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Title: Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.
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Title: Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Southern Forestry Congress.
Publisher: Southern Forestry Congress,
Publication Date: 1916
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075931
Volume ID: VID00002
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Copyright
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Speakers
        Page 8
    Preface
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Main
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Full Text





PROCEEDINGS OF THE


be largely of conifers with a slight admixture of hard-
woods." Thus we see that he had drawn away from the
former plan since he actually did plant coniferous trees ex-
tensively. This plan with certain modifications from time to
time was followed for fifteen years.
In order that we may be enabled to judge of the results
of the planting experiments impartially let us consider for a
moment some of the more important of the local conditions
on the estate which faced both Mr. Pinchot and Dr. Schenck.
In the first place there were a number of old clearings, situated
principally on the slopes and on the tops of ridges which had
been cultivated in years past, and then after the soil was
practically exhausted for field crops, the land was pastured
and generally grazed to still further exhaustion. Deep gullies,
which made ugly uninviting scars on the hillsides, were fast
cutting the soil away. Mr. Vanderbilt, with the desire to have
the landscape views from his house and from alongside his
drives more pleasing, gave instructions to have the waste
places planted up as quickly as possible. When a few planta-
tions had been made the owner often expressed the fear that
the young trees would never get above the sedge grass or grow
large enough to hide the barren fields from sight. As a con-
sequence, the owner's desire to have the eroded slopes covered
quickly was most naturally the controlling influence in the
work of forest planting. Dr. Schenck frankly relates that
he "got scared" for his reputation more than once when it
seemed to him that the hardwoods would never succeed. There
were no planting precedents in this country to guide either
him or Mr. Pinchot. The plan of close spacing, often with
mixtures of pine and hardwoods, was adopted by Dr. Schenck
in 95 per cent of the plantations made under his supervision.
He gave as his reason that if one species failed there would
'be enough of the others to keep the ground covered. The
spacing is, as a rule, much closer than that advocated by the
Forest Service and by the forest departments of many of the
Eastern States.
A study of the mixed hardwoods and the pine plantations
leads to the conclusion that the hardwoods do not succeed
well where the spacing has been close. There are several
instances where the hardwoods planted in pure groups on good









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


soil have made fine progress, as may be observed in the case
of red and white oak, black cherry, and sugar maple. There
pure groups demonstrate that successful plantations of such
species can be readily made where the site is favorable and
where good nursery stock is available. But in the majority of
instances on the estate there have not followed the results that
were anticipated when the mixed plantations of pine and hard-
woods were made. Even where the mixtures have grown
thrifty and where the species have raced crown and crown for
a dominant position, we are not yet justified in saying that the
admixture is wholly an economic good. Before the time for
the second thinning it may be that developments will show it
to have been detrimental either to one or perhaps to both
species. The failure of the hardwoods is generally to be found
in those plantations where close spacing, together with the
more rapid growth of alternate rows of pine, has not permitted
their normal development. The dense interlacing crowns of
the conifers have shut off all light from the hardwoods, so that
like plants in a darkened cellar they either succumb or else
developed as anaemic specimens which have no present worth
or future value.
When we consider carefully the close spacing which was
followed we are confronted with the condition as to the fi-
nancial practicability of the method under local conditions.
We have seen that the dense planting has probably been one of
the reasons for the high death rate, or at least the unsuccessful
development of the hardwoods when planted in admixture,
and hence we must argue that had there been more growing
space in the beginning, better results would be visible today.
There can be no revenue from early thinnings because in such
a well wooded region as Asheville there is no market for the
small trees taken out first. The question arises whether it
would not be wiser to adopt a wider spacing and thus save
the extra expense which the handling of a greater number
of trees in a dense plantation would call for. If the height
growth is as rapid and the diameter growth is even more rapid,
and the species make clean boles as readily as in a dense
plantation there seems to be no good reason, both silviculturally
and financially, under present conditions for not using a wider
spacing.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


When we consider the case of the pine plantations either
as mixed white and yellow pine, or either of these species
in pure stands, it is difficult to say enough in praise of their
development. While some may interpose the objection that
close spacing is not necessary here, still we cannot but ad-
mire their uniform and rapid growth in both height and
diameter. The death rate has been negligible up to the period
when the crowns interlocked. The value of these pine planta-
tions in reclaiming the soil is notable, and their future financial
success is assured provided no calamity befalls, and provided
they receive proper silvicultural treatment in the future.
Of the non-indigenous species we find larch a fast grower
with a shapely crown. Firs of various species are persistent
but slow, with Douglas fir far in the lead of other species.
Scotch pine and jack pine do well but do not equal the native
shortleaf in rapidity of growth, in straightness of bole, or in
shapeliness of crown. Western yellow pine in alternate rows
with white pine has failed completely through disease.
Among the hardwoods, black walnut in pure stands has
made.a poor showing except in one instance where the soil
was moist and rich. Planted along on the abandoned fields
it is no good. In mixture with sugar maple occasional speci-
mens hold their own with the maple. Black cherry shows a
tendency to fork too quickly and does not succeed except on
the most favorable sites. Cucumber and yellow poplar have
done surprisingly well on the poor dry soils but we cannot
read the future for them. White ash does fairly well along
the banks.of a running stream but poorly elsewhere. White
and red oak thrive in pure groups but have not developed in
alternate rows with pine as a rule. Chestnut is a total failure
in spite of much painstaking labor and thought. I want some
of you to tell me why.
On the whole the failures in the plantations have been more
than outmatched by the successes. There are many highly in-
teresting object lessons to be seen and reflected upon, while
both the forester and the lumberman may receive much benefit
from a close study of their history.
In conclusion let me say that these plantations and con-
servative cuttings ought to mean a little more to us than
mere object lessons in planting. There is a deep significance









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


in their testimony to the patriotic impulse, the strong sense of
public duty, and the feeling of personal responsibility to
succeeding generations of Mr. George W. Vanderbilt, whose
interest and generosity caused them to be made.
DR. PRATT: IS there any discussion of Mr. Rhoades' paper,
or any question you wish to ask him? Of course, we will
have a chance to make a pretty thorough investigation of this
to-morrow. If there is no discussion, I will ask the Secretary
to give out the notices.
(Notices given by Secretary Holmes.)
Meeting adjourned until 3 p. m.


AFTERNOON SESSION, 3:00 P. M.
JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Presiding
Meeting called to order by President Pratt.
DR. PRATT: The first speaker at this afternoon's session
is very well acquainted with our conditions here in the South.
He was one of the men to begin the forestry work here a good
many years ago. He became interested not only in state
work, but in national work, and today he is president of the
American Forestry Association. I take pleasure in introducing
to you Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack, who will now address you.

GREETINGS FROM THE AMERICAN FORESTRY
ASSOCIATION
BY HON. CHARLES LATHROP PACK
PRESIDENT AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: I cannot tell you
how gratified I am to be back here in Asheville. The first time
I stood on this spot where I am standing now was in October,
1883. There was no Battery Park Hotel at that time, but
there was this beautiful hill and the grand mountains-old
Pisgah and the others were here just as they are now. And
Asheville was here with, I think, about fifteen hundred people.
There were no pavements on the streets; there was hardly
a bank in town. I recall the time when, shortly afterwards,
my family came here to make their home, their life home,









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


and the purchase, about that time, by my father, George W.
Pack, of the property which is now known as Aston Park.
Very few of you ever met that grand old gentleman, Mr. Aston,
one of the best assets this town ever had. And when it was
found that the owners of the property would take $7,000 for
it, the question arose as how to get $7,000 to Asheville, so I
was sent North and brought the $7,000 to this place in a
suitcase, largely in one and two dollar bills, and the largest
bill was $5.00. The money was paid over, and my father and
I had the satisfaction of seeing the money go into circulation
down here. And over there on the public square, often towards
noonday we would stand together and question each other as
to whether Colonel So and So, or Major So and So, had
received any of the money yet, and I assure you we could tell
how fast it circulated-see it circulate-because the men with
the money stood up straighter and walked faster. The land
was later presented to the city of Asheville by my father, and
named Aston Park.
I could tell you many interesting things in regard to those
early days in Asheville. Our family were the first Northern
people to come here. The grandest hotel in. town was the
Hotel Swannanoa, and when I came here they charged a
dollar a day and changed the table cloths once a week. And
Mr. Ruben R. Rawls, who is still living, was astounded
when he was offered $2.00 a day for five people if he would
re-paper the bedrooms and have a little better food. And
about as soon as he got the house re-papered, other visitors
from the North began to arrive.
I became greatly interested in these mountains, where
nature has done so much for man. I recall, about 1885 or 1886,
going up the Pigeon River, (some of you have been up there,
perhaps, fishing, in the Smoky Mountain region) and staying
with a moonshiner. Theoretically, of course, there is no moon-
shining in North Carolina; practically,-well, we don't talk
about it. But I stayed with this moonshiner. We arrived
about noon and he invited me and my friends to dinner. We
had roast sucking pig and broiled guinea fowl and fine corn
bread and good sweet potatoes-the table fairly groaned with
the good things of North Carolina, and there is no state
where there are more good things than right here. And
after dinner we were taken out down the gallery at the side









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


of the house, and he opened a little door and wheeled out a
keg on to the veranda. He then passed around little baby
gourds, and said, "Gentlemen, help yourselves." Well, that
was corn whiskey, about as clear as water and nearly all
alcohol. Well, I was doubtful about the results, and when
nobody was watching me, I tossed the gourd full of whiskey on
the ground behind a veranda post with a clinging hop vine.
I thought I was unobserved, but a little fellow about four
years old, in a yellow slip of homespun, came pattering along
the veranda, and ran through the gangway calling out, "Grand-
ma, the little fellow can't drink as much as Mama."
There are a great many interesting things in regard to
this region of Appalachia. And I am sure it is a great
pleasure to me to bring to you the greetings of the American
Forestry Association. Some of you, perhaps, do not know
about the American Forestry Association. It has members in
every state and territory in the Union, including Hawaii and
Porto Rico and Alaska. It has thousands and thousands of
members. Perhaps you will permit me right now to tell you
that in the last five and a half months over 2,500 people have
joined, paying $3.00 to $100.00 apiece. It is an American As-
sociation that stands for all that is best in forestry, and I bring
you this afternoon the hearty greetings of the directors of the
American Forestry Association, wishing you God speed in the
splendid work you are doing.
I think, as Forester Graves told you this morning, that there
is no part of the country that needs scientific forestry more
than the southeast, and I do not know of any part of the
United States where forestry, properly conducted, can do more
for its people than it can in this region. And you will do
well to organize in every Southern State a forestry association,
or at least a fire protection association, so that you can get
your equitable share of the money for fighting forest fires
and preventing them that is appropriated annually by the
United States Government for that helpful work which the
Government undertakes in cooperation with the States. Many
of the Southern States have received none of that money,
and therefore have none of the benefits, simply because they are
behind the times. I have lived for the last fifteen years in New
Jersey. I know some of you who live in a part of the country









