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 Title Page
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 Table of Contents
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Title: Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress
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 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress
Uniform Title: Lumber World Review
Alternate Title: Proceedings of the ... Southern Forestry Congress
Physical Description: 12 v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Conference: Southern Forestry Congress
Publisher: Southern Forestry Congress
Place of Publication: Chapel Hill N.C
Publication Date: 1916-1930
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Forests and forestry -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Congresses -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: conference publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: <1st>(1916)-12(1930).
Numbering Peculiarities: Published in Feb. 25, 1922 issue of Lumber World Review.
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended 1917-1919.
General Note: Publisher and place of publication vary with each edition.
General Note: Title varies slightly.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075931
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000540771
oclc - 06241304
notis - ACW4218
lccn - 24020138

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Front Matter 6
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Main
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Full Text






















































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PROCEEDINGS
of the


ELEVENTH
SOUTHERN FORESTRY

CONGRESS


Held at
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
April 4, 5, 1929
FIELD DAY
BOGALUSA, LOUISIANA
April 6








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AG.,
CULTURAL-
LI3RAPRY






























































JAMES GIRVIN PETERS
























RESOLVED, that in the death of James Girvin
Peters on October 9, 1928, this Congress loses
one of its founders, a charter member, a trusted
advisor and a wise leader.

A native of Maryland, a faithful federal official
in the U. S. Forest Service, a perslstant enemy of
forest fires, and a valued friend of all who work
for or are interested in forestry, Peters has done
more to bring about a reasonable, unified, and ef-
fective forest policy in the South than any other
man.

His straight-thinking, clear-cut statements, con-
summate tact and unfailing good humor will be
greatly missed in this Congress; and while expressing
our profound sorrow at his untimely passing, we
extend to his family and to the U. S. Forest Service
our deepest sympathy in the irreparable loss which
they have sustained.

RESOLVED FURTHER, that a page of the Pro-
ceedings of this Congress be devoted to his memory.


- I a r


LI -II~






























































'\VII IAM H. SULLIVAN
























RESOLVED, that as death has called from his
earthly labors William H. Sullivan, whose vision,
practice and influence were powerful in establishing
the feasibility of practical forestry in connection
with a lumber operation of vast. proportions, who
inaugurated and encouraged many new methods
that have been of value in reforestation projects
everywhere, the Southern Forestry Congress and
the cause of universal forestry has lost a leader
whose place will be difficult to fill.
RESOLVED, that we in these resolutions show
our feeling of loss, and our sympathy with the
family, the officers and directors of the Great South-
ern Lumber Company, the citizens of Bogalusa and
the lumber fraternity in their bereavement. His
monument is the growing, perpetual forest at Bog-
alusa, Louisiana.

RESOLVED, that a page of the proceedings of
this Congress be devoted to his memory.


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IP~IY~- IP"P~I -












OFFICERS
of the
ELEVENTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Vice-President
J. H. WHALEY
President Southern Lui
Nashville, Tenn.


Secretary
W. R. HINE
State Forester
New Orleans, La.


President
B. F. SMITH
Industrial Lumber Co.
Elizabeth, La.
Chairman Executive Committee
HENRY E. HARDTNER
mberman President Urania Lumber Co.
Urania, La.


Executive Secretary
JOSEPH HYDE PRATT
Consulting Engineer Geologist
Chapel Hill, N. C.


Assistant Secretary
C. F. EVANS
U. S. Forest Service
New Orleans, La.


Finance Committee
RUDOLPH E. KRAUSE, Chairman
Krause & Managan Lumber Co.
Lake Charles, La.
PAGE S. BUNKER J. W. FRISTOE
State Forester T. J. Moss Tie Company
Montgomery, Ala. St. Louis, Mo.
S. C. SWEENY
L. J. ARNOLD Cooper River Timber Co.
Crossett Lumber Co. Wilmington, N. C.
Crossett, Ark. FLOYD THOMPSON
FLOYD THOMPSON
THOMAS L. WATERS Choctaw Lumber Co..
The Lurton Company Broken Bow, Okla.
Pensacola, Fla. COL. W. H. ANDREWS
C. B. HARMAN South Carolina Forestry
Southern Sash Door & Millwork Commission
Manufacturers Association Andrews, S. C.
Atlanta, Ga. HENRY E. COLTON
Van Buren Coal & Lumber Co.
WILLIAM J. HUTCHINS Nashville, Tenn.
President, Berea College L. D. GILBERT
Berea, Kentucky L. D. GILBERT
Berea, Kentucky Southern Pine Lumber Co.
F. W. BESLEY Texarkana, Texas
State Forester P. RYLAND CAMP
Baltimore, Md. Camp Manufacturing Co.
L. O. CROSBY Franklin, Va.
Mississippi State Board of JOHN RAINE
Development Meadow River Lumber Co.
Picayune, Miss. Rainelle, W. Va.
REPORT OF THE RESOLUTION COMMITTEE
J. S. Holmes, State Forester
Raleigh, North Carolina
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF NOMINATIONS
W. D. Tyler, Clinchfield Coal Corporation
Dante, Virginia
REPORT OF PUBLICITY COMMITTEE
E. Mark Ferree, Southern Pine Association
New Orleans, Louisiana























OFFICERS

SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS

1929-30



GEO. T. HOUSTON, President
Geo. T. Houston Lumber Company
Memphis, Tenn.

E. F. ALLISON, Vice-President
Allison Lumber Company
Bellamy, Alabama

R. S. MADDOX, Secretary
State Forester
Nashville, Tenn.

H. B. PHILLIPS, Assistant Secretary
American Overseas Forwarding Company
Bank of Commerce Building
Memphis, Tenn.

HENRY E. HARDTNER, Chairman of Executive Committee
Urania Lumber Company
Urania, Louisiana


















CONTENTS
Page
Preface vii
Thursday Morning Session I
In Memoriam-William H. Sullivan, by Rev, Geo. S. Sexton...... 2
Address of Welcome, Hon. Arthur J. O'Keefe 2
Address of the President, B. F. Smith 2
Message from Louisiana, Dr. V. K. Irion 8
0-
OUR NEED FOR FORESTS
"Our Need for Forests," Maj. R. Y. Stuart II
0o-
FOREST TAXATION
"Forest Taxation and Timber Growing," P. N. Howell.................... 17
"Forest Taxation from the Point of View of Public Revenue,"
R. W. Wier 24
"Progress of the Forest Taxation Inquiry of the U. S. Forest
Service," Fred R. Fairchild 28
Thursday Afternoon Session 38
Appointment of Committees 38
Spirituals by Quintette from Straight College, New Orleans, La. 39
DISCUSSION
FOREST TAXATION
Henry E. Hardtner 39
Carl F. Speh 40
W. Goodrich Jones 41
C. J. Heller 42
Henry E. Hardtner 43
Page S. Bunker 44
Roy L. Hogue 45
0--
FOREST FIRE PROTECTION
"What the Public Agencies Can Do to Aid in Forest Protection 47
"The Stockman's Interest in Protecting Forest and Range
from Fire," S. W. Greene 52
"Protecting Small Forest Areas," James Fowler 59
DISCUSSION
FOREST FIRE PROTECTION
B. F. Williamson 63
C. F. Evans 65
B. M. Lufburrow 67
H. B. Holroyd 69
L. b. Gilbert 70
Louis E. Staley 73
Friday Morning Session 75
Invitation to Bogalusa, J. K. Johnson 75
o-
FARM WOODLANDS
"Importance of the Farm Woodland," F. W. Besley 75
"How to Manage Farm Woodlands," W. R. Mattoon......................... 81
"Marketing the Products of the Farm Woodland,"
R. W. Graeber 87
















DISCUSSION
PROBLEMS OF THE FARM WOODLAND Page
Geo. R. Phillips 93
G. D. Marckworth 95
Frederick Dunlap 97

GROWING HARDWOOD TIMBER
"Progress in Hardwood Forest Management,"
John R. Thistlethwaite 99
"Report of the Mississippi Valley Hardwood Investigation,"
G. H. Lentz 107

DISCUSSION
PROBLEMS OF GROWING HARDWOOD TIMBER
Geo. T. Houston 116
Donald R. Brewster 118

PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY IN GROWING THE NATION'S TIMBER
"Public Responsibility in Growing the Nation's Timber,"
Hon. Jos. E. Ransdell 122
Friday Afternoon Session 137

COSTS AND PROFITS IN GROWING TIMBER
"Growing Timber for the Sawmill," L. R. Wilcoxon..................... 137
"Possibilities for Profit in the Naval Stores Industry,"
Carl F. Speh 142
"Trends in Southern Pine and Present Problems and
Opportunities," Wm. L. Hall 144
"Creating New Values for Southern Woods,"
Carlile P. Winslow 151
DISCUSSION
COSTS AND PROFITS IN GROWING TIMBER
A. L. Strauss 159
H. D. Cook 163
A. D. Read 164

BUSINESS SESSION
Report of the Secretary-Treasurer 167
Report of the Committee on Nominations and Place of
Meeting 168
Report of the Resolutions Committee 169
Patrons, Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress 175
Registered Delegates, Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress..... 77
0-

FIELD DAY
Field Day-Bogalusa, Louisiana, as Guests of the Great
Southern Lumber Company 173















PREFACE



The Southern Forestry Congress was organized in Asheville, North
Carolina, in July, 1916. The meeting here reported is the Eleventh
held by the organization. Throughout its existence the Congress has
been an influential factor in the development of forestry in the South
and on occasions has aided the work in other sections of the United
States.
One of the principal objectives of the Congress has been to support
legislation that would promote the practice of forestry in the South.
Success has attended its efforts in this direction. Of the sixteen states
included in the Congress in 1916, but five had organized State Forestry
Departments. Since that time ten have created State Forestry Depart-
ments. Only one state in the South is without a State Forestry Depart-
ment today.
Considerable credit is due the Southern Forestry Congress, as well
as the other agencies that have aided in this effort.
The Congress, moreover, has strengthened the influence and ef-
ficiency of the State Forestry Departments in each of the Southern
States. Its meetings have been held in different sections throughout
the territory of the Congress. Each year's meeting has been devoted
primarily to the problems of the section visited, though the major prob-
lems of the region as a whole have also been considered. The meetings
have served as a place in which all who are interested in the forests
of the South may meet and discuss their problems and have helped
to focus public attention on these problems. That the Congress has a
most useful field of service in this respect was clearly demonstrated at
the last meeting held in New Orleans, Louisiana.
The proceedings of this and other sessions of the Congress have
been printed for distribution to delegates and others interested in
Southern Forestry. Contributions from patrons largely cover the cost
of printing and distribution. The Congress is thus able to conduct
its work without dues and it costs nothing to become a member. Ad-
ditional copies of the proceedings can be obtained from the several
State Foresters or from the Secretary.
The present volume unfortunately does not include all of the papers
and discussions that were enjoyed by those who attended the sessions
of the conference in New Orleans. The funds of the Congress did not
permit the printing of a complete report. The material included will,
it is hoped, substantially cover the conference.
The Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress discussed several subjects
that proved very interesting to those in attendance and those who fol-
lowed the proceedings through the papers. The subject which proved
of widest interest was, of course, the question of Forest Taxation. The
Secretary has taken the liberty to include on the following page an
editorial on this subject from one of the South's leading newspapers.
W. R. Hine,
Secretary & Treasurer.
New Orleans, La.
June 20, 1929
















THE GREATEST TIMBER PROBLEM



One of the most all-embracing forestry conferences ever held in the
United States has just taken place in our city, on the occasion of the
Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress. Its discussions covered a wide
field, but the significant fact emerges that regardless of what specific
topic had been assigned or selected by the several speakers, foresters,
lumber men, college professors or scientists, alike, and almost to a man,
they deviated from their theme at some point to make comment on the
effect of taxation upon the future growth of our nation's trees. This
was an important element in United States Senator Ransdell's elaborate
address Friday that had as title "Public Responsibility in Growing the
Nation's Timber." But besides this near unanimity of reference to the
taxation phase it is surprising that there should also have been so great
a consensus of opinion that taxation is in fact the greatest menace to
reforestation, the greatest factorleading to the unwillingness of many
owners of tree-worthy lands to go forward with tree cropping on a
grand scale.
To be sure, behind this taxation problem lies the shortness of human
life and the lack, in many minds and hearts, of the altruism that is
needed to induce a land owner to put labor and money into a project
the profits of which, whatever they may be, will not, because they
cannot, mature during the lifetime of the tree planter.
This latter fact is no longer entirely true since new uses, especially
paper manufacture have been found for regrown trees of ten to twenty
years' maturity. But naturally building even for as remote a time as
that loses much of its appeal for. land owners of advancing years. But
when the disinclination superinduced by the certainty of a delay of
possible profit reaching down into future decades is stimulated by the
prospect of a steady, and maybe steadily increasing, tax drain in pros-
pect throughout the intervening years, disinclination is very likely to
become positive refusal. Then there arises the probability that areas
of land, unsuited for other agricultural purposes, and left unplanted to
trees, and giving no return to the owner to supply taxation money, are
likely to revert into government hands, thus destroying the last vestige
of local tax returns. At that point the loss becomes general, harming
alike the former owners, the local county and township, the nation as
a tax gatherer, and the national public as a loser of the service of the
lumber that should have been regrown on those lands.
The situation thus outlined brings forest perpetuation to a difficult
pass, to what some almost regard as an "impasse." It is not claimed
even by the most aggressive opponents of the taxation obstacle that
these regrowth properties should go untaxed. This was reiterated by












many speakers during the New Orleans Forestry Congress. There is
willingness to pay a tax when the crop grown will have been harvested.
Doubtless the reason why it is world practice to collect taxes annually
is because so great a majority of our crops are annual crops. The
producer is assumed to have earned his profit before being called upon
to pay the government its share. To insist on these regrowth taxes
being paid in full each year for from ten to fifty years before receiving
any earnings from the property is too unreasonable for contemplation.
And yet from the other angle, although yearly cashing-in is impossible,
the increment of values does exist and does grow from year to year as
a potential profit. The owner thereof can, of course, dispose of this
potential value, in a kind of future transaction to someone else willing
to carry on the load and therefore he cannotexpect, and does not expect,
to be in a position to escape taxation by selling out in advance of the
crop's severance tax at maturity. So what is to be done to avoid the
dread of an "impasse"? More thought still will be required before a
satisfying answer will have been supplied. This still remains our greatest
timber problem.
(Editorial from New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 9, 1929)








A

















PROCEEDINGS
OF THE

Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress
held at
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
April 4-5, 1929

THURSDAY MORNING SESSION APRIL 4
The Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress was called to
order by President B. F. Smith, in the Tip Top Inn of the
Roosevelt Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana, at ten o'clock Thurs-
day morning.
Reverend George S. Sexton of Centenary College, Shreve-
port, Louisiana, delivered the invocation.
W. D. Tyler announced the death of the wife of Colonel
Joseph Hyde Pratt in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and re-
quested that a message of sympathy be sent to Colonel Pratt.
President Smith appointed the Honorable Henry E. Hardtner
of Urania, Louisiana, J. S. Holmes of Raleigh, North Caro-
lina, and A. B. Hastings of Washington, D. C. as a committee
to draft and forward the message as the first act of the Con-
gress. The following telegram was sent at once:
April 4, 1929
Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
The Eleventh Southern Forestry Congress as its
first official act extends to you, its distinguished First
President, deepest sympathy in your great sorrow.
We are greatly missing your presence and counsel.
A. B. HASTINGS,
J. S. HOLMES,
HENRY E. HARDTNER,
For the Congress.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


J. S. Holmes called attention to the passing of James Girvin
Peters, who, as a member of the United States Forest Service
in charge of public relations with the states, was intimately
known and greatly esteemed by all. Mr. Peters died on Octo-
ber 9, 1928, on a trip to Arkansas where he was assisting
local friends of the forestry work to obtain the passage of a
bill creating a Forestry Department.
President Smith announced that there was one other to
whom the Congress and the South should pay homage. He
requested the Reverend George S. Sexton to say a few words
in memorial of Colonel W. H. Sullivan. Doctor Sexton de-
livered a most stirring eulogy on Colonel Sullivan.
W. D. Tyler requested that resolutions on the death of
Mr. Peters and Colonel Sullivan be prepared. The resolutions
appear elsewhere in these proceedings.
The Honorable Arthur J. O'Keefe, Mayor of New Orleans,
extended a most cordial welcome to the delegates. He assured
them of the active interest and support of the people of New
Orleans and Louisiana in the program of the Congress.
President B. F. Smith responded and delivered his presi-
dential address and then continued as chairman.
o-

ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT
By
B. F. Smith
Industrial Lumber Company
Elizabeth, Louisiana
We are met today to contemplate and to discuss a tremend-
ously vital issue directly affecting the future economic, social
and commercial development of this great south country, and
the prosperity and happiness of the whole people of the
United States.
This meeting has been widely advertised-each one of you
here today is cognizant of the matters that will come under
discussion, and possible debate,-you are here to lend your
thought and knowledge to the solution of these important
problems-you are here to work and not to play. And be-
cause I know this, I am glad that for the moment I have the
honor of service as the President of the Southern Forestry










