft., is paid into the State
Treasury by the lumbermen and other operators. It was origi-
nally planned to have this covered into a special fund to
be used entirely for forestry. After several years' legal
fight on the ground of unconstitutionality, a constitutional
amendment was adopted by the people legalizing this tax.


When it began to be collected the legislative body found
in it a fruitful source of income for the State and took over
the proceeds for general use, making much less liberal
appropriations from it to maintain the department of con-
servation. Recently a certaiai percentage of this fund
has been allotted to the forestry work, which places the
department on a fairly sound financial basis.
The severance tax is opposed by many of the large
lumbermen, because they feel that they pay enough with-
out this additional tax. It has been proposed in a num-
ber of States in addition to Louisiana but it seems destined
to meet some very strenuous opposition. However, a
nominal severance tax that will bring in from fifty to one
hundred thousand dollars per year will of course be much
better than a direct appropriation of say $10,000.00. It
will serve to get the work established and after the State
work has developed for four or six years and the amount
of the severance tax decreases, as it undoubtedly will
owing to the gradual reduction in the amount of timber
being cut annually in each State, it should not be hard to
obtain supplementary direct appropriations.
(c) Occupational and License Taxes: It has recent-
ly been proposed that an occupational or license tax be
levied against all or certain specified industries engaged
in producing and manufacturing forest products for the
support of the forestry work of the State. In States where
such taxes are already levied they might be diverted to
this special purpose. This was recently proposed in Florida
and no very active opposition was encountered. Georgia
has proposed to adopt the same method and in neither
State have the lumber and turpentine interests opposed it.
It must be remembered that in all cases where business
is taxed the ultimate cost is borne by the public because
the various industries are obliged to make a living pro-
fit and if the tax interferes with this the price of the pro-
duct must be raised. Taxing industries seems a legiti-
mate and sensible way of securing money for the purpose
of making sure a permanent supply of raw material for
those industries. Your committee therefore favors this
third method over the other two.
Administration: Your committee feels that a State
forestry department should consist of a representative non-
political board, or commission, appointed by the Governor,
who may be ex-officio chairman. The various members


of the board should represent the various industries and
activities of the people of the State directly or indirectly
interested in the preservation of the forests. They should
be authorized and required to secure the services of a
competent, reputable technically-trained and experienced
forester, as State Forester, to supervise and plan under
their general direction the forestry work of the State.
The board should be given large powers in the selection
and payment of assistants in the various lines and in the
organization and personnel of the forest fire prevention
organization. Local efforts to inject politics into the selec-
tion of forest wardens and other employees should be
resisted to the utmost.
If the State has no adequate law providing penalties for
setting fire to the woods, fields, etc., intentionally or care-
lessly a clear, simple yet comprehensive measure should
be either incorporated in the forest law or enacted as a
separate measure.
Advisable, but not necessary provisions of a State Forest
Law might include:
1. Permission to acquire by gift or purchase lands for
State Forests or Parks, which are suitable for timber pro-
duction, demonstration, or other conservative purposes.
2. The establishment from miscellaneous forest re-
ceipts of a forestry fund.
3. Provision for suitable instruction in forestry sub-
jects in all institutions of learning wholly or in part sup-
ported by the State, especially in State Agricultural Schools
and Colleges.
4. Requirement that all local prosecuting officials shall
prosecute all alleged violations of the Forest Law.
Other measures such as those requiring railroads to keep
clean their rights-of-way, compelling operators of engines
to use spark arresters and other safety devices, forbidding
electric companies to injure shade trees, providing for ex-
emption from or deferred payment of taxes on forest land
or growing timber might well be postponed until the more
essential provisions of a forest law had been enacted and
the most important work of forest fire prevention inaugu-


Manager of the Interior Lumber Company, Jackson, Miss.

"I can see no serious objection to the report as written
though, personally, I would not have favored saying that
the committee favored the occupational or license tax over
the other two described. As a last resort and where not
actively opposed by the interests directly affected, it might
be accepted as a compromise but I believe the Congress
should stand squarely on the proposition that forestry is
a matter of public concern and that the funds for the
support of forestry work should be taken directly from the
public treasury.
As Mr. Holmes suggested, a license tax will be passed
on to the consumer, but this is only partly true for a con-
cern may be able to absorb a small tax and live where
completion is not too strong, and, until all the similarly
situated producing territory had ,identical taxes, license
taxes would be a handicap to that extent."

By Mr. B. H. STONE,
Forester for Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville, Ga.

"I see absolutely nothing in our report to object to.
We might have added some reference to a Capacity Tax,
as some of our naval stores people are inclined to favor
that method since it simplifies book-keeping, but I think
the report is all right as it stands."

By Mr. E. O. SIECKE,
State Forester, College Station, Texas.

"The report of the Legislative Committee of the South-
ern Forestry Congress submitted to the Fifth Meeting of
this organization at Montgomery, Alabama, in January,
1923, is approved by the undersigned, with the following
The undersigned considers that it is not wise for the
Legislative Committee of the Southern Forestry Congress
to favor one method of obtaining revenue over other


methods. Local conditions and numerous industrial and
economic factors differ radically in the various Southern
States. My position is that in States where severance or
occupation taxes pertaining to timber and the manufacture
of timber products are now levied, the forest interests in
those States should make every effort to obtain for for-
estry purposes the proceeds of such license or occupation
taxes. Furthermore, in case legislation imposing severance
or occupation taxes, as specified in the report of the Legis-
lative Committee, are proposed in any Southern States,
and it is apparent that such legislation will prevail, then
the forestry interests should, without arguing for or against
the merits of such taxes, urge that the proceeds of such
taxation legislation rightly belong to the work of develop-
ing forestry and making forest industry permanent."
-E. O. Siecke.

Secretary of the Missouri Forestry Association, Columbia, Mo., in
a letter to Chairman Holmes.

"I have spent considerable time studying the Report
of the Legislative Committee and find myself forced to
the conclusion that it is very able discussion of the legis-
lative situation such as you are so well prepared to pres-
ent rather than a committee report in which I can concur.
I have tried to formulate the reservations under which I
should concur and find I am only picking flaws in a very
good paper. After much thought I feel that I must tell
you I cannot sign the report as it is, simply because in
some important respects it departs from my views. I had
looked forward to the opportunity of thrashing out these
things with the Committee at Montgomery and am ac-
cordingly disappointed."

The morning's session was concluded with a characteris-
tically inspiring address on "Forestry, the Health, Happi-
ness and Long Life of the Forest Industries," by the Rever-
end P. A. Simpkin, Chaplain of the Concatenated Order
of Hoo Hoo, St. Louis, Mo. ("Parson" Simpkin's address
was recorded stenographically in part, but thru a series
of unfortunate circumstances could not be transcribed and
reproduced. This has been a serious loss to the Pro-
ceedings, and a source of great regret to the Congress-


Monday, January 29
Afternoon Session, 2:00 P. M

President Tyler in the chair.

Mr. Tyler:
Being a Pennsylvanian by birth and education it affords
me great pleasure to read to the Congress a telegram from
the Governor of Pennsylvania. He says: "Regret pressure
of business prevents acceptance of kind invitation to Forest-
ry Congress, exceedingly sorry"-Gifford Pinchot.
Mr. Hardtner hands me the following telegram: "Writing
you today exceedingly urgent invitation to help us at Legis-
ture hearing Jefferson City evening February first, hope
you can come." From Mr. Frederick Dunlap, Columbia,
I have another telegram which I am sure Mr. Forbes
as Secretary and Treasurer will appreciate. It reads "Check
for seventy-five dollars forwarded to Forbes today, re-
gret conditions prevent my attendance." From H. W.
Shields, Chairman of our Finance Committee.
I want to add that this contribution of $75.00 towards
the funds of the Congress comes from the second largest
coal mining corporation in the Pocahontas coal field, and
the territory operated by the donor lies partly in Virginia
and partly in West Virginia, so West Virginia and Virginia
will have a scrap as to who shall get the credit.
Here is a telegram to Mr. Forbes from College Station,
Texas: "Regret keenly that Legislative hearing prevents
my attendance. Best wishes for successful meeting." From
E. O. Siecke, State Forester.


The first address on our program for this afternoon was
a paper on "Research in Forest Fires" by Mr. Lenthall
Wyman of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, Starke,
Fla. I am sorry to have to announce that Mrs. Wyman is
ill and her illness prevents Mr. Wyman's presence. Mr.
Forbes, our Secretary, is thoroughly conversant with what
Mr. Wyman would have said had it been possible for him
to be here and I am therefore going to call on Mr. Forbes
in Mr. Wyman's stead.


Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La.

Mr. Wyman is really a research man and I wish that he
could have been here today. He represents the same or-
ganization that I do, namely the Southern Forest Experi-
ment Station, of the United States Forest Service, and of
course our main business is research in all of the silvicultural
and protection problems of the Southern Coastal Plain,
our territory being from South Carolina to Texas. I am
a very poor research man myself, but as long as the rest
of the men are busy I consider that 1 am doing a big day's
work. I wish Mr. Wyman were here to present his own
work, because he is more competent along that line than
I am. However, it seems a desirable thing, rather than drop
out Mr. Wyman's topic altogether, for someone to say some-
thing in a general way concerning forest fires in the South,
because as you will note by looking at the program we
are going to take it up from two or three different angles.
For example, Mr. Greene, who follows me, will talk about
"Fires and the Southern Stock Range." Then Mr. Hastings,
who will substitute for Mr. Jones, will talk about the ques-
tion of "How to Organize Fire Protective Departments in
the States," and finally Mr. McCarthy will come along and
speak more particularly of fires in the Southern Appala-
chian mountains, in the hardwood country where of course
the fire problems are quite different in many ways from
those in the piney woods of the South. Mr. Wyman's
paper was to be concerned with forest fires in the piney
woods principally.
Just by the way of review then of the fire situation, I
want to bring to your attention what a good many people
seem to overlook, namely, that a fire which merely burns
in the grass and brush and leaves in our piney woods
in the South or in the hardwood regions, does real damage.
It seems to have escaped a great many of our citizens that
a tree, like every other vegetative organism, starts as a
very small affair. Of course every tree, as we who are
interested in the subject all know, starts either from a
seed or a sprout from the root of an old stump, and when
that tree is young it is just as susceptible to fire as any


other organism; so that when you have one of those innocent
appearing fires in our piney woods you are not simply
cleaning up the dead leaves and the old dry grass and
some of the brush on the ground, you are also licking
up hundreds of millions of young trees, not only seed-
lings but sprouts. I often wish, or half wish that fires
in the South did more damage than they do, for the reason
that our indifference to them has been compounded of
general carelessness with regard to our timber resources
and our thoughtlessness as to this vital question of young
trees; whereas up in the Lake states and in the far Western
country you have fires that sweep over thousands of acres,
destroying entire villages and taking many human lives,
and doing a damage which is apparent to every one. It
hits those people between the eyes and they have got to
recognize their fire problem, whereas in the South the dam-
age has been so little apparent to the unthinking person
that we overlook the fires.
Just to go very briefly into what these fires do in ad-
dition to wiping out year after year the seedling trees that
must be the foundation of the forests of the future, let
me start with the mature timber. For example, a good
many people do not realize that in every pine forest a
considerable number of trees every year are actually brought
to the ground by repeated surface fires. A single fire will
rarely do much damage to a mature tree; the bark is heavy
and a single fire will do no more, if it burns in a tuft of
grass or pine knot resting against the base of the tree,
than kill the bark on that side of the tree; the bark drops
off and the tree responds to the stimulus by exuding a
certain amount of resin. The next year fire comes along
and burns in the resin, eating itself into the tree. More
pitch is exuded, and year after year the fire eats into the
heart of the tree, and finally down it comes.
If I speak as if we knew all about this business of fire
it is with the keenest realization that we do not know
anything about it, except that fires are a tremendous menace
to our forests. We do not know what proportion of the
standing timber, mature pine, is annually put down by
fires, but I do remember that one of the first pieces of
work I did in the State of Louisiana was to run a little
survey through a piece of ground belonging jointly to Mr.
Hardtner and his southern neighbor. We found that in
two years, in a magnificent stand of virgin pine timber,
something like three and one-half per-cent of the trees


had been burned through and stretched on the ground
by repeated fires; that is, the damage in those two years
was the culmination of fires in previous years. I believe
that Professor Bryant of the Yale Forest School has said
if we continue to burn our pine woods as in the past, in
fifty years we would not have a stick of virgin timber left.
Until very recently I had been under the impression that
the hardwood forests of the South were very little bothered
by fires, but I want to tell you that the other day I went
on the lands of an awfully good friend of this Congress,
namely, Mr. George Houston of Houston Brothers, Vicks-
burg, Mississippi, and looked over a tract of land which
his company is at present logging. Mr. Houston, who
of course today is wholly in the office, told me that the
hardwood bottoms in the Yazoo Delta of Mississippi burned
over once in every three years. When I got into the woods,
his logging superintendent, who is out there a part of the
year, told me it burned over every other year, and the
men who live in the woods told me it burned over every
year, so the nearer you get to the ground the more often
the fires burn according to the authorities, and many of
the trees have been so badly injured by fire that there is
no telling the reduction in their merchantable value. A
large number of the trees have been "cat-faced" by these
fires. When you have "cat-face" you have rot in the in-
terior of the tree, and not only the big trees, which of
course are nearing the term of their existence and would
naturally be susceptible to any injury, but the little trees
also burn. I saw a couple of acres of beautiful young gums
every one of which had a cat-face at the bottom, and rot
was present in the interior of those trees.
Fires then injure the mature timber. Fires also injure
half-grown timber. We do not know a thing in the world
as to the quantitative effect of these fires in half-grown
timber. The Experiment Station at the present time has
a plot in the Arkansas National Forest in which we are
deliberately burning young pine. We have every one of
the trees tagged. We have their exact diameter and height
at the time of the experiment. We have another area
which has not been burned and out of which we are go-
ing to keep the fire. Then in five years we will be able
to measure the increase in diameter of the repeatedly burned
plot as opposed to the plot that has had no fire in it, and
we will be able to say to a land owner: "It is worth while
to keep the fires out of your young timber, because it will