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


where you have more blessings, don't think that New Jersey
is even a part of the United States; but be that as it may,
we are a great State in many ways. Forty per cent of the
area of New Jersey is in forest. Some people think of us as
raising politicians and "cain," and other sorts of agricultural
products, but we raise timber, also, in New Jersey; and we
have a forest fire system which I think is second to none.
As Forester .Graves can more fully explain, we receive, through
his department, help that comes through appropriations in
connection with the Weeks Law. This is a benefit received
every year, and it is in that connection that we realize we are
a real part of the nation.
There are a great many forestry questions that are coming
up of interest and importance. You all know something
about the great destruction of the chestnut that has taken
place in the East-the so-called chestnut blight. Up in our
part of the world-in New Jersey-and in some other states,
you rarely see a chestnut tree that is alive. When you look off
across a wooded country, you simply see the bones of the
former chestnut trees standing in the air, without life and
in most cases without bark. The ravages of the chestnut
blight were not stopped. And now, people of North Carolina,
you have the beautiful five leaf pine-white pine, as we
call it-and you want to look out, because there is another
great scourge, and that is the five leaf pine blister rust. It
is all over New England and elsewhere, and spreading rapidly.
It got a big start before the scientific men spoke out loud about
it. You must be wideawake to the danger, or you may soon
have only sick or dead chesnuts and sick or dead white pines
to look at.
I saw a forest in Massacheusetts the other day coming
down through Lenox, beautiful white pine trees, such as you
see in some parts of Western North Carolina, and the greater
portion of them were infected with this terrible blister rust
pest. You will want to be organized in every state in the
mountain region for many reasons, but you particularly want
to hurry up your organizations so that you can properly face
this danger. There are other men with greater technical
knowledge than I have who will talk about this white pine
blister rust at this Congress. But I beseech of you not to









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


underestimate the importance of this terrible calamity which
threatens us with the possible extinction of the white pine.
Now, gentlemen, there are a great many things I might
talk about, but you have many more experienced speakers than
I-people who have a live message, and therefore I will say
only a few words more. The forests of America are in-
creasing in potential importance, particularly on account of
the Great War. Do you realize that in Russia, in the Balkans,
in Belgium, in Galicia, in France and England-everywhere-
there is terrible destruction of forests not only on the bat-
tlefields, where whole forests have been felled, and there
is much the same scene of desolation as some of your mountain
sides used to have when the tobacco crop farmers deadened
the trees? But that is not all. England and France formerly
imported a great deal of their lumber from Russia and the
Rhine, and they are now cut off from that source of supply.
The ocean freights are so high and the shortage of ships so
great that a comparatively small amount of lumber has been
shipped to England and they are cutting down the fine old
picturesque woodland parks over there. One of the most
picturesque, as well as the saddest, things of the war is this:
There was organized in Canada a body of woodsmen-2,5900
men or more. Some of them months ago paraded the streets
of Ottawa clad in khaki trousers and Mackinaw shirts. They
carried saws and axes, or peveys or canthooks, in addition to
fire arms, and that 2,500 men have been taken to England-
they are there now; and what are they doing? They are
cutting down the historic old forests of England because
England has to have the timber for mine props and for other
necessary things, on account of the terrible shortage of lumber
and wood at this time in England. What will England look
like when you and I go back there after this great World War
is over, and find that the forests have been cut so that we can-
not recognize them? I received a letter only Saturday from
one of those Canadian men who is working in the south of
England, in the forests, and he was permitted by the censor
to send a letter to me. He said, "Really, my friend, we men
of British Columbia, who have been used to cutting down the
forests of Canada, really feel sad to cut down these magnifi-
cent park or shade trees, but such is war."










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Now all this has a great relation to the forests of the United
States. I do not need to tell you that the potential value of
our forests will be greatly increased by this terrible destruction
of timber, and the uses for lumber that will come after the
war. So it is important that we think more of our forest
reservations-more of the great heritage which we should
leave to posterity, and we should take care of these estates
of the people which mean so much to us, not only from a finan-
cial and economic standpoint, but from other standpoints.
You, here in this region, have been greatly blessed because
you live so near to nature. And I think every one of you
will agree with me that the frequenter of the woods, the
American forester, the man or woman who can climb these
hills and see these grand products of nature, and all true
frequenters of the woods, are men and women of artistic
feeling. The tree has ever been the symbol of life, strength,
beauty, and the eye of man cannot continue to look upon
these monuments of nature without their beauty being reflected
in his life, making him a happier and a better man, and their
destruction, ladies and gentlemen, means not only the removal
of one of our natural resources from a practical and utilitarian
standpoint, but also from the viewpoint of morality, of happi-
ness, of beauty and of spirituality. And I am sure you agree
with me, that there is no compensation for such a loss. I
thank you.
DR. PRATT: Following our custom in regard to papers and
addresses, the address of Mr. Pack is open for discussion.
You may discuss it or ask him questions or bring out any-
thing you may wish.
MR. POWELL: I have a resolution I think would well
follow this talk of Mr. Pack's, and, if you will allow me, I
would like to offer the resolution now.
RESOLUTION
Whereas, an amendment to the Agricultural Appropriation
Bill has recently been approved in the Senate appropriating
$3,000,000 for the purpose of continuing the purchase of
forest areas under the Weeks Law; and
Whereas, the continuance of these purchases is of very
great importance to the public welfare of the Eastern part
of the United States;









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Therefore, be it resolved that the Southern Forestry Con-
gress, composed of delegates from practically all the Eastern
states, earnestly urge the enactment of this measure into law.
DR. PRATT: Do you make a motion in regard to that?
MR. POWELL: I offer it as a resolution.
DR. PRATT: You have heard the resolution. Is there a
motion that the resolution be adopted?
Motion made and seconded that the resolution be adopted.
DR. PRATT: Any discussion of the motion?
MR. PACK: Will you permit me to say just a word? This
matter is of the greatest importance. I had a conference with
a committee of men on Sunday evening at Washington on
this subject. You have Congressmen from North Carolina
and East Tennessee and West Virginia who will, of course,
vote for that sort of resolution and work for it; they have
got to. They know perfectly well you won't send them back
to Washington if they don't. If any of you know any
of the Congressmen that live farther west, men who are
not particularly interested in the Appalachian region, by all
means wire them a copy of this resolution. There are many
men from the central district of the country who, with
a little urging, would vote right on such a subject, but with-
out urging are very apt and quite likely to vote against it.
They don't see any reason why they should buy some lands on
the headwaters of these streams and fix a playground for you
and me. And some of us, if we lived out West, might feel
the same way about it. I think this resolution should be
acted upon favorably and the officers instructed to send tele-
grams to members of the House of Representatives from
this region. I think the Mayor of Asheville and the Gover-
nor of North Carolina and everybody should cooperate in
this essential work. It means so much to all of us. It is
easy for us to get together here and jolly each other, who are
already converted, but the cause that gets no new converts
makes little progress. Now, if you can convert one Congress-
man from somewhere, it will be worth ninety and nine Con-
gressmen that we know are with us.
The resolution was unanimously adopted.
A motion was made that the President be instructed to send









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


telegrams to the President of the United States and the fol-
lowing members of the House of Representatives: Hon.
Champ Clark, Speaker of the House of Representatives;
Hon. Claude Kitchin, 'Chairman of the Ways and Means
Committee; Hon. John J. Fitzgerald, Chairman of the Appro-
priations Committee; and Hon. Asbury F. Lever, Chairman of
the Committee on Agriculture.
The motion was unanimously carried.
DR. PRATT: I might say that in addition to sending copies
of this resolution to the gentlemen mentioned, that we will
also send copies in the name of the Southern Forestry Con-
gress to all members of Congress from the States represented
here.
Before I call on the next speaker of the program, I am
going to ask a man who is here representing the Blue Ridge
Association, which is interested with us in the formation of a
Forest Protective Association, and which is interested in many
ways in the work we are carrying on, to say a word. He has an
invitation which he wishes to extend to the members of this
Conference. It relates to a visit to the Blue Ridge Association
grounds near Black Mountain. It is a place I have visited,
and where I have found they treated you royally and hospita-
bly. If you stay there during the summer, you will always find
something going on that will be of interest to you,-confer-
ences of one sort or another, and all of importance. I will
ask Mr. Quillian to extend the invitation to you on behalf
of the Blue Ridge Association.
(Mr. C. Fletcher Quillian then, on behalf of the Young
Men's Christian Association in the Southern States, extended
to the delegates of the Congress "a cordial invitation to visit
Blue Ridge.")
DR. PRATT: We are very much obliged for and appreciate
the invitation extended us, and I sincerely hope some of you
will be able to accept and visit the grounds of the Blue Ridge
Association.
I am sorry to have to announce that the next speaker who
was to have addressed us is unable to be here, Mrs. T. W.
Lingle, President of the North Carolina Federation of
Women's Clubs. Her subject was, "The Part of the Women's
Clubs in Forestry Conservation." We have found that the









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


women of -North Carolina, as well as those of other states,
have been and are taking a very live interest in our conserva-
tion problems. Among the delegates to this Congress ap-
pointed by the Governor of North Carolina were many of
the women of the State; and, outside the city of Asheville, a
much larger percentage of the women appointed by the Gov-
ernor are attending this Conference than of the men, which
indicates the interest the women have in this forestry work.
We are mighty glad to have them here, and particularly
those who have come to the Congress from outside Asheville.
The question came up this morning as to whether the women
were privileged to attend the trip tomorrow. I might say
here that everything in connection with the Congress is open
to the women just as much as to the men. They are delegates
in every sense of the word. There is plenty of work to be
done for all of us.
One thing was mentioned to me this morning that was not
brought out in the meeting. Mr. Seymour was speaking of
the conservation of wild life and how we should begin to teach
the children through teachers of the public and normal schools.
One of our women delegates stated that he left out one im-
portant way in which this subject should be taught, and that
was through the mothers of the children. Get the mothers
and all the women of this and other states interested in the
work we are trying to do, and you will find that our accom-
plishments and successes will increase by leaps and bounds.
We will not then be obliged to look back by decades to see
if we have made any advance, but we will be able lo
back year by year and see an advance made in .
are endeavoring to accomplish.
I will now call on Mr. Maddox, Ffster f e State of
Tennessee, who will discuss the subject,' erosion Probla i
of the South, and Its Relation to Forestr3y. O

\\
^ .









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


THE EROSION PROBLEM OF THE SOUTH AND ITS
RELATION TO FORESTRY
BY R. S. MADDOX,
FORESTER, TENNESSEE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