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 3

Congress. I am inspired by your willingness to travel distances,
great and small, to enter into these deliberations which have
as their ultimate consummation the welfare and the prosperity
of the South.
I recently read an editorial entitled "THE COMPETING
SOUTH". Gentlemen of the Congress, a decade ago that
phrase "the competing South" would have been received with
a mixture of vagueness and a confusion in the minds of the
people, if not with outright levity. This would have been logi-
cal. For the words would have been meaningless. Today they
have significance. Today the South is an entity, and as an en-
tity it is a competitor in the field of industrial expansion-a
lively competitor. A fact which has not long been realized by
the traditionally industrial sections of the North and East. To
them it was unthinkable that the "sleepy South", also tradi-
tional--could ever shake their throne in the world of com-
merce. And so this new rival, which is the South, has gained
a supremacy, and is evincing a desire for more and more in-
dustries that has at last aroused alarm in the industrially older
sections, an apprehension that has at last taken definite form
in type. Indicative of this is a monthly industrial survey letter
sent out by an eastern town in which the town states-"We
wish to call your attention to the fact that the South today
offers a serious problem of competition to business of the
North. Southern States have at last awakened to their possi-
bilities and are losing no opportunity to induce Northern busi-
ness to establish branches or remove their entire business into
Southern territory". An Eastern newspaper editorially em-
phasizes this warning, and points out that the leadership of
the Southern States in the textile industry was achieved "be-
cause the New England territory did not realize what was
happening until the movement was too far advanced for pre-
vention to be effective." The editorial further states, "This
is attributed to tax exemptions, free sites, etc."
Northern business is coming South. Such a trend in the face
of the limitless advantages possessed by the Southern States
is inescapable. It is the destiny of this region that it shall be
the commercial and industrial center of the Americas.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Such a movement of business cannot be attributed, how-
ever, to a few casual and unimportant items such as temporary
tax exemptions and free sites. Few cities or towns in the South
offer any tax exemptions whatever, and still fewer are will-
ing to buy industries with free sites. Such matters as these are
en passant in the world of big business today, for the folly of
offering a free site to a wealthy concern already owning a
site in another section is obvious, all things else being equal.
The South's growing importance in the commercial field is
much more soundly based than this. It is based on the myriad
fundamental superiorities of this region as a location for busi-
ness-on its enviable and unsurpassed water and land trans-
portation; on its agricultural prosperity; on its present mineral
and timber resources; on its beneficient climatic conditions;
on its higher class of labor and the predominance of the
Anglo-Saxon in that field; on its tremendous power resources;
on the spirit of its people that has made growth possible, and
on its general wealth.
With such a foundation and background the South's great-
ness is inevitable.
There is only one thing that I can perceive, now, that will
militate against the ever increasing development of the South
-and I sound this as a tocsin-that development, both in
scope and rapidty, will be gauged, entirely, upon the economi-
cal accessibility of building material, than which there is none
better than wood.
If there is such a thing as pre-science, gentlemen-the abil-
ity to foresee the future-then certainly that attribute was
possessed by an earnest few men back in 1916, who saw
that our timber resources-the South's greatest heritage-were
being depleted at a much more rapid rate than man or na-
ture were reproducing them; who foresaw the future develop-
ment of the South looming just ahead, and who, realizing
the strategical part that timber must play in that development,
conceived the plan of an organization encompassing the en-
tire South, dedicated broadly to the conservation and rehabili-
tation of our timber resources. I will call the roll of honor. As
I call your names, gentlemen, will you rise, so we may get a











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


look at you? Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt-he is absent, as you
know. J. S. Holmes. W. D. Tyler.
(Mr. Holmes and Mr. Tyler rose, and were greeted with
applause.)
These men, gentlemen, are the masters. We honor you and
we applaud you-thank you.
It was these men who, together with representatives from
sixteen states of the South gave birth and force to the South-
ern Forestry Congress.
I do not feel the necessity of discussing at any considerable
length the history of the Southern Forestry Congress-our
problems are rather of the future-it is well, however, in pre-
dicating our plans for the future to review for a moment the
accomplishments of the past. I have said that the Southern
Forestry Congress was conceived as the child of economic
necessity-dedicated to the high and patriotic purpose of
conservation and reproduction of our timber resources. It set
about by, so-called, educational, I prefer to call it informative
programs, to instill into the minds of our Government offi-
cials, our legislators, and our people-the whole citizenry of
the South, if you please-a knowledge and lively appreciation
of the seriousness of the timber situation, to the end that they
might take an active and militant part in the program of pro-
tection of our forests, and our potential forests from fire, the
program of enlightened forest management and protection of
our wood resources from waste; with the hope and expecta-
tion that aroused public sentiment might permit, aye demand,
that our idle lands, now aggregating in the South some mil-
lions of acres be clothed in a new grown and living forest for
the uses and recreation of our people and our future genera-
tions. How well have these plans and our efforts unfolded-
what have they accomplished? Listen and I'll tell you. We
have today, in every State of the South, save one, an organ-
ized state forestry department, managed by men trained in
forest management, men educated for their particular work,
and chosen for the practical and technical information they
possess, and necessarily I regret to say, for their political diplo-
macy.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


We have, in most of the states of the South, more or less
constructive tax laws, forestry and land management laws,
which, if they do not particularly encourage the public, do not
necessarily discourage the landowner from setting aside his
properties for timber growing purposes.
We have awakened the interest of the federal government
in the vital importance that the South's ability to grow trees
will eventually play in the National timber supply, and that
agency is more and more assuming a part in our financial
difficulties and in our policing problems.
We have compelled recognition at the hands of our various
state legislatures, in the discussion of our problems, both leg-
islative and financial, and while we may not get what we want
or all we want, all the time, nevertheless, they know we are
a force to reckon with, with ever and ever increasing power
and influence. We have them talking about us and I sub-
mit that's something-this talk cannot all be adverse.
We have solicited and are obtaining the more or less sus-
tained interest of our Chambers of Commerce.
We have appealed to the luncheon, civic, and women's
clubs, and have the slow moving force of those bodies inves-
tigating our claims and our needs.
We are daily selling our enthusiasm in tree growing to
our bankers, professional and business men, and I say that
today, the general public of this great Southland is immeasure-
ably more forest-minded than it was even a few years since.
So much for the history of our work-history is valuable
only as a guide to the future-then what of the future? As
Hamlet would say-"to be or not to be-aye, there is the
rub"-shall the Southern Forestry Congress "be" or shall it
"not be"-Shall we say to the child of our purposes and our
dreams "you have reached the age of adolescence, our re-
sponsibility to you must cease-we have our own individual
courses to follow-the future is in your own hands, go your
way," or rather shall we, as proud and dutiful parents say "we
have begotten you of our own will, we have nurtured you and
have watched over you in your tender years. You are now
reaching the age of adolescence, of understanding, be not
afraid, there will follow you a helping hand and a guiding mind


II










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


as you approach your majority and as you go on beyond there
will ever be wise counsel to you until you have finally and
firmly established for yourself a place in the economic life
of things and your success is assured"?
The subject that is assigned me for discussion is "THE
FUTURE OBJECTIVES OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY
CONGRESS'"-gentlemen-"Fools rush in where angels fear
to tread." There is a lot that can be said, that I could say,
in regard to the future of the Southern Forestry Congress. I
have thought a great deal on this subject, however, and be-
cause I have thought, I have come to the conclusion, and
wisely, I think, that the importance of the question demands
more mature judgment then I am gifted with; more experi-
ence in the work than I possess, and gentlemen, I believe that
the brain of one man should never attempt to outline the pur-
poses and objectives of so necessary and so pregnant a move-
ment as we are engaged in.
When I agreed to discuss this subject, little did I know
what a contract I was undertaking. It seemed simple-a
few epigramatic statements and the task .was ended. When
I began to list my recommendations, however, the confusion
that was wrought at Babel was second to the wonder, the
uncertainty and the confusion that beset my mind. The task
was immensely beyond my poor effort.
I had a happy thought-an inspiration-I would write to
a number of my friends who, I thought, knew the inadequacy
of my ability to measure up to the "job" and seek their as-
sistance in my dilemma. I did write to those friends, and
those friends listed to my Macedonian call-and men, if you
could read these letters, and grasp the diversity and profund-
ity of thought with. their various cross currents, etc., you
would know that my confusion is even more accentuated and
my route is complete. I give up-and gentlemen, as your
president, I have no recommendations to offer-save this, I
will not utterly fail you. Basing my conclusions on the cor-
respondence I have had, and it is voluminous, and the differ-
ent contacts I have had with men interested in tree growing
in the South, I am firmly and unalterably committed to the idea
that the real work of the Southern Forestry Congress has just











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


started, and it must continue. I have said that in my opinion
no one man can adequately state the objectives of our organ-
ization. I believe you as thoughtful men agree with this view,
therefore, I ask you to appoint a committee, or give me the
authority to appoint a committee, now, a special committee
charged with the one responsibility of working out a concise
statement of the future purposes and objectives of the South-
ern Forestry Congress-such committee to deliberate and re-
port to the Congress at this session or to report to the Con-
gress of 1930, as in your judgment seems proper and ex-
peditious.

"MESSAGE FROM LOUISIANA"
By
V. K. Irion
Commissioner
Department of Conservation
New Orleans, Louisiana
My friends, it is not my purpose to make any extended
address. I am here merely to welcome you to the city of
New Orleans and the state of Louisiana on behalf of the Lou-
isiana State Department of Conservation. The Congress held
its second meeting, in fact its reorganization meeting, after
the interruption of the World War, here in New Orleans.
That was about nine years ago. During the time from 1920
up to date, the Southern Forestry Congress has made history
in the South by arousing public sentiment to the necessity of
concerted action in the movement to restore our devastated
areas, and conserve and protect in a rational way what still
remains of our once magnificent forest. We are proud of
the small part we have played in this movement, and we have
cause to feel grateful to this body for the influence it has
exerted in arousing public interest in our work, and stimulat-
ing and crystallizing our efforts along sound and scientific
lines. If I may be permitted, I shall mention a few of our
outstanding achievements since this body was first organized.
Some three and one-half years ago when I assumed charge
of the Department of Conservation, including the forestry
work, I found that the effectiveness of the forestry work could











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


be improved upon. Louisiana had just passed through the
most disastrous fire year in the history of the State and the
efforts of the Division of Forestry to actually protect forest
lands had come to naught except as the work had been virtual-
ly taken over by such landowners as the Great Southern Lum-
ber Company of Bogalusa; the Urania Lumber Company of
Urania; and one or two others. We were spending a con-
siderable sum with little to show for it except where an oc-
casional local man was particularly efficient.
A study was made of the situation in Louisiana and advice
and counsel were sought in other quarters, particularly from
the United States Forest Service. As a result, a new system
was developed for Louisiana-a system that we have been
pleased to see adopted in other southern states.
The plan briefly described called for protection in small
areas scattered over the State. The areas were selected where
co-operation and financial aid could be obtained from the
owners and local people. A fire fighting organization was
worked up for each area. This organization depended on the
local residents for fire fighters. It was supervised by rangers
and assistant rangers, the best that our former organization
had developed. Each man was fully equipped with the lat-
est in fire fighting tools, and was expected to have an auto
for transportation. A net work of fire breaks was mapped
out so that hazardous areas should have a natural or artificial
fire break around every section of land. Fire towers were
erected to enable our men to discover the fires quickly, and
telephone lines were built to provide instant communication
between towers and fire fighters.
We now have under protection nearly four million acres of
forest land. Fifteen lookout towers, ten of steel and five
of wood, have been constructed to aid in the protection of
these lands. Over one thousand miles of telephone line have
been built and are serving satisfactorily. Many thousand
miles of fire breaks have been constructed.
The results of the work have been very satisfactory. Three
million acres were protected the first year with an average
area burned over amounting to only 3.2 per cent. The burned
area during the present fire season will again scarcely exceed











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


3.0 per cent. Landowners contributed $25,000 the first year,
and have increased their contribution to about $34,000 dur-
ing the present year. Our protected areas have grown in
size as fast as our funds would permit us to undertake ad-
ditional land.
The landowners who aided us financially are satisfied.
They have learned that protection of southern pine lands is
both possible and reasonable in cost. Our experiment has
shown them how and Louisiana's lands will henceforth re-
ceive protection.
We are equally proud of the State Nursery which, during
the past three years, has grown from a production of about
one hundred thousand ieec'lings to the two and one-half mil-
lion that will be available next fall. Seedlings have been
sent throughout Louisiana, reaching almost every community
in the State.
The work of private companies has developed so that ten
million seedlings were planted in the State this year. Next
year's planting will be at least as much. The expansion along
this line has been most gratifying.
The educational work in forestry has been done in a thor-
ough effective way. There are many things I might mention.
Thus our "Conservation News" has carried a regular message
on forestry and other branches of the conservation work to
some six thousand people of consequence in the State. One
or two book covers with a message on fire protection were
provided for each school child in Louisiana this year. Every
school in the State is addressed on the subject of conservation
at least once each year.
And so I hope that in a measure we, too, have carried out
those dreams and plans of nine years ago.
I would now like to wish you a full measure of success in
your meeting here in Louisiana. Your coming will be help-
ful to us. I hope in turn that you will take renewed vigor
so that the next few years may see even greater progress -for
the great work. And I hope you will return. Louisiana will
always strive to carry on in conservation and your help is al-
ways welcome.











OUR NEED FOR FORESTS


"OUR NEED FOR FORESTS"
By
R. Y. Stuart, Forester
U. S. Forest Service
Washington, D. C.

I welcome this opportunity to meet with members of the
Congress and others who are interested in constructive meas-
ures to be taken in continuing one of our basic resources in
the South, our timber supply. Much credit is due the Con-
gress for undertaking to crystallize thought from time to time
on just what the forest problems in the South are and how
they are to be met.

We have a very extensive program for this conference,
so that I shall not attempt to discuss the various aspects of
the situation. That is in abler hands, those who are deal-
ing with the local situation daily and successfully. I am here
really to express the participating interest of the United States
in Southern forestry problems. The people of the United
States are vitally interested in these problems, so much so that
they are participating toward the solution of them.

I wish to commend not only the work of the Congress,
but the work of the state officials, the state forest commissions,
the state foresters and other public agencies and co-operators,
for the way in which they have taken hold of the intricacies of
this vital question, are wrestling with them, and are making
progress. That does not mean that they do not have a long
way to go; and in saying that I do not refer exclusively to the
Southern forest problem; that same statement can be made
as to our forest situation generally throughout the United
States. But I think as to our Southern forest problem there
is a peculiarly good reason why we should emphasize the
integral and vital part that forest production and care of
forest lands play not only as to immediate, but to prospective
and future prosperity. This is a wonderful country for for-
estry which can be made a continuing asset of momentous
worth to it and the nation. I will take but a short time to
make some observations which I hope will be a contribution











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


toward the discussions to take place here in the next several
days.
We are dealing with a basic resource when we deal with
forests. Fundamentally, it is a land problem. This Con-
gress is made up of representatives of 16 Southern States,
which have a land area aggregating some 600 million acres.
Of that aggregate, 200 million acres, or one-third, is actual or
potential forest land. Now it is of vital concern to the South
as to what is going to be done with that land over the years,
whether acre for acre it is producing something of value,
whether it is contributing to the support of community, state,
and, I may say, national welfare. What happens on that
200 million acres is of no small moment, not only to the local
communities and to the states, but it is of considerable moment
as well to the United States. In fact, the right use of our
forest lands over the years concerns everybody because we
live from these and other natural resources. Our prosperity
is contingent upon forestry, and it ties in, in this land aspect,
very closely with agriculture. The remainder of those 600
million acres, those that are not forest lands, are very large-
ly agricultural in character, and the ability of those lands to
remain productive, in turn, spells prosperity or lack of pros-
perity to our future South. One of the great needs we face
is the acquisition of knowledge and information which will
more thoroughly determine which of our lands are primarily
suited for agriculture and which of them are primarily and
permanently suited for forest production. Forestry is not
an end in itself. It is a means to an end, and I conceive as
the end to be attained by forestry the maintenance or build-
ing up and continuance of soil productivity on those lands
which are most capable of producing forest crops.
Why is it, you ask, that we are concerned about the forest
situation. Surely the individual citizen has no great difficulty
in getting timber at the present time. The South stands out
sharply in the quantities of timber it is now producing. What
we who are looking at the question from the forestry and land
aspect are concerned about is the continuity of that produc-
tion, the continuity of that prosperity that comes with the
continuous supply and use of a basic resource. As I have said,











OUR NEED FOR FORESTS


not only the local interests are affected but those of the state
and nation as well.
It would be a very helpful thing in considering the Southern
forestry problem if we knew just what the individual owners of
forest lands here are thinking about. After all, our ability to
raise timber, to keep a continuous supply of it on forest land,
is dependent in large measure upon the willingness of the
owners of land to do that. Why is it that some of those
who own forest lands, particularly the forest lands from which
the more valuable material has been taken, are not inclined
to hold on to it? Not only in the South, but throughout the
United States, we find a hesitancy, a reluctance, on the part
of the owner of cut-over lands, to hold title to them. He ap-
parently does not see in that land sufficient value to encour-
age him to retain title. I therefore see in our problem a very
great need to arouse the interest of the man, or organization,
or unit that owns forest land, whether or not it now contains
merchantable timber, and to do all we reasonably can to make
it worth their while to keep that investment in productive land
for the contribution it will yield in forest benefits. But to
interest the owners of these lands pertinent information is
needed, and that is where, in my judgment, this Congress, the
national government and the state governments can make a
larger contribution. The individual owner of forest lands
needs support and help in a variety of ways. He may have
to meet a financial problem. If he faces a financial problem,
he needs a friend in the banker. That need may be a com-
munity need, because not only the banker but the merchant
and other residents are interested in maintaining that com-
munity in a prosperous condition. These may be able to as-
sist in some way in retaining the interest of the land owner
in the forest land he possesses.
I think we have a good instance in the developments in
the slash pine section of the South of how the interest of the
individual owner is aroused in retaining his land for produc-
tion. There noticeably is growing up a feeling of confidence,
a feeling that after all timber has some value, even though for
the moment you can not convert it into cash. That sort of
feeling grows with the absence of fires. A man that has cut-











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


over slash pine land sees young slash pine come up. He sees
that if the young growth is allowed to remain, it lends itself
to forest production from which there is some return. If
the practice is general enough to have it talked about, if that
feeling grows into a conviction that after all the land is pri-
marily suited to that use, and if it is not put to that use, it can
be put to no other constructive use, then with the individual
owner's interest in keeping it productive, you get public interest
and support in timber growing.
One of our state forest officials said recently that in a
comparatively few years, with proper facilities, and with earn-
est educational work, the area burned over by fire in a cer-
tain region in his State has decreased from 35 per cent to six
per cent. I believe our president, Mr. Smith, has said, at
one time, that on the unprotected areas in the region with
which he is familiar the burned over land was approximately
100 per cent, and in the protected areas something like 6
per cent. Where you have a condition like that over a large
area you are building up not only an investment by retaining
that 95 per cent of land saved from fire, but you are building
up in the public mind, and in the mind of the actual owner of
forest land, a feeling of confidence, and a feeling of value. It
is an encouragement for industry in general, whether that in-
dustry be a wood utilization plant or some other form of in-
dustry that might be dependent on wood to a lesser degree.
No one will gainsay the point that the industry of the future,
so far as it has to deal with forest lands, will preferably select
a region in which there is something of value or promise on
which they can start. Any forest region which does not
have forest values has little inducement for industry. Ob-
viously, the forest industries of the future must have produc-
tive forest lands from which to draw their supplies.
We come, then, to the one problem that those of us who
are in forest work emphasize on all occasions. To us it is
fundamental. Our forest lands must be protected from fire,
if we are to take any constructive measures on them. If we
do not have that measure of forest protection which will en-
courage the owners of forest lands to have and keep their
investment in the land, we can not hope that they will take con-