take you say sixty years to mature a saw log in a repeat-
edly burned stand as compared with forty years in a stand
free from fire." However, as yet we have no exact figures,
and we are simply laying the foundation for that sort of
The damage to seedling trees I have already mentioned.
That is the biggest damage, all things considered, from
fires. In addition to the damage to the trees themselves
we have the damage which Mr. Greene will speak of so
convincingly, the damage to the stock range. And finally
we have a very real damage to the soil of the South. Here
again we have got to experiment to get at the exact way
the fires work. For instance, it has always been the for-
ester's theory that if you burn over a piece of land and
consume all the dead grass and leaves on the ground,
you remove a great deal of humus or decaying vegetable
matter that would add to the fertility of the soil. Now,
we do not know whether that is true or not. A very high
official of the Bureau of Soils has told us that in our humid
climate, where we have conditions very favorable to the
rots and decays which destroy that vegetable matter, we
are not necessarily losing a great deal of soil fertility when
we burn. The reason is this: Unless that dead grass and
leaves are mixed with the soil in some mechanical man-
ner, say by plowing or rooting under by hogs, their sub-
stance does not necessarily return to the soil. In the
process of oxidation a great part of it is carried off into
the atmosphere and forms gas. So that possibly the loss
is not as great to the soil as we have said it was. I mention
this simply as a hypothesis, as an example of one of the
things we need to investigate. But we are convinced of
this, that the physical effect of the blanket of decaying
vegetable matter upon the soil is extremely important.
If you will walk through a piece of land that has on its
surface plenty of "duff," as they call it in the north woods,
and will rake a little of it aside and thrust a stick into
it, the stick will sink into the ground; whereas if you go
into a place where fires have burned up that duff-where
there is no mulch-your stick will not go in at all, the
ground is hard. And that of course means that when the
rain falls, instead of going into the ground and doing some
good to your trees and vegetation, it runs off on the sur-
face and to a very large extent is lost.
Now, gentlemen, as I say, I cannot do the subject the
justice that Mr. Wyman would have done. We do not


feel that we know everything about it; we want to know
and we intend to know it, and the Southern Forest Ex-
periment Station would be glad of suggested locations for
experimentation in which we can carry on a more satis-
factory analysis of the damage done by fires.
Mr. J. S. Holmes:
Two years ago in making a study of second-growth long-
leaf pine in North Carolina, we found abundant repro-
duction in one county from the trees on the ground. I
was so interested in the question as to what became of
all this reproduction that I laid off four plots in this area,
of one hundred square feet to the plot, and interested the
Boy Scouts of Wilmington in trying to keep up with these
plots. I took them out there and showed them how to
count the seedlings and how to examine the area to see
what would happen. They reported to me about every
two months as to the condition of those plots and the num-
ber of seedlings in the plots. I checked them up two or
three times during the two year period. I intend to keep
up with those plots in the future. I want to give you just
a brief outline of the results so far obtained. The first
count of seedlings on those plots amounted to about one
and a half seedlings to the square foot, something like
one hundred and fifty to the plot. That was in April,
after the seeds had germinated that winter. The follow-
ing Fall there were about 54% of those seedlings still on
the ground. That is, something like 46% of them had
died from one cause and another, part of them no doubt
from being trampled upon by the boys counting them.
We kept on and that next spring, at one time early in the
spring, one of the plots burned over with the rest of the
woods in that immediate locality. But the other three
plots were not burned over. At the end of the second
Fall, that is eighteen or twenty months after we first
counted, on the three unburned plots there were still fifty
per-cent of the seedlings originally there. On the burned
plot there was six per-cent; that is, the 1 1 seedlings on
that plot were reduced to seven. Seven seedlings were


left on the burned plot, and these were very weak and
very much damaged by the fire.
Of course, that shows that the second year the seed-
lings are very susceptible to fire, but further, the second
spring there was a large crop of seedlings again, more in
fact than the previous year, something like two and a half
seedlings to the square foot came in the second year, and
in the Fall there were more than fifty per-cent of the
second year seedlings still on the unburned plots and there
was not one on the burned plot. So that the result of
that examination so far has been to determine that a fire
in the early spring had absolutely destroyed all the seed-
lings of that winter and 94% of the seedlings of the pre-
vious winter.


Superintendent, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, McNeill, Miss.

Since I represent an experiment station that is located
in the heart of the Piney Woods country, you may have
expected that I was prepared to present an array of figures
showing you how many seed trees are necessary for re-
production to longleaf pine, how many cords of wood
or how many feet of lumber you could grow in a given
number of years. I can't give you those figures because
I am not a forester but a cattleman. I am not the man
that measures the wood-I am the man that burns the
woods. You let the forester tell you all the nice things
you can do and then you come around to me and ask me
if I am going to let you do it. For if you don't consult
me about it, I am going to burn you out just as sure as
there ever was a "Longstraw pine" grew in South Alabama.
You need not worry about the part Mother Nature will
play in reforestation,-she will take care of every acre
that you don't put the plow in. She does do it every year
there is a seed crop. There is nothing strange about the
fact that we haven't got a crop of second growth pine
coming on, except that the forestry people haven't spoken
to the cattlemen about it.
Since fire is recognized as the limiting factor in re-
foresting to pines in the South, and since fires in a very
large majority of cases are set by cattlemen, it seems logi-
cal that the first thing to do is for the foresters and cattle-
men to get together and reach some sort of an agreement.
If not we will have no pines and the truth of the matter
is, we will not have very many cattle.
I don't believe there is any necessity for the lumber-
men and the cattlemen to go out gunning for each other.
If they will stop and analyze the situation they will find
that the two industries of growing cattle and growing
timber can go together and should go together. I will try
and present from my viewpoint, some of the reasons why
the two industries should be closely linked.


Basic Reasons For Reforestation and Animal Production:
I would like for you to consider, first of all, the basic
reasons for reforestation and animal production on the
Cut-Over Pine Lands. The extent of the cut-over pine
lands is at present more than 100 million acres. This
is an area greater than the combined area of Georgia,
Alabama and Mississippi. It is at present largely non-
productive, less than 10 %' of it having been taken up for
cutivation altho much of it is suitable for cultivation. In
most of the counties of the pine country the improvements
in the way of graveled roads, consolidated schools, and
public institutions came in a large part from taxes on stand-
ing timber which is now gone or is fast disappearing.
The present farming population cannot long hold up the
burden of taxation when it is all thrown upon them. They
will have to give up the good roads and schools or be
tax-ridden until they move out. Taxes in many places
are now 6 per-cent. With money at 8 per-cent and a tax
of 6 per-cent makes an overhead of 14 per-cent which
farming is not well able to bear. If every farmer in the
county in which I lived had his farm free of debt and was
making a good living from it, we would still not have
a rich farming community because of the simple fact that
there are not enough farmers. And gentlemen I want to
make a flat statement-"There are not enough surplus far-
mers in the U. S. to farm the Piney Woods and there will
not be for two generations." If we did have it all farmed
there would be a surplus production for which there would
be no market. We are not yet land hungry in this country.
If we can't farm it the use of the Cut-Over Land then
becomes a question of public economy that interests both
the individual lumberman and the county at large. It
must be put to some productive use to make the county
a desirable place to live in.
Two possible means of utilization are open which do
not require much labor. The lumberman says reforest it
and the cattleman says graze it. The lumberman wants
to grow a new crop of timber and the cattleman wants to
utilize the grass that is already growing. It remains to
be proven that both crops cannot be grown at the same
Opposition of Stockmen to Reforestation:
Under present conditions in most sections the ideas of
the forester and the cattleman are at odds. The forester


says the range must be fenced and protected from fire
for another crop of pines and the stockmen says it must
be left open and burned annually for his use. The differ-
ence is largely an economic one. The man who under-
takes to grow another crop of timber owns a large tract
of land and has a permanent interest in its future develop-
ment, while the man who favors open range and annual
burning, as a rule pastures his cattle on land that does not
belong to him and in which he has no future interest. The
cattleman is represented by practically every citizen in the
community and altho their individual holdings of cattle
are very small it is a very real asset to them.
The native stockmen have known nothing but open
range for generations. The range has been free for all
since the land was public domain. The owners of the land
bought it for the timber and until that was gone and he
wished to put the land to some productive use, there was
no question as to the right of the local people to use the
range. Long established customs are hard to change and
it takes time and education to accomplish it. You can't
legislate against custom. The lumberman does not want
his skidder legislated out of existence and a great many
people look at reforestation as a fore-runner of a stock
law which would close the open range. It would be best
to go easy on the matter and establish some middle ground
if possible. It will take a general county-wide sentiment
against fires to stop them. The state troops couldn't do it
under martial law. It is a problem of getting the cattle-
men to see that they can raise stock without burning the
woods and getting their help to control fires in return for
the use of the pasture.

Why is Annual Burning Practiced?
This is a question that is not hard to answer. Every cattle-
man has observed that the cattle graze the burns in the
Spring in preference to the rough. This is because the
dead grass that remains over winter is not palatable and
contains little food value. It is in the way of grazing and the
cattle can get a quicker fill on the burns.
The range looks better to the eye but the grass is no
earlier and in fact it is retarded because the fires destroy
the dead grass that protects the early growth. At the


present time (February) the sheep can get a good living
from the rough but would starve to death on the burns.
But it is the custom to burn and the range burns every
Effect of Annual Burning:
The most apparent effect of burning is the bare un-
covered condition in which the ground is left through killing
the pine seedlings and burning off the dead grass. There
is nothing left to prevent washing and nothing left to rot
on the ground. If the land was to be used for farming
and not to grow pines there would still be a tremendous
loss through the burned organic matter that should be
left to incorporate with the soil and form humus in which
our sandy soils are very deficient. With the addition of
humus through the decay of organic matter, our Piney
Woods soils become wonderfully productive.
Burning destroys a large part of the early growth which
is protected by the dead grass and it also kills the root
system of some of the grass. There is plenty of grass
left for the number of cattle that are run in the woods but
the carrying capacity is being constantly lowered. Dead
grass if left on the range is apt to be a benefit to the cattle
through its tendency to check the scouring effect of the
early watery grass. Cattle will do better on a mixture.
Quality of Grasses on Burned Range:
With annual burning only those grasses are left on the
range which are able to withstand fire. This limits the
grasses largely to perennial clump grasses which have a
strong root system protected by a stool. Tender creep-
ing perennials and annuals are easily killed by fires and in-
cluded are carpet grass and Lespedeza, our two most valu-
able grazing plants.
The plants left on the burned range are mostly sedges
and wire grass which were present in the virgin forest and
have persisted because they were able to withstand fires.
These grasses furnish good grazing in the early spring and
summer but send up seed stems and mature in June and
July, are then tough, woody, unpalatable and furnish very
little nutriment. From July on the range is very poor.
When cattle should be fattening they often lose the gains
of the earlier season unless they have unlimited range to
graze over. One of the biggest problems to solve be-
fore this section can ever become a producer of great


numbers of cattle, is the improvement of the Fall range.
Our greatest hope in this direction is through the natural
spread of carpet grass and Lespedeza, but these two plants
are checked very seriously if not actually prohibited by
The standard by which all pastures are usually measured
are bluegrass and alfalfa. There is little question but what
carpet grass is as good pasture as bluegrass and Lespedeza
as good as alfalfa.
Improvement Through Fire Protection:
The most marked benefit to the range pasture through
fire protection should be through the natural spread of
desirable plants, such as carpet grass and Lespedeza.
Where these are allowed a foothold and the pasture close-
ly grazed, the native grasses disappear and are replaced
by the more valuable grasses which persist when they
are once established. This is shown clearly around every
little town in the Piney Woods, around every logging camp
and along every dummy-line and road. All carpet grass
needs is a fighting chance and Lespedeza always goes
along with it.
We don't need the native grasses, we want to get
rid of them as much as possible,-but burning is the surest
way of keeping them. There is plenty of grass on the
range for the few head of cattle that run in the woods but
there is not enough grass for a profitable cattle industry
on a commercial scale.
Change Taking Place:
It does not take a botanist to understand that the origi-
nal vegetation of the virgin forest must change under such
a radical change in environment as was occasioned by
the rapid removal of the timber. Plants which were able
to thrive in deep shade, covered by a carpet of pinestraw
and burned annually, could not be well adapted to open
sunlight where sun-loving plants are protected from fire.
The ferns do not come out of the swamp and grow in the
A change is gradually taking place in the cut-over lands
and it has gone far enough in places to predict that carpet
grass will be the dominant grass and the Piney Woods
will eventually be a carpet grass country the same as Ken-
tucky is a bluegrass country.