"Ye who love the haunts of nature,
Love the sunshine of the meadow,
Love the shadows of the forest,
Love the wind among the branches,
And the rain shower and the snow-storm,
And the rushing of great rivers,
Through their palisades of pine trees,
And the thunder in the mountains,"-Longfellow.
to you these thoughts of mine are addressed. But unlike the
poet's country of meadow, forests, rushing rivers and great
pine trees, I have another land to describe-one furrowed by
gullies both great and small, land eaten into and washed
away by the falling rains which should nourish it-whose
extent in West Tennessee alone is estimated at between a
quarter and a third of a million acres. To the reclamation
of such areas the Forestry Division of the Tennessee Geol-
ogical Survey is in part dedicated. Taking Tennessee as fairly
typical of the problem of erosion in the South, it will be my
object in this paper to point out to you why forestry should
be a most prominent factor in the restoration of waste lands,
namely, cleared lands which have been eroded to such an
extent that they have been abandoned.
RESULTS OF EROSION
In the first place these eroded regions are a menace to pros-
perity. We could liken them to a belligerent enemy gradu-
ally extending his battle front. They occupy what should be
some of our best lands, causing depletion in property values,
and they reach ever outward to destroy still more rich country.
The public highways are in danger from them. There are
many places where the roadbeds have been moved in order
to escape their encroachments; but this gives only a temporary
relief. In a few years this same process will be repeated, more
road beds will be moved, more eroded areas creep up to
destroy the new highways, and unless something is done to
prevent such continuous waste, parts of the South will become
desolate and the destruction much more extended.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Not only do these eroded sections eat into good areas,
but they destroy other valuable lands through deposits from
them. In Middle Tennessee and East Tennessee there is a
flat country, bottom lands, over which have been swept and
left quantities of gravel and stone through the rapid run-off
of water. In West Tennessee there are bottom lands that
once produced abundant crops of corn and wheat, which today
are swamps grown up in willow, sycamore, gum and maple.
Why? Because the sand and clay washed from the wasting
lands above them were deposited in these flat cultivated fields
and stream beds, causing interference with the drainage and
rendering them incapable for the present of further culti-
vation.
A local change in temperature is also noticeable as re-
sulting from these wasting lands. Over them in summer
hangs a shimmering heat almost palpitating in its effect, quite
unlike that which hovers over an ordinary field. In winter
their mantle of ice and frozen ground only adds cold to the
wind that blows unobstructed over them.
'Loss of timber is still another effect of eroded land. It
has been the custom of farmers in Tennessee, and I dare say
other states as well, to replace their worn-out fields by new
ground. This new ground is secured by cutting, often ruth-
lessly, into their timbered areas. On many of the farms on
the hillside three stages of this kind of clearing can be ob-
served. On the lower edge of the hill is an area lying in
gullies, perhaps having a few scattering trees of inferior spe-
cies. Being interpreted this means that that land was first
cleared for cultivation, then worn out and finally turned out.
Immediately above this plot is a field just breaking on the lower
side into gullies. This was the next land to take the place of
that first mentioned. Still higher up a third section can be
seen embracing the hill top. This is either newly cleared
to take the place of the partially depleted land just below or
else it yet contains a stand of timber waiting patiently for the
axe to complete the merciless cycle of destruction. The
result of land erosion is an increasing drain upon our remain-
ing timber, already none too abundant.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


CAUSES OF EROSION
We must look for the causes of erosion to the clearing of
timberland. Injudicious cutting has occurred in various ways.
There is a type of land in the hilly and mountainous portions
of the State too steep to admit of clearing for agricultural
purposes, yet much of this has been cut off and cultivated
with the result that it has washed into gullies and has been
abandoned.
Clearing timber from shallow soil may also be classed
as unwise cutting of our woodlands. Here the underlying
strata of rock is so close to the surface that forests are the
only means known to date by which the soil and water can
be economically held. Where such clearings have been done
agricultural methods have not been successful in maintaining
the soil for production. This has resulted in rocky, sterile land.
Causes of erosion can also be traced to forest fires. While
this source of damage is to a great degree familiar to all,
yet it will bear mentioning here both because of the little at-
tention it has received in the South, and because of the ways in
which it happens. First the deliberate setting of fire to
forest areas occurs in many sections with no object in view
except to have a fire. Also many cattle men set fire to woods
in order to destroy the leaf litter and to secure early grass
to improve the grazing, as they say. The permeability of the
soil is thus impaired. Much of the obstruction to run-off
has been removed and erosion is the natural result.
In this connection destructive lumbering must be men-
tioned. As is well known, it is a system of cutting everything
available for lumber immediately. No precautions for the
protection of young growth are taken, no provision for a
future stand of timber is made. This means that when rains
fall the natural obstructions to run-off have been removed
and the equilibrium established between erosion and the forest
cover is destroyed. Incalculable damage frequently takes place
before vegetation can grow to reestablish normal conditions.
This state of affairs is often aggravated by fires induced
by the presence of limbs, brush and other kinds of trash left
from logging. The intensity of the heat from this accumulated
rubbish largely if not wholly destroys the remaining vegetation









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


and thus further prolongs the period and the force of erosion
before the area can again become normal.
REGENERATION OF THESE LANDS
After a careful consideration of the effects and causes of
erosion we must necessarily come to the question of regen-
eration-restoration. Here it is the plain duty of forestry to
take a hand. Protection of our timber is one of forestry's
main objects and just so surely as the system of fire prevention
seeks to protect and promote the growth of standing timber,
just so surely checking erosion is going to protect our re-
maining woods, which under the present system are being daily
reduced in value. This can easily be seen from one viewpoint
alone. If present agricultural lands can be kept in a suitable
condition for agriculture, there will be no necessity to ruth--
lessly plunder our woodlands for more cleared land.
In addition, the restoration of eroded areas means more
land to be reforested. While it is true that some of the country
reclaimed will be more suitable for agricultural purposes than
tree growth, yet it is also true that much of the area to be
reclaimed will be classed as forest land. This is a fact that
must be recognized for several reasons. Much of this eroded
area should be kept in timber for the protection of agricultural
land, regulating the drainage and preserving it from the
dangers of erosion. Much of this land, too, is naturally more
suited to timber growth than to agriculture, while still other
portions can be reforested and left in timber for many years
to come even if not permanently.
The process, then, of restoration means forestry-growing
trees. In the process of regeneration there are several methods
which are being tried out. To digress just here for a moment
to West Tennessee, it may be of interest to know that this
section of the state is rolling in character and of a sandy-clay
soil. The sand and clay is mixed in such proportions that the
soil is very easily eroded, especially where it is neglected.
As a result there are many fields now lying out as waste. Many
of these areas will no doubt be reclaimed for tree growth and
others for crop production. In general the reclamation work
here consists in first throwing up dams in the gulleys. These
dams are built strongly enough to hold the stream flow, catch-
ing the earth that the water washes down from the slopes,









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


in a perfect network of brush and twigs. As soon as enough
earth is secured, some form of vegetation is set to growing
in order to hold the earth in a permanent way after the tem-
porary brush dams have decayed. If tree growth is to be
established the object is to build the dams, as above described,
and set the area with those trees that will if possible, early
become of commercial value as well as restore the land. Black
locust is especially adapted to this use in many places. It
enriches the soil, holds the earth intact and can be used for
fence posts, poles, etc. Poplar, walnut, sycamore, red gum
and other species are also good, depending upon the locality
and results desired.
SUMMARY.
At every point erosion touches forestry. Its results and
causes, as have been seen, are forestry issues, and attacking
the problem means the regeneration of many acres for perma-
nent tree growth. Restoration seeks to maintain a temporary
stand of timber during the process, and even where areas
that must become permanent agricultural land are reclaimed
it still has a direct effect upon standing timber, for, as it adds
more land to agriculture it also lessens the necessity for ad-
ditional clearing of the woodlands. This reclamation means
a more uniform stream flow and a reestablishment of the
drainage equilibrium. It means that a more conservative
method of private lumbering will be brought about and promis-
cuous grazing with its attendant evils will be stopped. It
means the suppression of forest fires and the elimination of
at least a part of the far reaching harm which comes to our
fish, game and birds. The relation between forestry and
erosion seems clear. Forestry does not have to wait until a
definite rocky slope needs restocking or a stand of timber needs
cutting scientifically before it can do effective service. It is
the forester's business to help create and maintain proper
conditions so that the conservation of our natural resources
will be secured. It is to this branch of the work that Tennes-
see's Forestry Division is at present giving a great share of
its attention.
DR. PRATT: The subject dealt with by Mr. Maddox is a
very important one, and we now have ten or fifteen minutes
in which to discuss this paper. North Carolina is apt to claim









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


a good many things, and to claim that she is first in a good
many ways, but when it comes to deep gullies, I am perfectly
willing that Tennessee shall have first place.
Is there any discussion of Mr. Maddox's paper?
MR. BESLEY: To mention a concrete case which will em-
phasize the points Mr. Maddox brought out in his paper. We
all know that the erosion problem is a very serious one, but
we often are not sufficiently acquainted with facts to
enable us to give concrete cases. Where we are, they ought
to be brought out. Last year, I had an opportunity to observe
a point on the Patapsco River in Maryland, where a dam
had been built ten years prior to that time. The silt which
had been eroded from the watershed not more than 100 square
miles in extent, was sufficient to fill this reservoir created
by the dam 25 feet high, level with the top, so as to render
entirely ineffectual all the many thousands of dollars expended
in the construction of the dam. This accumulation of silt 25
feet deep at the dam and 100 feet wide, extended back for a
distance of one-third of a mile, but, of course, it was not so
deep back at the farther point,-probably about three or four
feet. That gives you some idea of the immense accumula-
tion of silt from a very small watershed area. The result
was that this water-power plant built at this point was made
absolutely ineffectual. And this silt had come down from
rich farming sections above this point, and in doing so filled
the channel of the river to the extent that floods were very
frequent, the channel being no longer able to carry off the
water. This river is the one on which Baltimore is located.
In order to keep the channel open for navigation, the govern-
ment and city together have spent something like fifteen
million dollars in the last twenty years in taking out silt
brought down by this one river. The people who owned the
dam behind which the silt had accumulated made an opening
at the bottom and let the water wash the silt on. There are,
I think, four other dams below this point, all built for the
creation of water-power. Of course, the silt was washed
out of the first one and accumulated behind the next dam,
putting them practically out of business; this will be repeated
by the next and so on, until the silt has finally worked down
into the harbor of Baltimore, there requiring a great ex-









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


penditure of money to remove it. So you see the problem is
a far-reaching one, even though there are but a few cases
where we can actually measure the results. It has been said
that the amount of silt eroded from hill farm lands is 500
pounds per acre per annum. You can figure out from very
large areas what that would amount to in a given time.
DR. BAKER: I would like to make an observation as a
result of study of stream regulation, which means prevention
of erosion, in certain parts of Europe. During studies in
Savoy in Eastern France, it was exceedingly interesting to
see how mechanical obstructions were put into gullies and
streams in various ways to prevent erosion. This morning,
as Professor Maddox was reading his paper, it occurred to me
that it would be an extremely interesting experiment to de-
termine the power of vegetation of various kinds in preventing
erosion, filling gullies, etc. If over the hills or in the mountain
sections of Savoy, and the same is true in Switzerland and in
the mountainous sections of Germany, an unusual rain starts
gullying, immediately a mechanical obstruction, usually a
barrier of brush or wood, is put into the gully and it is sur-
prising how quickly the soil accumulates and erosion is stopped.
Of course, the placing of mechanical barriers is followed im-
mediately by planting of trees or smaller vegetation.
MR. MADDOX: One word further in regard to eroded land
that is not thought to be of any value for farming. The
landowner should be made to realize that something will grow
on what is frequently termed "gully dirt." Almost any land-
owner, it matters not how poor a farmer he may be, can be con-
vinced that such dirt can be made fertile in a comparatively
little while, if caught and held. Call his attention to a number
of dams he himself has seen along the public roads where
weeds, briers and grass are growing luxuriantly on that kind
of dirt which obstructions have caught from gullies. In that
way you can convince almost any farmer. By building such
obstructions in gullies you can get plant life to thrive and fre-
quently better than on what might appear to be better soil.
MR. GRAVES: In my judgment the points brought out by
Mr. Maddox regarding the relation of erosion to forestry are
of very great importance, and I wish to say a word regarding
the larger aspects of that problem.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