OUR NEED FOR FORESTS


structive action. And so we are emphasizing-when I say "we"
I mean all the agencies that are engaged in forest work-the
outstanding importance of protecting all forest lands from
fire. That is the point from which we make our start. I
must admit, and do it frankly on all occasions, that the par-
ticipating interest of the national government in forest protec-
tion has not gone as far as it should in helping to protect forest
lands from fire. In this respect the states also are remiss, in
my judgment. One of the big things that this Congress can
do is to help the public sense, as it were, the extent of its
responsibility to the private land owner in affording more
protection to his lands from fire; and the extent to which
we make it possible to have more resources, funds and per-
sonnel for this work to that extent will there be added secur-
ity to the forest land producing values of the South.
If you will permit, I would like to suggest some objectives.
It seems to me an outstanding thing, as I have indicated, that
there be a more adequate measure of protection. You can
not raise timber and burn it at the same time. This Congress
can do a splendid piece of work by getting stoutly behind the
state forest agencies and their co-operators in this work, and
advance them to the point where they can more adequately
finance and handle this big job of forest protection. Another
objective is to help in every way in supporting the public and
other agencies that are searching for knowledge of the right
use of our lands, and how, as to forest lands, we can bring
about the best form of forest production. The owner of forest
land needs information which he alone is unable to secure
except through the very slow and costly method of trial and
error. Public forest agencies should be encouraged and sup-
ported in giving assistance to the individual in dealing with
his forest problems, as is the case with agriculture. Let us em-
phasize the need to keep the 200 million acres of forest land
in the South producing forests. Let us emphasize the impor-
tance of acquiring knowledge that will make those lands yield
the highest forest returns. Let us build up means of informing
the owner of forest land what has been found from research
and observation will be helpful in making his land more re-
munerative and profitable. These efforts are now under way,











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


but we need to intensify them. We are attempting to meet
these problems in a co-operative way. The American Forestry
Association, for example, has under way a field project which
aims to bring very definitely to the public mind, and to the
mind of the individual forest land owner, a better knowledge
of the forest situation in the South. It is a fine piece of work.
Work toward the same end is going on also under the leader-
ship of our state forestry officials, and extension foresters. The
Forest Service, too, is actively engaged in this field. I saw an
interesting exhibit in this room this morning by the National
Committee on Wood Utilization, intended to show, more par-
ticularly to industrial plants, how with better utilization they
can not only avoid waste, but in a real sense add to our
timber supply.
I am one of those who believe that private effort alone
will not be able to meet the forest situation, but that there
must be public participation through the ownership of forest
land, at least to the point where private owners of lands will
be stimulated and influenced to make their forest lands pro-
ductive. My belief is that the forest movement in the South,
as well as in other parts of the United States, will go forward
much more rapidly if there is this expression of. public confi-
dence and support by participating in the forest program
through public land ownership. How it should be worked out
for each state and each community is a question that can not
be touched on here; nor whether, and to what extent, the lands
should be owned by the county, parish or state or the federal
government.
We realize the need of reasonable tax provisions for forest
lands. This question will be discussed in more detail by others.
If there is to be continued production of timber on forest lands
in the United States, there must be a fundamentally sound
method of taxing those lands, so that the raising of timber is
permissible.
I have dwelt upon the need to encourage the private owner
of forest lands in keeping his lands productive. Needless to
say, there must also be the will to do on the part of the private
owner in the care and treatment of his lands in order to elicit











FOREST TAXATION


and sustain the support of the public in meeting his and our
common forest problem.
Mr. Chairman, I want to again thank you and the members
of this Congress, for the opportunity of joining with you in
the discussion of this question.


FOREST TAXATION
MR. W. D. TYLER, Chairman
Vice-President Clinchfield Coal Corporation
Dante, Virginia
'-

FOREST TAXATION AND TIMBER GROWING"
By
P. N. Howell
Land Agent and Forester
L. N. Dantzler Lumber Company and Southern Paper Co.
Moss Point, Mississippi
Any discussion on the subject of forest taxation and timber
growing can have but one logical conclusion as I see it, which
conclusion is that if timber growing is to be practiced through
individual or corporate effort, then certainly a method of
forest taxation will have to be worked out by the states that
expect to engage in either the conservation and prolongation
of virgin stands, or in the production of second growth on
denuded lands that will sufficiently reduce the present carry-
ing charge to enable those owning such lands to hold them over
the necessary period of years.
It is well known that in most timber states the tax rate on
standing timber has been constantly increasing. According to
statistics it has increased in my state two thousand per cent
since 1900, and as fast as original stands have been cut, thus
removing from the assessment rolls the value theretofore placed
on standing timber, the practice of taxing officials has been
to charge or transfer this loss to the land, and continue to raise
the value and tax on such land instead of looking for other
sources of revenue. True, the march of progress which ever











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


demands the building of better roads, bridges, schools, finer
public buildings, etc., likewise demands a continued increase
of public funds to meet these expenses, and this ever rising
tax tide on standing timber and on cut-over lands to get this
revenue results from two causes: First, because it offers the
easiest and most simple method; and second, it has in some
measure been provoked.
Now, I will get back to the injustice of this system of taxa-
tion later on, but right here I would like to disgress and draw
a picture that is not altogether pleasant to most of us who
have engaged in lumbering for the past decade, but which I
believe to be a true picture and a true condition. I said that the
disposition on the part of taxing officials to continue to in-
Screase the tax rate on timber and denuded lands was partly
provoked. I use the word provoke advisedly, but to explain; I
have been closely associated with tax commissions, County
Assessors and Boards of Supervisors for a number of years-
my principal business with such gentlemen being an effort to
prevent higher rates, or an effort to get them reduced after
they have been raised and I think I know the mind, attitude
and provocation of such men quite well. From one standpoint
a tract of timber that belongs to a man is his to do with
as he sees fit, and while I am neither a Bolshevik nor a Socialist
I want to say here that from, a larger, more liberal, and more
patriotic standpoint, timber is a natural resource placed here
by nature's God, not for the use and abuse of one generation
alone; but to be conserved and exploited in such manner as
to contribute to the material needs of man over the longest
period possible. Feeling thus, I do not believe that we of this
generation have a right to sever the so-called original forest
in such manner as will not allow it to renew itself for the bene-
fit of those who come after us, and my experience is that those
men who go to make up our average taxing officials feel the
same way about it. Too often have I heard such officials make
statements to the effect that certain lumbering concerns were
making a wreck of the forest-leaving absolutely nothing but
ruin in their path, and that they expected to make them pay
for it. Whether or not this attitude is justified I will not say,
but it exists nevertheless.











FOREST TAXATION 19

I will not presume to speak for other states, but I know some
sawmill concerns in my state who have in the past instructed
their logging crews to leave absolutely nothing standing; after
felling all timber of commercial size to cut down the smaller
trees that might remain for fear of being taxed thereon. Such
methods have the opposite effect from that intended. They
provoke taxing officials who are looking to the future wel-
fare and resources of their community to raise, instead of
lower, taxes. Some of the men who use these destructive
methods are the first to cry out against tax increases and
threaten to allow their cut-over lands to be forfeited to the
state to get out from under the burden unless taxes are re-
duced. Only a few weeks ago an official in my state and my-
self had occasion to pass through an extensive territory recently
logged-a very broken, hilly country unfit for anything ex-
cept timber production, yet nothing whatever left in the
shape of mother trees to produce a new tree crop. This offi-
cial made this statement to me: That when a man takes a
virgin forest and converts it into a non-renewal, no-revenue
producing desert, then attempts to get relieved of the burden
of taxation by allowing it to be forfeited to the state, thus
increasing the tax burden on the bonifide citizen who is com-
pelled to remain on his little plot, the state should be able to
throw it back into his face and say; "No, sir, we don't want it.
You mined it, keep it! The burden of taxation be upon you
and upon your children." That's the way some of them feel
about it.
For years at each succeeding session of the Legislature my
state has been trying to enact a Forestry Law. Its failure
until 1926 was caused principally by reason of the ever
present attorneys and lobbyists representing certain interests
who opposed a Forestry Law for fear there might be embodied
therein some provision that would hamper their operations
or lessen their profits, and notwithstanding that the forestry
laws of our state, and I suppose some other states, provide
that seed trees should be left behind the logging operations
that natural reproduction might continue, such importuning
provisions is in most cases completely ignored.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


We, of this generation, have a definite responsibility in
regard to our vanishing forests. We are custodians for our
boys and girls and for generations to follow. If we fail to
accept this responsibility our patriotism can well be questioned.
The march of material and mechanical progress will develop
need for everything in the shape of a tree that can be grown.
The local use, and the commercial utilization of such trees
will contribute to the welfare and happiness of all classes of
citizens, and if we perpetuate our social and industrial life
the obligation rests upon us to both grow and conserve trees.
When I take my boys and the boys of other men by the hand
and lead them out over this vast area of "no man's land"-
these millions of acres of blank, cut-over, burned over lands,
where modern logging methods have wrested from the forest
every vestige of tree growth- too eager for the last farthing
to leave a few seed trees to aid Nature to restore in time
some semblance of this resource for the benefit of those who
must remain or must live in another day, I get angry, because
I realize the loss that will be the lot of these boys and girls
through such wastful methods.
I do not say that all lumbering concerns have followed
this course. Plenty of them have been more conservative,
more disposed to regard themselves as trustees for posterity,
and I am glad that I have been identified with one who has
not only left the small timber behind, but one who has left
selected seed trees as well. In fact, I do not believe a man has
ever made a dollar in manufacturing into lumber trees, say
of six and eight inch size. The felling, logging and manufac-
ture of such trees have been a loss to the manufacturer, to
his estate, and to the future citizen.
Another picture is this: Irrespective of who might or
might not be responsible for the improper depletion of our
forests (and we are all responsible to an extent), we cannot
get away from the fact that we have staring us in the face
millions of acres of denuded lands in the Coastal Plain region
alone which will become an economic liability instead of an
asset, not only to the owner, but to the state and nation unless
a system of forest taxation can be worked out that will so
reduce the carrying charges on such lands as to render it not











FOREST TAXATION


only possible but profitable for the owner to hold, expend
money, and grow timber thereon. The vast majority of these
lands are unfit for the production of anything except timber,
and if timber is not grown nothing will be. Idle lands, like
idle men, are a liability. Even were every acre suited to
intensive agriculture another crop of timber can be grown
upon them before any great per cent will be needed for crops,
for we appear to be over-agriculturalized already. Timber
growing on such lands then becomes an economic necessity.
In my opinion, the tax on timber has been the most un-
reasonable that has ever been placed on any commodity. It
has not only been double taxation, but doubled many times
again. I call to mind the experience of one man in our State,
who in 1911 bought 45,000 acres of virgin pine timber. In
1926 he had cut all but 7,500 acres of this tract, yet in 1926
his taxes on the 7,500 acres that remained were more than
on the 45,000 acres in 1911. It is just as unreasonable to
assess a tax every year during the growing period of a crop
of timber and before it has been harvested and the owner
realized a profit as it would be to assess a cotton, corn, pecan,
or wheat crop every week during the growing season. Especi-
ally is this true with reference to second growth timber which
the owner is expending money to produce, and at the same
time paying a tax on the land itself.
As you all know, the United States Government is now
proposing to buy lands in this section to be set aside and
administered as National Forest Parks. While the Government
agrees to pay back into the state 35 per cent of the gross
revenue derived from the products of such lands in lieu of the
ad valorem tax lost to the state, they do not purpose to pay
an annual tax. Such lands must be exempt from annual taxa-
tion. The purpose of these national forest areas is, of course,
to preserve timber for our future needs, and is a most com-
mendable procedure, but if our Government with all its
resources cannot afford to pay an annual tax during the period
of timber reproduction how can an individual be expected to
do so. While these thoughts might tend to discourage the man
who is now practicing, or who may expect to engage in
timber growing, I am most positive in my conviction that if











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


a system of forest protection and forest taxation can be put
into effect (and it surely will be) that timber growing on
such lands will be a profitable investment, and one of the
best legacies a man can pass on to his estate.
Probably more thought is directed to the consideration of
revenue measures in the most of our legislatures than to any
other one subject, but it appears that makeshift measures
destined to meet immediate needs without regard to the future
are those generally enacted;
In my opinion, a nominal tax on the land itself and a
severance or yield tax on the growing crop, when cut is the
only method by which the individual landowner can, and
will engage in timber growing. The tax need not apply to
virgin stands now on the assessment rolls. Such timber could
continue to be assessed with an ad valorem tax until cut
and passed from a virgin to the potential forest area, although
there is no question but what this annual ad valorem tax on
virgin stands has been, and is responsible for owners double-
shifting their lumbering operations to deplete their timber
holdings as quickly as possible. Some of the more progressive
states (among which is the good state of Louisiana) have
similar laws. The State of Wisconsin has, in my opinion, the
most feasible. As I understand the Wisconsin Law, a tax of
10c per acre is assessed against the land under contract,
then a yield tax of 10 per cent of the stumpage value of the
timber when cut. The state then pays to the county or town
with funds appropriated by the legislature for that purpose,
10c per acre on all forest crop lands as a refunding sum for
sacrificed revenue. Thus the commonwealth at large assumes
a part of the burden of timber production for its people.
No man can or should protest against the payment of his
just tax necessary to defray government expense, especially
on a basis of equal taxation applied to all people enjoying
government protection, and speaking of taxation in general
and the payment of taxes, I am reminded of the oftheard
reference to the "rich tax dodger." I have no license to defend
the rich. I belong to the opposite class, but in my opinion
there is less tax dodging by the rich than by any other class
of our people. In fact, Uncle Sam has such a complete know-










FOREST TAXATION


ledge of their income they can't dodge. The most of us would
be floundering if we didn't have some rich men to pay the
taxes. One would gather from certain current literature and
apostles of unrest that a man who saves his money, sticks to
his job and thereby gains confidence is a crook, hypocrite,
tax dodger, etc. Comparing the rich man and the poor man;
the rich men of today are a better class of people than were
rich men of any preceding age. They are doing more to im-
prove the condition of the common mass of people than at
any other period. In England, for instance, rich men are being
so heavily taxed that they are no longer able to maintain their
estates, and are selling out. This is a poor man's age, especially
in America. At no other time in history has there been such
a narrow line between the rich and poor so far as the privi-
leges and pleasures each enjoy are concerned. From a forestry
standpoint this reminds me of the condition that exists here
in the South on wild pine lands wherever the open range
prevails. We see citizens everywhere living near, even on, and
using free of rent and tax, land that belongs to the so-called
rich. Mr. citizen gets his wood, fence posts, house logs, boards;
in fact everything he wants from the other fellow's land, ap-
propriates and uses such lands as a free pasture for grazing
his cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, burns them over whenever he
pleases irrespective of the damage to young timber and loss
to the owner. In fact, he exercises more right and jurisdiction
over such lands than the owner who pays the taxes and
carries the load can, under the law, exercise himself.
My friends, we hear a great deal about the resources and
possibilities of the South. Even now southern development
far exceeds that which is taking place in any other section
of our country. Wasteful methods have almost depleted
one of our greatest resources-namely, timber. We left the
barn door open and allowed the horse to be stolen, but we
have awakened in time to lasso the colt. Experience is a good
teacher, and if we profit through our mistakes the resources
of the South have only been touched. The South and South-
east will become the industrial center of the United States,
and the show places of this nation if conservation and refores-
tation are properly carried out. This can be done through










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


education of the ignorant citizens who applies a torch to wood-
lands and through proper taxation. Taxation and timber grow-
ing is one of the most important subjects that can engage the
attention of any economist who seeks reforms.
The Southern Forestry Congress is doing a great service
toward bringing about these reforms. This Colngress ha's
helped to awaken the South, both to its dangers and to its
possibilities from a forest standpoint. May the good work
they are doing bear a bountiful harvest, and men be con-
strained to follow their admonishing council.


"FOREST TAXATION FROM THE POINT OF VIEW
OF PUBLIC REVENUE"
By
R. W. Wier, President
Wier Long Leaf Lumber Company
Houston, Texas
Public revenue from forest taxation is to be viewed from
the standpoint of public interest more than that of public
revenue, meaning that the greater question to be considered
is that of the public interest. In its relative value to the whole
the amount of revenue received for public purposes from
forest taxation on any basis would play a very small part in
support of the government. Therefore, the question of how
the public can be best served in reproducing the forests of
the land is of concern to every interest and to every person.
I say, therefore, to reach these ends the public revenue from
forest taxation must of necessity be cut to a minimum.
I am approaching the subject with much hesitancy, be-
cause I realize the different elements that enter into this prob-
lem which make it difficult, Time-Fire-Taxes-Hogs-
and Pests enter into this subject, but they have been covered.
For the five years ending in 1925 the cost of running the
federal government was decreased by one-third. At the same
time the cost of running the state and local governments had
more than doubled. The amount of revenue to a state from the
smaller counties that are not rich is not great. To illustrate:










FOREST TAXATION


One of the wealthiest counties of Texas in 1925 was assessed
at $222,000,000, and one of the outlying counties was as-
sessed at $6,852,000. Their actual values were probably
$500,000,000 and $10,000,000 respectively.
Many counties and some states have in the past made the
mistake of assessing standing timber at too high a value. This
has had its influence on sawmill owners, to the end that our
standing forests have been denuded much more rapidly than
they otherwise would have been. Cut-over land in Texas is
being assessed at a value equal to, and in many cases greatly
in excess of its actual cash value. Of four counties in which
we pay taxes, the lowest combined rate of state, county, pre-
cinct and special taxes is $3 on the $100 assessment. The
highest is $4.099. The lowest assessed value is $5 per acre.
The highest is $8.
Standing southern pine timber and cut-over pine lands
are usually located in counties that have no great land values.
Nearly all county and commissioners courts endeavor to be
fair in their assessments, but the modern tendency to spend
so much money compels them to assess the cut-over land at
a higher value than its reasonable cash price. The value on
the standing timber is usually on an equitable basis.
But a few years are ahead of us until the last virgin pine
tree will have been cut. Then the problem before the public
is what shall a county or precinct do to raise funds that are
necessary for the proper functioning of the county to main-
tain properly, schools and roads?
The public must have taxes, and in many counties of the
southern states the greater land area is either cut-over land of
some species, hard or soft wood, or standing timber, which
is constantly being depleted. The necessity of regrowing a new
forest has already been discussed. You have been told that
it is a slow growing crop. You have been told that it is annually
in danger of destruction from fire, beetles, and other enemies,
such as storms. If timber were a fast growing crop, and could
be harvested annually, then our tax problem would not be
so difficult. Many states have endeavored to solve this prob-
lem by legislating on it.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Is it possible for an individual to hold land that is non-
productive, or whose product is so far in the future that you
cannot possibly begin to harvest it under twenty-five years?
Does any sound thinking individual believe that the purchase
of denuded land for the regrowing of a crop is a sound econo-
mic investment?
If the investor were assured of a good crop at the end of
forty years, even then to my mind it would be none too pro-
fitable, even if the counties and state left their rates and as-
sessments where they are at present.
Assuming that your land valuation is $5 per acre today,
and you have no taxes and no expenses, at the end of forty-
two years at 6 per cent on your investment you would have an
investment per acre of $60.
Today the landowner must pay taxes, and, to illustrate how
the cost pyramids, the rate in one county in Texas is $4.099.
The assessment is $8, and has been for many years. This rate
was 60 per cent more than its reasonable cash value. That has
the effect of making your tax rate instead of $4.10 it is $6.56
per $100. Your money is worth 6 per cent, and this with your
tax of $6.56 makes your investment double in a little less than
six years. Five dollars is the lowest at which any of our land
is assessed. Thus at the end of 36 years this land per acre
would represent a cost of $320 per acre, the interest and
taxes being compounded.
Every whole is composed of units, and I have reduced cut-
over land to a unit of one acre, and I am forced to this con-
clusion, that no one, as a business proposition, can hold land
on which there is no substantial stand of young timber.
Where, then, is forest taxation in its relation to public
revenue?
The taxing power, whether it be for local or general pur-
poses, must choose between two courses, imposing a tax so
high as to cause the land to revert to the state, or making the
tax small enough to permit cut-over or all land to be owned.
If the landowners let the land revert to the state, the local
government-that is, the county-will have no revenue on
that property. Neither will the state, and the public will have