However, this change is largely dependent on fire pro-
tection. If fire keeps down the carpet grass and Lespedeza
the amount of turf is gradually reduced and weeds take
the place of grasses.
To sum the matter up,-Fires perpetuate the undesirable
grasses and prohibit the desirable ones. Under a system
of annual burning the ranges deteriorate rather than im-
Reforestation and Grazing:
We are now ready to establish the connection between
reforestation and grazing. The same steps that are neces-
sary to improve the range pasture are necessary to estab-
lish a second growth of pines. When the stockman is
educated to see that fire is his enemy instead of his ally,
his troubles with the forester will quickly clear away. The
second growth of pines may interfere somewhat with the
grazing but this will not happen for a good many years
with a system of grazing where as much as ten acres is allow-
ed for one head of cattle. Cattle will not hurt the pines.
Where there are plenty of seed trees and the fire is kept
off you will get many more pines than are needed and
if the cattle help to keep them down to some extent I
understand it would be beneficial rather than harmful.
There is also an added protection to the pines through
grazing, that the lumberman cannot overlook. If the woods
are protected from fire and not grazed the rough would
be so heavy in a few years that a fire would be disastrous
to the pines. Grazing will keep the grass down and les-
sen the fire hazard. If for no other reason the lumber-
man should encourage grazing on his land.
In discussing the evil effects of burning I skipped what
was perhaps the most important point of all. That was
the black-jack and scrub oaks. Every man in this audience
from the Piney Woods, knows of some piece of old range
land that has grown up to scrub oaks until it is so thick
that you can't ride a horse through it. There is a reason
for every oak thicket and that reason is fire. Nature made
the Piney Woods a timber country and if the cut-over
land is not put into cultivation it is going to reforest it-
self, fire or no fire. If protected from fire you will get
what nature intended,-Longleaf pines and they will keep
the oaks down. If you burn off the pines the scrub oaks
will take possession. If the pines were as valueless as
the oaks they could still be easily gotten rid of because


they will not sprout. But if you cut down an oak you get 24
oaks in its place. When it comes to making a pasture of an
oak thicket I absolutely throw up my hands. I like cattle too
well to go into the goat business. Besides the oaks lower
the value of the land for agricultural purposes. An oak
thicket in a pine stump field is too tough a proposition
for the pioneer stock we have left to clear the land.
The man that deliberately burns the woods year after
year is not only doing an injury to himself but he is burn-
ing his children and grandchildren out of the lumber busi-
ness, the grazing business and the farming business.
The conditions here set down are the result of a long
period of abuse to our cut-over lands. They will not be
remedied or changed in a day or a year. It will take con-
certed action to change them at all. As I said in the be-
ginning the lumberman must come around and ask the
cattleman about it. The cattleman at present holds the
whip hand and the lumberman is at his mercy when it
comes to reforesting his land. The lumbermen need to
look at some of the points I have mentioned, from both
sides of the question and come in a body and not as in-
dividuals because it will take concerted action and a great
deal of educational work to accomplish anything.
Such is the substance of the observations on which we
have based our experimental work at the Coastal Plain
Experiment Station at McNeill, Miss. Our work has been
in connection with livestock and forage plants. Our major
problem has been the improvement of the pastures. We
know that we can build good pastures on cultivated lands.
We are now undertaking to establish the relationship be-
tween fires and improved pastures on range land. Also
the relation between grazing afnd reforestation because
we know that when we exclude fires we will get a stand
of pines.
In cooperation with the U. S. Forest Service we have
leased a section of and, part of which is to be burned
for ten years and part protected from fire, and all of it
grazed as tho grazing were the only consideration. On
smaller subdivisions we will graze sheep on land protected
from fire, make plantings of improved pasture plants,
graze at different rates and other minor projects.
Ten years is a comparatively short time in the develop-
ment of the Piney Woods and at the end of that time
we will have some figures and data to back up our demon-


stations instead of hearsay and we are not going to
cover up any bad features that may show up.
You usually think of the experiment station as catering
to the needs of the average farmer alone. However, an
experiment station has rarely had to face the conditions
we have to face in the Piney Woods and you will under-
stand from the very nature of our problems that our major
projects must be planned looking far ahead and that they
will benefit chiefly the large land-owners because they are
the ones that are holding the bag at the present. It is to you
men here today and to the lumbermen as a body that we
look to for encouragement and suggestions as to the direction
of our work. We cordially invite you to pay us a visit
at any time that you may see fit.


State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.
Read by A. B. Hastings, Assistant State Forester.

In my opinion the States have a very decided responsi-
bility to bring about forest-fire protection within their bor-
ders, one that they have no right to ignore or to make light
of. As I see it this responsibility is due primarily to the
fact that under our form of government the States are
sovereign, except in such fields in which they have ceded
authority to the Federal Government. This sovereignty
necessarily carries with it responsibility for initiative and
leadership in forest-fire protection, as long as the neces-
sity for organized activities in that field exists, and the
States would have no justification whatever for a disposi-
tion to "pass the buck" -to the Federal Government nor to
any other agency. I think it very fortunate that the re-
lation between the Federal and State Governments in
the matter of forest-fire protection on privately owned
lands is one that is based on the recognition of the State's
primary responsibility. As you doubtless know, the Fed-
eral Government co-operates financially and through ad-
vice as to methods, etc., only with those States which
are themselves undertaking to solve the forest-fire
problem, and has done what it properly could do to get
the individual States to recognize and meet their responsi-
bility in this field, but has not independently undertaken
forest-fire protection measures on privately owned land.
The Federal co-operation is handled very wisely and ef-
ficiently, and has been a great stimulus to the States.
The countries or other local political sub-divisions of
the State cannot be considered to have any ultimate re-
sponsibility as distinct from the State. I believe it is wise
from every standpoint, politically and socially, that local
self-government be encouraged, and it may very well be
that the best results will be secured, under certain cir-
cumstances, under a plan of giving considerable authori-
ty to local officials, but after all, the adoption of such a
plan must be looked upon as only a matter of expediency
and its wisdom tested by results. If the results are not
satisfactory it clearly devolves upon the sovereign State


to correct any unsatisfactory conditions arising through
its delegation of certain powers to -local officials.
I presume everyone will agree that the owners of the
forest land protected should be required to share the cost
of a fire protection system, because obviously the pro-
tection adds to the value of their property and allows the
growing of forest crops, the revenue from the sale of which
goes to the owner. The State would be shirking its re-
sponsibility, however, and failing to actually get the de-
sired results, if it attempted to throw the entire responsi-
bility for fire protection upon the owners, for two very
important reasons; Ist, the owners as a rule are responsi-
ble for the origin of only a small percentage of the fires
that threaten their property, and, 2nd, the incidental bene-
fits to the public through the existence of the forests in
good condition, such as the regulation of the evenness
of stream-flow, the lessening of erosion and floods, particu-
larly in the case of forests on mountainous lands, the general
beneficial effects of forests on climate, etc., do not accrue
principally to the owners but rather to the general public.
It is for the State to meet its own responsibility by adopt-
ing a wise policy as to what it will do for the owners of
forest land and what it will require of them, in the inter-
est of all its citizens, both present and future.
It is obvious that effective forest-fire protection is not
feasible without the enforcement of adequate laws deal-
ing with forest-fires. These laws of course rest upon the
police powers of the State, and are State laws. It would
clearly be absurd for the State to leave the enforcement
of its own laws in any other hands than its own. The
State, therefore, whatever powers it may delegate from
time to time, must recognize and meet its responsibility
for the prevention and control of forest-fires within its
There does not seem to be any one form of organization
of a State forestry department as a branch of the
State government that can be said to be positively better
than all others under all conditions. My position as Sec-
retary of the Association of State Foresters has made me
more or less familiar with the form of organization of each
of the different forestry departments and given me some
idea as to the way each of them is working out, and I
am struck by the great variety in the forms of organiza-
tion. It is generally believed that there should be a forestry


board or commission of broad-minded and patriotic men
interested in the subject who should exercise more or less
authority in the determination of policies, but whose pri-
mary function should be the selection and appointment
of an administrative officer, usually called a State Forester,
who should have both the technical and practical educa-
tion and training in forestry and who should be responsi-
ble for the actual conduct of the State's forestry work.
Whatever the form of organization, the main point is that the
men in charge of the forestry work should have the neces-
sary interest in" forestry and the necessary training in for-
estry. Forest-fire protection measures should not be
thought of as a separate problem or as an object in them-
selves, but should be part of a comprehensive forestry
program put into effect for the purpose of rendering all
forest or waste lands as productive and profitable as it
is possible to make them, which of course is the essence
of forestry.
The organization of fire protection work and the methods
of carrying it out are different in every State that has taken
up such work from what they are in every other State,
and I presume that such will always be the case, more
or less, because of different natural, economic and politi-
cal conditions in the different States. We are so very far
from being able to put into effect anything like an ideal
form of organization, even if one had been carefully worked
out to fit each set of conditions, that it seems to me that
this discussion will be more fruitful if we stress particu-
larly certain special things that have been done in differ-
ent States that have proved themselves valuable or are
showing promise. There are men here from most of the
other States that are trying to meet the forest-fire situa-
tion that can speak for those States, and I shall discuss
particularly two features of the work in my own State,
Virginia, which I believe give promise of being useful
in other Southern states in which the conditions may be
somewhat similar. I refer to our organization of fire pro-
tection measures in co-operation with the counties, through
voluntary appropriations on their part, the plan under
which the greater part of the work in Virginia is being
carried out at present, and to our work in co-operation
with large land-owners.
First, the co-operation with the counties. I should ex-
plain that we adopted this plan in the first place not from
choice but from necessity. We started this work in 1916


with an appropriation of only $10,000 per year from the
legislature and a contingent allotment from the Federal
Government of $4,000 per year. Our law provided, and
still provides, that the Boards of Supervisors of the several
counties might at their discretion appropriate funds for
forest protection, improvement and management. Ob-
viously a total sum of $14,000 per year for all kinds of
forestry, including other things as well as fire protection,
could not go very far in a State with a land area of twenty-
five and a half million acres, over half of it wooded. We
were presented with the alternative of concentrating our
efforts in a few small areas, trying to put a very thorough
protection system into effect in those areas while abso-
lutely neglecting protection in all the balance of the State,
or making what funds we had cover as large an area as
possible, not primarily with the idea of using them in
the actual suppression of fires, but rather as a means of
stimulating local interest and local effort in the hope that
in this way it would be possible to get a really effective
state-wide system sooner. The latter alternative was chosen,
and we have not regretted the decision.
Disregarding, for the sake of brevity, certain variations
at different times or places for one reason or another,
the plan is to make a formal offer to the Board of Super-
visors of each county to co-operate with them in forest-
fire protection if they will make an appropriation for this
purpose of an amount between certain stipulated limits.
Our plan at first was to offer to exactly duplicate their
appropriation, the combined sums to be used for the pay-
ment of from one to four patrolmen in each county. We
stipulated that the appointment of these patrolmen must
rest with us, although we asked their hearty co-operation
in selecting the men. We then employed these men on
a daily basis on the driest days during the dangerous fire
seasons to thoroughly cover their districts with fire warn-
ing posters and patrol their districts on the lookout for
fire, while at the same time doing everything possible in
an educational way to urge the people to be careful with
fire, to warn those who were apt to cause forest-fires
either carelessly or intentionally, etc. They also made
it a point to examine the condition of the numerous small
sawmills and stavemills scattered through the woods to
see that the operators were complying with the laws for
the operation of the mills in a safe manner. The patrol-
men also fought such fires as occurred within their dis-


tricts to the best of their ability under the circumstances,
although they were-not expected to be able to make head-
way against large fires unless they could get assistance.
Each of these patrolmen reported directly to the State
forestry department, on a daily basis, and was super-
vised only directly from the headquarters.
With an increase in the Federal and State funds avail-
able we have thought it best to employ one chief forest
warden for each county, whom we ourselves appoint, with
the assistance of the Board of Supervisors wherever they
are willing to help us in the selection. This man also
works on a daily basis, reporting directly to us. He makes
a selection of the other members of the fire protection
force in his county, relieving us of this duty, and one of
his principal duties is to get as capable and enthusias-
tic a body of wardens as possible, and supervise them
in their work. We do not ask the counties to pay any
part of the chief forest warden's salary or expense. We
ask them only to pay one-half of the cost of the services
of the district patrolmen, just referred to, and of the local
forest wardens who do no patrolling but are on duty
only in case of fire.
The chief forest warden also takes off the shoulders
of the patrolmen and local wardens in his county the
primary responsibility for securing the enforcement of the
forest-fire laws. The local warden at each fire does what
he can at the time to learn the origin of the fire, and gives
such information as he can secure to the chief forest war-
den, who, with the advice of the Commonwealth's At-
torney for the county, follows up any possible clues, and,
where the circumstances warrant prosecution, sees to it
that the case is fairly tried.
In the Southern states the fire protection systems have
usually started with the employment of patrolmen with
extremely large territories to cover, so large that their
duties have been primarily educational and the actual ex-
tinguishment of the fires by them could not be expected.
We have come to feel very strongly in Virginia that this
stage in the organization should be passed as soon as it
is at all possible to do so. We feel that the actual sup-
pression of fires must be developed at the earliest pos-
sible moment, through the employment of a large number
of local forest wardens who immediately take steps to
extinguish any fire that may occur in their districts. We
believe that if this stage is not reached very soon the


force of the educational work will be lost and the whole
program will come to be considered a failure by the people.
For this purpose we are steadily extending our staff of
local forest wardens and reducing the size of their dis-
The amounts appropriated by the different counties vary
from $75 to $360 per year, and have been gradually in-
creasing somewhat. The number of counties making such
appropriations has increased from 8 in 1916 to 45 out
of the 100 counties in the State by the autumn of 1922,
and the total amounts of their appropriations have in-
creased from $1,000 for 1916 to $6,756 for 1922. The
expenditures have sometimes been considerably less than
the appropriations, as we have found it difficult to get
all of the patrolmen and wardens to be on duty as much
as we have wanted them to. The steady increase in the
number of counties appropriating and in the amounts of
the appropriations seems to indicate that the great majori-
ty of the counties that have tried this system believe they
are getting their money's worth for what they spend. A
few of the counties after making such appropriations one
or two years have discontinued them, but in spite of such
temporary setbacks the work as a whole has steadily in-
creased in extent and effectiveness. Of course the origi-
nal appropriations by the counties are usually made only
after solicitation to do so on the part of the State for-
estry department, which includes a very careful state-
ment of the proposed plan and usually personal attend-
ance at a county board meeting on the part of a member
of the staff of the forestry department. Securing such
original appropriations and their continuance through sub-
sequent years takes a good deal of time and money on
the part of the State forestry department, which might
be spent in other ways if this necessity did not exist. In
my opinion, because of this consideration, and because
of the fact that forest-fires are no respecters of county
boundary-lines, commonly originating in one county and
burning into another, and for other reasons, the State should
require the participation by the counties in a fire pro-
tective plan on some reasonable basis that could be work-
ed out. Nevertheless, in the absence of such a law, this
plan does make it possible to cover a great deal of ground
with a system of fire protection which is not very inten-
sive, but which in almost every case, the exceptions oc-
curring principally where we have not been able to se-