There is, as you know, a group of engineers who take the
position that forests have very little influence on the conser-
vation of water resources. Many of these engineers entirely
overlook the erosion problem, ignoring the damage which is
already occurring in many parts of our mountains and the in-
fluence of erosion on torrents and floods. We do not have to
go to books or to theory to show the influence of forests on
erosion. We can go to our own mountain regions and find ex-
amples so spectacular that I feel that even some of our en-
gineering friends could no longer shut their eyes to them.
We have in the west a number of National forests set
aside primarily for the protection of the water resources.
One of the greatest purposes is the regulation of the use of
the vegetative cover to prevent erosion. Of course this pro-
tection is taken care of through the proper handling of the
forest cover. In some instances, however, in the southwest the
forests have relatively few timber trees on the watersheds,
which are covered mainly with a dense growth of brush locally
called chaparral. Frequently people have ridiculed the Forest
Service because these areas have been incorporated as National
forests and yet contain very few trees. Their importance in
the protection of the local interests which use water for irri-
gation and other purposes is very great, so great in fact that in
some instances the local communities are contributing many
thousands of dollars to aid the Forest Service in protecting
them from fire. As a practical example of what happens if
the vegetative cover is destroyed, I might mention a fire which
occurred in the fall of 1913 on the slopes of a canyon in south-
ern California. Only 700 acres of brush land was burned over
and yet the following spring the rains sweeping down over
this denuded area caused a flood which did an enormous
amount of damage,whereas previous floods had simply caused
temporary high water which did little or no damage. On
this occasion the watershed was literally torn to pieces, the
stream channel cut in places from 10 to 15 feet deep, agri-
cultural lands and orchards torn to pieces, and fine irrigated
land covered with a deep deposit of debris which ruined it.
There was a damage of $40,000 or $50,000 done in a few hours
as a direct result of the burning of 700 acres of brush land.
I could also give many instances of the effect of unregulated
grazing on our western mountain lands which have been fol-










70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

lowed by very serious erosion and damage by floods. Similar
flood damage has been done in the east as a result of forest
destruction followed by erosion. I repeat that we do not need
to go to Europe for examples of the injurious effect of erosion
following forest destruction. We have a multitude of ex-
amples in this country.
MR. SEYMOUR: I am going to talk a little about the orchard
business again. I have a model orchard around a hill. We
keep that in grass for two reasons: to hold the soil and to
furnish humus to fertilize the trees. That has been found to
be the best thing to do.
I want to recite to you Roosevelt's illustration about this
matter. He took a table that was nearby, took a glass of
water and slanted the table and threw the glass of water on
the table. Of course, the water ran off on the floor. Then he
put a tablecloth on the table, threw a glass of water on it, and
it all stayed right there.
DR. PRATT: I will now read the Committee appointments:
COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS.
R. C. Jones, Chairman................................... Virginia
J. W Tourney ................................... .. Connecticut
Thomas A. Cox.................................... North Carolina
H. S. Graves ........................ ....... District of Columbia
Dr. T. S. Palmer................................District of Columbia
Miss Julia A. Thorns...................... ........ North Carolina
J. E. Barton............................................. Kentucky
Henry E. Hardtner......... ....................... Louisiana
John L. Kaul ..................................... ...... Alabama
Bolling Arthur Johnson ............................. .... Illinois
L. J. Young............................................ Michigan
R. S. Maddox........................................... Tennessee
Gallatin Roberts ....................................North Carolina
Mrs. R. S. Hosmer.................................... New York
J. H. Foster.......................................... ...... Texas
COMMITTEE ON PERMANENT ORGANIZATION.
J. G. Lee, Chairman .......................................Louisiana
J. G. Peters................................... District of Columbia
Edwin P. Cox....... .. .................... ....... Virginia
Edmund Seymour.......................................New York
F. W. Besley ............ ....................... Maryland
J. A. Viquesney .......................... .........West Virginia
W. D. Tyler........................................... Virginia
G. A. Loyall ..............................................Tennessee










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 71

Mrs. Gordon Finger................................North Carolina
Mrs. W. P. Wharton............................... Massachusetts
Mrs. W. T. Lindsay................................North Carolina
PUBLICITY COMMITTEE
Neptune Buckner, Chairman........................North Carolina
Dr. Hugh P. Baker........................... ......... .. New York
Verne Rhoades....................................North Carolina
W D. Clark...........................................Massachusetts
Donald Gillis.......................... ......... North Carolina
REGISTRATION COMMITTEE
E. H. Frothingham, Chairman ............... District of Columbia
Mrs. J. S. Holmes................................... North Carolina
L. L. Bishop....................................... North Carolina
The last address this afternoon is by one of the men from
Louisiana, who has been carrying on some work in connection
with forest management, who is going to talk to us on "A
Practical Example of Forest Management in Southern Yellow
Pine." I take pleasure in introducing to you Mr. Henry E.
Hardtner, of Louisiana.

A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE OF FOREST MANAGEMENT
IN SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE
BY HENRY E. HARDTNER,
PRESIDENT URANIA LUMBER COMPANY

For the past ten years, I have endeavored to make a care-
ful study of forest conditions in Louisiana, and have made
experiments as to the effect of fire and grazing on young
forest growth; the relative value of land for timber and
agricultural purposes; the taxation of forest lands, and the
need of additional legislation in order to maintain a permanent
timber supply. I have tried to observe the changes in stream
flow and water supply on our denuded watersheds, and other
matters closely allied to forestry. Gradually the problems are
worked out as the experiments ripen, and from time to time
the findings are announced to the general public and to the
various state departments, as well as to the Forest Service at
Washington.
The lumber industry, for many years past, has not been a
profitable one, and has yielded the manufacturer very little,
if any, profit. Why this deplorable condition exists, or its









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


remedy, I will not undertake to discuss. I wonder if any
great number of people, or the manufacturers, even realize
how much longer our forests will last, and the ruinous policy
they are pursuing in denuding the forests, with scarcely any re-
turns therefrom. Take Louisiana, for example-the State
Board of Appraisers, for the year 1914, reported the yellow
pine acreage as follows:
Class A .................. 259,545 acres @ 20,000 feet 5,191,300,000
Class B................. 418,686 acres @ 12,000 feet 5,026,232,000
Class C................. 624,664 acres @ 10,000 feet 6,246,640,000
Class D...................1,070,351 acres @ 6,000 feet 6,422,106,000
Denuded ...............4,502,216 acres @ 1,000 feet 4,502,216,000
Total...............6,875,482 acres 27,388,494,000
Let us presume that there are errors in classification, that
there are lands not classed as pine which should be; that the
mill cut will exceed the log scale or estimate; that there will
be closer utilization, etc., and in order to get full estimate, let
us double the total stumpage, as reported by the Board of
Appraisers, and we have 54,776,988,000 feet. The estimate
is high, if anything, for the Board of Appraisers and the as-
sessors are very watchful, and the timber lands being largely
in the hands of operators, the acreage and classifications are
as nearly correct as can be figured.
The annual cut of yellow pine in Louisiana is nearly three
billion feet, gathered from available statistics, and will con-
tinue around that mark for years to come, as all the mills are
equipped to run night and day, and no doubt as soon as pros-
perity smiles, the cut will approach four billion feet. So at
the present rate of cutting, our virgin forests will be ex-
hausted in eighteen years. I doubt if there is a single manu-
facturer in the State who can operate his mill twenty years
longer, and the timber supply is already in the hands of manu-
facturers so there is no surplus to draw from. The same con-
dition exists in all other Southern States-in most of them it
is worse.
We are face to face with a serious problem. Many millions
of acres of valuable timber lands in the Southern States, cap-
able of giving employment to thousands and placing millions of
dollars in circulation, are soon to be made almost worthless.
Not all of these acres are valuable for farming, and fully fifty









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


years must elapse before even a small portion are in demand
for agriculture. We might as well face the truth: Fully 50
per cent of our hill lands are unfit for agriculture and should
be kept in forest. It is a good thing for any State to have
forest lands and grow trees, for it is a source of great wealth
and of great value in other ways. There should be a census
taken of all lands to ascertain their present and prospective
value. In this way we would know which lands were agri-
cultural, and which should be planted to timber. No man
should be allowed to hold large areas for speculative purposes.
If the lands are chiefly valuable for agriculture, let them be
classed as agricultural lands. If they are valuable for timber,
let them be classed as such and provision made to encourage
the owners to grow timber.
We have a great many people who place a value on lands
chiefly for the taxes that the owner must pay. For instance,
one of Louisiana's large land owners, who is prominent as one
of the Nation's great conservationists, wanted to take advan-
tage of the State's encouraging offer to fix the assessment on
lands dedicated to timber growth at one dollar per acre for
thirty years. He made known his wish to the assessor, police
jury, and other officials, that he wanted to grow timber on
10,000 acres of denuded lands. He was told very plainly that
they did not want forests-that they wanted farms and would
raise his assessment on other properties if he persisted in grow-
ing timber and having an assessment of one dollar per acre
placed on such forest lands. Of course our friend had to give
up the idea. These officials could only see the taxes coming
in from an assessment of two dollars per acre as at present,
which must continue for many years, the land not even yielding
good pasturage. Their vision was not great enough to see a
valuation of one dollar per acre for thirty years, and then
for the next thirty years when the timber was maturing, an
average assessment of perhaps fifty dollars per acre. They
could not see the amount of work that would be given to the
people, the money placed in circulation, and other vast bene-
fits. They could not realize that the state would eventually
get three or four times as much in taxes.
As a matter of fact, timber cannot be grown profitably
until the question of taxation is first settled. In some states









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


the lands only are assessed, and an additional tax is levied
against the yield when the timber is cut, and this is the cor-
rect way. Tax the timber when cut. Our Louisiana law was
framed to fit the constitution. An assessment of one or two
dollars per acre for thirty years and actual valuation there-
after, which would perhaps average fifty dollars per acre for
the next thirty years. This amounts to practically the same
thing as a yield tax in force in some other states. Until the
question of taxation is fixed, there will be no effort made to
grow timber in any state. There should be a reasonable annual
tax on timber land with a deferred tax on the timber, to be
assessed and paid when the timber is taken therefrom, in order
to prevent the constant cutting of growing timber by private
owners who cannot afford to conserve it under the present
system of taxation.
Successful agriculture is determined by the cost of produc-
ing a crop, and the same principle will apply to production of
timber. We are all very proud of our Southland and inclined
to boast of our resources-but too often we depend upon
strangers to do the real work of development, and when we
see their success, we wonder why we were so blind. There is
no use to misrepresent the resources and possibilities of any
State to any one-not even to ourselves. We might as well
face the fact that not all of our lands are agricultural, and
that forests must be renewed, and in those sections where lands
are handled for their true worth, you will find permanent pros-
perity. We have lands which may become profitable for agri-
culture fifty years hence when conditions are different, but
until that time does come there is no harm in producing a
crop of timber rather than have the lands idle.
In my efforts to reforest denuded lands, I found it neces-
sary to leave a number of seed bearing trees to each acre. The
next step was to prevent fires. I was amply rewarded in my
efforts in this direction but in a different way from what I ex-
pected. A 300-acre tract surrounding my home on which
the virgin longleaf pine was cut in 1902, leaving plenty of
seed trees, now has a full stand of shortleaf pine saplings, five
to ten years old. I have often wondered at this change. I
knew that there had been longleaf pine seed crops and that
fires had been prevented. Nearby there was a tract of 4,000