FOREST TAXATION


to make up from other sources the taxes that have been paid
theretofore on this property.
You can take some particular tracts and retain them to the
owners profit, but the great majority of denuded land can
only be retained at a financial loss.
We have come to a point where facts confront us, and not
theories. Counties must have revenue.
In 1924 the 38th Legislature of Texas provided for a Legis-
lative Committee on Forestry, and it was my privilege to be
a member of that committee, and in the preparation of our
report we had to bear in mind forestry taxation in its relation
to public revenue.
We found that the burden of idle lands and the effect of
denuded forest areas without provision for the replacement
of the timber necessary to carry on varied activities was forci-
bly illustrated by actual conditions in certain localities, especi-
ally in the State of Michigan, where the great wealth of white
pine had been almost entirely exhausted.
In six representative cities in the agricultural portion of
Michigan the average tax rate in 1919 was $25.85 per $1000
assessed valuation. In nineteen representative cities in the de-
nuded timber sections the average tax rate for the same year
was $48.21, due more or less to obligations undertaken dur-
ing the period of prosperity of the forested section.
In 1919-20 in nine Michigan counties practically denuded
of timber the state tax levy was $256,793, some counties fail-
ing to pay a considerable part of the tax, but the nine counties
drew from the state school funds alone $295,020.
The plan most generally advocated today is an annual tax
on land value, at a nominal valuation, with a yield tax of
from 8 to 25 per cent of the stumpage value, to be paid when
the timber is cut and marketed.
Oregon has recently enacted a law to the effect that land
dedicated for the purpose of regrowing a forest shall pay a
tax of five cents per acre, and as the product is marketed the
owner shall pay 12/2 per cent yield tax, this yield tax to be
applicable only to second growth timber.
Michigan enacted a law whereby they pay only 5 cents per
acre, with a 25 per cent yield tax on second growth timber.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Money for schools must come from the state. Highways
must be maintained by those using the highways, and the
tendency of the times is to maintain them by a gasoline tax.
In offering the above thoughts it may be I will be charged
with having a prejudiced mind in favor of the landowner,
but we are at that period where plain speaking is necessary,
and in connection with the above I wish to say that our com-
pany owns relatively but little land. Therefore, I hope that
those who differ with me will not believe my thoughts selfish.

"PROGRESS OF THE FOREST TAXATION INQUIRY
OF THE U. S. FOREST SERVICE"
By
Fred R. Fairchild, Director, Forest Taxation Inquiry,
U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.
I am here at your request to render a report, as it were,
of the progress of the Forest Taxation Inquiry. Of the interest
which has prompted this invitation I am keenly appreciative.
Early in the preparation of our plans it was decided that we
should regard our problems as a unit, requiring a truly national
study rather than a series of independent excursions into the
forest tax problems of separate states or regions. In conse-
quence of this view of our task, the Inquiry will probably make
only one report, marking the completion of its work, without
the issue of individual state or regional reports. Our study
is of necessity divided into a great number of projects, marked
off by geographical as well as topical limits. But these various
projects are not regarded as ends in themselves, but simply
as contributions to the entire study. Under these circumstances
you will understand that, while a great deal of work has
now been done, we have in a very true sense nothing com-
pleted. What I am able to report to you today represents
progress, not accomplishment.
I hope that my coming thus will not be a disappointment
to you. To me it is quite the reverse. We,of the Inquiry staff,
are well aware that we have embarked upon a long journey.
While we have already come a considerable distance from our
port of departure, we know that our final destination is yet
far away and that long and arduous labors are before us.











FOREST TAXATION


Being thus in the midst of our undertaking, we are sensitive to
the encouragement that has come from repeated expressions
of interest upon the part of our friends. And when expression
of interest is combined with constructive criticism and advice,
it is doubly welcome. I am therefore appreciative of the op-
portunity to discuss our problems and plans with this present
company, in whom I recognize not only keen interest but the
knowledge and experience requisite for understanding of our
problem and the giving of intelligent counsel.
The Forest Taxation Inquiry is now three years old, having
been formally organized in April, 1926. It is perhaps un-
necessary to remind you that the Inquiry is an independent
research unit organized by the United States Forest Service
and operating under the general direction of the Branch of
Research of that Bureau. It is probably also known to you
all that the impetus to this study of forest taxation came from
the Congress of the United States, as expressed in the Clarke-
McNary law of June 7, 1924 (43 Stat. 653). Preceding this,
a Select Committee on Reforestation under the chairmanship
of Senator McNary of Oregon, had made a national survey
of the problem of reforestation, one result of which was to
impress upon the members of the committee the importance
of the taxation phase of the problem. The published record
of the committee's hearings (Reforestation, Hearings before
a Select Committee on Reforestation, United States Senate,
Sixty-Seventh Congress, Fourth Session, pursuant to S. Res.
398) contains a mass of interesting evidence upon the general
problem of reforestation, including much on taxation. The
committee reported to the Senate on January 10, 1924 (Sixty-
Eighth Congress, First Session, Senate Report No. 28) and
included among its recommendations the suggestion of a study
of forest taxation by the Federal Government, which recom-
mendation was adopted by Congress in the Clarke-McNary
law. There followed the organization by the Forest Service
of the Forest Taxation Inquiry to carry out this mandate of
Congress.
I find that there is in the public mind no little confusion
as to the exact nature of the problem assigned to the Inquiry.
There are those who have supposed that this investigation











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


is concerned only with the national government forests or
with the taxation of privately owned forests by the national
government, while from others I have heard expressions of
surprise that the national government should go thus seriously
into the study of a subject which is primarily within the pro-
vince of the several states. The Senate Committee labored
under no misapprehensions upon this matter, and I should
like to quote from its report a brief passage which gives an
excellent statement of the purpose and scope of this study as
it was evidently envisaged by Congress and is, to the best of
our ability, being now carried out by the Forest Taxation
Inquiry:
"Probably the second development of general importance
in encouraging private production of timber is an adjustment
of the methods of taxing forest-growing lands so as to avoid
an undue burden of current taxation. Obviously, as to State
and local taxation, such reforms can be effected only by State
legislation. The subject is, however, of such wide importance
in all of the forest regions of the United States, and has such
a universal bearing upon the success of a national policy
which seeks to promote timber growth, that the committee
believes it should be covered by a comprehensive Federal in-
vestigation. The purpose of this study should be to disclose
the present methods and practices in the taxation of timber
and forest-growing land and their actual effect upon the use
of land for the growth of timber. The investigation should be
conducted, as far as practicable, in cooperation with the
States and other suitable local agencies; and the Federal rep-
resentatives should be authorized to collaborate with the
States in devising tax legislation adapted to particular situa-
tions which will give reasonable encouragement to reforesta-
tion.
"Immediate results from a project of this nature cannot be
anticipated, but in the long run it should prove an important
factor in eliminating obstacles which now stand in the way
of private timber growing. Reforms in forest taxation can
only be brought about by an extended process of public edu-
cation, first, as to the present facts and their effect upon
timber growth, and, second, as to equitable means of modi-











FOREST TAXATION


fying the existing conditions. The importance of the subject
is so great that the Federal Government may wisely take the
lead in an inquiry of this nature."
There is one other matter, of a somewhat preliminary
character, which I am inclined to emphasize at every oppor-
tunity. Upon this point, will you permit me to quote a para-
graph from a previous address of mine delivered on November
17, 1927, before the Commercial Forestry Conference held
in Chicago under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce
of the United States?
"Prerequisite to any effective steps toward reform is the
recognition that forest taxation is not a separate problem, to
be isolated and studied and solved apart from the taxation
of other kinds of property or the other problems of taxation
in general. Forest taxation must be regarded as an integral
part of the whole system of taxation. We must take into
consideration the public services which the people require of
their state and local governments, the various sources from
which these governments are able to draw the money neces-
sary to pay the cost of rendering such services, the total
amount that has thus to be contributed by taxation, the dis-
tribution, actual and ideal, of the total tax burden among the
various tax paying interests, the balance of public resources
and public expenditures, and the state of the public debt.
We must have regard further to the relation between govern-
ment services and the taxable capacity of the community;
what sort of governmental services can the people afford?
We must similarly consider the relation between taxes and the
capacity to pay taxes, not of the forest owners only, but of
all the various taxable interests. Only by thus putting forest
taxation in its true place in the whole system of public finance
can we make progress. Failure to recognize this principle
is the chief cause of the small accomplishment to date of those
who have sought a solution of the problem of forest taxation."
To those of you to whom these matters are already famil-
iar, my apology must be my strong desire to remove every
possible ground of misapprehension of the nature of the forest
tax problem as we see it and the manner in which it is being
studied by the Forest Taxation Inquiry.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Since its formal organization three years ago, the person-
nel of the Inquiry has been gradually built up until it now
consists of eight technical investigators (economists and for-
esters) and a statistical and clerical staff of twelve members,
including permanent and temporary employees. General
headquarters are in New Haven, Connecticut, in a large and
convenient building furnished through the generosity of Yale
University.
The Inquiry has now been actively at work for something
less than three years. You may be interested in a brief sketch
of what we have been doing all this time. Having selected
the lake states as the region for our first efforts, we began
field work in Minnesota in the summer of 1926. This state
has a distinct forest region, consisting of sixteen counties in the
northeastern part, and our work was accordingly concentrated
in these counties, together with one southern county repre-
senting agricultural and farm woodlot conditions. In these
selected counties, facts were gathered relating to population,
resources, industries, land utilization, public revenues and
expenditures, public indebtedness, and the tax base. In
four of these northern counties and in the one southern county
there were chosen twenty-one townships, representing a variety
of economic and financial conditions, in which a more inten-
sive investigation was made, involving observation and re-
cord of all important factors of the taxable value, such as
topography, soil, use of land, forest cover, buildings and im-
provements, etc. For the most part, inspection by members
of the Inquiry staff was relied upon. An immense mass of
statistical data was thus gathered, requiring for its analysis
considerable use of Hollerith machine tabulation. This field
work was carried on in 1926 and the early part of 1927, and
the office work upon these data has been proceeding, in
company of course with other projects, ever since. Minne-
sota was used as a sort of laboratory for developing and test-
ing the Inquiry's technique; this required the devotion to this
state of what might, without this explanation, appear a dis-
proportionate amount of time and effort.
May I be permitted here to digress for a moment in order
to comment upon the publication policy of the Inquiry? As











FOREST TAXATION


I have already said, it is not proposed to issue formal reports
in advance of the completion of the study. It is fully realized,
however, that, as our investigations proceed, we shall be ac-
cumulating facts which may be of interest to persons in the
states covered, if not to the general public. In many cases,
such facts, to be of most service, should be made known at
once. Furthermore, the Inquiry from time to time finds it
advantageous to engage in cooperative studies with public
or private agencies within the states, and our cooperators
are usually desirous of having results without waiting for the
completion of the Inquiry's entire study. The Inquiry wishes
to place the facts which it gathers at the disposal of the in-
terested public where and when they will be most useful, and
to this end we have inaugurated a series of bulletins, or "Pro-
gress Reports" as they are called. These reports are appear-
ing, not in a regular series, but from time to time as occasion
warrants. They are informal and of a preliminary character;
in particular the statistics presented are subject to later check
and revision. Their purpose is to present the facts, rather
than to offer interpretations or conclusions. They are sent as
issued to public officers, national and state, to colleges and
universities, to libraries, and on request to all persons inter-
ested. Three such reports have thus far been issued, contain-
ing respectively (1) an historical account of the Forest Taxa-
tion Inquiry, (2) an article upon some general principles of
forest taxation, and (3) some of the statistical data dealing
with the resources and the tax base of the forest counties of
Minnesota.
The Minnesota study has given birth to another publi-
cation, entitled "Forest Taxation in the Cutover Region,"
written under the joint authorship of Professor H. H. Chap-
man of the Yale School of Forestry and myself and presented
by me to the joint conference of the National Tax Associa-
tion and' the Citizens' Research Institute of Canada at Toronto
in October, 1927. (National Tax Association, Proceedings of
the Twentieth National Conference, 1927, pp. 367-394.)
Further statistical data from Minnesota will shortly appear in
other progress reports, either separately or in combination
with similar data from the other lake states.


I











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


From Minnesota the Inquiry proceeded to Wisconsin, where
generally similar data were gathered, covering intensively
one complete county and some nineteen additional survey
townships. The greater part of these data were gathered in
cooperation with the Wisconsin State College of Agriculture.
In view of the thorough, going character of the Minnesota
and Wisconsin projects, we have been content with a more
limited survey of the other lake state, Michigan. Moreover,
the task was here materially lightened because of the great
mass of exceedingly valuable data which had been gathered
by the State Land Economic Survey. Besides several projects
which could be sufficiently covered from published material,
the Inquiry has here instituted original studies in tax delin-
quency by counties and towns, tax conditions in selected towns
and school districts, economic history of sample forest areas,
tax revenues, and the operation of the special forest tax legis-
lation of the state. A certain amount of cooperation has been
obtained from members of the faculty of the Michigan State
College.
The field work in Wisconsin and Michigan was done mainly
in 1927. Office work on these data has been proceeding to
the present time. No publications have as yet appeared deal-
ing with these states.
In the summer and autumn of 1928 the Inquiry gave its
principal attention, so far as field work was concerned, to the
region of the Pacific northwest, with Oregon as the principal
state and Washington a close second. This region presented
conditions different in many respects from those encountered
in the lake states. In the latter the problem was chiefly that
of the cutover areas and their future. The pacific northwest
gave opportunity to study the problem of the taxation of
merchantable timber, though it must be stated that, somewhat
to our surprise, we found the problem of what is to become
of the areas from which the virgin timber is being removed
already pressing for attention.
The technique of the Inquiry's field investigation was ma-
terially modified in Oregon and Washington. Instead of a
complete field examination of the areas selected for intensive
study, the data were generally obtained from official records











FOREST TAXATION


and from well informed persons living in the county seats or
in the particular districts, supplemented when necessary by
direct field examinations. On the other hand, the Inquiry un-
dertook in this region a careful study of taxation in its re-
lation to the lumber industry and the business of owning
and holding timber lands, based upon data secured from the
principal owners and operators in answer to an elaborate set
of questionnaires. Recognizing the disrepute into which this
method of inquiry has fallen among business men, the ques-
tionnaire was resorted to only after the most thorough consul-
tation with the leaders of the industry in Oregon and Wash-
ington. The Inquiry's advances were met by these gentlemen
in the most cordial spirit, and, after full deliberation, the
questionnaires (called, in the hope of somewhat removing their
sting, "confidential statements") were formulated and sent
out. The Inquiry's plan was formerly endorsed by state
officials and by all the principal associations in the industry.
This remarkable exhibition of cooperation was invaluable;
without it this part of the study could not have been under-
taken. A large number of answers have already been received,
from which most valuable information will be obtainable. The
Inquiry has also under way in Oregon a study of taxation in
relation to farm income conducted in cooperation with the
State Agricultural College.
Coincident with the Pacific coast study, a secondary pro-
ject was carried on in the summer and fall of 1928 in the
state of New Hampshire, with the purpose of starting the
study of the New England region, to be completed at a later
time. Three towns were selected and subjected to a field study
along lines somewhat similar to those followed in Minnesota
and Wisconsin. One new feature introduced was an inde-
pendent appraisal of all the taxable real property in two
towns performed by expert appraisers furnished by the State
Tax Commission. In the New Hampshire study valuable co-
operation was rendered by the State Forester and the State
Tax Commission.
The foregoing account covers the principal regional studies
which have thus far been undertaken. Obviously there still
remain several other important regions that will demand our











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


attention. In particular the Southern states present certain
forest conditions and certain types of political and financial
organization which are of great interest. It is probably safe
to say that our next regional study will be located in the South.
It will be observed that the Inquiry's technique is distinctly
elastic and has undergone frequent modification. Each region
naturally presents its own peculiar problems, and our methods
of study must of necessity be adapted to meet the local con-
ditions in order to bring out the lesson that each region may
have for us. This is in harmony with our plan of one national
study rather than a series of regional studies. We enter each
region, not for the purpose of making a comprehensive study
of that region, but in order to obtain whatever that region may
be able to contribute to the national study of forest taxation.
Having established certain principles from our study in one
state, it is not necessary to learn this lesson again from similar
conditions in another state. It follows that, as we proceed,
our objective in each new region studied, becomes more
limited and our task lighter, while at the same time we are
learning by experience how to perform our work more econo-
mically and expeditiously. It is due to these considerations
that we are still hopeful of concluding this nation-wide study
in a reasonable time.
The Inquiry has in the works various other projects be-
sides those which I have described. Such are a national study
of school finance based upon published sources, a similar
study of highway finance, an analysis of the laws of the sev-
eral states relating to tax delinquency, etc. On the side of
state cooperation, the Inquiry has prepared outlines and given
advice to local agencies studying forest taxation in West Vir-
ginia and North Carolina.
Last but by no means least, I mention a rather elaborate
digest of all the special forest tax laws of the states in effect
at the present time. For a generation or more forest taxation
has been a subject of state legislation. At the present time
there are thirty-three special forest tax laws upon the statute
books of twenty-six states. I am here including the Oregon
law just enacted by the Legislature of 1929. Such legislation
has evidently not yet produced the perfect system of forest










FOREST TAXATION


taxation; indeed much of its product have proved clearly futile.
Nevertheless there has been thus accumulated a valuable ex-
perience, from which much may be learned pertinent to the
present and future problem of forest taxation. Study of this
record is one of the important projects of the Inquiry, for
which this digest of existing laws has been prepared. It has
become evident that there is sufficient public interest in such
a digest to warrant its publication, and it will appear very
soon as a progress report of the Inquiry, giving, besides a brief
historical summary and a tabular analysis, separate detailed
digest of all the special forest tax laws in effect as of December
31, 1928. This collection of digests will be kept currently up
to date, by adding new laws and recording repeals and amend-
ments, and additional bulletins will be issued as needed.
In conclusion may I say that the Forest Taxation Inquiry
is anxious to keep in close touch with all persons and organi-
zations interested in the problem which it is studying. We
consider ourselves related to the public in two ways. In the
first place, realizing fully the magnitude and the difficulty
of our task and conscious of our own limitations, we shall
always welcome criticisms and suggestions from any source.
On the other hand, we hold ourselves always ready to give
such information and counsel as is in our power to all those
who are concerned with questions of forest taxation. We are
hopeful that in this way we may contribute to placing the
structure of American forest taxation upon a foundation
broader and stronger than could be devised by our own un-
aided efforts.