cure as wardens the high type of men that we try to get,
results in such a decided reduction in the fire loss from
what it was before without protection that the cost of the
system is trifling in comparison.
The cheapness of the work is partly explained by the
fact that except in the case of the wardens, who are paid
for their leadership and responsibility, the actual fire fight-
ing is done voluntarily, as a neighborhood proposition, in
regions where most of the timberland is owned locally and
therefore each man is usually willing to help his neighbor.
Where the timber is owned in large tracts this voluntary
fire fighting is usually not to be expected, because of the
feeling that the large owners should pay for such ser-
vices. Under such circumstances the wardens are trying
to make arrangements with the owners in advance where-
by the owners will pay for the necessary fire fighters em-
ployed by the wardens. It takes time to get such arrange-
ments perfected, but we are making progress along that
At the same time that we started our county coopera-
tion we worked out a plan of cooperation with owners
of large tracts of forest land, and made a proposition for
cooperative fire protection to all the large land-owners
in the State with whom we could get in contact. This
plan was worked with the mountainous part of the State
primarily in mind and may be better adapted to the
mountains than to the rolling or level country. It pre-
supposed the necessity of the construction of certain per-
manent improvements in the case of large holdings. These
improvements vary depending upon the local situation, and
consist of either lookout towers with telephone connections,
fire lines, trails, fire fighting tools, etc., or a combination
of these things. The plan provided that the land-owners
should embark on a policy of constructing such improve-
ments as were mutually agreed upon to be most necessary
under the circumstances, spending for this purpose each
year a sum at least equal to the wages of the lookout
watchmen or patrolmen whom the State would employ
and who would be commissioned as forest wardens to
give them the authority to enforce the forest-fire laws.
The land-owners were also to undertake to meet the cost
of the employment of local people to fight fire in case
of necessity where employed by the patrolmen and war-
dens for this purpose. The first land owning company
in the State to accept our offer of co-operation in this


way was the Clinchfield Coal Corporation, represented
by its Land Agent, Mr. W. D. Tyler, President of the
Southern Forestry Congress, to whom credit is due for
the undoubted success that has been achieved. This is
our largest and best cooperative project. It covers practi-
cally an entire county. The company has spent on this
project far more than has ever been required under our
agreement, and has shown what can be accomplished with
the necessary determination and judgment.
Exactly this plan is now in effect in co-operation with
only three of the large land holding companies. Recently
we have been extending such work on a somewhat dif-
ferent plan. We have brought about the organization of
two Associations of land-owners, who pay 1 cent per acre
per year into a common fund to be used for all fire pro-
tection purposes indiscriminately in the holdings of the
members of the Association. The State, with the assis-
tance of the U. S. Forest Service, contributes an equal
amount, thereby becoming an equal partner in the pro-
ject, and the work is all done under the direction of the
chief forest warden for the county in which the land is
situated. This plan brings together all of the different
agencies concerned and in my opinion offers very great
promise for the future.
Where there are no land-owners protective associations,
a great deal of effort has been devoted to the supplement-
ing of our county protective systems by securing volun-
tary agreements with large land-owners whereby the lat-
ter would undertake in writing in advance of the season
to pay any fire fighters employed by any of our forest
warden for fighting fire on or threatening their lands. In
one of the largest counties of the State we were able to
secure such a written agreement with every owner of a
tract of forest land of more than 1000 acres in extent,
and in several other counties we are beginning to ap-
proach this goal. The payment for actual fire fighting
seems to be necessary in regions of large holdings, where-
as on the other hand in regions of small holdings owned
by the local people we have not yet gone into payment
for fire fighting, because we find that our wardens are
able to get the local people to think of the matter as a
neighborhood proposition, each man helping the others
and the others helping him. The small owner contributes
labor. The large owner when not in position to contri-


bute labor directly is called upon to pay for the labor of
Our experience with the large land-owners is that they
rarely undertake anything which is effective over large
areas except when urged to do so and shown how to do
so by representatives of the State forestry department,
and that even then most of them go rather slowly at first,
but we feel that by taking the leadership and continually
hammering at the work we can get really effective results
from the great majority of the owners who live nearby
or have local representatives. The occasional large tracts
owned by outsiders purely as speculations are a more seri-
ous problem. I am not sure but what additional legislation
will be needed to deal with the problem of absentee owner-
While, as I have said, I believe it would be the best
policy for the State to make participation in a fire pro-
tection system on a reasonable basis compulsory on the
part of the counties and the large land-owners, in the
absence of such legislation it has clearly been shown that
at least under conditions as they are in Virginia very de-
cided progress in fire protection can be made under a
system of voluntary participation. It seems to me that
there might be States in the far South which have not
yet undertaken fire protection at all which could make a
start on this basis if not on any other. Under it at least
there could be a certain degree of protection from fire in
those counties in which the sentiment of the majority of
the people is favorable to it.


Silviculturist, Appalachian Forest Experiment Station,
Asheville, N. C.

The hardwood forest of the Appalachian Mountains and
Piedmont Plateau is never secure from injury by fire. How-
ever possible it may be to burn over the mature southern
pine forest without economic loss, the hardwood forest
is incapable of undergoing such treatment without injury
to the mature timber and complete destruction of the small
trees and reproduction.
Public judgment of the degree of fire damage has been
shaped by the economic interests of those who have used
the forests and who have measured the extent of fire damage
by their own financial gain or loss. The truer economic
measure of damage by the unbiased determination of the
loss in producing power of the forest is the basic prin-
ciple of research in forest fire damage problems. It is the
purpose of this paper to clarify the subject of forest fire
research by an analysis of its problems as they have been
met in a current fire study conducted by the Appalachian
Forest Experiment Station in the Southern Appalachian
mountain and Piedmont regions.
In addition to the need for an exact measure of fire
damage which will assist in determining the legitimate ex-
penditure in protection of the forests, there are problems
of administration, such as the analysis of the origin and
behavior of fires and studies of the technique of fire pre-
vention, detection, and suppression which must be includ-
ed in this discussion. The general acceptance of the prac-
ticality of such research will be materially furthered if it
is made plain that all experience which adds to progress
in the program above outlined- must be rated as research.
A considerable amount of information has already been
acquired through the administrative records of organized
fire protective forces. Facts must be recorded to be of
future value, and definite progress can be made more
rapidly if the problem is analyzed and the information is
sought with a purpose. This statement has been made to em-
phasize the value of previous work in studying fire problems.


The susceptibility of hardwoods to fire injury at all
ages, but especially in younger stands, demands that fire
protection shall be absolute. Absolute protection should
be accomplished in so far as it is economically feasible,
and protection must be accomplished to the extent of se-
curing the young stands against even a single fire, or the
effort expended in protecting the area will be wasted.
The extent of damage is much reduced in this region
from that obtaining two decades ago when there was little
incentive to protect the forests from fire. The statement
has been made by an investigator* of fire conditions at
that time that "with the exception of the moister coves
and bottoms . it is difficult to find forest land which
is not burned over at least once in ten years; a full half
or two-thirds of the timbered area is burned over at least
once in every five years and in the heavily grazed parts
a large part of the forest is burned at least once and some-
times twice a year."
The condition existing during the past six years is shown
by the report of the North Carolina Geological and Eco-
nomic Survey for the State of North Carolina. An area
of 614,659 acres was reported as burned in the 24 mountain
counties during the period of 6 years from 1915-1920,
inclusive. This gives, conservatively, an average annual
burned area of 100,000 acres. The total area of the 24
counties considered is given by the census of 1920 as
6,464,640 acres. The unimproved land outside of farms is
1,417,540 acres, and the woodland in farms is 2,184,055
acres, giving a total of probable forest land of 3,601,595.
In case there were no repetitions of fire on the same area,
this would mean the complete burning of the forest in
each 36 years, too short a period for the trees to reach a
size resistant to fire, and even if 50 per cent of the area
is considered as returned, the percentage of fire damaged
timber will still represent an enormous public loss.
While North Carolina has been taken as an example,
it must be recalled that this state has made material pro-
gress in organizing a state protective force and that the
average of fire loss is being reduced through its efforts.
Since the fire reports came from voluntary sources, they
are incomplete, and to that extent the estimate of loss
is conservative.
Mulford, Walter. Forest Conditions of the Southern
Appalachians. Ms. 1905.


Although a statistical record of acreage burned is an
essential primary step in determining fire injury, the dam-
age sustained is more than the mere destruction or deterior-
ation of merchantable timber, the standard by which fire
damage has been commonly measured. An acre of forest
is more than a mere acre of land, it is an acre of land
with a growing stock of timber. The ability of the acre
to produce a revenue depends directly upon the amount
of capital accumulated in the form of a growing stock
of timber not yet matured. Injury to the smaller size class-
es of trees causes a reduction in value of the growing stock
and a proportionate loss in producing power of the for-
est. The deceptive green crown cover of the Southern
Appalachian forest often hides a condition of this sort in
which successive fires have killed the smaller size classes and
produced a crippled and diseased veteran stand, largely
of sprout origin. Such injury may be even worse than
complete killing, since the useless old stand is an impedi-
ment to the growth of a straight boled and thrifty young
The loss due to fire includes injury to the soil, the loss
to merchantable timber, to the non-merchantable young
stand, and to reproduction. All of these factors of loss
can be measured, but vary widely even in a single fire.
In addition to the damage to timber production there
are several other less tangible phases of forest fire loss.
The effect of fire on the run-off of water is a problem
which will require systematic observations through a period
of years on selected sites, where conditions can be accur-
ately measured. Such a study will be needed to help solve
the problem of silting up of reservoirs in the power de-
velopment of the Appalachian region. Reduction in the
recreational value of the forest after fires is a matter of
increasing importance. Not only is the attractiveness of
the forest destroyed, but there is a material loss through
killing of game and fish.
A complete understanding of the difficulty in analyzing
fire problems can be reached only by a discussion of the
factors which cause varying amounts of damage. Fire sever-
ity varies in different regions and types of timber; it is
also influenced by the season, the age of the stand, the
amount of litter accumulated, the species, dryness of the
forest floor, degree of slope, condition left by logging,
time of day, direction of fire with reference to the wind


and weather conditions. This is a long list of variable
factors which must be considered in analyzing fire dam-
age and it is simplified only by the fact that any fire which
consumes the hardwood leaf litter of a single season is
severe enough to kill all reproduction and ignite dead
The southern mountains and plateau forests lack the
protecting snowfall which materially reduces the fire sea-
son of the northern forests, although types of timber simi-
lar to those of the north are found at high altitudes. In
the spring when the trees are beginning their growth fires
are more destructive because of the sensitive condition
of the zone of growth beneath the bark. Young trees are
more severely injured than older ones, since the bark
is thinner and injury has been found to vary quite uniform-
ly with the size of the trees in a stand where all size classes
are represented. The amount of wood material in the
dead litter will influence the severity of fire, though de-
cay takes place rapidly under a closed crown cover, there-
by preventing an increasing accumulation. The hard pines
found on dry slopes and in the plateau region are more
resistant to fire injury than any of the hardwoods and
there are also certain thickbarked hardwood species, such
as chestnut oak, which resist fire to a limited extent.
The larger fires are usually the outcome of a culmina-
tion of conditions which increase inflammability in the
forest. A period of dry weather combined with wind
is especially serious when the fire occurs in an area where
logging slash has accumulated. Such fires vary greatly in
destructiveness, depending on whether the fire runs up
or down the slope, with or against the wind, in the night
or day, and upon the amount of fuel found on the forest
floor. Hardwood forest fires seldom climb into the crowns
of trees, though this may happen if small pines are in the
stand. This analysis of factors influencing the destruc-
tiveness of forest fires makes obvious the difficulty of es-
tablishing the extent of damage except by a detailed con-
sideration of each burned area.
The Appalachian Forest Experiment Station is engaged
in such a study, in the course of which a detailed exami-
nation has been made of six extensive burned areas in
the Appalachian Mountain and Piedmont sections. Since
this study is not yet completed, only tentative conclu-
sions can be drawn.