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


acres of denuded longleaf pine land which burned over an-
nually until 1913, and on which there was scant reproduction
of any species. Four thousand acres longleaf forest with
plenty of seed trees, burned annually-no reforestation. Three
hundred acres of longleaf forest protected against fires for
twelve years and complete reforestation of shortleaf.
The solution was simple. There were a few shortleaf seed
trees on the branches, which bore seed every year, and the
wind scattered the seed in every direction. The longleaf pine
trees also bore seed which were scattered. As soon as the
seeds strike the ground, they germinate and, if cared for, com-
plete reforestation will soon result. This was the case on the
three hundred-acre tract. There were, no doubt, as many long-
leaf seedlings as shortleaf. The seed of longleaf pine are
strongly convex, oblong, oval, somewhat less than half an
inch long. The kernel is oily, rich in nutritious matter and
palatable. When the seedlings are one year old, the roots and
short stems are spongy, sweet and tender, and the hogs soon
destroy the full crop. If a small proportion of longleaf pine
seedlings survive the first year, the hog is sure to get them the
next season, so I am convinced that the arch enemy to long-
leaf reproduction is the hog.
Shortleaf pine seeds are very small and the year old seed-
lings have a slender stem and root, and are not at all relished
by hogs. It took me ten years to find out the reason why this
tract did not reproduce at least a few long leaf pines. It was
hogs. In 1913 there was a big crop of longleaf pine seed which
germinated in November and December; and there must have
been 5,000 to 20,000 seedlings to the acre in December, 1914,
nice, large, juicy ones; and then came the hogs from the
swamps and one hog would average five seedlings a minute
and there were droves of hogs all busy. Here I had labored
since 1913, with an army of men to prevent fires, which I con-
sidered the only enemy worthy of note, and all at once before
my eyes, in every direction I saw the real enemy destroying
seedlings by the million. The earth was covered with freshly
up-rooted seedlings, and it was very plain that the hogs had
heretofore prevented reforestation. In May, 1915, in order to
save some of the seedlings of 1913 and prove my experiments,
I had Urania plot No. 7 containing 2,500 acres fenced with









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


hog proof wire, leaving the same number of acres on the
outside. Two months ago, namely in May, 1916, the longleaf
pine seedlings under fence were numerous, while on the out-
side they were very scarce. There has been complete de-
struction of the unprotected seedlings. What more evidence
is needed?
Fire now seemed a friend and I commenced burning over
a few acres in this fenced plot and the locomotives would
set fire to a plot and burn as much as forty acres. There were
a dozen such burned areas commencing in October, 1914, and
ending April, 1916. The dried sedge grass was heavy, and the
fires hot, but from 50 to 90 per cent of the seedlings survived
and in a few days the buds put forth new straw and are today
healthy and vigorous. The green straw would burn off level
with the ground, but the bud was not injured. Of course these
experimental burnings were usually at a time when the ground
was wet and the sap down or just beginning to rise, which was
favorable to fire resistance, but I do not think the seedlings
would have been destroyed even though the soil had been dry.
A two- and three-year old seedling will resist fire much better
than a year old, for there is a heavier covering of straw over
the bud. While I am opposed to fire at any time, and do not
advocate its use, I am confident that even one year old longleaf
pine seedlings will survive a fire, especially if it occurs during
a wet spell, and their resistance to fire is increased the older
they grow. I am also convinced that the longleaf pine seedlings
will not survive the hog, and reforestation is impossible in a
country where hogs roam at large. The remedy is: First pre-
vent the hog, then prevent the fire.
If any further proof is necessary to show why longleaf
pine forests do not usually reforest in longleaf pine, let us
view United States Forest Service sample plots C-1, C-2, C-3,
C-4, ("Roberts"), one-fourth acre each on cut over longleaf
pine lands with occasional seed trees surrounding them. The
heavy longleaf pine seed crop of 1913 resulted in an excellent
stand of seedlings of this species. On January 1, 1915, the
average number of seedlings was over 3,000 to the acre. These
plots were established to trace the development of young long-
leaf pine reproduction. Plots C-1 and C-4 were burned over
on February 10, 1915. The damage from fire was scarcely









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


noticeable, but in March, 1915, the hogs began to eat the roots
of the seedlings on unfenced plots, C-2 and C-3, destroying
fully 50 per cent, and in March and April, 1916, completed
the work of destruction so that no seedlings are now left on
these two plots. Fenced plot, C-4, which was burned, and
fenced plot, C-1, unburned, have as perfect a stand of two-
year old longleaf pine seedlings as one could want to see,
fully 5,000 to the acre, an increase over the count made when
the plots were laid out.
One to three-year old shortleaf or loblolly pine seedlings
will not survive a fire, but hogs are not a serious enemy.
Longleaf pine is the gem of all the pines and if given a chance,
will grow as rapidly as shortleaf or loblolly pine and produce a
much better grade of wood. Very little effort, however, has
been made to grow it for the reason that it was supposed to be
of slow growth and difficult to handle.
Another experiment which we are making is in thinning a
21-acre plot of shortleaf and loblolly pine. This plot was in
cultivation 25 years ago and the trees now growing on it are
24 to 25 years old. Thinnings should have commenced 15
years ago, as the stand was heavy and the growth in the last
15 years has been much suppressed. We cut out about 100
trees to the acre, leaving 200 to 250. From the 21 acres we
secured:
180 cords wood ............... ............... @ $1.25 =$225.00
555 tram ties................................. @ .05 = 27.75
200 posts ..................................... @ .03= 6.00
Total....................... ............ $258.75
The cost was $205.00, or a profit of $53.75 or $2.55 per
acre, sufficient to pay all taxes and other expenses. The tim-
ber removed was from two to twelve inches in diameter, breast
high, and could have been used for other purposes at a greater
profit, if facilities had been at hand for proper treatment. The
thinnings will greatly accelerate the growth of the remaining
trees, which at a low estimate will add one inch of wood every
five years, or four inches during the next twenty years at the
end of which time the timber can be cut. Such an increase in
growth would raise the yield from 300,000 feet to nearly
900,000 or 42,000 feet per acre, at an age of less than fifty










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


years. Accurate measurements have been made of every
tree, the trees numbered, and many photographs taken. Meas-
urements will be made at intervals of five years, or oftener
if necessary. A complete record is at hand for examination at
any time.
A condensed statement of acre No. 8, plot No. 1, is as
follows:


Inches in Diameter
Breast High
Under 3
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5


Number of
Trees
46
29
5
12
4
11
5
15
18
8
0
25
17
11
6


Inches in Diameter
Breast High
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15.5
16.5
17
22


This acre of 251 trees will yield, at the present time, 13,544
feet. Adding four inches, the estimated growth in 20 years,
we will have 42,388 feet. With stumpage now selling at $5.00
per 1,000 feet, we may reasonably infer that 20 years hence
when this acre of timber has matured, it will easily have a value
of $10.00 per 1,000 feet, or $423.88. If converted into lumber
and delivered to Northern markets, the value will be at least
$1,200.00, 80 per cent of which value will have been paid out
for labor and supplies. I am not prepared at this time to say
what the cost of growing timber will be, but I presume it will
not exceed $2.00 per 1,000 feet.
A table showing volume of board feet which can be cut
from small trees and on which my calculations are made is as
follows:


Number of
Trees
7
8
8
3
4
3
4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Inches in Diameter Number of 16 ft. Top Diameter of Volume bd. feet
Breast High Iogs Top Log in. kerf
5 1 4 8
6 2 4 24
7 2 4 40
8 2 5 51
9 3 4.5 66
10 3 5 94
11 3 6 113
12 3 7 180
13 3 8 240
14 4 9 315
There are a dozen other experimental plots in the Urania
forest which were laid out by the United States Forest Ser-
vice and the Conservation Commission of Louisiana, in co-
operation with the Urania Lumber Company. In these plots
are seedlings a year old, and trees from 10 to 30 years old,
all well arranged and a complete record kept. One demon-
stration plot is along one mile of road; a strip 100 yards in
width being thinned on the south side, while the north side is
untouched. The comparison is very interesting and convincing,
and one must acknowledge that it is as necessary to cultivate
timber as cotton or corn, and that when the work is done
properly the yield will be greatly increased. It is just as easy
to grow 50,000 feet of timber to the acre in 60 years, by assist-
ing nature, as it is for nature alone to produce 5,000 feet in
the same' time. When we hear of a virgin tract of timber 200
years old estimating 15,000 to 20,000 feet per acre, we think
it something unusual, but there could as well be 40,000 feet.
In virgin tracts there are many blank spots, the trees are not
equally distributed and fire demands its toll, all of which ac-
counts for the small yields. In cultivated tracts the blanks
are filled up, consequently there is no waste space.
The Federal Government under Section 2 of the Weeks
law, offers to assist the States in protecting the forested water-
sheds of navigable streams from fire. In order to secure as-
sistance of this kind, a State must have provided by law a sys-
tem of forest fire protection and have appropriated funds for
the purpose. All of the Southern States should take advan-
tage of this law and the readiness of the Federal government
to co-operate should be an incentive to immediate action.
DR. PRATT: Mr. Hardtner's interesting paper is now open









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


for discussion. I am sure he will be glad to answer any
questions any of you may wish to ask him.
I may say that the investigations we have made in North
Carolina have led us to the same conclusions that Mr. Hardt-
ner had arrived at. The razor-back hog has uprooted and
destroyed many, many acres of longleaf pine in North Caro-
lina. For example, in New Hanover County there is a stock
law, and in the adjoining county cattle, sheep and hogs range
freely. In the former, longleaf pine is plentiful, and in the
latter you can hardly find a longleaf pine, while the conditions
are otherwise very similar.
Is there any discussion of this paper? Any questions?
If not, the next business session of the Congress will be
Thursday morning at 10 o'clock in this room.
Meeting adjourned.


THURSDAY, JULY 13
MORNING SESSION, 10 A. M.
J. G. PETERS, Presiding
DR. PRATT: This morning I am going to turn over the ses-
sion to a man who has been very much interested in the work
of the various states, especially the co-operative work that the
states are doing with the Forest Service. As this session takes
up particularly the protection of our forests from fire-not,
as the program reads, "Forest Fire Protection," but the pro-
tection of forests from fire-the Committee has asked Mr. J.
G. Peters, who is Chief of State Co-operation in the Forest
Service, to preside. I take pleasure in introducing Mr.
Peters.
MR. PETERS: Ladies and Gentlemen: We have heard at
this Congress a recipe for keeping our tourists in the United
States, which is that our hotel keepers must bake better bread,
repair the springs of their beds, and especially lengthen their
bed sheets. The recipe for keeping our forests is to protect
them from fire.
The first talk this morning is very properly on the subject
of the organization of fire protective systems. If we assume
that fire protection is a good thing, that it is beneficial to the










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


public, we are naturally interested in securing the most efficient
character of organization with which to start and operate the
work. This subject has been assigned to one who has given
it a great deal of thought and study. He is chairman of the
Legislative Committee of the American Forestry Association,
and it gives me pleasure to introduce him-Mr. H. H.
Chapman.