38 SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


THURSDAY AFTERNOON SESSION, APRIL 4.
At the beginning of the afternoon session President B. F.
Smith announced the following committees:

Committee on Nomination and Place of Meeting
W. D. Tyler, Chairman Virginia
F. W. Besley Maryland
Thomas H. Claggett West Virginia
Henry E. Hardtner T ouisiana
E. O. Siecke Texas
Page S. Bunker Alabama
Major Evan Kelly District of Columbia

Committee on Resolutions
J. S. Holmes, Chairman North Carolina
Henry E. Hardtner I ouisiana
A. B. Hastings District of Columbia
Page S. Bunker Alabama
Wm. L. Hall Arkansas
Carl F. Speh Florida
Alex K. Sessoms Georgia
H. B. Holroyd Kentucky
F. W. Besley Maryland
Mrs. D. Priscilla Edgerton Mississippi
Herman Von Schrenk Missouri
George R. Phillips Oklahoma
L. D. Gilbert Texas
H. H. Chapman South Carolina
Donald R. Brewster Tennessee
Thos.H. Claggett West Virginia
Wilbur O'Byrne Virginia

Auditing Committee
Roy L. Hogue Mississippi
President Smith then turned the chair over to the Honorable
Henry E. Hardtner, who continued as chairman.










FOREST TAXATION


The Congress was entertained in the middle of the after-
noon with the singing of negro spirituals by a colored quar-
tette from Straight College, New Orleans. The entertainment
was provided through the courtesy of James P. O'Brien, D. D.,
President of that institution.

DISCUSSION
OF FOREST TAXATION
Henry E. Hardtner, Chairman
Urania Lumber Company,
Urania, Louisiana.
HENRY E. HARDTNER
I commenced my forestry work in 1900 and for 28 years
have given forestry problems my close attention. I have con-
vinced the most skeptical that new forests can be grown suc-
cessfully and my regenerated forests covering nearly 80,000
acres have been visited and studied by forestry experts from
Europe, India, China, Japan, Australia and America. It was
necessary to have a practical demonstration of a new forest
and I am glad that I had the time, the patience and the neces-
sary funds to offer to the American people the Urania forest-
now famous everywhere.
Forestry is a long time business venture and unless an in-
vestor or land owner is assured of profits, of co-operation and
assistance from the Federal and State Governments and the
people he will not engage in that line of business.
As yet the States have not shown a willingness to meet
the conditions that are necessary to induce private capital to
invest in the long time business of growing trees and until they
do, forest lands will remain idle and barren, yielding only a
mere pittance in taxes and the soil growing poorer each year
from effects of fires.
One obstacle alone prevents billions of capital investing in
forestry and that obstacle is Taxation. Capital will not invest
anywhere in any line of business if the tax laws are unfair and
unjust and especially in a business which means the putting
out of money every year for fifty years before returns can be
expected on the investment. Forestry at its best is a hazard-










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ous business and must have full cooperation from the people if
it is to succeed.
A forest investor must know in advance what his taxes will
be-and especially that his taxes will not be pyramided every
few years.
As I view the problem of taxation of forest lands, there
must be a fixed valuation placed on the land for ad valorem
taxes at actual value for lands that are to grow trees, and a
yield of severance tax on the forest products when harvested.
As the growing of trees is for the benefit of the state and
nation then if there is any actual annual loss to the counties
from the tax arrangements, they should be reimbursed by
Federal and State Governments to be repaid out of the sever-
ance tax on forest products grown on the land.
One thing sure and certain, private capital will not invest
in forestry until it is safe to do so. In the meantime, forest
lands will go begging on the market at one to two dollars per
acre and thousands of acres forfeited for taxes. The Govern-
ments must either assume the entire responsibility of reforesta-
tion or else make it possible for private capital.

CARL F. SPEH
Jacksonville, Fla.
The problem of Forest Taxation has been so logically and
so well presented that I am inclined simply to agree, but I
do think that this is too good an opportunity not to enlarge
on some of the principal lines that were mentioned in Mr.
Howell's paper.
I think it would be a wonderful thing if we could sincerely
make an appeal that we thought would meet with success on
the question of reforestation by pointing out the benefit to
future generations. I believe, however, that method has been
tried and found wanting. I think the sooner we recognize the
fact that this is a problem where you have to show a dollars
and cents profit the sooner we will get ahead with it. It is my
personal belief that the capital necessary for reforestation is
being competed for by the makers of rubber tires, radios, and
many other industrial purposes, and, therefore, you have to










FOREST TAXATION


show that there is as practicable a field in reforestation as
in other lines.
As Mr. Hardtner said, one of the things that is holding
back capital is this question of taxes; and not only the question
of taxes, but the uncertainty of them. We know how taxes
vary in different states; we know how the assessments vary
from time to time; and if you are going into a long invest-
ment of this kind you must be pretty certain of what your
fixed charges are going to be for a long period. Therefore,
one of the first things that should be done is to have a definite
fixed rate. We must have a fixed charge known in advance
so an investor or landowner can know what his charges are
going to be; his taxes, his protection and other charges.
Another thing that occurs to me along that line, that must
be borne in mind, the states must recognize that they have
millions of acres of land, and today those lands are bringing
in taxes. The question that is being pretty seriously considered
by cut-over landowners is what they are going to do with those
lands. Shall they turn them back to the states, or shall they
keep them themselves? Unless they can be convinced that a
crop can be raised on those lands at a profit they are not going
to have any interest in retaining those lands; that is another
phase of the fixed charge problem. If the state is going to have
those lands forced back on its hands it will have to take part
of the money gained from other sources to make that terri-
tory productive. Otherwise, they will remain idle. Summing
up, I will say, first, you must show that a timber crop can be
grown at a profit, and that the necessary fixed charges, the
most important one of which is taxes, is something that is going
to be handled intelligently by the state. On that basis only
capital can be safely invested.

W. GOODRICH JONES
Waco, Texas
We now hear a great complaint about the injustice done
the lumbermen in taxation and assessed valuations of forest
land. I am one of the-Hoi Polloi, the people, who view with
dismay this man-made desert in Texas. What has the
lumberman ever done for the betterment of Texas in renewing


1










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


the forests on the cut over lands, of which we have some 5
million acres? All through Texas he is looked upon as a get-
rich-quick investor whose motto is:-"The devil take the
hindmost." Our Legislators have no kindly feeling for one
who found the country rich in timber and has left a desert
in his wake, and makes no effort to reforest it. The way the
land is now cut, not even a walking stick is left, nor seed
trees. If he finds it impossible to make any money on the cut
over lands, why does he not let it revert back to the state?
The reason is, he is holding for oil possibilities. We have
today less than a million acres in virgin forest, of what was
once a magnificent fifteen million acres of pine. The lumber-
man now uses the skidder in his devastating work, and you
all know what a skidder is. Those trees that are left standing
are skinned, broken and burned so badly, that it is impos-
sible to do anything with them. He looks askance at fires
which always follow his cutting. The skidder should be out-
lawed, as the cut over land looks like the shell-torn war
area of France. A man-made desert is a disgrace to civiliza-
tion. Before the land owner shall ask of the state of Texas
any favors in assessments and taxes, he must show a change
of heart. He must show a willingness to reforest the land and
keep down fires. A few lumbermen are helping our state de-
partment of Forestry in this work, but only a few. No matter
how just the lumbermen's plea may be, they must show our
Legislators that they are interested in a future home grown
lumber crop, that will keep the land in perpetual forests.

C. J. HELLER
Port Arthur, Texas
I come before you as a lumberman from east Texas. I
use skidders and pullboats and other appliances for taking
timber off my land. In fact I use all mechanical appliances
to remove the timber from my lands as quick as we possibly
can, and I will explain the reason for that. We are doing
that to keep from increased and unjust taxation. If we did
not the taxes would soon make the investment so heavy that
we couldn't get out in the market with the lumber. We have
always asked, as lumbermen, for the state to work with us











FOREST TAXATION


and permit us to so handle our timber lands that we could
safely leave a portion of the stand and eliminate all destruc-
tive appliances.

HENRY E. HARDTNER
Urania, La.
I forgot to mention that the speaker is my old friend W.
Goodrich Jones. He has been attending all the forestry meet-
ings since 1910, and his heart is in the right place. However,
I think, my friends, Mr. Jones misunderstands the question as
we all see it. No forest land owner asks for one nickel ex-
emption from taxes. Every land owner who engages in forestry
work is willing to pay every cent of taxes he is justly entitled
to pay. We don't advocate tax exemption under any circum-
stances, but we do advocate such procedure as will enable the
state and the counties and the federal government to get a
great deal more money out of the forest lands than they ever
did before. The way I understand this, neither this Forestry
Congress nor any other forestry congress, nor any other
forestry association or national association asks for exemption
from taxes of forest land for growing trees.
Now, instead of abusing the lumberman for cutting the
forests, for being a devastator, why not censure the people
for not permitting the lumberman, the land owner, to grow
trees? Whenever the people will enact proper laws, that will
permit the lumberman, the land owner, the industrialist and
the capitalist to go into the business of growing trees, then you
will find millions of capital engaged in that work; but unless
you do make it possible for them to engage in reforestation
nothing will be accomplished. And I want to assure you, my
friends, Mr. Jones and others, no lumberman asks for one
cent of tax exemption, and the resolution we shall introduce
in this meeting will not demand any exemption from taxation,
but what we do advocate will call for greatly increased taxes
on forest lands.
I want to say further that I leave seed trees on every acre
of my land, and I leave saplings and seedlings, and I prevent
fires. I do everything I can to grow a new crop of timber, but
because I am doing so I have been singled out by the state of











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Louisiana for excessive taxation, penalized for leaving trees
on my land to grow another crop of timber. That is the reason
these other lumbermen are not leaving seed trees and saplings,
because when the state tax assessor comes around and sees the
little timber growing on the land he says the land owner has
an increased value on the land and immediately raises the
assessment for those saplings. He is penalizing the landowner
for just what Brother Jones says ought to be done.
The average man and woman seeing the skidders at work
in the forest, and seeing the forest fires, don't blame any one
but the land owner. They don't consider that the land owner
is carrying on a business that is permitted by the people; they
do not realize that the fires are not caused by the land owner
but are caused by the public; they don't stop to ask the whys
and wherefores; they see that the situation is wrong and as-
sign the blame to the land owner alone.

PAGE S. BUNKER,
Montgomery, Ala.
The Alabama law with respect to the provision affecting
forest lands, in brief, separates the ordinary ad valorem tax
on the land from other values, such as growing timber. There
is no exemption on the land as such, but the land owner can
enter his land in contract with the state, undertaking to grow
timber upon it for a period of years, the minimum of which is
five years and the maximum indefinite. Under the terms of
that contract we will assess the annual taxes on the land
merely as such, and the growing timber will not be taxed until
it is cut, or until the contract expires or is otherwise termina-
ted. This enables him to start out with a crop of timber from
the beginning, knowing that at no time during the life of the
contract will any taxes be sent upon him through local official
zeal, or through any act of the legislature even, because under
our constitution the legislature can not pass a law impairing
the obligation of a contract already made.
Now, you may assume that there would be a great rush
to enter land under such a form of contract; however, we
have not found it necessary to urge upon people to so enter
their lands, for the reason that we have been fairly fortunate











FOREST TAXATION


in our tax officials, and in very few places is growing timber
taxed any way. In practically no section of the state have the
lands been assessed with the intention of taking account of
reproduction, seedlings, saplings, and even young poles. We
have a few such contracts in effect, and others are coming
in, but as I have stated we haven't found it necessary to do it,
and only perhaps in some cases is it advisable. There is one
feature of the law which retards its operation somewhat, and
that is that lands entered under this form of contract must
be unencumbered of all obligations. If it is mortgaged it is
not eligible for entry, and as you know most of the small land
owners are likely to have mortgages on their lands.

ROY L. HOGUE,
Jackson, Mississippi.
Professor Fairchild, Director of the United States Forest
Service Taxation Inquiry, who preceded me, indicated that
although they had had a staff of some eight technical investi-
gators, and a dozen or more clerks busily engaged in collecting
and classifying data on the subject for the past three years,
he was not yet prepared to voice any fixed opinions or
enumerate definite principles of forest taxation.
It would, therefore, seem highly presumptious for me to
venture an opinion in the matter and I can truly say that our
study of the situation in Mississippi has not fully persuaded
us that we can find a tax for forest land at once just to the land-
owner and to the public at large.
There are two ways of arriving at beneficient legislation.
One, the trial and error method, which is the customary way,
and the other, the one, adopted by the U. S. Forest Service,
of making a careful investigation of all the premises in the
matter before attempting to formulate a statute. Since most
states are not prepared to make an exhaustive study of such
matters-in fact wouldn't ordinarily if they could.-We have
had a great assortment of laws passed by various states de-
signed to set apart or classify forest property and apply to
it forms of taxation different from those applied to other
property. It was perhaps the general failure of such laws to











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


attain their avowed purposes that induced the U. S. Forest
Service to undertake this inquiry now under way.
Believing that something should be done at once in a legis-
lative way to encourage reforestation in the state the Forest
Service of Mississippi instituted early in 1927 a study of
forestry laws and employed William Hemingway, Dean of
Mississippi University Law School, to assist. Finally a bill
was evolved which is unique in a number of respects. Briefly,
the situation is as follows:
The 30,000,000 acres (speaking in round numbers) con-
stituting the area of the state is assessed on our tax rolls in
three great subdivisions:
(1) Cultivated land, some 8,000,000 acres;
(2) Timbered land, about 3,000,000 acres;
(3) Other uncultivated land, 19,000,000 acres.
The timbered land is assessed separately from the timber.
We came to the conclusion after investigating the operation
of the so-called "contract laws" in various states that they
had proved generally unsatisfactory. We therefore endeavored
to devise a law which would apply to all potential forest areas
in the state and which would not necessitate a contract be-
tween the State and the individual.
We recognized the injustice of requiring the man who owns
mature timber to pay a substantial severance tax, because
for many years he has been paying a general property tax on
it. We therefore decided against changing the method of tax-
ing timber already assessed. Thus the timber on some three
million acres in the state would continue to pay advalorem
taxes until cut or otherwise changed in accordance with the
provisions of the act. The remainder of the state-some
twenty-seven million acres (including the eight million acres
of farm lands) would be considered "potential forest land"
and all forest products that came off these lands would be
subject when cut to a yield tax-a privilege tax we call it for
special reasons. We set this tax at 6 per cent of the value of
the forest product when and where severed. This tax was to
be collected within 90 days from the time severed by the
regular tax collector of the county, 75 per cent going to the
county in which the land lay and 25 per cent to the state.











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


Timber used for domestic purposes was not subject to the
severance tax. There were other minor exceptions and pro-
visions safeguarding the collection of the tax.
This, in brief was the law we proposed. It was introduced
in the House at the 1928 session and apparently had a good
chance to pass but for reasons unnecessary here to relate, it
was decided to withdraw it.
We plan to submit it again in the 1930 session. If it passes
we will let you know how we like it after we try it out.
0o-
FOREST FIRE PROTECTION
Page S. Bunker, Chairman
State Forester, Alabama
Montgomery, Ala.
"WHAT THE PUBLIC AGENCIES CAN DO TO AID IN
FOREST PROTECTION
By
E. O. Siecke, Director
Texas Forest Service
College Station, Texas
Public responsibility in the prevention and control of forest
fires was recognized on the North American continent genera-
tions prior to the American Revolution. The Massachusetts Bay
Colony in 1631 adopted regulations forbidding the setting out
of fires except during a certain period of the year. Similar leg-
islation was approved in eight additional colonies before the
Revolutionary period. It is true, however, that most of these
regulations had as their objective the safeguarding of life and
improved property rather than the protection of forest re-
sources, although a Massachusetts law enacted in 1743 em-
phasized the damage caused by fire to young tree growth and
to the soil. From the end of the Revolutionary period up to
about 1885 the idea of enacting fire laws for the purpose of
conserving forest resources gradually gained recognition, but,
nevertheless, many of the laws still placed most emphasis on
the protection of life and improved property.
A forestry law passed by New York in 1885 was perhaps
the first effort to enact comprehensive legislation for the pro-











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


tection of forest resources from fire. While the provisions of
this law were concerned first of all with the protection of the
state forest preserve lands, yet provision was made for a
state forest commission and a state-wide system of forest
guards. From that time on, state after state fell into line in
recognizing public responsibility in protecting from fire its
forest resources, both publicly and privately owned. Organized
fire protection, supported wholly or in part by state funds,
is now conducted in 38 states, or in every state having sub-
stantial areas of forest land except Arkansas. This exceed-
ingly brief survey indicates that no new idea is being advanced
in advocating public responsibility along fire protection lines
and what public agencies should do in this regard.
In the Southern pine states, extending from northern Vir-
ginia to and including eastern Texas, less than 8 per cent
of all forest fires occurring during 1926 and 1927 were caused
by lumbering operations and less than I per cent of the fires
during those two years are chargeable to lightning. It follows,
therefore, that over 90 percent of the fires occurring on the
bulk of the timberlands of the South were caused not by the
owners of the forest lands involved but were due either to
the carelessness or evil intent of the general public.
A large per cent of the forest land annually burned over
in the South consists of immature crops of second-growth tim-
ber. The public, through State and Federal agencies, should
afford timber crops approximately the same protection as is
given agricultural and horticultural crops. For example, if
malicious citizens should pile debris around orchard trees and
then fire the debris, resulting in the death of orchard trees,
the State should not hesitate to call out the militia, if necessary,
in order to protect the orchard owners in the unmolested use
of their property. The same public responsibility exists with
regard to the protection of timber crops, and until such re-
sponsibility is fully appreciated and redeemed the public is
not fulfilling its full duty.
When the Federal Weeks Law, providing for cooperation
with the states in fire protection, was enacted in 1911 only 1 1
states had established systems of forest fire protection and were
qualified to receive Federal cooperation. The early agree-