The injury done by a single fire is most severe in the
spruce-fir type on the high mountains. While this type
does not burn readily in its natural state, it is highly in-
flammable after a logging operation, when the heavy slash
on the steep slopes is very liable to cause a conflagration
which results in devastation of the land. Burned spruce
lands are not as a rule reproducing and will not return
to a satisfactory producing condition until they are re-
stocked artificially.
The next most severely injured type is that in which white
pine and hemlock are mixed with beech, birch or maple,
a northern type extending to the high moist slopes of the
mountain region and sometimes found in high coves. This
type, which was common in Pennsylvania, recovers poorly
after a slash fire, and contains an increased amount of sprout
hardwood with little pine or hemlock. It may become
partially devastated by repeated fires.
The lower moist slope and cove type is subject to fires
even before cutting, though less so than the dry slope,
ridge, and plateau types. An increase of sprout forest
results. In addition to injury to mature trees of the bet-
ter species, the usual killing of small trees and reproduction
occurs. Fires which follow logging and occur in conjunc-
tion with favorable soil and moisture conditions may leave
enough seed in the duff to generate a good stand of second
The conditions which are required to bring about this
favorable result are complex and imperfectly understood.
Even if further work makes this clear the control of fire
is a difficult task, and must be handled with care and good
judgment. An instance may be cited, however, where
controlled burning of slash in the Douglas fir region of the
west coast brings about a Douglas fir reproduction and re-
moves the objectionable competition of the western hem-
lock. No such condition is certainly known to exist in
the mountain hardwood forest.
On the dry south slopes the greatest acreage of land
has been made unproductive by fire. Much of this type
on the higher slopes contained a light merchantable stand.
The effect of successive fires has been to injure and kill
the better oaks and chestnut, leaving crippled trees of
these species with gum, scarlet oak, soft maple, pitch and
table mountain pine. The result is a non-merchantable
stand over an increased acreage. Such stands will re-


cover so slowly, even if protected, that it is questionable
whether they will pay the cost of that protection, yet these
areas must be protected to insure the safety of the remain-
ing forest.
The study has shown that fires in standing timber deteri-
orate the stand, creating sprout growth favoring the poorer
species because they sprout readily and are tenacious of
life, and favoring poor pines in preference to hardwood
These same general conclusions will hold good for the
lower dry slopes and plateau type, except that the origi-
nal stand was better and shortleaf pine which comes in
is a desirable species.
Two methods of study may be used in obtaining facts
regarding fire damage. The one giving quickest results
is the detailed inventory of burned areas of various ages
which show different conditions of type and treat-
ment. The difficulty presented in following this method
is that of reconstructing the history of treatment, and in-
ability to predict the future reaction to the fire.
The more accurate method of study is by use of small
sample areas which can be burned under observation and
restudied at intervals.
Not the least damaging result of fire is the scarring of
standing timber at the base. This occurs usually on the
upper side of the tree where litter has lodged and the fire
is hottest. This opens an opportunity for the entry of
disease and favors insect attack. While trees may sub-
sequently grow over such wounds, the decay continues
to spread in the interior of the tree. The extent of such
damage can be determined only by a study in conjunction
with a logging operation, when the injury to timber is
exposed by cutting in the woods and sawmill. Such a
study has been planned to complete the field observations
of fire damage and will yield data on the per cent of lum-
ber grades and the rate of spread of disease, coincident
with the study of fire injury as the cause of infection in the
The influence of fire on the forest cannot be expressed
in absolute terms, since we still lack the data to predict
accurately the yield of fully stocked stands. Since fire
damage must take into consideration not only destruction
of mature timber but also changes in composition of the


forest and delayed production which results from killing
of the small size classes, the entire problem of damage
is a part of a larger study of yield in natural stands as
modified by cutting operations. While this basic infor-,
mation is being acquired, future production must be esti-
mated by studies of unburned stands similar to those which
are burned, if possible areas adjoining and of the same
general character. The tasks of forest fire prevention,
detection, and suppression present in each instance a field
for research looking toward the improvement of methods
now used. The basis of this is the education of the pub-
lic and the perfecting of organization and equipment. Sys-
tematic studies of the efficiency of existing organizations
and present equipment form a type of such investigation
which will result in reduced cost of fire fighting operations.
In this connection may be mentioned such problems as:
1. The value of airplane patrol as compared with the
lookout system of fire detection.
2. The introduction of new equipment, such as gaso-
line driven pumps, and the use of the wireless telephone.
Each year of active protection work shows increasing de-
velopment in efficiency through the experimental study of
such organization problems.
While roads, trails, lines of communication, and well
distributed equipment constitute the defense fortifications
against fire, these are useless without an organized per-
sonnel, the support of public opinion, and thorough analy-
sis of the fire hazard. Funds are necessary for these pur-
poses, and large initial expenditures, wisely made, will
doubtless bring quicker public appreciation of the forest
fire problems and eventually result in cheaper fire pro-
When an organization of a fire force is well established
and equipped, based on the needs of the ordinary fire
season, a supplementary force is needed to serve in emer-
gency. Such an emergency may come without warning
and is a difficult condition to meet without excessive ex-
pense. There is an obvious need for some means of pre-
dicting the approach of a severe fire season such as occurs


at intervals of a few years. A study carried on this year
by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station points to
the possible use of the weather observations of the U. S.
Weather Bureau in predicting dangerous fire weather.
Further study will be given to this phase of protection.
Successful fire protection in the forest does not differ
in principle from fire protection in the city. It depends
on continual vigilance, prompt action, and the support
of public opinion. Every good citizen is an enemy of the
city fire, even if he is not financially interested, and in
like manner a public recognition of forest values and the
destructiveness of fires will solve many of the adminis-
trative fire problems. For this reason progress in forestry
practice which means an investment in future forest values
will educate people to recognize the forest fire as an enemy
and enlist them in forest protection.

The papers of the afternoon aroused a great deal of
valuable discussion, in which the following delegates took
active part:
Messrs. Alexander, Cary, Cathey, Faucette, Hardtner,
Holmes, J. K. Johnson, Lee, Lufburrow, Pace, Pfeiffer,
Pratt, Sessoms, H. C. Smith, Sonderegger, Stone and Tyler.


Tuesday, January 30
Morning Session, 10 A. M.

President Tyler in the chair.

President, Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La.

I shall endeavor to discuss the subject of reforestation
and forestry in a plain, blunt business way as is demanded
by any business man before he would even consider the
investigation of a question that has up to the present
time offered so little attraction and inducement for in-
vestment. Fifteen years ago I spoke as a theorist-en-
thusiast-speculative-visionary. Today, after years of ex-
perience, I deal in cold calculating facts, and here they
Cost of growing pine timber where a sufficient number
of seed trees were left to insure natural reforestation.
Value of land, $3.00 per acre. Interest at 8%. Taxes
212 % on valuation, or 7 2c per acre per year. Super-
vision, 7/2c per acre per year.
50,000 acres @ $3.00 acre............$150,000.00
Taxes per year.......................................... 3,750.00
Supervision, etc. per year.................. 3,750.00
At the end of 20 years the investment has reached about
$1,000,000 or $20.00 per acre. From now on to the 40th
year there should be enough sales of wood products to
pay taxes and cost of supervision. At forty years the
cost of the venture would be $4,000,000 or $80.00 per
acre. We can reasonably expect a minimum yield of
15,000 feet per acre or 750,000,000 feet. The cost per
thousand feet is about $5.00, to which must be added a
severance or yield tax of at least 10 % when the timber
is cut, as the State and counties are entitled to a reasonable
tax on the timber grown, and based on a stumpage value
of $10.00 per M. the severance tax would be $1.00 per
M. feet, or $15.00 per acre. Thus the cost of growing
timber is $6.00 per M. feet. Ten dollars stumpage means


a profit of $4.00 per M. feet, or $60.00 per acre. Cattle
raising in connection with the venture will yield a profit
and is recommended. Should the cost be increased $5.00
per acre for planting trees, then the interest rate would
have to be lowered in order to show a profit and no one
would be very enthusiastic over such a proposition. Now,
who can afford to grow timber?
The Federal Government, for every citizen is a stock-
holder and the government has the advantage of cheap
money and taxes. The government can practice forestry
on lands at a greater cost than could ever be realized for
the finished product in order, for instance, to conserve
water for irrigation of valuable farm lands, as in Colo-
rado and the Rocky Mountains.
The people cannot long permit vast areas of forest lands
to lie idle. If the owners cannot or will not practice for-
estry then the government must take over the lands at the
cash value for such forest lands.
The States can afford to reforest forest lands on a smaller
scale than the Federal Government and for the same
Cities and towns should have municipal forests, both
for profit, playgrounds, and watersheds. The cities can
afford it and for similar reasons as for the State.
The farmer who owns 160 acres or more of average
land can grow trees on half his land and raise stock in
connection while he cultivates that portion best suited for
farming. He needs about 2000 feet of lumber per year
to keep up his place to say nothing of fire wood. Eighty
acres carefully looked after will easily produce 40,000
feet annually and soon be a source of revenue to the farm-
er. The owner of large tracts of denuded forest lands
can afford to practice forestry, provided the people want
him to, and support their wish by fixing a fair tax rate
on the land while the timber is growing and thus making
it possible for him to expect a profit from a long time
venture. He can afford it for the reason that the land
is of doubtful value and if he can afford the luxury of
owning a large tract, he must surely have enough means
to develop it. A lumber manufacturer can afford to grow
timber easier than even the government, provided again
that the question of taxation was settled and the State
required him to handle his lands under approved forestry
methods. But unfortunately the states and counties are


more interested in getting what taxes they can now than
a reasonable tax for all times. They compel him to make
a desert of the forest. For if he leaves seed trees and
saplings on the land the taxing authorities force him to
pay a higher tax rate. He is penalized for trying to per-
petuate the forest.
Some one will say, Mr. Hardtner, you are practicing
forestry on 50,000 acres of forest lands. How can you
afford to? And I answer-First, the State of Louisiana
fixed a valuation on forest lands, if set aside under con-
tract with the State and under State regulation, of one
dollar per acre for forty years and full value after that
and a severance tax in addition. The lowest rate now is
Second, I owned 25,000 acres that I was convinced was
suitable only for forest purposes and I accepted the con-
tract offered by the State.
Third--Some years later I had denuded 25,000 acres
more which I commenced to reforest and was assessed
at a valuation of $5.50 per acre, or an average value of
$3.25 per acre on 50,000 acres, or about 10 cents per
acre per year.
Fourth-I was operating a saw mill and making enough
profit to pay taxes and supervision on these lands which
were of doubtful value for any purpose except forestry.
I am now setting aside a sinking fund from the profits
of my business to take care of the property especially taxes
after all of my virgin forests have been cut until the new
forest will take care of itself.
Fifth-It is a great pleasure to work along forest lines
and assist nature in regenerating a new forest. The work
is pleasant but costly for it means six to ten thousand
dollars annually being paid out for at least 20 years with-
out any returns. But of course as I see the trees growing
inch by inch, I realize that the property is enhancing in
value at least more rapidly than money invested in United
States bonds.
I have made a success of my venture which was strict-
ly business, for every acre of the fifty thousand acres
has a thrifty growth of young trees coming on and bids
fair to yield a harvest twice as great as the original forest.
We have many head of cattle and hogs which we find pays
in connection with forestry.


Anyone can grow trees. There are no difficult problems
to overcome. Trees will grow anywhere--and they grow
night and day, winter and summer-drought and flood.
It is a sure crop.
Now the question-What must the state-The Nation
-the people do in order to get the millions of acres re-
forested? And as a man experienced along forestry lines
I reply: Sharpen your pencil and figure interest, taxes,
and supervision on a given investment-if the cost is too
great, your investment and taxes or interest rate is too
high. Experienced government foresters will tell you just
how much timber or cordwood you can grow in 20 to
40 years. If you cannot figure a profit under conditions
around you do not worry about forestry-let the State
do it. What do 1 consider correct values in order to grow
trees in the average county in the South? Two Dollars
and fifty cents per acre value for the forest land-taxes
not exceeding seven cents per acre annually and a sever-
ance tax of ten per cent on the value of the timber when
cut. I do not advocate any tax exemptions nor does any
experienced forester- we ask only for the actual cash value
to be placed on the forest lands for the full period in which
it takes to grow timber or cordwood and then a sever-
ance tax on the products when harvested. If the people
want forests they can have them, but must first make it
possible for the landowner to go into the business. Until
you do this, you have no right to complain about the
complete disappearance of your once magnificent forests
and heap censure on the head of the lumber operator,
for after all he only carries on a business under the methods
which you permit and encourage. Give the forest land-
owners a chance and millions of acres will soon reproduce
a new forest.
Remember, no sound business man, forester or thinker,
recommends or asks for bonuses or exemptions. Forestry
as a business must yield a profit and when the Govern-
ment takes up the problem of regeneration of denuded


forest lands in earnest, forestry will become an attractive
business in which millions of dollars will be invested and
the second crop and succeeding crops of timber will be
a thousand-fold greater in value than the first which was
so carelessly exploited.

At the conclusion of his paper Mr. Hardtner was ques-
tioned on various points in his address by Messrs. McCarthy,
Pace, and Cary.
President Tyler called on Mr. J. H. Jones, of the Alger-
Sullivan Lumber Co., to describe the work in thinning
longleaf pine which his company has been doing. Mr.
Jones stated that 1000 acres of small second-growth had
been thinned to an approximate spacing of eight or ten
feet at a cost of about 20c an acre. This included a cer-
tain amount of limbing. The trees cut were too small to
utilize, and were left flat on the ground to rot.


Superintendent of Forestry Department, Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Bogalusa, Louisiana.