ORGANIZATION OF STATE FOREST PROTECTIVE
SYSTEMS*
BY PROF. H. H. CHAPMAN
YALE FOREST SCHOOL
The theory justifying the organization of State protective
systems is that forest lands will not reforest themselves nat-
urally under the conditions created by modern lumbering and
settlement. If this is not true and our Southern forests persist
in reproducing themselves in spite of forest fires, grazing, and
the destruction of seed trees, then we are wasting our time
with State protective systems. The determination of actual
scientific facts regarding forest fires is the first step towards
State forest fire protective systems.
There is a double tendency to error in judging Southern
conditions when applied to the coastal plain pine region.
Foresters whose conclusions are based on knowledge of
Northern pine or of hardwood stands regard fire as an un-
mixed evil to be totally prohibited at all costs. Laws to this
effect are urged and State protective systems advocated based
on the hypothesis of instant detection and suppression of every
fire, no matter how small. On the other hand, superficial ob-
aervers who have grown up amid Southern conditions and
have never attempted a close and careful study of specific
tracts, knowing that fires have always been present on these
pine soils and seeing abundant young growth in many local-
ities may leap to the conclusion that fire is not only a necessary
evil but a positive benefit and take issue with those who advo-
cate the suppression of burning. As usual, the truth lies be-
tween these extremes. What are the facts?
Fires have always been present, most frequently on longleaf
*Nothing in this paper applies to the hardwood and mountain regions of
which Asheville is an example.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


pine stands. So true is this that the very structure and growth
of the seedling is designed to secure in the shortest possible
period after germination, the greatest protection against fire.
The young plant can put out a new crop of needles and sur-
vive even after every vestige of foliage has been burned off in
spring fires, a thing that no other pine can do. Longleaf pine
seed cannot germinate and take root on a carpet of hardwood
leaves or a two-year accumulation of pine needles, it withers
up before reaching the soil, but upon ground burned bare of
this dead vegetation seedlings are immediately established.
Hence fire prepares the seedbed for the seed. But the recur-
rence of fire in the following year or two almost completely
destroys these seedlings. A few escape when growing in
openings where thin grass sod does not hold the blaze. The
resistance of even one-year seedlings to fire is greater than
one would imagine. Yet on the whole studies show that fires
in the first year account for 95 per cent of every heavy crop
of seedlings that spring up after the periodical seed years
customary for the species.
But beyond this initial stage the damage done by fires de-
pends upon their frequency and the season of the year. An-
nual fires which burn off the foliage of the seedling stunt its
height growth to one-third or one-fourth of normal and event-
ually weaken it to the point of complete exhaustion and death.
On the other hand, an accumulation of a few years' litter in
absence of fires greatly increases the possible damage done to
the young trees when fire occurs. The postponed fire is then
sufficiently hot and lasting to penetrate the protection of the
bark and destroy the tree by girding the cambium. The in-
jurious effect of fires is increased tenfold if they occur in Au-
gust or September as contrasted with December or January,
owing to the increased dryness of the vegetation and soil. In
such seasons and with a high wind, pines of merchantable size
which have previously resisted fires from their seedling period
on are killed.
Coupled with this increase in hazard which will occur
through successful fire prevention, we have a fire season
lasting throughout the entire year. One hundred inches of
rain may fall in a season, and yet be distributed in such a
manner that it secures temporary relief from fire risk only for









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


two or three days at a time.* The local population are ac-
customed to burn the woods for a variety of reasons, to im-
prove grazing, to exterminate ticks, to destroy cover for
"varmints," or just for fun. They are tenacious of customary
rights, resentful of control, of a low standard of living, many
sections being entirely populated by negroes, and the task of
successfully preventing all fires by state edict, even when
backed by a state force, is next to impossible. When added to
this we encounter reasonable scientific doubt as to the wisdom
of such complete elimination of fires, the problem requires
close consideration. What is the solution? Certainly not that
advocated by the practical observers, of doing nothing. Fires
must be controlled and used in Southern pine for the double
purpose of securing reproduction and diminishing the fire risk
to standing timber. No one will advocate that fire be discon-
tinued in cooking and manufacturing because it is apt to escape
and destroy the home or factory. The use of fire should be
under the owner's control. There can well be a closed season
of nine to ten months, during which every effort should be
made to prevent fires, but during December and January there
may be much land that will be benefited by burning.
This does not mean indiscriminate burning annually of all
forest land in these months. The burning should be at the
owner's option. On areas recently cut over where reproduction
is sought, the land after burning should be specially posted
and protected for a period indicated by the species and con-
ditions. Nor should young pine, even longleaf, be burned
over every year, even after it is large enough to survive the
treatment. An interval of two, or even three years may prove
sufficient to keep the hazard down while permitting some soil
protection and preventing injury to foliage. (Hogs are fatal
to two-year old longleaf seedlings, and none can be grown in
spite of fire protection, where hogs run loose even in small
numbers.)
With shortleaf or loblolly pines the damage done by fire
in enormously increased. The seedlings of these species do
not reach a size giving immunity even from mild winter fires
until at least five to eight years old. Summer and fall fires

*The fire hazard, however, varies tremendously with soil and vegetation.
Longleaf pine needles on soil typical of this species will burn in any month of
the year.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


destroy them when 15 to 25 years old. Fires following long
periods of protection and burning late in the season will kill
mature trees two feet in diameter. On typical sites occupied
by these species, fires burn less frequently than on longleaf
stands. The moister soil will produce more shade and brush
while the needles are not so inflammable. In some sections
fires recur in shortleaf stands about once in 6 or 8 years. This
interval is sufficient to permit the establishment of seedlings
under a forest canopy, but when grown on old fields the trees
reach a much larger size and may come through.
The prevalence of second growth pine of these two species
on abandoned fields has a close relation to fire protection in this
initial stage. Fields abandoned after cultivating cotton or
corn are free from grass sod or forest litter. The seedbed is
ideal, but most important of all is the fact that there is no fuel
for fires. The young trees finally produce a mat of needles,
but by this time they are from one to three inches in diameter
and safe from the fires which consume their own litter. By
contrast it may be observed that abandoned pastures with an
established grass cover seldom stock up with a full dense
stand, but produce a sparse, scattered growth, owing to the de-
struction of a large proportion of the reproduction in the
early period by fire running in the grass.
On cut-over lands reproduction is enormously reduced both
by fires after logging and by the combined effect of absence
of seed trees in close cutting and competition of scrub oak and
other worthless growth which may make it impossible in the
future for the pines to establish themselves. Here again, de-
tailed studies showing just what actually takes place are the
only reliable basis of conclusions, and it is absolutely safe to
generalize from such studies, while observations from a car
window or deductions gleaned from census statistics are sub-
ject to grievous errors.
My conclusions regarding the need for State organization in
the Southern coastal pine region, and specifically excluding
mountain hardwood types, are:
First, the creation of the office of State forester to be
filled by a technical man capable of studying actual conditions
in a way to get at lasting results.
Second, and subject to his suggestions after investigation,









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


the regulation of fires by penalties for burning other people's
land, and of possibly the establishment of a closed season for
fires.
Third, the posting of lands upon which the owner wishes
to control fires and assistance in seeing that his wishes are
respected.
The enforcement of any fire law in some States of the
South will for a long time have to depend upon appointed
fire wardens, acting without much State supervision, for there
will be but little money to organize a force of district or county
foresters or inspectors similar to those used by Northern States.
The South must depend to a very great extent upon the edu-
cation of the timberland owners in the proper use of fire,
and the best results will at present be obtained from individ-
uals or corporations who assume at their own expense the
management of the fire problem on their lands.
The one fundamental step at present is the organization of
efficient State forestry departments under the same character
of non-political control as is secured in the work of State agri-
cultural colleges and experiment stations. Experience in the
South has already indicated the need of this course. Five
Southern States have placed their forestry work under com-
petent professional guidance. Two-Tennessee and North
Carolina-through the forester appointed by the State Geo-
logical Survey; one,-Kentucky-by means of a board which
is required to appoint a trained forester; two others-Texas
and Virginia-by giving to the State University the respon-
sibility through its governing board of selecting a forester. In
all of these States local problems are being intelligently worked
out, educational work pushed with vigor, and real progress
made towards true forest conservation.
Five Southern States have done nothing-South Carolina
Florida, Georgia, Arkansas, and Mississippi.
The two remaining states-Alabama and Louisiana-were
the first in the South to attempt State forest organization, yet
today, July 12th, 1916, they have accomplished nothing. Why?
Neither State has employed a State forester-and without him
laws, forestry boards, and organizations of "fire wardens"
have been a dead letter and will remain so. In 1908, Alabama
created a State Forestry Board of seven men, including the









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


governor, a member of the State Tax Commission, the State
game and fish commissioner, the commissioner of agriculture,
a lumberman, a member of the U. S. Forest Service, and a
professor at Alabama Polytechnic Institute. These men met
at least once, and that is the last that has been heard from
them. Not only were they required to serve without receiving
any traveling expenses (in addition to serving without salary)
but the total appropriation for the work of forestry and fire
protection was limited to $500. This, I assume, may have been
spent to good advantage by the secretary, Game Warden
Wallace. With practically no funds and nobody to do the
work, you will get nothing as a result.
Another initial mistake made by Alabama was in seeking
to combine the duties of game warden and fire warden. It
can't be done successfully. The excuse is that of economy-
but we must have a system capable of solving a social and
economic problem in which public sentiment and cooperation
are both foundation and superstructure, or through failure to
get tangible results the entire effort will be wasted. Not but
what game wardens may be useful as an auxiliary force-
and they should be required to render assistance and be in-
corporated as part of the State's force. But we might as
well honestly face the fact that a game warden is not popular
in the South, nor in many other places. The enforcement of
forest fire laws calls for sympathetic cooperation with the
local population which will be impossible at present without a
separate force. This need not add to the expense materially,
for fire wardens usually do not work on a salary, and the cost
is limited to the time actually required by their duties.
What is true of the wardens is equally true of the State
commissioners themselves. Louisiana, as early as 1904, cre-
ated a State Forestry Commission consisting of the Register of
the Land Office and four others, and charged it with the duty
of State fire protection, copying the law of Minnesota then in
force in constituting the Police Jurors of the various Police
Jury wards of the Parishes of Louisiana as fire wardens of
their respective wards. This system of ex-officio, involuntary
fire wardens has always failed, and Louisiana was no exception.
There was no technical head to the work, so in 1910 the State
sought to remedy this defect by creating a conservation com-









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


mission, one of whose duties was to appoint a State forester
at a salary of $1,800 per year. Although in 1912 this con-
servation commission was strengthened, reduced to three men
with good salaries, and controlled an expenditure averaging
$100,000 per year, yet up to the recent session of the legisla-
ture the appointment of a State forester has not been made,
nor has any appreciable sum been spent on forestry. In 1910
the state levied a tax on forest products which has netted
around $100,000 income annually. Henry E. Hardtner, then
chairman of the Conservation Commission, wrote (January
29, 1911) regarding this fund, "The conservation fund will be
used to protect forests from fires, purchase of reserves, plant-
ing denuded areas, etc." It was clearly the intention of Mr.
Hardtner and of those who passed the law that this tax should
furnish the needed funds for State forestry.
Then why had this commission utterly failed to organize
the forestry department? They said that it was because the
revenue from this fund was not available for expenditure but
must go into the state treasury. This was true, but that state-
ment did not apply to other revenue expendable by the com-
mission totalling $100,000, nor does it explain why this com-
mission never appeared before the legislature to urge the re-
appropriation of revenue from this license tax fund to be used
for forestry.
In May, 1916, a movement was started to remove the
forestry department from the hands of a commission which
had failed to manifest the necessary interest in forestry. This
effort failed, but so widespread and deep an interest was roused
that it resulted in a definite appropriation of 20 per cent of
the revenue derived from this timber tax which the commission
is now obliged to use for state forestry work.*
What is the explanation of this twelve years previous his-
tory of failure and incompetence? Simply the lack of proper
State organization. A combination of forestry with fish and
game protection in a single commission inevitably results in
squeezing forestry to the wall by diverting the funds and in-
In addition this new law requires the employment of a technically trained
state forester with two years actual experience, and creates an advisory board of
four men to assist the Conservation Commission, the Board to be composed
of the Professor of Forestry at the L. S. U., two representatives of the lumber-
men. whose taxes are being spent, and one farmer. This board must O. K.
every cent that is expended, and the fund will amount to $20,000 annually. The
state can now make rapid progress in forest fire protection.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


terest of the commission to the fish and game. Once intrenched,
an organization of this kind is often able to maintain its grip
on the forestry interests in spite of evident neglect and indif-
ference and bitterly resents any statement exposing this in-
competence.
I make these statements largely in the hope that States
which have not yet organized a forestry department may not
fall into the error committed by their neighbors but may pat-
tern after the successful states of Texas, Virginia, Tennessee,
Kentucky, and North Carolina, and keep their forestry work
separate from fish and game interests, employ trained men
as foresters, and remove the forester's office from the reach
of partisan political considerations. In this way only can the
Southern States hope to solve the forest fire problem, which
calls for great tact and discrimination, but which promises
wonderful results for the future if carefully handled.
I want to say one thing more. There are twenty-four
States which have organized forest work. In two or three
States, this work is still combined with fish and game pro-
tection. My remarks constitute no reflection, whatever, upon
fish and game commissions. So far as I know, their work is
absolutely satisfactory. We want efficiency in both depart-
ments. Unless there are exceptional conditions, that can not
be secured permanently without a separation of the forestry
work. As I say, I mean no reflection, whatever, upon fish and
game work, but fish and game organizations, if they are wise,
will not seek this combination. Certain states have been cited
as having a successful combination. New York controls an
immense forest reservation. The work of forest protection is
just as separate from fish and game in that state as in the
United States Service. There is no connection. There are
separate fire wardens and separate fish and game wardens and
separate heads. That works out, of course. The combination
is merely on paper.
Now, just a word in conclusion. I represent the American
Forestry Association. What Mr. Graves said last night I fully
agree with. There is need in every state of the United States
of mobilization of the force of public sentiment behind the
work of forestry and conservation in this country. There will
never be greater need than in the immediate future. We must