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


ments between the Federal Government and the various co-
operating states did not recognize fire protection expenditures
on the part of forest landowners as off-set funds. This recog-
nition did not come about until the enactment of the Clark-
McNary Law.
As the protection work developed from year to year, more
and more private funds were spent in fire protection, and
such expenditures created a new situation. After repeated
discussions at annual meetings and regional conferences,
Federal officials, State Foresters and forest landowners gradu-
ally evolved a policy as to the financial responsibility of each
of the three agencies. This policy may be briefly termed the
2-1-1 policy. Under its provisions the forest landowners are
expected to furnish one-half of the necessary funds for fire
protection, the Federal Government one-fourth, and the State
one-fourth.
The agencies concerned have worked for a number of years
fully to put this policy into practice, but at the present time
our objective is far from being realized. For instance, in that
group of states comprising the Southern pine region the land-
owners are contributing only 27 per cent of the present forest
protection expenditures, while the states are contributing 34
per cent and the Federal Government 39 percent. On the
other hand, in the Pacific Northwest States the timberland
owners are at the present time contributing 70 per cent, the
states 20 per cent, and the Federal Government 10 per cent.
This relatively large expenditure on the part of the timberland
owners in the Pacific Northwest is due primarily to the fact
that the protection effort in that region is more largely confined
to safeguarding the virgin merchantable timber from fire, and
such expenditures are rather considered in the light of insur-
ance premiums on merchantable property. On the other hand,
fire protection expenditures in the South are made chiefly to
protect cut-over land and second-growth timber, most of
which has not yet reached merchantable size. Therefore, in the
Southern pine region fire protection expenditures must be con-
sidered largely as expenditures made in connection with grow-
ing timber as a crop.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


It is felt that the division of fire protection expenditures
on a 2-1-1 basis is fair alike to both public and private interests
and that this arrangement will continue to be the goal of the
protection agencies in the future. The U. S. Forest Service,
starting with a small appropriation of $100,000.00 in 1911,
received $1,200,000.00 for the cooperative protection work
during the past year. In the allotment of Federal funds to the
various states and in the necessary inspection of the state work
so as to see to it that the cooperative funds were used in ac-
cordance with the provisions of the Federal law, the U. S.
Forest Service has for the past 18 years shown a very high
degree of administrative ability and an unusual spirit of
helpfulness to every co-operating state. In my judgment, the
Forest Service has indeed made a remarkable record.
I am certain that the officials of the Forest Service, as well
as the State Foresters, will join me in the assertion that the
chief credit for the splendid administration of the Weeks Law
and Section 5 of the Clarke-McNary Law should be accorded
to the late J. Girvin Peters. From the enactment of the Weeks
Law in 1911 until Mr. Peters' untimely death on the firing
line last year, he was responsible for the administration of the
two co-operative Federal laws. I am gratified because of this
opportunity to pay a deserved tribute to Mr. Peters, with
whose cooperation I have administered Federal allotments
for forest protection without interruption for the past 18 years.
Taking it for granted that we are in accord as to the shar-
ing of fire protection expenses between public and private
agencies, the question arises as to the best policy to pursue
in order to secure efficient and adequate protection. The very
basis of the policy makes cooperation necessary. There is
division of opinion as to the methods of working out such co-
operation. Some hold to the theory that an individual pro-
tection organization designed to protect the holdings of one
company, with the proper amount of State and Federal aid
given to that company, is most desirable. In some of our
timbered regions, particularly in the Pacific Northwest, numer-
ous associations of forest landowners have been perfected, and
these organizations receive their due proportion of State and
Federal aid. Under either arrangement the Federal Govern-










FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


ment holds the state responsible for proper inspection of the
protection work and the auditing of expenditures. The third
plan is usually referred to as the protection unit plan. Under
this plan the forest landowners in an advisable protection
area contribute fire protection funds on an acreage basis, and
such funds are matched by State and Federal funds. The
state forestry department then assumes full administrative
authority for developing and directing the fire detection, fire
control, and fire prevention educational Work.
As regards the Southern pine region, it is my judgment that
the protection unit plan will, by and large, bring about the
most effective protection at the lowest cost to the landowners
and to the public. Of course, there will be exceptions when
it will no doubt be advisable for landowners temporarily to
maintain protection organizations. Large companies will un-
doubtedly establish forest plantations of considerable size on
their cut-over lands, and such companies may want to give
their plantation areas more intense protection than public
funds could participate in. Again, lumber companies develop-
ing dual timber growing and livestock projects may feel that
they have a sufficient number of men on their fenced areas at
all times to provide a reasonable degree of protection.
The protection unit idea is especially advantageous as re-
gards the construction and maintenance of the equipment
necessary for promptly detecting and locating fires. The adop-
tion of this idea would, for instance, enable the state forestry
department to locate properly the number of lookout towers
needed for prompt fire detection and for the construction of
necessary telephone lines so that double shots may be taken
on the majority of fires and the information promptly relayed
to the fire fighting personnel. Under the policy of individual
patrol, supplemented by public aid and superficial public
inspection, the areas needing protection would have either too
many or too few lookout towers and would have too much or
too little of other equipment required to maintain an adequate
organization.
The responsibility for the enforcement of all laws enacted
to reduce the fire hazard distinctly rests with the state. This
responsibility cannot be shifted, and should not be shifted if











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


it could. It has been the policy of most Southern State Forest-
ers to bear down rather lightly on law enforcement until they
felt that public sentiment had been aroused to a sufficient
extent to insure reasonable success in obtaining convictions.
I think this has been a wise procedure, but with the rapid de-
velopment of protection unit organizations, I also am of the
opinion that the time has come to give the matter of law
enforcement very earnest attention.
Public agencies, and by that I mean the state assisted by
financial cooperation on the part of the Federal Government,
should also assume the major responsibility in the vital factor
of educational work to prevent forest fires. The educational
work is fundamental. All through the Southland we shall have
an undue number of fires caused through carelessness and
intent until the public is educated to consider timber as a valu-
able crop. The public must be informed as to the manner in
which fires prevent natural reforestation, the extent to which
fires retard the growth of young timber and, in fact, timber of
all sizes and ages. The old arguments for burning the woods
must be combated and right ideas substituted. State forestry
departments, assisted by the Federal Government, are in bet-
ter position than any other agency to formulate and distribute
educational literature, to conduct educational campaigns
through the press of the state, and to reach the adult popula-
tion, as well as the school children, by means of well equipped
motor moving picture units and men well qualified to put the
forestry message over at the moving picture entertainment.

"THE STOCKMAN'S INTEREST IN PROTECTING
FOREST AND RANGE FROM FIRE"
By
S. W. Greene, Coastal Plain Experiment Station
U. S. Department of Agriculture
McNeill, Mississippi.
I feel some hesitancy in appearing before a body of foresters
and forest landowners as a spokesman for the cattlemen for
the Piney Woods because the cattlemen have rightfully been
indicted with burning the woods. I say cattlemen advisedly
rather than stockmen as indicated on the program, because I


I










FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


could not conscientiously accept a commission as spokesman
for the owner of hogs which run at large.
For a number of years I have been closely in touch with
forestry work in the South and have been much in sympathy
with the purposes of reforestation. But in the wise use of the
great body of cut-over lands of the South I have the view-
point of the cattlemen in the foreground and if I introduce
a note out of tune with this program, 1 ask only the kind in-
dulgence of friends and associates in presenting what appear
to be facts.
It is conceded that in the near future we will be faced with
the economic necessity of importing lumber from long dis-
tances to meet the needs of the South unless more thought
is given to reforestation. I submit for your thought that for
a generation or more we have borne the economic necessity of
importing a large part of our meat and dairy products from
long distances at a high carrying charge. The annual expense
of this importation runs into the millions of dollars for each
of most of the states represented here today.
The dominant, high spirited, freedom loving nations and
tribes of the earth have always considered a stomach full of
red meat for the mature population and milk and dairy pro-
ducts for the adolescent, a necessity above even a permanent
dwelling and they were willing to follow the flocks and herds
with a tent of skin if necessity demanded. It has already
been stated that more of this cut-over land should not be
put to the plow to add to the over-production of agricultural
crops, but the cut-over land of the Southeast is the only re-
maining large area in this country for the expansion of beef
cattle production and dairy production. The same forces of
nature which favor reforestation, evenly distributed rainfall
and long growing season, also favor the growth of vegetation
which is utilized by grazing animals and which, if left ungrazed,
produces the fire menace to growing timber. Woods fires
in the South are almost strictly grass fires.
The public is indeed growing "forest minded" but the broad-
minded leaders in the movement should bear in mind that
reforestation is not the only possible wise use of the cut-over
lands and that there are other factors involved in their use.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Animal husbandry in the South is in the same foundling stage
as reforestation and there is a possibility that the two indus-
tries may grow up together. Rather than to assure the future
generations of a sap pine house in which to consume their ra-
tion of turnip greens, pot liquor and peas, let us assure
them of a substantial dwelling in which to enjoy a full ration
of red meat, milk and butter.
These introductory remarks are entirely aside from the
topic of my paper which is "Burning the Range for Cattle."
The annual burning of the range for cattle on the cut-over
longleaf pine lands of the Gulf Coastal Plains is a practice so
common that it is almost universal. These fires occur from the
time of killing frost, or about the last of November, until the
first of March. That any considerable total of these fires are
accidental would not be maintained by anyone familiar with
the territory. Except where areas are under protection, ac-
cidental fires merely burn a "rough" that sooner or later would
have been set intentionally.
No clear history of woods burning in this section has been
presented and perhaps none could be traced as the custom is
too common to be mentioned by historians writing of con-
temporary events and no serious consideration has been given
to it until after the removal of the virgin timber.
Because of the easily observed and well known preference
of grazing animals for the burned areas rather than the rough,
it is probable that the Indians burned the woods only in
selected spots to concentrate the game and simplify the stalk-
ing of the animals. In some sections it is claimed that burn-
ing was not as prevalent in former times as it is now and
that during slave times severe penalties were imposed on
negroes who fired the woods. It is quite likely that the heavier
growth of grasses following the removal of the timber has
caused considerable increase in woods burning.
To remove the accumulation of dead grasses resulting from
the heavy growth in this section, is the prime reason for burn-
ing the woods. The common expression of "burning the woods
to green up the grass" really means that the accumulation of
one or more years' growth of grass, spoken locally as a
"rough," is removed by the fire and when the new grass comes










FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


up it is readily seen and easily secured by the cattle. Other-
wise cattle would have to pick and choose to avoid the dead
grass which is unpalatable and contains little if any nourish-
ment. Experienced cattlemen say that cattle do better on a
burn than on a "rough". From an accumulated experience
of two hundred years or more of grazing cattle on native
grass pastures that originally supported browsing animals
instead of grazing animals the native people almost universally
accept the practice of burning the "rough" as being beneficial
to the cattle.
Some people maintain that burning gives earlier grass but
this is more apparent than real and in fact the reverse is usu-
ally true as measurements of early grass have shown. The
dead grass protects winter growth which on a burn would be
killed by frost.
In addition to the firing done on account of cattle, turpen-
tine operators burn under control as a measure of protection
against fires that might come in on them; the rough is burned
to destroy harboring places for snakes; and wood haulers
burn so that knots can be more easily seen and picked up and
walking made easier.

Gains of Cattle on Burned and Unburned Pastures

To determine the interrelation of timber growing and cat-
tle grazing under conditions of burning and fire protection,
the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry,
and the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, co-operating with the
Mississippi Experiment Station undertook a ten-year grazing
project at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, McNeill, Miss.
This work was begun in 1923 and six years of the project
have now been completed during which cattle were grazed
at the rate of not less than one head to ten acres on two pas-
tures of 150 acres each, one of which was burned annually
and the other protected from fire. Above 80 per cent of the
grass cover of these pastures is composed of two species of
grasses which are grazed by cattle and are spoken of locally
as sedge and wire grass. (Andropogon scoparius and A. tener).
The location is typical rolling cut-over land which is reforest-

















SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ing to long leaf pines varying from thick to open stands and
about 20 years old. Sufficient seed trees are on the land to
insure a heavy seeding each seed year.
The two pastures were divided so as to be as nearly equal
in all respects as possible. Both pastures are grazed by the
same number and class of cattle and the cattle are turned on
and taken off on the same date in the spring and fall. Breed-
ing cows were run on these pastures for two years and steers
past two years old for four years. As an unequal number of
calves were dropped on the pastures during the two years
they were grazed by breeding cows the figures are not direc-
tly comparable and the following table gives the figures for
steers only, although the trend for cows was no different than
for steers.
Gains of Mature Steers on Burned and Unburned Native
Grass Pastures'Grazed at the Rate of Not Less than One
Head to Ten Acres. 1925-26-27-28.
BURNED UNBURNED
Ave. initial weight April 4 576 lbs. 576 Ibs.
Ave. days grazing per season 223 223
Ave. final weight November 13 719 lbs 675 lbs.
Ave. gain per head 143 99 lbs.
Increased gain per head on
burned pasture 44 "
Percentage of increase on burn-
ed over unburned pasture 44.4%
The gains have been in favor of the burned pasture each
year, varying from 32 to 62 pounds per head. The difference
in the condition of the cattle at the end of the grazing season
each year has been readily visible. An increase in gains on
burned pasture over unburned pasture of 44.4 per cent is
ample verification of the contention of cattlemen that cattle
do better on the burns.
We believe the difference between the two pastures has
been mechanical rather than nutritional, or that the difficulty
of picking out or reaching the new growth of grass on the
"rough" has prevented the cattle getting a complete fill, or
has required more energy to secure a fill than on the "burn"











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


although there was plenty of the same kind of grass on both
pastures. In this conclusion we are not ignoring the well known
fact that cattle make heavier gains on short grass, the young
shoots being much higher in protein than more mature grass.
The tendency of cattle on the "rough" is to graze closely
the spots where grass can be reached easily while cattle on
the burn graze widely in the early season. The spread between
weights occur largely in the first 60 to 90 days after which
the gains remain about equal for the balance of the grazing
season.
It appears likely that there would be little difference in the
quality of the grazing if the accumulation of dead grasses
could be avoided by close grazing rather than by removing
with fire. We are now testing this method of management
by heavier stocking of the pastures. This will of course in-
volve the question of which is the most injurious to young
pines, heavy grazing or light fires.
The increased gains to be made by cattle appears to be
the logical reason for burning the woods. To be balanced
against this are several disadvantages.
The destruction of organic matter which should be left to
be incorporated with the soil and the removal of the ash in
the run-off from heavy winter rains is no doubt a serious
drain upon the soil comparable to the removal of any other
crop without returning crop residues and fertilizer to the soil.
What appears to be even more serious is the sheet
erosion from the heavy winter rains following burning. This
is quite evident on the burned areas and largely if not com-
pletely checked on the unburned areas, according to super-
ficial observations.
The damage to second-growth pines from grass fires under
conditions of uncontrolled grazing is quite evident and experi-
mental evidence showing the extent of this damage is avail-
able. The fire damage under conditions of controlled grazing
has not yet been measured for advanced reproduction of
pines at McNeill but the U. S. Forest Service has reported
the survival of seedlings under different conditions for a period
of two years. On a percentage basis the survivals were as fol-
lows: No Burning and No Grazing-84.9 per cent; Grazing











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


and No Burning-75.2 per cent; Grazing and Burning-55.7
per cent; Burning and No Grazing-1 7.7 per cent. The sig-
nificant point of these figures is that controlled grazing at the
rate of one head to ten acres increased the survival of pine
seedlings more than 300 per cent on areas subject to annual
fires. The fire insurance through grazing lacked about 20 per
cent of being complete but there remained more than 8,000
seedlings per acre, a stand that would require severe thinning
if they continued to survive. As to what effect grazing may
have on the future growth of these seedlings, future measure-
ments will determine.
The reasons for not burning the range, from the cattleman's
viewpoint, should hinge around the continued use of the
pasture. For any one year's use of a pasture covered by a
rough of native grasses it must be conceded that burning will
be profitable if the gains of the cattle only are considered.
However, experiments show that greater gains per head may
be secured from one acre of improved pasture of carpet grass
and lespedeza than can be secured from ten acres of native
grass pasture burned or unburned, using the same class of
cattle and the same class of land. Annual burning and un-
controlled grazing of the native grasses prohibits the spread
of carpet grass and lespedeza while fire protection and con-
trolled grazing encourages their spread with decided improve-
ment in the pasturage. However, close grazing to hold down
the rough is necessary to allow carpet grass and lespedeza to
get started and these plants will be dominated by the native
grasses under fire protection alone. With fire protection and
close grazing the spread of carpet grass and lespedeza is very
slow unless they are seeded in and a number of years would be
required for a noticeable improvement in the pasture. Burning
one year, seeding and close grazing appears to be a desirable
method of pasture improvement where the land can not be
cultivated.
Controlled grazing on reforested lands involves many fac-
tors in both cattle and forestry management that remain to be
worked out. Controlled grazing even at the rate of one head
to ten acres without fire, greatly reduces the fire risk to re-
forestation by reduction of the inflammable material. Grazing











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


at the same rate with annual fires reduces the intensity of
fires so that the survival of longleaf pine seedlings compares
favorably with the unburned pastures.
The fact that grazing cattle on reforested areas will return
a profit from the cattle and at the same time give fire insurance
to the growing timber, may lead to compromises with respect
to both cattle and timber growing. The intensive phases of
cattle growing in this area will exclude reforestation and on
the other hand the intensive phases of forestry will exclude
grazing, but the area is so great that it is not likely that the
intensive phases of either industry will occupy the majority
of the land and it is quite conceivable that a combination of
the two can be worked out with profit to both industries.