It has more and more occurred to me as I have studied
personally this question of forestry in the South, the ques-
tion of the necessity of conserving the powers of the land
to produce continuously, and I am sure that that is the
inner convictions and feelings of a great many other men
who are interested in conservation, that we really and
truly approach the question from the wrong angle. It
seems to be the thing uppermost in the mind of every
landowner, be he farmer or lumberman, as to "Can I
afford to do it?" Can we afford to do it? I said that
I believe that is the conviction of every man who had
given this matter progressive thought, that we approached
it from the wrong angle. I believe that we are fast com-
ing to the place as Southern men, farmers, lumbermen
and men in all walks of life, where we are going to say
"Can we afford not to do it?"
I just felt like making that little statement before I
undertook to go into some minor details as to what my
company is trying to do in forestry matters.
I heard an old college professor one time make an illus-
tration I thought was good and I have thought of it often
in my limited experience in affairs. He was talking to
a class of students and he said "Boys, always remember
that there will always be coming to you if you do right
more than you are looking for, more than you are actually
figuring for, when it comes to a cold calculation of dol-
lars and cents. "Now," he said, "I will give you an illus-
tration. For instance, the blacksmith, he has an objective,
that objective is a horseshoe. He has the horse there
and he labors faithfully and earnestly and joyously at
shaping and fitting a horseshoe to that horse's foot, and
when that is completed his objective has been reached.
But that blacksmith receives a subjective benefit that is
surprising sometimes, in the strong brawny arm that he
has developed in doing the righteous thing."
Before going on and referring to what my Company
has done and is trying to do I feel like reading just two


or three-not all of this paper, because I did not write
it-but two or three short paragraphs which will show
the background, the backing that I as a simple employee
have in the enthusiasm I really think I have in the work
I am trying to do. This is a paper that was written by
the president of the Great Southern Lumber Company
that happened to fall into my hands a few days ago.
It is an expression, and really the first expression that
I have seen from him, which was given to the press.
"The Chief Forester of the United States has recently
said that 'our national forest policy should recognize that
a real solution of the timber supply problem of the United
States will come only as business men see their way clear
to embark upon the growing of timber as a business under-
I wish that this truth might have found an earlier lodg-
ing in the minds of our lawmakers and our government
officials. It is only recently, and even now only in a
few states, that the tax laws have permitted the grow-
ing of timber by private owners. Today in those states
which have adopted a proper plan for the taxation of
timber, business men are beginning to see their way clear
to this undertaking and I agree with Colonel Greeley that
on this basis, a real solution of the timber supply problem
of the United States is at hand.
The owners of the Company with which I am connected
believe in the growing of timber, and we practice that
belief. We have embarked definitely upon a policy of
leaving our cut-over land in a productive condition and
protecting it against the two great enemies of the young
growth in the South-hogs and fires. Our policy is not
the product of impractical idealism. It is the healthy
offspring of business necessity. An adopted child, if you
like-but adopted because it pays.
Some two years ago we began to take notice of the
fact that our timber supply was diminishing, We were
not ready for the undertaker by any means, but we did
need medicine. We made a diagnosis-an investigation.
We found that where fires had not burned cut-over lands
in our neighborhood that certain kinds of pine had es-
tablished themselves in an abundant growth, and where
hogs had been kept out as well, that all kinds of pine
would grow. The rate of growth varied, of &course, with
conditions of soil and stand, but it appcarer that on the


average, without thinning or special care, our cut-over
lands would grow timber of sufficient size for pulp wood
in from fifteen to twenty years. We had found the dis-
ease and began to apply the remedies.
We found that it was possible at a very slight addi-
tional expense to so conduct our logging operations as to
leave sufficient seed trees standing to produce almost a
carpet of seedlings on the ground which we had cut over.
We have put a hog-proof fence around this land and we
have kept the fires out of it. On some areas cut over two
years ago, we have sown seed and planted seedlings, some
taken from the forest, some grown in seed beds. We are
trying different kinds of pine in different soils and loca-
tions. We are experimenting to find the best trees for
various conditions. But we know, without experimenting,
that Southern Pine can be grown on our lands and we
are going to grow it.
Those are words from Colonel A. C. Goodyear, Presi-
dent of the Great Southern Lumber Company.
It has doubtless been told to a number of the gentle-
men present-it is no new thing-that the Great South-
ern Lumber Company, in advance of the turpentine or
logging operations, goes into the forest and marks the small
trees, from ten inches at least and under and down, with
paint. It is done quickly and easily. That points out
to the loggers, to the sawyers, those trees they are re-
quested to do all they can to prevent from damage and
destruction, caused by falling trees and by the skidder
lines in pulling logs up to be loaded on the cars. The
forestry department has men, one man, that stays with
each skidder. He is not an expensive man and he cleans
the slash from around these little trees and makes a check
of them daily. That check goes into the office. It gives
us the number of the skidder that is operating, the num-
ber of seed trees or small trees that are marked, the
number damaged, and at the end of the month those figures
are compiled, and we are able to show the management
just exactly how many seed trees have been left on the
area cut over for that month, and what percentage dam-
aged and destroyed. The Great Southern has been prac-
ticing that now some two years. We have not found
that it paid to leave the large trees; to the contrary, we
have tried that some, and found they did not survive.
It is the little thrifty tree that will stand it and in years
to come will be there to do the work. I am sure that


every one whom I have taken through our cut-over lands
marks with pleasure the line on the cut-over lands which
shows the difference between the old way when the Com-
pany had no notion of forestry and where we are cut-
ting now. It leaves the woods in quite a different con-
dition, it looks like there is some life left in the woods
and our officials seem to be very well satisfied with the
undertaking. We are quite sure that these seed trees
we leave will be sufficient to restock the land where it
has not already had some young growth in the grass that
will come along in years to come. I think it might be well
for me to say that our goal is not more than twenty-five
per cent of damaged trees. The Department of Forestry
feels if we can get seventy-five per cent of the little trees
left in our woods undamaged that we have done pretty
fine, but we don't get it. In one or two instances we
have been able to show the damage at 25 %, but generally
it is about thirty to thirty-five per cent.
So much for seed trees. That is the practice in the
virgin forest. The big undertaking we have in forestry
is on cut-over lands. There is a large percentage of the
cut-over lands we have now under operation for forestry
purposes that was cut over years ago, where it was logged
off without leaving the seed trees, and that we are try-
ing to plant artificially, both to the seed and to the seed-
ling. In 1920 we had, as most of you know, a great
seed year. It was a wonderful gift to the South-that
seed crop-and we did not know it, some of us. The
South really as a whole did not take advantage of it.
If we could have gotten the seed fall of 1920 on the
timber lands of the South, especially in Louisiana and
Mississippi-I do not know so much about what it was
in Alabama and Florida, although I understand that 1920
was generally a good seed year-we would have been rich
in the South today, in the longleaf belt especially. But
we did not catch it except in a few places. We tried
to catch some of it and did. That year the department
of forestry for the Company organized some crews that
fell right in behind the logging operation and picked up
the cones and hauled them out to every old shed and
place we could store them. If I had known then what
I know now we would have harvested a great deal of
slash as well as longleaf and loblolly.
We planted those seeds, most of them. At first we
went into the open woods where it had been logged


years ago and where the foresters tell us there appears
to be no hope of natural reproduction,-hope all gone
You know that reminds me of a passage of scripture;
you know when hope is gone there is a great deal gone.
I told one of our officials one time that when I was a
boy I used to hear a piney woods preacher and he preached
from this text, and I looked it up one time in the bible
to see what it did say. I recommend you all to look it
up when you go home, if you have bibles. Here is the
scripture: "There be hope of a tree if it be cut down
that it will sprout up again." I thought about that and
I told my folks that the trouble with the pine tree is that
it did not sprout from the stump or wood, it came only
from the seed, and when we cut the pine trees off hope
is gone if we don't leave any seed trees. In the winter
of 1920-21 we went into the woods where it had been
logged over several years ago and broadcasted the seed,
scattered about a pound to the acre-and there we missed
it. We sowed sparingly, and that reminds me of an-
other scripture, we sowed sparingly and we are going
accordingly to reap sparingly. We planted about 2800
acres in longleaf by the broadcasting method, but we
have got something to show, and as time goes on it is
showing up better every year. At first I thought we had
hardly anything, but we have. I was out there the other
day trying to pick out a place to plant some nursery
stock this season and had a party with me, we thought
we would take a fenced place where we had broadcasted
this longleaf seed, and began to look around. Lo and
behold, we would occasionally see a longleaf seedling
that I knew was from the 1920 seed, and we decided
we would make a more careful check. We paced off
a quarter acre at one place and at another place where
the soil was different we paced off half an acre, and
we spent almost half a day on this area finding 'out
what we had to show from that seed scattering that we
did in 1920-21, when we sowed sparingly. Our check
and estimate is that we have got an average on that land
of 45 longleaf seedlings to the acre. Now, that is a
small amount. Remember, however, we made this check
in the unburned woods, but the 45 is what we actually
saw and counted. I believe that we can figure on an-
other subjective benefit there. At any rate, that piece
of land has been seeded. It is not thoroughly seeded,
I mean it has not come up thoroughly, but it is coming.


So much for broadcasting longleaf seed in the piney-woods
cut-over lands.
That same year we fenced a piece of ground and
plowed it in rows at intervals of eight feet, just a few
acres for experimental purposes, and threw loblolly seed
on this broken sod, and there we have something to
Show for our work. We again sowed the seed sparing-
ly; I am sorry we did not put out more seed. We would
change our methods some in that respect if we were to
do it again, but there is enough to encourage us and I
think to warrant us in protecting it. Those seedlings,
from the loblolly seed planted in 1920-1921, some of
them are getting up like that now, (indicating by gesture
15 inches above floor) up above the ground. We have
been fortunate in protecting it from fire. We have a
fire patrol system, trying to cover a certain area in a
definite way. We also in 1921-22 planted certain terri-
tory in wild stock seedlings that we took out of the nat-
ural nursery, dug them up out of the woods and planted
them. Our method in that case was to mark the ground
off with a plow at intervals of ten feet and try to plant
the seedlings six feet in the drill. It is a very easy matter
for you who are familiar with Southern soils in old cut-
over lands to take a mule and steel beam turning plow
and turn the sod over, and we did that thinking that
the seedlings would probably grow better to put them
in this plowed broken sod; also it served about the cheap-
est way we could make a mark for the planters to follow.
We had a check of that last summer. This was plant-
ing done in 1921-22, a year ago now, and I think that
we have in the neighborhood of seventy-five per cent sur-
viving, some of them growing good, some of them planted
in sour, crawfish soil not doing good. That is another
thing we learned, that soil conditions have to do with
these things, and we have to know about that.
We took some seed that we harvested in 1920 and
put in a little nursery bed in cooperation with the De-
partment of Conservation in this State, and in this small
bed we grew nearly half a million seedlings (loblolly),
and we have just finished planting those to the permanent
orchard. In just a little while longer we will have fin-
ished planting one million seedlings this season. We plant-
ed all the nursery stock and from that we went on into
the woods where we have quantities of natural-grown seed-
lings and we are taking these up and carrying them over


to the cut-over lands and putting them in what we think
is good soil for the class of timber. I might say that
all things considered we feel that we have about 3800
acres that is well and partially restocked by artificial means,
which we are observing and protecting. So much for
seed planting. Before I leave that I just want to ask
right here and now if there is anybody in this building
who knows where we can get some seed for next year.
We would like to have it, we want to plant our nursery
right now. We have written everywhere and cannot find
any seed in the South.
Now, we all know about the piney woods hogs, the
razorbacks. They are a great menace to longleaf and
they are not the only menace by any means, but they
are a menace just the same. The Great Southern con-
ceived the idea of fencing some of their cut-over lands
and we follow that policy every two or three years. We
now have under fence nearly 20,000 acres and are under-
taking to fence about 15,000 additional acres this sea-
son. Personally and as a native of the South and a native
of the parish in which the Great Southern operations
exist, I think it is one of the biggest things my Company
is doing, fencing that land, not only because of the bene-
fit I believe they are going to get out of it, but because
of the benefit it is going to be to that country as a whole.
It costs money, yes, and yet if you can get a large block
of land under one fence the cost per acre is small. It
costs, I would say, about $200.00 per mile to build a
good fence, posts about 12 feet apart. It gives oppor-
tunity not only to get rid of hogs but it gives better
opportunity in patrolling that territory, patrolling it against
fire, and it gives an opportunity for improved grazing.
It inspires confidence in the community as to the value of
property of that class and such confidence is not a bad
company asset. I suppose when it comes to taxation that
maybe that would not be so for a time, but anyway you
know our farming class of people cave lots of cut-over
lands right on their own farms, lots of them. Now, we
get cooperation from the farmers that live in the com-
munity contiguous to our lands; in fact, I think they rather
approve of and rejoice in the fact that the Company is
fencing in these lands. As in the past we still let them
have free use of this land for grazing purposes, although
some of them are doubtful about it at first, but when we
put in gates wherever they want them, without any locks


-put a simple latch on them and tell them the latch
string is on the outside, and to turn in their cattle and
their horses and sheep, all we want you to do is to keep
goats and hogs out and fire, help us do that and the
pasture is yours-we have had absolutely no trouble about
keeping the gates closed.
Now, we may want to pasture some ourselves some
day. There is certain of this area that has not burnt
over in three winters, and I can hear the stockmen who
have put their stock in there already talking; "I have
never seen my cattle come through the winter in as good
condition as they have this year." I have been in there
personally and looked at the sheep and little lambs and
they are absolutely in fine condition right now, the lambs
growing and playing over these rough woods, and it is
my humble opinion that the fencing question will help
in fire prevention and will revolutionize this question with
reference to the stock industry. I believe it will. Now,
of course these conditions would not apply everywhere,
but in my community it happens that the Company owns
great quantities of land, and it is very well blocked in
places, and we are thus able to put in these fences. I
think by a system of fire prevention and of grazing that
we will reduce the fire hazard. Mr. Greene told us how
that was done, and I agree with him that if we keep the
fire out of the woods long enough we will have other
grasses and growths on the land that will take the place
of the sage grass, which is the greatest fire hazard known
to the South, I suppose.
Gentlemen, I might go on at length discussing what we
are trying to do in this way. One more thing I would
like to say a few words about, and that is our fire pre-
vention work and how we are coming out. We have
tried to approach that in two ways; first, we have tried
to do educational work in cooperation with our Depart-
ment of Conservation, and to show as far as possible in
the community where we live the advantage of pro-
tection and protective measures. We have tried that in
various ways. In this definite area that we are trying
to patrol from fire we have had no bad fires this sea-
son. The patrol covers about 103,000 acres. The Com-
pany does not own all that land; I don't know just what
per cent of it it does own. However, I don't think we
have lost more than two or three thousand acres of the


part we have been patrolling, notwithstanding a very haz-
ardous season.
There are various ways in which we can harness the
powers that exist -for doing things. For iinstande, we
fence our land. I knew that a certain class of hunter was
going to hunt there, and they say that hunters are a fire
hazard-a certain class of them (a good sport is not)
-but there are lots of them don't know, and I posted
the land: "Hunting on this land prohibited except by
special permit, apply to the Department of Forestry," etc.
Big signs all over it, and I put it in the local papers. I
issued I expect 150 to 200 permits to hunt over that cut-
over area, and you enjoin them strictly in the permit
you give them to help keep fire out and when they ac-
cept this permit they have accepted a contract with you
that they will do it. You have thereby turned what was
a hazard, into a protection, as it were.
There is another great hazard in our community, the
hewers of ties and the hewers of wood. You can do it
the same way, we are trying at least, and I am sure it
has been partially successful. I have recently made a
recommendation to the Company that we call on all the
men who have contracts to get ties and haul wood through
our lands, especially after we had some pretty bad fires
in a certain territory-this territory happened to be where
we were not patrolling in a definite way-to call on these
fellows, and say: "Here, your contract is up. especially
on this burnt over area. Now there is a place over there
where you can haul wood until it burns over, and when
it burns over you cannot haul any more wood until next
summer." You start that kind of propaganda and you
will see they will not only refrain from setting the fire out
themselves but they are going to tell the other fellow
and they will make good patrolmen for you. You know
the wood haulers and the tie men are not especially against
the woods burning, I suspect some of you know that;
in fact, they want it burnt off so they can see the knots.
The long grass and straw you know make the bottoms
of the shoes slick and it is a little harder to get about.
That was true of the turpentine tappers we discussed yes-
terday. But they can walk through the burnt woods,
and when they begin to scent the fact that their job is
gone if it burns they will make good patrolmen.