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


recognize that with these organized forces which wish to tear
down the principle of national conservation and put in its place
the old style doctrine of private ownership of every resource
we have, as the only way of developing them, we cannot rest
in security with the thought that all is well and nothing re-
mains to be accomplished. We have got to be mobilized to be
efficient. The American Forestry Association's platform is
sound. We have more than eleven thousand members now.
If you feel that you, as an individual, are helpless, mobilize-
join the American Forestry Association.
MR. PETERS: This has been a most interesting paper, on
an exceedingly important subject. I feel quite sure there will
be some discussion. There are other papers to follow, and
since we have a full program and would like to finish by noon,
or as soon thereafter as possible the Chair would be grateful
if those who are called upon, or who speak of their own ac-
cord, would confine their remarks to periods of five minutes
each.
The Forest, Fish and Game Warden of West Virginia, who
is later to give a paper, has met one of the problems Mr. Chap-
man mentioned in a way that I think you would be interested
in hearing about. I refer especially to the law passed last
year, which provides for deputy fire wardens who have no
fish and game duties, who are appointed in addition to the fish
and game wardens. Will Mr. Viquesney give us a word on
this subject?
MR. VIQUESNEY: Mr. Chairman, as I appear again on the
program, I will stand right here for a moment and talk on
this subject.
I have always heard in these discussions that forest, game
and fish departments could not be made a success when com-
bined together until I have almost gotten to the point of be-
lieving it myself. We combined these subjects under one de-
partment in West Virginia when we were helpless on account
of appropriations and could do nothing else. We were only
doing the best we could with what the legislature gave us.
With my dealings during the past eight years with all of
these subjects I have tried to be impartial, giving each of them
their due share of attention, but of later years possibly I am
partial to the forestry part of this work, as in a way it has









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


become the important part of my work as Forest, Game and
Fish Warden. We are amending our laws as fast as possible,
segregating this work and placing each part of it in the hands
of experts on the different subjects, the Forest, Game and
Fish Warden retaining a general supervision over the whole
work.
We have a law now, after some years of trying, whereby
we can have separate fire wardens, whose only duty it is to
look after forest fires, although in cases of emergency we use
the forest, game and fish wardens for the same purpose. It
does not make so much difference where we are as it does
which way we are going. I know we are headed in the right
direction and are, at the present time, doing great work in
protecting our forests from fire.
In this job, the governor nor any other official in the state
interferes with my work. In fact, I have no boss, unless it is
my wife; and having been married for twenty-three years, I
have learned never to talk back. If I desire to come down
here and spend a week among the beautiful hills of North
Carolina and learn how the States of the South are handling
their forestry work, I have no one to tell me that I cannot
come.
I heartily agree with the gentlemen who have spoken that
separate departments have worked the best where it is possible
to handle the matter in this way. I know we have made great
strides in protecting our forests, game and fish under one
head, and we will show you in a few years longer, that we can
make a success of forestry, even though it is combined with the
game and fish department. As I appear upon the program and
will have the opportunity to speak further upon this subject,
I will not detain you longer now.
MR. PETERS: The State of Tennessee had a forest, game
and fish law which remained inoperative for a period of some
eight years. Nothing in forestry was ever done under that
law, and it was finally repealed. The State Forester of Ten-
nessee can doubtless tell us something about it, and I am going
to call on Mr. Maddox.
MR. MADDOX: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: It
happened to be my lot to go into Tennessee to take up forestry
work with the State Geological Survey, September 1, 1914.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


But up to that time, in fact, including the time that I was with
the State Geological Survey in forestry work, up until the last
legislature, the state still maintained forestry under the game,
fish and forestry department. In order to become informed as
to what had been done in the line of forestry, I went to the
fish and game warden and asked him for information as to
what had been done, and I was informed that nothing had been
done; that there had been no appropriations made for conduct-
ing forestry work, and that his work had been devoted chiefly
to the fish and game end. At the last legislature, 1915, fish and
game was made into a separate department leaving out for-
estry. In other words, the department of game, fish and for-
estry was reorganized, leaving out forestry. Since that time,
the work of forestry has been continued with the-State Geo-
logical Survey, and the department of game and fish has been
operated as a separate department. And we hope at least,
now since the department of game and fish is a separate de-
partment and forestry is alone, that forestry will go along
even more successfully than it has already gone on under the
State Geological Survey.
MR. PETERS: Mr. Chapman in his paper told to a great
extent, the situation in Louisiana. I am wondering if there are
any additional points of interest the representative from Louis-
iana could tell us. How about that, Mr. Hardtner? You
know some very interesting inside history.
MR. HARDTNER: I quite agree with the paper read by
Professor Chapman. I was glad to hear him speak so boldly
along such lines. Five years ago I don't think he would have
read such a paper as that, but I quite endorse everything that
he says. l
In our 2,500-acre plot that we have in Urania wehai (
longleaf seedlings now nearly three years old. ine-
have grown very well under cover of blackja *iankftr oak
and other bushes. However, in order t Esi i reforesting
that area, I will have all of the bu s ltose 2,500 $45
cut down before the longleaf pine s crop of t6 fals.
We hope to have a stand of at least 5, or 6,000 sfflings to
the acre, after this year'on the entire 2,500 acres. Louisiana \
was one of the first States in the Union to create a consprvat onT
commission by legislative enactment. When Governor d-

I
C' (









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


ers went into office, a conservation commission was appointed
for the purpose of studying conservation in all of its phases
and making a report as to what was best for the State to
do. It happened that the governor selected me for the first
chairman of the conservation commission. I have held
many offices in Louisiana, but they have all been honorary;
the state never pays me. When I came here I paid my own
way. I hadn't been married but about two weeks when there
was a national conservation meeting at Seattle, and I went
clear across the continent to attend that. I stayed three days
and came right back. And I have attended nearly every con-
servation meeting since. When the next legislature met, two
years later, this commission prepared a number of conservation
bills and made a report. The present governor's assistant,
Harry Gamble, prepared these laws after consulting with the
conservation commission. Now, it happened that there had
been a new parish created up in my country, and I had been
chairman of the executive committee on parish division, and I
presume in recognition of my services, my constituents elected
me a member of the legislature. So my commission made a
report as to what was best to do, and then when I became a
member of the legislature they appointed me chairman of the
committee on conservation, and I, as chairman of the commis-
sion, had a chance to explain these bills to the legislature.
Well, we passed 29 or 30 acts, conserving everything in the
State. We passed a forestry act, a mineral act, and an act de-
claring the waters to be the property of the state. I went to
the governor and said, "We need money to carry these laws
into effect." He patted me on the shoulder and said, "Well,
Henry, you know the State has no money. If you can find a
way to get money, I will O. K. it." So our secretary and I
and one or two others retired to the wilds of Urania and com-
muned with nature and came back and advocated a license tax
on all minerals and timber severed from the soil. We thought
we would get $50,000 or $75,000 a year. That, I believe, was
the first severance, or license tax ever levied in any state. We
came back and told the governor about it. He said it was all
right. Then the lumbermen came to the capital from all over
the United States,-people interested in Louisiana lands came
there to see what that meant. Being a lumberman myself, I









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


convinced them there was nothing very radical in it. It was
only a small tax, and they consented to have that tax imposed.
It passed the legislature by a big majority. Then we discovered
it was unconstitutional; we had no right to impose such a tax.
So we immediately framed up an amendment to the constitu-
tion. Then we didn't have but a couple of weeks to put that
through. Now, you know how hard it is to put an amendment
through the legislature, but I introduced it and commenced to
work. It was the hardest work I ever did in my life. We
finally succeeded in passing the amendment, which was sub-
mitted to the people and ratified. Then some of our selfish
friends carried the matter into court and wanted the court to
pass upon the constitutionality of the act, and while they didn't
declare it unconstitutional, they said we would have to re-enact
it, for the purpose of curing some defect. So two years passed
again and we did nothing, but at the next session of the legis-
lature, we re-enacted it, and now we have $200,000 a year for
all conservation purposes, $20,000 of which is for forests.
But it happened that a reform administration came in about
that time-Governor Hall. And while I have been an insurg-
ent all my life, I happened to be with the regulars that time.
This new administration thought they had to re-enact many
of the conservation measures and a committee of prominent
men were charged with the duty of preparing laws that the
people wanted. Governor Hall was devoted to conservation
but his legislature was not so friendly, and I think made a
failure in their attempts to enact conservation laws. Notwith-
standing all this, progress was made. They permitted the con-
servation commission to spend $150,000 a year, provided they
collected it from hunting and fishing licenses. The commission
collected only about $100,000 a year, which was not enough
for all purposes. So for four years there was little done for
the forests. Then a new administration came in-Governor
Pleasant. Mr. Gamble, the first secretary of the commission,
prepared some new conservation acts which I think cover ev-
erything, and while we have been delayed four or six years,
we are better able to proceed now than we were then.
The amendment this time gives one-fifth of the tax that is
collected from the timber licenses, separating the timber from
the soil, for forestry purposes, which will amount to about









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


$20,000 a year, and as Mr. Chapman explained how it is to be
expended, I won't go over that. Then they give one-half of
the balance of the conservation tax to a rural progressive
board. The idea is that as this money comes from the de-
pletion of the soil, some of it ought to be put back, trying to
give back to the soil some of the resources taken away from it.
How the board is going to spend that money, I don't know.
They will have $70,000 or $80,000 a year to look after these
waste lands that have been depleted of their great resources.
DR. PALMER: Mr. Chapman has told you that 24 States
have organized for forest work. In fish and game work, we
now have State commissioners or State officers in 46 of the
States, and we have an experience of nearly forty years to
look back on. We did not originate this system; the work of
game protection was grafted on the original fish commissions.
But I invite the attention of any persons interested in forestry
administration to the record of fish and game work in the
United States, to see what has been and what has not been
done. History repeats itself and you can find in our record of
forty years nearly every combination that has been suggested,
and you can duplicate almost any suggestion which is likely to
come before you. We have considered and have tried a single
commissioner versus a board, and boards of 3, 5, 7 or 8
members. You will find how the question of a salaried com-
mission versus non-salaried State officers has worked out in
practice. There are game commissioners who work for noth-
ing and game commissioners who draw salaries of several
thousand dollars a year. The game commissioners in one State
have received salaries as high as $10,000 annually, but I believe
the highest now is $8,000. We have had commissioners elected
by the people and commissioners appointed by the Governor, bi-
partisan commissions, and so-called non-partisan commissions;
we have had short terms of office and terms as long as eight
years.
I want to add a word to what has been said in regard to
conditions in Alabama, Tennesse and Louisiana. It may seem
presumptuous in a member who is not a forester, and who is
a resident of California, to add anything to what has been said
as to conditions in the Southern States. But I happened to be
in Alabama in 1907, when the game and forestry law was