"PROTECTING SMALL FOREST AREAS"
By
James Fowler,
Soperton, Georgia
I feel that in fairness to myself, I should first mention some-
thing about planting pine trees, as it was through this medium,
that I first became interested in protecting my forests.
In 1925 I lost money on all my farm lands, taxes were
high and land values had greatly depreciated. I realized for
the first time that I would have to put my low grade land to
other uses than agriculture or lose my farms.
I first decided to try pecan trees but the cost was more
than I could stand then. I switched to chinese tung oil trees
and bought a few seedlings which are still growing well in
my garden. As I was already in the naval stores business, on
a small scale, I finally settled on slash pine trees. The reason
for this choice was that I knew from my experience in the
naval stores business, that slash pines grew quickly and were
the best producers of naval stores.
In February 1926 I put out ten acres of slash pine seedlings
which I pulled from near-by woods. These seedlings were
two years old and averaged fifteen inches in heighth. They
were set out in rows checked off ten feet each way, eighty-
six per cent (86%) of these trees lived and began growing
from the start.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


I had planned to set out several more acres of pines at this
time, but the majority of my friends and neighbors promptly
decided that I had lost my mind and should be sent to the
asylum. They said anybody ought to know that it would be
a hundred years before these pines would be big enough for
stove wood. I went ahead planting my ten acres and made
plans for other plantings later, if this ten acres didn't land me
in the bug house.
I was so well pleased with the growth of the ten acres put
out in 1926 that I put out in February 1927 one hundred and
thirty (130) acres of one and two year old seedlings. These
I secured from the woods and old fields near my farms. I
checked these off in straight rows of four hundred and sixty
(460) trees to the acre.
In the late fall of 1926 fire crossed from near-by woods and
burned part of the trees I had planted in the spring. In order
to protect these trees from other fires, I plowed clean breaks
ten feet wide all around these trees. The result was no more
fires. I found the following spring that I had without knowing
it prepared some good seed beds by plowing these fire lines
and also caused good natural seeding.
In the spring of 1927 I attended a state forestry meeting
at Woodbine, Georgia and with Mr. Lufburrow, Georgia's
state forester, Mr. Wyman, with the U. S. Forest Service and
others I looked over the first plowed and burned fire lanes I
had seen. I was so impressed with this disc plow and tractor
work that I bought a tractor and side disc plow immediately
and began plowing the woods two furrows twenty-five to
thirty feet apart and burning between these lines. I find that
plowing the lanes clean will give more natural seeding, but
this method is more expensive than plowing each side and
burning between the lines. If this grass in the woods is very
heavy, it is difficult to plow clean, and if not plowed very clean,
fire will cross these lanes in dry and windy weather. I found
that on account of the custom of burning these woods each
spring, that in order to make it more difficult to burn, I had
to cut this land up in ten and fifteen acre tracts, with primary
lanes fifty feet wide and secondary lanes not less than twenty-
five feet wide. Cutting this up into smaller tracts is much more











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


expensive. But, I hope to make these tracts much larger just
as soon as the people, who own the cattle and adjoining lands
see the benefits to be derived from grazing cattle and growing
timber, by leaving the woods unburned. This will greatly re-
duce the cost of putting in these fire lanes, which according to
my 1928 cost was twelve cents per acre. I do not consider
this unreasonably high, when I figure that less than two per
cent of these protected woods burned last year, also that there
was a heavy slash pine seed crop in my section last year.
I already have a fine stand of baby slash pine seedlings, just
poking their heads through the wire grass.
The Georgia Forestry Service tells me that other land
owners are getting good fire protection at about the figures I
have given. I believe that after plowing these furrows once
more, I will be able to burn the lanes without plowing regularly
each year. I have tried plowing furrows from four to twelve
inches deep, and I find one very serious objection to plowing
deep furrows in hilly and rolling land. That is, the deep furrows
plowed below the grass and surface roots will cause the land
to wash badly in the furrows. However, this can be partly
avoided by plowing the furrows, terrace fashion, and not up
and down the hills. I also find that, if the woods are heavily
grazed, the cattle will feed more on the young burned grass
between the lanes, and in many places, the grass will be left
too thin to burn.
I feel that growing and protecting pine trees has been a
good investment for me, for at least two reasons:-first, I
have ten thousand acres of the prettiest young pine tree forest
in the twelth Congressional District, to draw on for future
naval stores production, and my naval stores business has in-
creased from two hundred fifty (250) barrels of turpentine,
in 1920, to two thousand (2000) barrels, in 1928; second,
by the interest I have shown in forestry work, I have been
able, against the strongest competition imagineable, to buy
turpentine timber, in my section, in many instances, at a lower
price than my competitors. The landowners knew and appre-
ciated the interest I had taken in Forestry and felt that I would
take care of their timber.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


We have recently organized the Treutlen County Timber
Protective Association, under supervision and in cooperation
with the Georgia Forest Service. We have several members
and twenty-five thousand acres of forest land under State
supervision.
The State and Federal Forest Service is doing a great work,
in cooperating with small land owners, in telling and showing
them how to better care for their forests. I have just recently
had the pleasure of showing Dr. Austin Cary, Mr. Mattoon
of the Federal Forestry Service, and Mr. Fred Merrill, with the
State of Georgia Forestry Service, and Mr. D. Barrett, with
the Georgia State Agricultural College, at Athens, Ga., through
my forest. All these gentlemen spoke very highly of the work
I had done and I am sure that they were flattering, in their
compliments, but nevertheless, it made me feel, that in a small
way I was doing something to help preserve the greatest wealth
of our country.
I had nothing but knocks and discouragements, when I
first began planting and protecting my pine trees. But, now
it's quite different. My neighbors, who ridiculed me most, at
the start, often call on me to go out and show them just how
thick to leave their stand of young trees, in order to get the
quickest growth, of if I think burning through their woods,
after a rain, will injure their young trees.
It doesn't take much of a diplomat to handle a fellow, if
you can convince him that your proposition means money in
his pocket. I am fully convinced that the most effective wea-
pon, against forest fires, is public education, and I don't see
why forestry should not be taught in every public school in the
United States.
I am, indeed glad to tell you that beginning with the Fall
term 1929, forestry will be taught in every public school in
my home county-Treutlen County-Georgia. I do not claim any
credit for this. Mrs. Fowler is county school superintendent
and I have nothing to do with supervision of the schools, but
I expect to give her my best cooperation in this work.
I have on hand the following fire-fighting equipment:-
Two Fordson Tractors, one Oliver side-disc plow, two Oliver
brush harrows, one double barrel fire truck, on trailer, with











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


hand pump, fifty feet hose, buckets, rakes, forks, shovels and
fire flaps, made from old belting, two single barrel wagon
pumps, with fifty feet hose each, ten Smith hand pumps and
two Hauck firing torches. One of these tractors is used for
operating a tractor mill, cutting dead, dying and blown down
timber from these woods.
Now, listen SportsmenI In the spring of 1927, I stocked
five thousand acres of this protected land with Mexican quail
and planted forty acres of feed in small patches about over
this land, if a revolution is not started, by this next season, I
will have more birds than I know what to do with. Last year
an old lady, who lives on the land adjoining these woods
threatened to sue me for damage, claiming that my birds
crossed over her fence and ate all of twenty acres of field
peas. I finally compromised with her by agreeing to furnish
her free of charge, all the seed peas she might need for this
year's planting. Mr. Barrett and Mr. Mattoon, have seen some
of my birds.

DISCUSSION
of
FOREST FIRE PROTECTION
Page S. Bunker, Chairman

B. F. WILLIAMSON,
Gainesville, Florida.
I have been and am interested in the cattle and also in
growing trees, but I am particularly interested in where the
feed is going to come from to feed the trees and feed the
cattle. Mr. Greene comes in and tells us how they fare bet-
ter in the burned-over area, but the cattle have to be taken
into the barn in the winter time and fed. You can't burn up
the soil fertility and get permanently better plant production.
When the grass comes up on this burned land, you only pick
up one little food element, but you don't catch the balance
which is destroyed by fire, and there was plenty to feed the
grass that feeds the cattle and the growing trees. By this an-
nual burning you are burning up everything that is at the top.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


The principle of tree growth is to reach down and bring
out all this valuable organic material, and there are certain or-
ganisms in the soil that are working constantly, and it is all
balanced out.
Here (referring to chart) is a sample of what takes place.
Here is a piece of soil that was burned over annually for 42
years, and look at the amount of organic matter on the surface;
it is small. Here is a piece of soil that was not burned over in
that time, and the amount of organic matter at the surface is
26,249 pounds to the acre. Go down to 9 inches and the
amount of organic matter in that section of the soil on the un-
burned area is 76,260 pounds to the acre, and on the burned
area 20,500 pounds. Go down 12 inches farther and in that
section 9 to 21 inches, the amount on the burned area is 24,-
400 pounds per acre and on the unburned 53,440 pounds
per acre. Go down another foot, 21 to 33 inches, and the
amount in that section on the burned land is 17,960 pounds
to the acre and on the unburned land 38,680 pounds. Down
another 12 inches, and in the section from 33 to 45 inches,
on the burned 14,760 pounds per acre, and in the unburned
24,280 pounds of organic matter to the acre. You will find
that condition all the way down. In other words, take the
total of the organic matter in those soils down to 45 inches,
and subtract one from the other, and you will find that you
have burned 121,280 pounds of organic matter to the acre
during that period. Included in that organic matter there are
1,126 pounds of nitrogen, something like 28 pounds of nitro-
gen per year. Suppose you go out and buy your fertilizer
as cheap as you can, it will cost over $4.00 per acre per annum
to put that value back to the soil.
That is not the worst of it. Organic matter plays another
part in the growth of plant life. If your land dries out your
plants don't grow. If there is not a certain amount of mois-
ture there the soil does not act, and your roots don't grow.
We know from actual tests that soil rich in organic matter
holds moisture, and some will hold in actual weight five to
seven times as much water as pure sand. Now, there is an-
other valuable factor. By burning you are destroying one of
the most valuable factors, that is the bacteria. Now, we know











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


from some of the work done by the Department of Agricul-
ture, by Dr. Barnette who is one of our best soil chemists,
that 60 pounds of that organic matter as it is handled by the
micro-organism in the soil is able to produce from that 60 lbs.
practically a pound of nitrogen, while there is only one pound
of nitrogen in 100 pounds of this organic matter as we find it.
That means that your loss from burning is greater than $4.00
per acre per annum based on actual analysis of the organic
matter while you are growing pine trees or anything else.
When you go into the interior we are told by those who
have studied it that the water thrown off by the various forms
of plant life, particularly trees, are an important element of
moisture, and two-thirds of the rainfall comes back from the
source. If they don't capture two-thirds, how are you going
to get your rainfall? When you destroy plant life you destroy
all life. So we are looking at a bigger problem than merely
the growing of trees; it is rather the salvation and future wel-
fare of the country. If you burn up this soil and destroy it,
how do you expect the farmers to make a living? Can you
afford to destroy this plant life and take $4.00 more from your
soil, just by letting the soil burn? Ask the bankers and busi-
ness men to combine their interest with us. Isn't it the respon-
sibility of every one of us, of everyone that represents the
state, the fellow that holds office, isn't it our responsibility to
stop this? We must do it not only for ourselves, but for the
generations to come. Isn't that a bigger problem than merely
the growing of trees?

C. F. EVANS
New Orleans, La.
I should like to emphasize a few points that Mr. Siecke
touched upon. He mentioned the contribution of the State,
the private owner, and the Federal Government in fire protec-
tion. At the present time those percentages are, as I recall
them, 27 per cent for the private owner, 34 per cent by the
State, and 39 per cent by the Federal Government. I have
prepared a little summary showing the total that is being spent
in the 16 States represented by this Congress. The total esti-










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


mated amount required for adequate forest fire protection in
these 1 6 States is something over five million dollars.
At present all agencies combined are spending about one
and one half million dollars, which is approximately 30 per
cent of the required amount. The question arises, does that
mean we are 30 per cent through with the job. Sometimes
I think we are more than 30 per cent through, and at other
times I think we are far less than that. Col. Bunker said that
in the first few years in Alabama he was able to reduce the
fire loss from 40 or 50 per cent burned over annually to some-
thing like six per cent. He also said that from there on progress
is slow; a point is reached after which it is a mighty hard job
to reduce losses one per cent. The reason for that apparent-
ly is that when you start a line of work like this it is not so dif-
ficult to convince most of the people. They are ready to listen
to suggestions, are intelligent enough to understand, and want
to understand. Progress seems rapid while you are winning
this class of people over to your side. You have left them
the minority who continue to burn the woods. Unfortunately
many of them live in the woods and think that burning benefits
them in one way or another. Some of them are careless, and
just don't care. The problem before us has to do with that
irreducible minimum-I call it irreducible, but it is not irredu-
cible really; it can be reduced and must be reduced.
We are told that we don't do enough educational work.
The States are doing a lot of effective educational work,
but I don't think anybody has yet worked out the best
method of reaching the obstinate minority. Perhaps we haven't
told them in the right way. I think this cooperative educational
project conducted by the American Forestry association and
the State Forestry Departments in Georgia, Florida, and Miss-
issippi offers great promise; they are going at it in a very
intelligent way reaching the people out in the woods with their
educational trucks, moving pictures and informational lectures.
That is one way; it may not be the best way. We must develop
the most effective methods of reaching this minority or we
shall not make the progress we should.
Mr. Siecke mentioned the fact that some of the States have
just reached the point where they can enforce the forest fire










FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


laws. There are still many communities where public senti-
ment is not favorable enough to secure enforcement of the
law. There are, however, a number of places where they are
getting convictions and assessing heavy penalties. Until we
get to the position where we can get convictions and have
penalties imposed we can't be anywhere near the end of the
job. As to the technique of fire law enforcement, I was reading
not long ago a report-I think it was by the National Board
of Underwriters, I don't recall exactly the name of the associa-
tion-which urged that city fire departments have specially
trained men for fire law enforcement, to run down cases, find
the guilty parties and prepare the evidence against them. I
think we may have to do that in forest fire law enforcement.
We may have to develop a specialized force-it will not need
to be a large force, but a force skilled in law enforcement
work. That will do no good though until we reach the stage
where we can take the cases into court and get juries to con-
vict when we have the evidence. Until we reach that stage
we are a long way from the end of the road. I don't know
whether I have left an impression of optimism or pessimism.
I am sure there are no grounds for pessimism. I merely empha-
size that there is a hard job ahead. The percentages we are
able to show in the reduction of losses look mighty good, and
they are the result of a lot of hard, intelligent work on the part
of the men engaged in forest fire protection work.

B. M. LUFBURROW,
Atlanta, Georgia.
We all realize and accept that there is a definite responsi-
bility of all public agencies to assist in forest protection work.
As a fundamental principle we believe that the responsibility
of the state and public agencies should not go further than to
do those things the private land owner himself is not able to
do. We think that there is a decided responsibility upon the
private owner, who as a land owner can see a direct benefit
from the land in the way of financial returns; but the returns
that he receives in turn affect the communities, the locality,
the county, the state and the nation.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Therefore, working on this principle, we of the Georgia
Forest Service have inaugurated a system of cooperation
known to us as'the timber protective organization system.
There we go direct to the land owner and help him
develop an organization for the protection of his land,
and I might say that to date the timber land owners
in Georgia are co-operating with the Georgia Forest
Service, and are bearing 70 per cent of the cost of pro-
tection in the state of Georgia. We find that through con-
structive criticism, advice and assistance in giving them the
benefit of experienced, trained men to do this work, they
are ready, willing and anxious for this information and assis-
tance. We also find that the responsibility in selecting the
type of towers suited to his particular area is appreciated; we
are helping him financially in the operation of protecting his
land to the extent of purchasing towers, constructing fire-
breaks, purchasing fire-fighting equipment and other instru-
ments of protection. We believe, then, that this agency,
through this method of placing the first responsibility on the
timber land owner himself, will be able to go further and make
the money available for the work in the state go further and
get better results than by trying to enlarge the amount of fin-
ancial aid that we give. In other words we think that the super-
vision and the assistance that we give him is really worth more
to him than the 30 per cent financial aid that we give him.
We have found in a number of cases that we went through
some of the most disastrous fire seasons the state has known
in a number of years, and in some cases where these organi-
zations have functioned the first year not an acre lost or burn-
ed over. We have found in the state cases where towns with
a population of a thousand or two, during the fire season,
turned out in full force; the banks, stores, garages, postoffice
and everything closed, and the men went out to fight fires;
they even offered assistance to their neighbors 30 miles away
to fight fires. That, gentlemen, we think is due to the creation
of a public sentiment and a sense of responsibility in the minds
of the timber land owners of that section of just what they
are supposed to do.










FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


H. B. HOLROYD
Louisville, Kentucky.

There is one phase of work that I feel we have not yet got-
ten together on. It is a phase of work in which the railroads
are vitally interested, and in which they are spending im-
mense amounts of money. Along with the railroads there are
chambers of commerce, civic clubs, and municipalities who are
interesting themselves in the same subject. Part of that de-
velopment is a phase of work in which the Southern Forestry
Congress should be, and is interested, but are perhaps not
as actively carrying on that class of work as I believe they
should. I refer directly to Industrial Forestry Work. To il-
lustrate: Most all of the development departments of the
transportation companies carry on agricultural and industrial
development work in their territory. This department is sepa-
rate and distinct from the operating and other departments.
Through these development departments are gotten large
numbers of inquiries for local sites by manufacturers of forest
products.
We have requests for location sites for saw mills, turning
plants, furniture plants, etc., as well as for timber lands. Many
times the necessary data, in specific form, is not readily avail-
able. I have lately taken up this question of having more
available data with the State forestry officials with the idea
of working out a program in co-operation with them. It is to
their interest to build up more industries based on local re-
sources.
Industries are coming South. It is to the interest of the
State departments and these forest localities to help build up
industrial enterprises more or less dependent on the local
forest resources. I feel that these things are matters that the
Congress should interest itself in.

If we could devise some plan of cooperation looking more
particularly to the industrial and commercial phase of develop-
ment.work, I know we would be adding to the forestry prog-
ram. I feel that if we had an organization of a permanent










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


character that could function throughout the year, these types
of forest problems could be given more attention.
The idea of a permanent Forestry Congress, if presented
properly to the public, would meet with merited support
from various public interests, the bankers, lumbermen, and the
various municipalities. It would have a very definite effect in
building up local industries in our various territories.
I think those of you who heard my talk last year will see
the very keen and appreciative interest that the transportation
agencies have of the work of this Congress and other agencies
promoting forestry. The transportation companies are all,
and especially in the South, very much interested in every de-
velopment of the municipalities and communities they serve,
and we feel that they are living up to their civic duties. In
turn, I believe that the development work of the transporta-
tion lines is keenly appreciated by the various communities
served by the several railroads..
I want to leave this thought with you. We should work out
some program whereby we can infuse into our general forestry
program a little more industrial work of the kind that depends
upon our forest resources.