Forester, Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett, Ark.

Gentlemen of the Southern Forestry Congress: I am
a stranger here, but I come as one who is vitally interested
in the cause of forestry.
I am glad to attend this meeting as a representative
of the Crossett Lumber Company, which is located at
Crossett, Arkansas. We are intensely interested in the
conservation of our timber resources and we are encour-
aged greatly to see that people in other states are think-
ing along the same lines. The State Legislature of Ar-
kansas is now in session and I expect you will be interested
to know that there are two penalty fire laws and a bill
providing for the establishment of a forestry department,
before that body of men. The lumbermen of Arkansas
are heartily behind these bills and we believe they will
be passed. Arkansas has not been very progressive in
conservation up to this time, but we are awakening to
the great need of it. We have a Forestry, Fish, and
Game Association in the State which was organized in
December and at the present time it has a membership
of 70 and a paid secretary who carries on the business
of that organization. That Association is endeavoring to
protect fish and game and conserve all natural resources
through legislation and propaganda.
Private landowners and lumbermen in Arkansas are
gradually seeing the light of a new era in conservation.
Private landowners are asking for advice as to methods
of cutting timber and putting out plantations. Lumber-
men are wanting foresters to work in that capacity and
to work into the industry. People of reason are de-
manding help in the protection of timber land from fire,
as they realize the great depletion of raw material which
is being brought about by that agent. States are crying
out for laws which will conserve and protect our timber
and other resources. Forestry associations are being
formed, and everybody seems interested and eager to learn
more about forestry.
Gentlemen, I am led to believe that we are entering
into a new era of conservation. Forestry is coming to the


The Crossett Lumber Company has been interested in
forestry for years but it has not been until just recently
that they have entered into it actively. We plunged into
the problem last September and immediately decided to
regulate our cutting of timber and to follow out some
systematized methods. As a result of some study on the
matter the Logging Department and the Forestry Depart-
ment came to an agreement regarding the methods to
be employed. At the present time we have two practical
men who have been taught the necessary forestry princi-
ples involved in the marking of timber. Briefly we are
using two methods: (1) In old stands leaving scattered
seed trees and (2) in young stands leaving enough trees
on the ground which form the basis for a second cut in
20 years from now.
In carrying out the first method we are leaving about
two genuine seed-bearing trees per acre. These trees are
carefully protected during logging by all the flatheads.
They have been instructed not to throw any trees into
the tops of the seed trees, bruise them, or throw tops
within 10 feet of their bases. This method we have found
works out very well, and the sawyers are cooperating
with us to the best of their ability. When trees happen
to get topped up, they are cleared away. The second
method of cutting is that of leaving a second cut. This
method is applied only in localities where we will be about
to block up a large area. At the present time we are
leaving a second cut in an old field of about 1500 acres.
All trees left are distributed evenly over the area so that
they can put on the fastest growth possible during the
next 20 years. After the cutting has been made our two
men who do the marking take a sufficient number of men
and clean out around all trees to a radius of 6-10 feet.
Stumps are being cut low and limby top logs are being
taken out.
Our cutting methods are of no avail if we do not keep
out the fires and this is what we are working hard to do.
All 12 locomotives have been turned into oil burners
and the three loaders will be so equipped to burn oil by
March 1st. The logging operation keeps down all their
own fires and any others which may come in where they
are working. Propaganda is being spread and a fire pro-
tection organization consisting of a chief fire warden and
10-12 assistants is being formed. These men will have
regular beats to patrol during our dangerous seasons.


Another forestry operation is that of carrying on a
forest survey which will cover 300,000 acres. We are
finding out:
(1) Estimate on all cut-over lands.
(2) Maps showing locations of farm land, severely
burned lands, areas where insufficient seed trees have been
left for a second cut and location of areas where we can
get a second cut in 15-20 years from now.
(3) Our data is being taken so that we can correlate
it with growth studies. The Crossett Lumber Company
wants to know how much our timber lands are growing
every year so that we can limit our cut to growth being
put on and thus eventually put the forest on a sustained
yield basis. We have now three men working on this
problem and during the summer we expect to have on
eight crews or about 16 men.
We have established one permanent sample plot in
order to study the growth of loblolly and shortleaf pine
which has come in naturally on cut-over lands in Ar-
kansas. The Crossett Lumber Company has great faith
in forestry and we are directly opposed to the old idea
of cutting out and getting out. We believe in conserva-
tion and continuation.


President, Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute, New Orleans, La.

It is indeed a pleasure to be here today, and I am grate-
ful to your officers for the invitation to address this dis-
tinguished gathering. It would be interesting under al-
most any conceivable conditions to meet such a splendid
body of men. The pleasure of this meeting is inten-
sified by the belief that our views and purposes are in
entire harmony respecting the subject which brings you
together in this meeting.
From what I have learned of your purposes and your
plans, I take it that among other things you are primarily
interested in the preservation and prolongation of the life
of our forests. You are looking into the future for your
children and your children's children; for those who will
indefinitely succeed you as directors, stockholders, super-
intendents and managers of the business institutions you
represent. You are interested that not only the present
generation, but future generations shall have as adequate
a supply of timber and lumber as it is possible for in-
telligent planning and constructive measures to assure them.
As lumber manufacturers we are as profoundly interested
in this as you can possibly be.
You are interested, as we are interested, in the con-
servation of our forest resources, and we are therefore,
in common, interested in the means and measures by which
it may be most wisely and effectively accomplished.
I will pass by for the present such important topics as
reforestation, fire prevention, the fighting of insects and
other causes of blight and go directly to a subject of even
greater interest, if possible, than these, because of the
timeliness of the discussion, in view of developments in
the lumber industry within the last year, and because
also of its vast significance to the cause of conservation.
I desire to speak of the tremendous saving possible through
more economical manufacture, merchandising and utiliza-
tion of our timber resources-and I speak especially of
hardwoods, for the conditions I speak of do not obtain,


generally speaking, in respect to the lumber industry as
a whole, to the same extent as in respect to hardwoods
Hardwood lumber is largely re-manufactured or fab-
ricated into commodity articles. In this respect it differs
generally from soft woods, which are largely prepared
at once for utilization, for example in construction work
of various kinds. In reducing hardwood trees into fin-
ished products made of hardwood lumber there proba-
bly will always be at best a very large shrinkage in volume.
In this process at the present time under grade rules which
have obtained in the industry for a quarter of a century
the shrinkage in volume reaches an almost unbelievable
figure. The quantity of lumber which takes its place in
finished articles such as ordinary articles of furniture in-
terior trim, music cabinets, chairs, hardwood flooring and
so forth, is such a small percentage of the gross volume
of the hardwood trees cut as to be startling.
William A. Durgin, Chief, Division of Simplified Prac-
tice, of the Department of Commerce, addressing an assem-
blage of lumbermen in July last, speaking of waste, said:
"It is in this most serious situation that the Depart-
ment of Commerce hopes to be of vital assistance. Re-
sponding to Secretary Hoover's question, 'What can the
Department do to help?' many business leaders have urged
the great promise of material reduction of costs all along
the line through waste elimination, and the elimination they
have in view is quite a different thing from the 'conser-
vation' you lumbermen have heard very possibly ad
nauseam. It happens that this subject of waste has long
been a primary interest to Hoover. Some two years ago
when he was president of the Federated American En-
gineering Societies, the organization undertook a careful
survey of the wastes in six major industries-boots and
shoes, clothing, textiles, printing, metal trades and build-
ing construction. The results are published by the McGraw-
Hill Book Co. in 'Waste in Industry,' and would well
repay your detailed reading, but the outstanding fact for
the moment is: this report shows that on the average, these
six industries are being operated with a waste of 40 per cent
-40% of the capital, material labor, mental effort just
thrown away with nothing to show for it! Of course, it's an
engineer's report and some of you may want to discount the
technical man's findings, but surely you'll admit these en-
gineers are at least half right and that would mean a waste of


20 per cent-$1 out of every $5 destroyed. Assuming
that something similar applies in your special field, this
means an absolute waste of at least $1,000,000,000 and
very probably much more in lumber last year. At least
a half billion dollars wasted already this year, even al-
lowing for decreased production."
If the figures given are correct for the six industries
treated, undoubtedly they are conservative for the hard-
wood branch of the lumber industry, for there the in-
formed know the waste is unusually heavy.
Competent authorities estimate that there is in the hard-
wood industry a loss and waste of at least 500,000,000
feet annually of hardwood lumber, because lumber grades
are not so formulated as to make possible proper econo-
mic utilization of hardwood lumber; in other words grades
are such that fabricating consumers cannot avoid enor-
mous waste in the utilization of the lumber which they
are compelled to accept under present grade specifications
and merchandising methods.
It is not my purpose to discuss this subject with you
today in a technical way. I assume that while many of
you no doubt know lumber rules quite as well as the aver-
age, that some of you are not so informed and it would
hardly be proper at this time to undertake to discuss what
might be termed the technical phases of grade rules under
which such a condition has so long been possible and
continues with us at the present. I will endeavor however,
to indicate the general character of the situation. A cer-
tain grade of lumber, for illustration, is determined as
to its grade classification by specific defects such as knots
for instance, without any regard to the location of such
defects in the board, or piece of lumber and without any
regard to the actual net yield of the piece in any fabri-
cated sizes that may be required by the different indus-
tries using lumber of that general character. Not only
is the situation thus with respect to the defects, but the
grade taken for illustration includes a varying number of
the defects with respect to the width and length of the
board. Furthermore, the grade embraces boards in re-
spect to width from 3 inches on up without limit.
Such a condition of grade structure in its practical ap-
plication exhibits facts which should have careful con-
sideration. Some of these boards can be used to con-
siderable advantage by, say a table manufacturer requir-


ing good long wide cuttings with a smaller percentage of
shorter cuttings, but this class of manufacturer could not
use without enormous waste, the boards which would pro-
duce only long narrow strips or rippings.
On the other hand, certain classes of manufacturers
such, for instance, as the manufacturers of hardwood floor-
ing and chair manufacturers, can use with greater economy
and to better advantage, the boards producing the long
narrow rippings than the wide boards producing the com-
paratively short cuttings. And the boards thus capable
of economical use by such manufacturers would to a marked
degree, be unsuited to the other classes of manufacturers.
These illustrations will provide you with the key thought
to the basic inadequacy of present grade rule specifica-
tions in the hardwood lumber industry. There is no mys-
tery about the matter. It is simplicity itself-although the
remedy may not be simple or easy of accomplishment.
When we reflect that some of the boards falling with-
in a given grade at the present time may be used by one
class of manufacturer with only 10 or 15 per cent of
waste, and when we reflect that other manufacturers us-
ing the same identical boards could not use them without
as much as 70 or 80 per cent of waste, and when we
further reflect that no particular consuming industry can
use to advantage all of the boards that fall within present
grade definitions of any grade, and that every industry
experiences a vast variation in the waste that obtains in
working different boards which fall within the present
grades, and that under present grade specifications any
user, whatever his line of manufacture, would have to
accept all of these boards in one grade and pay the same
price for them, we will realize fully that there is impera-
tive need for fundamental treatment of this subject, be-
cause rules which permit such a condition are antiquated,
crude and unscientific and make imperative an enormous
waste of lumber.
I do not mean gentlemen, merely to say that under these
rules a large amount of waste is possible; I mean to make
it much stronger. I mean to say that under these rules a
vast amount of unnecessary waste is inevitable because
they have not been based on production possibilities and
consumption requirements with a sensible common sense
effort to fit the one to the other in the best way possible
in order to consume the maximum amount of the lumber