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


passed; I happen to know the original conditions in Louisiana
and I was in New Orleans at the time the law of 1910 was
drafted; I was also in Tennessee when the first law was in
force, and I have been in close connection with the officers in
these states all the time. It seems to me that if you had all
the facts before you, foresters would take a different view of
the lack of forestry work in these States, because in not a sin-
gle instance was there any desire or any intention of slighting
forestry.
This was the problem in Alabama in 1907: The State had a
system of local game laws almost as complex as that of North
Carolina and not a cent of appropriation for enforcement.
Game was shipped out of the State wholesale; and there were
no State officers, no local organizations, no anything to prevent
it. The question was how to raise funds, establish a State
Commission and start the work of fish, game and forestry.
The sportsmen did it, paying the Commissioner a salary of
$2,500.00 a year and all the expenses of the department through
a system of hunting licenses, without asking the State for a
cent of appropriation. Forestry, I believe, was added simply
in the hope of drawing attention to the work, and in the ex-
pectation that sooner or later it would be taken off the hands of
the Game Department. There was no appropriation for fores-
try, and not a dollar was received from the fisherman although
some fish work was carried on; every dollar was collected
from the hunters. The effort in Alabama was simply to start
the work in forestry.
In Tennessee, the Commissioner told me that in drawing
the law of 1903 he was unable to ask for a cent from the
legislature, but he hoped to draw attention to the necessity
for united conservation work. Tennessee had a multiplicity of
game laws and no funds for enforcement. The Commissioner
advanced from his private means the funds necessary for car-
rying on the work the first year, and whatever he collected
from the hunters went back into the department to pay, in
part-because it did not meet-the salaries of local game war-
dens and other expenses. What Tennessee has not done
should not be charged against her. This first work for forestry
was merely publicity work, in the hope that a forestry depart-
ment would soon be established.









PROCEEDINGS OF TIIH


In Louisiana, the original commission, in charge of fish and
game, was receiving a fairly good income from hunting li-
censes from commercial fishing licenses, and from oyster leases.
As Mr. Hardtner has told you, the departments were combined
in 1910 and the State attacked the general problem of conserva-
tion, but the income came from the hunters and fishermen and
from the oyster men. Another point that Mr. Hardtner did not
mention, is that not only did the State make no direct appro-
priation for forestry, but it took from the game commission
money collected from the hunters to the extent of $30,000 and
put it into the treasury for another purpose. Not only have
game commissions been confronted with the question of raising
their own funds, but they have seen legislatures dip into these
funds and take sums of ten, twenty, thirty, and seventy-five
thousand dollars at a time, to build roads, or pay for other pub-
lic improvements in which the sportsmen were not directly in-
terested.
So in considering these problems of the South, do not look
at them from the standpoint of today but consider the condi-
tions existing when the laws were first passed. I do not think
lack of progress in forestry in the Southern States is any criti-
cism of game and fish commissions. On the contrary, I think
these commissions are entitled to considerable credit for taking
up this work in the hope that by giving it publicity it could
be started and sooner or later would be taken off their hands.
MR. PETERS: Is there any further discussion of this sub-
ject?
MR. MADDOX: I think that Mr. Chapman and I are the two
who seemed particularly to criticize the game and fish com-
mission. I am glad Dr. Palmer made his talk as clear as he
did. In my remarks I said there had been no appropriation
made for forestry under the fish and game laws in Tennessee,
and therefore the work had not been carried on. I do not
know whether the work would have continued that way, or
whether it would have continued at all; but my remarks in
the end were not to criticize the department of fish, game and
forestry. The point that I wanted to emphasize, if I empha-
sized anything at all, was that forestry is now separate from
the fish, game and forestry department, is going on as a separ-
ate department, and is taking a different trend. But the laws









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


that were operating, or existing, under the department of fish,
game and forestry, before the reorganization were not men-
tioned at all in the reorganization of the fish, game and for-
estry department. I don't know any reason for that. I am
unable to say whether those same laws are operative and in
effect now.
MR. PETERS: Any further discussion?
DR. PALMER: I do not wish to convey the idea that I am
opposed to the separation of these departments. On the con-
trary, I am heartily in favor of such a separation. Tennessee
has now separated forestry from fish and game protection and
so have Colorado, Oregon and North Dakota. The combi-
nation has been tried time and again, more or less successfully,
in New York, Michigan and West Virginia, but the best re-
sults are always obtained where there are separate departments.
There is no feeling on this point on the part of the fish and
game commissioners; they are always glad to help and to co-
operate.
MR. PETERS: If there is no further discussion on this sub-
ject, we will pass on to the next one: "What the States Can Do
in Forest Fire Protection." I take great pleasure in introduc-
ing the State Forester of Maryland, Mr. F. W. Besley.

WHAT THE STATES CAN DO IN FOREST FIRE
PROTECTION
BY F. W. BESLEY,
STATE FORESTER OF MARYLAND
The duty of any State to protect its forests is analogous to
that of every city which protects its property. Here in the
South is a forested area of approximately 178,000,000 acres,
representing practically 57 per cent of the total land area. It
comprises one of the most valuable assets of the South and yet
one that is nowhere fully appreciated.
I recently heard a man who is familiar with conditions in
the Southern Pine Belt remark that were it not for the exist-
ing fire hazard all his money long ago would have gone into
second-growth pine lands in the South. He said:
"It is cheap, the timber is increasing in value, and it ought
to be a good proposition. But there is a danger from brush and









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


forest fires that no one man can guard against. The attitude
toward them in general is very careless, as if they were a ne-
cessary evil, and I can't afford to take a chance on them with-
out spending my time right on the spot to see to their protec-
tion."
His attitude was not uncommon. The new South has new
resources which have a rapidly mounting value. Their safe-
guarding through State and county action, private initiative,
an interested public sentiment, and every means we know is
most essential to successfully developing this region-whether
the timber is down along the coast, or in the mountains of the
Southern Appalachians.
This property is held by several classes of owners, some of
it in large timbered areas, but much of it in smaller holdings.
It is all land which pays taxes and is entitled to its full measure
of protection. A large share of it is in continuous forest areas
so that a fire on one property may spread to dozens of other
properties unless proper control measures are adopted. This
fact makes it distinctively the duty of the State to exercise
authority and to come to the assistance of individual owners
in saving their property from damage, the cause of which
they are in no wise responsible for. Often, even where this dan-
ger of fire spreading over large areas is greatest by reason of
the character of the country, there is the least interest on the
part of private owners in fire protection. The mountain and
hilly lands of the South under forest cover have nearly all been
cut over, some of them several times, and forest fires have
run over them so repeatedly that there is often a feeling of
helplessness; that fires are inevitable; and even if by the ex-
penditure of money in fire protection on their part there would
be a possibility of reducing the fire damage, many look upon it
as an experiment of doubtful value and are indifferent to pro-
tective measures. To others it is a question whether fires do
any appreciable damage, and of course until such owners can
be convinced of the damage caused by fires they are not going
to be enthusiastic over fire protection.
This feeling of indifference toward forest fires will give
way to interest in forest protection when the State assumes its
full share of responsibility in enacting competent legislation
and in providing an effective organization for fire protection.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Public sentiment in its favor will grow as rapidly as its benefits
can be carried to the people who own the forest land.
The forest fire problems of a State will differ widely as to
details, but in any case the end to be attained is the greatest
measure of fire prevention, although the pressing and immedi-
ate problem is to perfect a satisfactory organization for control-
ling fires that do occur, and always will occur. Since probably
nine-tenths of the fires are the result of thoughtlessness or care-
lessness there are great possibilities in preventive measures. To
this end, every available means of reaching the nine-tenths who
are careless should be employed. This involves the general
publicity campaigns through the newspapers, particularly the
local papers; distinctive, "catchy" posters in public places and
along highways; lectures and addresses to local communities;
forest fire laws and literature on fire protection generally dis-
tributed among the people; and personal interviews by forest
wardens with the residents of forest sections. In this connec-
tion the forest patrolmen can perform a most valuable service,
to my mind their most valuable service. These men who are
constantly traveling about over their district have every op-
portunity to come in close contact with every resident of the
district, and should lose no opportunity of interesting them
in fire protection, securing their full co-operation as it is gen-
erally possible to do. They should also work through the public
schools by securing the cooperation of teachers and disseminat-
ing forestry literature and impressing the importance of fire
protection upon the school children. I know that this can be
done, for it was done in a mountain section of Maryland, which
a few years ago had the worst fire record of any in the State.
Practically every form of fire danger existed in the district.
There were fires from railroads, logging railroads, hunters,
fishermen, brush burners, and incendiary fires set for the
purpose of improving the range for cattle and sheep, and
there was little respect for fire laws anywhere. Link
Sines, a lay preacher, who knew every one for miles
around and who was familiar with every foot of ground,
was appointed Federal patrolman for a section of ap-
proximately one hundred square miles. This man made
fire protection a part of his creed, which he taught in the
schools, Sunday Schools, and churches, and talked it to every
resident of his district. In three years time the attitude of










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


the people toward fire protection was completely changed, and
instead of being the worst fire section of the State, fires were
reduced 60 per cent and it is now, in many respects, a model of
co-operative effort in fire protection. When Link Sines calls for
fire fighters, no matter at what hour of the day or night, men
will respond not only from a desire to help him in the good
work he is doing but also because they have learned that fire
protection helps the game and permits new forests to grow.
The forest patrolman is undoubtedly a most important
link in any system of fire protection, and what was done in this
case may be done in numerous others. No matter how per-
sonally enthusiastic and efficient he may be, the forest warden
or patrolman in the South must have additional backing. This
region lends itself with peculiar readiness to mountain lookout
stations, from which the forests he could not cover in several
days' journey are laid out plain before his eyes. The ability
to see them and to see such fires as may be started in them
is not enough: his observations must be backed with telephone
communication, with all necessary means for rapidly assembl-
ing such assistants and equipment as he may from time to time
require. This unfortunately is very often not the case. Where
there is the most imperative need of real forest protection there
is generally the least enthusiasm for, and interest, in it. And
here is where the personal element comes in.
The selection of the State's fire wardens is of the greatest
importance, for any system of fire protection must depend in
large degree for its effectiveness upon the personnel of the
protective force. In States where the naming of the wardens
rests with the State Forester or with a Board of Forestry, it
is possible to secure good men who are genuinely interested in
fire protection. Where wardens are appointed for political
reasons there will be little respect for the laws and little ac-
complished in fire protection. It is much better to have no
warden in a community than one whose office is not respected
by virtue of the man who holds it, and what it stands for.
In practice, the authority of the State cannot be expected
to be much stronger than its local representative. This is
most important in the mountains, where a single individual may
have as wide and good an influence, when properly directed, as
this lay preacher wielded in Maryland. In other less timbered
sections desirable conscientious citizens may be found who,




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