L. D. GILBERT,
Texarkana, Texas.
The company I represent has been engaged in the grazing
business for 15 years. We found early in our experience that
we could not graze profitably if we could only graze nine
months in the year and had to feed three months. We graze all
the year, so we have to protect our ranges from fire. Mr.
Greene has given you a very able discussion of the question of
grazing land, however from the standpoint of the longleaf sec-
tion, where they have wild sedge grass. I may say in that re-
gard, while my knowledge is limited in regard to those grasses,
that if that were my dependence I would not engage in the
grazing business. Our forage grasses are lespedeza and carpet
grass, and you know they are largely reproduced from seed,
and if you burn those lands you don't get reproduction. We
found out that we couldn't even on those ranges, run cattle the
year round if the cow must suckle the calf during the winter, so


I










FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


in order to make our grazing profitable in a small way we have
adopted the policy of shipping our calves. We can get as much
money from a fat calf in October as we can for a poor yearling
in the spring, and if you carry the calf through the winter the
profit is gone. So we have our grazing undertaking where it
is producing a small profit by pursuing that policy.
Early in the beginning of this undertaking we did quite a
little land clearing work. We went over the timber and cut off
all the non-merchantable hardwood and made it into cord-
wood. We carried that still further and cut out all the dead-
wood, and went through and deadened a large area of the
hardwood, leaving the pine undisturbed. Following that we
destroyed the close underbrush, and the result of that was
that immediately there was a very perceptible increase in the
growth of the grass, and following that those young pines came
up, a perfect stand. On those areas our underbrush was com-
pletely killed and never came back, but we have a perfect
stand of young pine trees, which we are protecting, at some
expense to the range; where you protect the crown the range
becomes less valuable.
In the bottom lands-a good portion of the pasture is in
the bottoms, those lands we found were not valuable to us
for grazing purposes. One reason is that the river gets over-
flowed and stays out sometimes for weeks and weeks, and be-
fore another crop of grass can establish itself another over-
flow comes and kills it. In the creek bottom lands we found
that where you deaden the timber the briars and vines come
in and we have practiced controlled burning on those areas
that have been overrun with briars and vines. That, I believe,
concludes my remarks on the grazing proposition and the ad-
vantage of keeping fire off the range. If you are going to have
range you must keep the fire off. We found this, however,
which every forestry man knows, that the increased growth
rate of the timber standing on the land is sufficient to warrant
us in keeping fire out of these lands without considering the
value of the grass.
Now if you don't choke me off I am going to have some-
thing to say on this taxation question. I am one of those Texas
lumbermen about whom Mr. Jones spoke a while ago, and I











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


believe that no matter what our legal rights may be a man
has no moral right to take all the growth off the land and go
away and leave it without any effort on his part to put more
trees on it. I think the lumbermen were to blame in the early
days in that they did not point out to the taxing authorities
that the high taxes were imposing on them the necessity of cut-
ting their timber rapidly in order to get money for the taxes.
If they had presented a united front and gone to the legisla-
tive bodies and other people in authority and said to them,
"Here we are cutting off this crop of timber, and there is being
done nothing to restore, and there will be a day when there
will be a shortage of timber in this country; if you will co-
operate with us we can preserve this timber and have a per-
manent supply," I believe it could have been accomplished;
and it can be done today, but there was a tendency to fight
back and no cooperation. My company is growing trees, and
we are growing them on faith. We know that if they keep
raising the taxes on those trees every year until they reach
merchantable size we couldn't get out on it to save our lives.
If we didn't have that faith that we would get equitable taxa-
tion we would destroy those trees and grow grass on those
lands. Brother Jones one year ago was in a party that took
a trip through our demonstration area over in Trinity county,
and I think he was highly pleased with what he saw. He said
to me, "If you will bring the legislature down here in a body
and tell them what you want you can get what you want."
But in this county where this demonstration is our taxes were
arbitrarily raised 40 per cent. They came to us, the equali-
zation board and the county commissioners, and said, "Our
tax rate has reached the legal limit but we must have more
money and can only get it by raising values. We have to issue
a lot of bonds, and can't issue them on our present rendition.
We have got to have more money, and we have got to issue
more bonds, and the only way to do it is to raise the value
of your lands. We can't raise the rate, but we can raise the
assessment, and we are going to raise your assessment 40 per
cent." Now, what is a man going to do, when he knows there
is going to be a lapse of 40 or 50 years before he can get his
money back? I think the lumbermen were to blame for their











FOREST FIRE PROTECTION


attitude in the past, but the situation can't be remedied now
unless there is cooperative spirit shown and some remedy
found.

LEWIS E. STALEY,
Columbia, S. C.

I feel that the subjects have been very thoroughly and ably
discussed. We all know that we can not grow timber and have
forest fires burn annually, or even periodically. We are going
to have one or the other; we can not have both. If we have
forest fires surely we will not have timber.
South Carolina is a recent addition to the organized forestry
movement in the Southern states. We have not done very
much there yet, but we hope to be able to get started soon.
The Legislature has seen fit to give us a small sum of money
with which to work, and within the next month we hope to
get the nucleus of an organization, particularly for the purpose
of reducing fires; that is one thing we must do. You know in
South Carolina, and perhaps in most of the Southern states
we have only one fire a year. We burn over the whole State.
We do a good job and then quit. People in South Carolina
believe in burning the woods, for reasons which you already
understand. It is that idea we must get rid of in some way.
We have heard this afternoon a number of ways of pro-
tecting forests from fire. I am not going to go into that any
further. I merely want to say that at times we become con-
fused, as I did this afternoon when Mr. Greene told us how
much more cattle weighed that grazed on burned areas than
those that grazed on unburned areas. Mr. Wheeler, United
States Forest Service Lecturer, tells us quite a different story.
It seems to me we must get together on that particular sub-
ject, because if one man in the Department of Agriculture tells
us that cattle do better on burned land, and another man in
the same Department says just the opposite, then we have
reached a point where something ought to be done to satisfy
the timberland owner and the public. If trained men disagree
on the merits of unburned land for grazing, we can not expect











74 SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS

the public to be sympathetic with our forest fire protection
program.
I wish we could stop forest fires because it is the only way
to grow timber, and I am taking home from this conference
a lot of information that will be very helpful to me in my work
in South Carolina.











THE FARM WOODLAND


FRIDAY MORNING SESSION
April 5th.
President Smith opened the session Friday morning and
called upon Mr. J. K. Johnson of the Great Southern Lumber
Company.
Mr. Johnson extended an invitation to all members of the
Congress to come to Bogalusa and be the guests of the Great
Southern Lumber Company on the following day.
Mr. Chapin Jones, State Forester of Virginia served as
chairman for the discussion of the farm woodland problem.
He was followed by Geo. T. Houston of Vicksburg who pre-
sided over the discussion of the hardwood problem.
Hon. Henry E. Hardtner introduced Senator Joseph E.
Ransdell for the closing address of the morning session.
Carl F. Speh, Secretary Pine Institute of America acted as
chairman of the afternoon session dealing with the subject of
the costs and profits of timber growing.


FARM WOODLAND
Chapin Jones, Chairman
State Forester.
University, Va.
-0-
"IMPORTANCE OF THE FARM WOODLAND"
By
F. W. Besley, State Forester,
Baltimore, Maryland
Of the total wooded area of the United States, reported
as, approximately, 465,000,000 acres, 191,000,000 acres are
classed as farm woodland, or over 41 per cent. If we take only
the area east of the Great Plains, the farm woodlands constitute
45 per cent of the forested area, and contains 40 per cent of
the merchantable timber. Restricting this still further to the
southern states, represented in this Congress, the total wooded
area is, approximately, 60 per cent. Of the 350,000,000
acres, classed as forest land in the 15 southern states, 101,-
000,000 acres, or slightly less than 29 per cent is farm wood-











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


land, and if to this is added the 90,000,000 acres classed as
other unimproved land, but probably better adapted to timber
growing than for any other purpose, the farm land not classed
as improved amounts to over 54 per cent. In the last 15 years,
it appears that the area of improved forest land is decreasing,
with a corresponding increase in woodland and other improved
farm land, and according to present trends, we may expect
this condition to continue for some years to come.
As our population increases, more food must be produced
by the farms. But instead of clearing away the forest to bring
more land under the plow,the existing farm acreage will be
subjected to more intensive methods of crop production to
meet the increasing need. This is the tendency today and is
bringing most satisfactory results. Here, too, is a lesson in
forest management that should appeal to every progressive
farm woodland owner. The attempt on the part of few lumber
companies in the South some years ago to convert their cut-
over lands into farms when there was so much idle farm land
to be had at low cost was ill advised, and doomed to failure.
There is in the South today, particularly in the southern
Appalachian section, vast area of abandoned farm land, much
of it badly eroded and most of it reverting to forest growth
very slowly and incompletely. This is classed as farm land,
but found unsuited for field crops or certainly not economical-
ly profitable for such use. It is potential farm woodland and
can only serve its highest use when restored to timber produc-
tion, through forest planting and other artificial aids.
There is little justification on the part of the farm woodland
owner to look upon his woodlands as temporary in character
and on this pretext decline to manage them as a productive
unit of the farm. The country has been so long settled and the
selective process by which forest land has been turned into
agricultural land has been working for 200 years, so that a
status quo has been reached with relationship to land users
that is not likely to be seriously disturbed during the period
when another timber crop can be grown. We may, therefore,
conclude that the present relationship between woodland and
improved land on the farm will not be materially changed for
a long time to come, and that so far as this class of forest


M











THE FARM WOODLAND


property is concerned, we may regard it as in stable owner-
ship, with a definite place in farm management.

Timber Needs of the Farm.
The farmer is the largest user of wood of any class. Nearly
half of all the wood and timber used in the United States is
consumed by farmers. The farms of the South cut from their
own woodlands and use on their farms forest products valued
at $93,000,000., or an average of $108. per farm. This was
in the form of construction material, fencing, fuelwood, and
multitude of other products which secured on the ground
have contributed so largely to the economic independence of
the farmer and enabled him at a very low cost to erect the
necessary structures for the successful operation of the farm.
In addition to the home products, large quantities of lumber
were purchased for farm use. A cheap and abundant supply of
wood has enabled the farmer to meet his needs and devel-
oped the high standard of living which obtains in this country
to a greater degree than is found anywhere else in the world.
The difference between this country and the countries of
continental Europe in the use of wood is not the difference
between a young nation and old nations; it is the difference
between a country with high standards of living and rapid
industrial growth and countries of low standards of living and
industrial conditions largely fixed and unchanging. Picture
an average rural section in France, such as American Soldiers
have seen many times, where a new structure of any kind is
a rare sight, .and means, moss-covered stone buildings of the
time of Jeanne d'Arc must serve the needs of the French
farmer of today. With all its beauty and picturesqueness,
you carry away an impression of economic decadence, of
low standards of living and inefficient methods of farming
under which life is possible only by frugality and restrictions
on comfort unknown to the masses of the American people.
If our high standards of living are to be maintained and
the comforts and conveniences of the farm land extended,
then we must provide an adequate timber supply, in order to
furnish that material which is so easily converted into farm











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


buildings, and it must be produced at sufficiently low cost to
make it available to everyone.
It is not so much a question of getting along with less wood,
as it is a problem of growing more wood on the same farm
area to meet the growing needs of our population. The farmer
who has always found in his woodland the necessary materials
for maintaining his plant in a prosperous condition is very
much handicapped and placed at a decided disadvantage
when perhaps by his own abuse he has so devastated his timber
resources as no longer to be independent, but must make sub-
stantial outlays to secure such material from outside sources
and at mounting cost. The independendence of the farmer
and his material prosperity are dependent to a large degree
upon his woodlands.

Production from the Farm Woodland.
The farmer has often met his pressing financial obligation
by drawing upon the stored-up values in his woodland. A
large part of the railroad ties, poles, piling, and mine props,
in addition to fencing and fuel wood, have been supplied from
the farms. It constitutes an important source of revenue, and
enables the farmer to receive good, remunerative wages for
himself and teams during slack seasons on the farm, and at the
same time brings in substantial revenues.
The value of forest products cut and sold from the farms
of the South in 1920 was $128,000,000. or an average of
$425. per farm. This added to the forest products cut and
used on the farms of the South makes an average of $533. per
farm. This represents the annual income from forest products
and is no inconsiderable part of the farmers' total income.
The farm woodlands represent, as a rule, the poorer lands
on the farm,-those which did not promise a remunerative
field crop, and hence were left uncared for. These are lands
of low productivity, and therefore too apt to be regarded by
the farmer as waste land. They perhaps have served him well
in meeting his own needs, but their possibilities are generally
neglected as a source of regular income.
It is a notable fact that farm woodlands of the South are fail-
ing to produce more than half as much as they are capable of











THE FARM WOODLAND


producing. This is due to lack of effective fire protection, ex-
cessive grazing, and injudicious cutting.

The Farmer as a Timber Grower.
With a large percentage of woodlands in the South owned
by farmers, and the further fact that this class of ownership is
much more numerous than any other, it offers exceptional op-
portunities for practical forest management. The farmer is in
a better position to carry on intensive forest management than
anyone else. The area under his control is relatively small.
He is on the ground and can, therefore, give close attention.
Timber production is growing a crop in which the same general
principals apply as in growing wheat or corn. The difference
lies in the length of time before the harvest. These tracts are
often isolated, and therefore having better natural protection
from fires than any other classes of property, when fires occur
there is someone on hand to give them immediate attention. He
lives in a settled community usually near towns, where there is
a considerable demand for wood and timber products. His
markets are reasonably assured.
The timber crop responds to good treatment the same as
other crops. He is dealing with something that he understands.
The question naturally arises, "Why is not the farmer a better
forester?"
In order to get the farmer's viewpoint, it is necessary to
look at his background. His line of descent from the early
pioneers who blazed the trails through the virgin forest is
direct, and there is in his blood some of the feeling that those
pioneers had toward the forest..
In their difficult task of clearing away this forest, in order
to get at the soil for the growing of crops, the feeling was
inbred that the forest stood between them and a living. Trees
were to be gotten rid of. The larger the tree, the better the
land, and by the same token, the more difficult to clear away.
For a hundred or more years, this was the great task that con-
fronted the pioneer farmers. While the forest to a very large
extent has been destroyed, the feeling that land occupied by
a tree growth is waste land is. held by many, if not most,
farmers even today. It is only where a farmer has secured a











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


substantial lump sum from his woodlands to bridge him over
some serious difficulty that he has much respect for his wood-
land, and too often this is but a temporary feeling.
The progress of forestry for the last 20 years has been re-
tarded more by the farmer class than by any other. Not active
organized opposition, but indifference and a general feeling
that money spent in forest protection and improvement is
largely wasted. Fortunately this prejudice is rapidly disappear-
ing, because the farmer class begins to realize that timber,
which is becoming scarcer and higher priced, is absolutely es-
sential to their well-being, and they are beginning to realize
the possibilities in the development of their woodlands.
There is no class of owners that is in a better position to
handle woodland properly and for whom higher returns may
be realized. Improvement work can be carried on by the farm-
er at the lowest possible cost and at greater profit than to
anyone else. To him, sustained yield, which is one of the pre-
dominating principals of forestry is a matter that he can con-
trol to a higher degree than any other class of owners.
If the farmers of the South would handle their woodlands
with the same intelligent care they give to their field crops,
timber production from farm lands could be increased 100
per cent. A farmer who neglects his woodlands which consti-
tute an average of more than 25 per cent of his farm acreage
cannot be more than 75 per cent efficient. The chances are
that if he fails to apply sound principles in handling his wood-
lands, he is less efficient in handling other crops.
One of the difficulties in working out this problem is the
tenant farmer. Where this system is in operation, it is ex-
tremely difficult for the owner to control cutting in the wood-
land. The tenant has an entirely different viewpoint,-his
concern is in immediate profits, and not interest in future gains
by restrictive management. Excessive grazing and destructive
cutting will in time ruin any farm woodland, and it will take
a long period of time to restore it to productiveness.
The farmer is the most independent class to be found, and
the most difficult to reach, and yet our forestry problems can-
not be solved without his cooperation and active assistance.
Here are these hundreds of thousands of individual owners











THE FARM WOODLAND


whose woodland holdings in the aggregate amount to a large
per cent of the forest land of the South. They cannot be dealt
with in a body,-they must be treated as individual land
owners, independent in thinking and in action.
More has been done through federal and state agencies to
aid the farmer than has been for any other class, and the re-
sults are beginning to show. The forestry departments, the
extension services, and other agencies, have done splendid
work in showing him the way without attempting to exploit
him, and cordial feelings of cooperation are being established.
The excellent examples of practical forest management being
-demonstrated on the lands of large companies and individuals
are very helpful in emphasizing this important work of better
forest management. The virgin forests of the South are rapidly
disappearing, and according to many reliable reports, it is
only a matter of a few years until the rapidly expanding in-
dustrial developments and needs of the South will require
practically all of the timber that can be produced there to
take care of home users and home industries.
There is no section of the country where timber growing
offers greater promise. Here are valuable commercial tree
species, most favorable growing conditions, and an abundance
of cheap land upon which to show substantial profits in timber
growing. The farmer with his woodland tract is directly in line
to profit by this promising outlay. The time is opportune! It
is a process of education, and it would seem that the enlighten-
ed self-interest of the farmer would prompt him to lead the
way in better farm management and greater timber produc-
tion. He must, however, be shown the advantages and this
opens a large field that it will take many years to cover before
the proper results can be obtained.

"HOW TO MANAGE FARM WOODLANDS"
By
W. R. Mattoon, Extension Forester
U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.
Recently a United States Congressman from one of the
middle States wrote to the Federal Forest Service asking for
literature on what he said he formerly considered as the "des-











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


pised woodlot." He had, however, completely changed his
ideas and had become interested in the growing of timber on
the farm, for he had found out that for many farmers timber
is a good money-making crop,-in fact, for certain types of
land, the best crop.
Managing timber on the farm pays. Yesterday the idea of
growing timber as a farm crop for profit was a dream-to-
day it is a reality.
I hold here in my hand a sheet containing information that
has just been worked out in the relative value of timber pro-
ducts now as compared with pre-war values. The items con-
cerned are lumber(at the mill), crossties, pulpwood, round
mine timbers, and fuelwood. The pre-war and post-war values
are compared and carefully weighted by the amounts of each
that is cut. The result shows that the post-war values of timber
products is approximately 70 per cent greater than the pre-
war value. I will ask you please to compare this with the cor-
responding increase in value of the principal farm crops such
as food crops and cotton. The post-war value of the ordinary
farm crops is 25 per cent over pre-war values as compared
with 70 per cent for timber products. This certainly furnishes
an incentive to the farmer for managing his timberlands. It
seems doubtful if the price of any other farm grown commo-
dity has gone up faster than that of timber.
In the present readjustment in agriculture, well under way,
every movement points to the economic necessity of combin-
ing with the production of food crops and livestock that of
other kinds of crops for which the land is best suited. The
one outstanding other crop is timber and its by-products, in
the South, for example, crude turpentine. As well expressed
by Dr. Clarence Poe in a recent issue of the Progressive Farm-
er, "The depression is forcing farmers all over the country into
new forms of thrift, enterprise, and economy." A farmer
said to me last April in Texas, "Our farm problem today
doesn't end at the barn-lot gate or at the water tap." In the
words of a venerable old farmer in North Carolina expressed
while attending a woods demonstration, "I'm getting old
enough to grasp new ideas." The farmer was 74 years old.




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