produced from the tree with the minimum amount of
There are those who contend that the rules which are
commonly used are relatively perfect It is claimed for
them that they are the result of evolution during a period
of twenty-five years. On this subject I would like to quote
a distinguished writer, Mr. Hugh Farrell the Financial
Editor of the New York Commercial. He says:
"Opponents of grading reforms in the hardwood branch
of the lumber industry contend that existing rules have
been arrived at in the course of "evolution," and that
upon the basis of the principles of evolution in general
they must be accepted as the best that the human mind
can devise. As a matter of fact, so far as we can see,
there is nothing in the rules that suggests evolution; to
our untrained eye they appear to have been standing still
for the entire term of their life."
Mr. Farrell's observation is essentially just.
The question will naturally arise in your mind and you
may desire to inquire of me why such a condition came
about in respect to hardwood lumber grading rules, and
why, if it did come about, it was allowed to continue and
to persist to the present day.
Such an inquiry would embarrass me to some extent
only for the reason that I could not truthfully answer it
without seeming to criticize, and I would prefer, if pos-
sible, to avoid entering a controversial field. However,
I am sure that I may, with propriety, state a few facts
about which there can be no real controversy, and I think
I can do this by making a brief quotation from an address
recently delivered by a gentleman who is an authority
on the subject of which he speaks. On this subject he said
in part:
"Originally inspection rules were provided purely for the
purpose of having some arbitrary measure by which the log
run product could be separated into parts. Lumber at
that time was very cheap, the cost of fabricating because
of labor costs and low overhead was materially less than
it is now; the average quality of lumber was better and
therefore the percentage of waste was correspondingly
lower. In addition to all this the average factory utilizing
hardwoods made a greater variety of articles than are
being manufactured today at any one plant, and could


utilize a greater variety and a greater number of different
size cuttings.
"That method of grade construction, which had for its
purpose purely the determination of the average value
of the log run product, has never been departed from.
From time to time slight changes have been made, but
these changes have usually been dictated by the whims of
some interested individual, and have never had any re-
lation to the needs of consumption. In this respect the
hardwood industry differs from all other branches of the
lumber business. In all other kinds of lumber, a study
has been made of the consumer's needs, with the result
that in these woods there are available to the consumers
standardized grades that will answer their specific require-
ments with a minimum of waste, and at the same time
the operators are provided with a ready market for the
entire product of the log.
"There are several reasons why hardwoods have not
made the progress in this respect that has been made in
other lines of lumber manufacture. One reason is that
the problem is much more difficult because we have so
many different kinds of woods to consider, and a vastly
greater number of utilization problems. Another reason,
and I believe really the controlling reason, is that the hard-
wood manufacturing units represent in the main an in-
significant individual production, and operate on a very
meager capital. Originally, or when grade specifications
were first provided, practically all hardwood saw mills
were very small institutions. Their operators had no op-
portunity to study market conditions, knew nothing about
merchandizing their products, and sold their lumber al-
most exclusively through middlemen or jobbers on such
terms, prices and conditions as were dictated by the latter.
In the beginning, therefore, the sawmill man had practical-
ly no voice in the formulation of grading rules, and while
lately there has been in evidence a greater disposition to
assert his rights, it is a deplorable fact that the standards
by which the sawmill man sells his products have always
been fixed by the dealer."
Supplementing what was here stated, I may say that
the historical development and control of the grade mak-
ing functions by those who are responsible for the pres-
ent grades came to be such that no comprehensive, con-
structive changes in grade rules have been possible, if
we may judge the possibility by actual accomplishment.


The manufacturers and the consumers in submitting to
the continuance of a condition where they can be dominated,
and any constructive action they desire taken can be de-
feated, is an absurd and intolerable condition.
The situation in this regard in the hardwood industry
is entirely different from all other branches of the industry.
In these other branches the manufacturers have made their
grade rule definitions, naturally doing so after consulta-
tion with and taking in full consideration the desires of
the consumers.
Why hardwood producers and consumers have not made
their wants and desires known and asserted their rights
to the extent of securing proper grade formulation in the
hardwood lumber industry in the years past is a question
which will always be a source of wonder if not of mystery
to many of us.
Be that as it may, many hardwood lumber manufacturers
have seen with clearness for a long time the vice of the
present situation, and at least, some consumers have realized
the inadequacy of the present rules.
A well known writer, writing from the standpoint of
consuming industries, criticized severely present rules as
not taking into consideration the question of utility,-that
is, the purpose to which the lumber is intended to be put.
This writer asked the question,-"What is the matter with
the National Hardwood inspection rules?" and he says
that the answer can be put into a few words and then
he gives the answer as follows: "The National Hard-
wood inspection rules send to the junk pile at least four
boards out of every ten that fall from the saw."
Others who are qualified to speak have declared that
actual tests show that from 30 to 40 per cent of the current
waste experienced by fabricating manufacturers can be
avoided by proper and thorough practical adaptation of the
lumber to the requirements of the particular fabricator,
by means of properly formulated specifications. It is easy
to realize that there is need of such adaptation when we
reflect that these antiquated rules largely took their form
years before the advent of specialized wood working; be-
fore, for instance the automobile industry became a fac-
tor in American industrial life, and before the days of
specialized manufactures such as we have now where a
great plant or group of plants may be confined to the
manufacture of one or two items of similar character.


In other words, these rules never based on any practical
consideration of factory needs, have become more and
more inadequate because of the character of specialized
factory work, which has taken place. In the factories
of twenty years ago where a great multiplicity of articles
were made in the same shop it was possible to use the
grades with less waste than at present where one factory
will be devoted entirely to the manufacture of tables, an-
other to the manufacture of chairs, another to the manu-
facture of flooring and so forth.
These brief and somewhat disjointed observations I trust
have given you some little insight into the character of the
condition which needs to be remedied.
The Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute and the hard-
wood manufacturers with which I am associated, believe
that the proper way to approach the remedying of this
condition is to consider the facts of utility, and this must
be done by making the determining factor of every grade
of lumber the net yield that can be obtained in as near-
ly the fabricated sizes as practicable. In other words, the
net yield is the clear or good or usable material in the piece
as the case may be that should determine its grade classi-
In no other way can the consumer know that cost holds
a logical relation to the quantity yield of his lumber and
in no other way can the consumer reckon with any de-
gree of confidence on the approximate yield for his pur-
pose for any given quantity of lumber. It is furthermore
the belief of these manufacturers, and I may say that it
seems to be equally emphatically the belief of the con-
sumers of the lumber who have given attention to this sub-
ject, that such formulation of grades can be made only
after an actual ascertainment in reasonable detail of the
needs and requirements of the consumers and the possi-
bilities of production of the producers.
There are elements involved in this matter which cause
uneasiness on the parts of some who are interested in the
subject, especially the manufacturers. Since we have been
laboring with this problem which is very positively and
directly a phase of the general lumber standardization and
simplification program inaugurated at the suggestion of
Mr. Hoover, we have had many producers to say in sub-
stance this: "All of this sounds very nice from the stand-
point of the consumer who would, of course, like to have


hardwood lumber cut into the exact dimensions to fit
his every need, but as there are some eight or nine thous-
and hardwood consumers using various kinds of hard-
wood lumber, and using these in various sizes, etc., it
is impossible and absurd to expect the producer to cut
up his logs into any such numbers and kinds and sizes
of commodities and no one but an impractical theorist
would advocate anything of the kind."
Of course those who have had such thoughts and have
voiced such criticism have not understood what is really
aimed at. We have at all times pointed out that it is
impossible to make grades in the number and variety and
with the varying specifications to exactly fit the needs of
every consumer because no hardwood producer could man-
ufacture and assemble and separate his production into
any such number of grades or lots.
The practical limitations of the small, as well as the
large hardwood lumber manufacturers constitute conditions
which must at all times be kept in view in any solution
of this matter. Furthermore, the practical requirements
of the consumers must be likewise duly considered and
given full play, for as it has been well stated, it would
be absurd for producers to attempt to standardize what
consumers cannot use, and consumers cannot standardize
what manufacturers cannot produce, and in order for one
to be commensurate with the other, grade rule spec-
ifications should be the result of the joint or united judg-
ment of the producers and the consumers.
One of the fundamental troubles with the situation in
the past is that the jobbers have endeavored to a degree
to usurp functions which properly belong to the manu-
facturers and the consumers, and in making this state-
ment I do not desire to be understood as imputing any
deliberate wrong motives to anyone. I merely mean to
point out that in my judgment such has been the effect
of the historical development of the grade rule and mer-
chandising situation in the hardwood lumber industry.
There has been much effort expended to misrepresent the
position of the Hardwood Manufacturers Institute on this
question. It has been represented as opposed to the job-
bers; it has been stated and reiterated that it was the
purpose and plan of the Institute to eliminate the whole-
saler-meaning by the wholesaler, the jobbers-in the


Nothing could be further from the fact. A very large
part of the output of the hardwood lumber industry is
merchandised through the intermediate dealers and there
is no purpose or desire on the part of anyone so far as
I know to eliminate them from the trade, but on the con-
trary we desire the most cordial and helpful relations to
subsist between them and the manufacturers, but we think
that they should occupy the position in the hardwood
lumber industry that jobbers and dealers occupy in other
industries. They should in the first place not seek to
usurp the rightful functions of the consumers or the manu-
facturers and they should be willing to function as merchants
and distributors, and they should whole-heartedly join the
manufacturers and the consumers in accomplishing the
realization of the constructive policies such as providing
guarantees to the public and consumers of the quantity and
the quality of lumber purchased.
There are so many reasons why there should be uni-
formity in the names and designations, not only of trees
and woods, but of grades and i'kinds and qualities of
lumber, as well as sizes-so far as that is practicable-
that I will not undertake to go into detail. I may men-
tion however, in passing, that if there were so far as
possible, uniformity in size of competitive woods it would
make for the interest of the ultimate consumer, for in-
stance, the builder, because he would have a large variety
of kinds to choose from in filling his requirements. There
is no reason whatever why various kinds of hardwood
grades should not compete with soft woods in certain
localities and under certain conditions for many purposes,
such, for instance, as framing, sheathing, and so forth.
I have already indicated that the problem of remedying
a wide-spread fundamentally wrong condition by com-
prehensive treatment was undertaken at the suggestion
of Mr. Hoover.
I have not however, given an adequate idea of the
comprehensiveness of this movement because I have spoken
principally of hardwoods. The program contemplates
every kind and character of lumber. There are some
thirteen or fourteen lumber manufacturers associations in
the United States, having to do with practically every variety
of wood manufactured, such for example as Southern
Pine Association, Southern Cypress Manufacturers Associ-
ation, North Carolina Pine Association, California Red


Wood Association and so forth. These lumbermen upon
the initiative of their administrative organization the
National Lumber Manufacturers Association-of the United
States, initiated this comprehensive movement pursuant
to Mr. Hoover's suggestion, and in order that the matter
might be given the best and most thorough consideration
and that the conclusions reached should be as nearly just
and satisfactory to everyone as possible-consumers, re-
tailers and wholesalers, architects and engineers and others
have joined in the plans for thoroughly working out a
program which will remedy the entire situation. These
various elements thus brought together created what has
been for convenience termed the Central Committee on
Lumber Standards, and is pressing its work particularly
in respect to four phases of the general problems:
First: With a view to simplification of lumber grades
and grade names.
Second: The standardization of lumber sizes.
Third: Adequate and practical guarantee to the buy-
ers and users of lumber; for the proper delivery of both
quantity and quality, and
Fourth: Improvement and extension of lumber inspec-
tion service as an aid to the maintenance of the established
grade standards.
This has been declared to be by all odds the most far-
reaching and ambitious program that has been undertaken
by any major American Industry.
The lumber industry of the United States ranks third
in respect to labor employed, using over 700,000 men
and third in the value added by manufacture, and ninth
in respect to value of its production.
One of the first acts of the Hardwood Manufacturers
Institute after the Lumber Conference held at Mr. Hoover's
suggestion at Washington in May, was to emphatically
approve the action taken and the plans made by the con-
ference, and to pledge itself in all practical ways to aid
the speedy accomplishment of the program thus outlined.
With that end in view it immediately began through the
instrumentality of its Standardization and Grading Rules
Committee to secure the cooperation of, and to offer its
cooperation to consumers in ascertaining their wishes, needs
and requirements. As a part of this program it organized
an Engineering Department and began the making of sur-
veys, in cooperation with consumers, in order to provide


the essential basic data upon which proper grade rules
might be formulated in order in the most perfect fashion
possible to fit production to consumption needs.
The industry as a whole as organized through the Cen-
tral Committee on Lumber Standards, is having the full
cooperation of the Department of Agriculture and the De-
partment of Commerce.
A development of the greatest moment in this connection
has been the enlistment of the services of the Forest Pro-
ducts Laboratory for the purposes of making the essential
surveys and helping to formulate a system of grade rules
scientifically arrived at, and based upon the substructure
of facts in respect to both production and consumption,
as the same may be disclosed by the surveys determined
upon. The Hardwood Manufacturers Institute has placed
at the disposal of the Forest Products Laboratory all of its
facilities in order to aid it in the work which it has under-
taken, and is proceeding in thorough cooperation with all
of the other elements of the lumber industry, pursuant to
the comprehensive plans which have been made and an-
nounced by the Central Committee on Lumber Standards.
To my mind after all, the great basic underlying thought
of the whole situation is summed up in the word CONSER-
VATION. I have always believed that the enlightened manu-
facturer is the most enthusiastic conservationist in the
world. There are some faddists and impractical theorists
who regard all kinds of utilization as "wanton destruction."
This is not only unfair, but it is worse-it is demagogic.
Utilization is one thing and destruction is another. And
if, as we have every reason to believe Mr. Hoover's vision
for simplification and standardization in the lumber in-
dustry is measurably achieved by the industry itself through
the constructive program going forward under the guid-
ance of the Central Committee on Lumber Standards,
millions of feet of hardwood lumber, to say nothing of
the other varieties, will be saved and conserved annually
for the future. When we appreciate the fact that it is
reliably estimated that such a reform as is contemplated
respecting grade rules, will result in the annual saving of
500,000,000 feet of hardwoods alone, and will save more
than a billion dollars annually in waste in the industry as a
whole, and when we remember that authorities tell us that a
billion feet of lumber can be in this way saved at less cost
than a million feet can be grown, it is easy to appreciate