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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075929/00008
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1951
Publication Date: 1936-1968
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Saltwater fishing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1936/38-1967/68.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1936/38-1959/60 called 3rd-14th.
Numbering Peculiarities: 6th (1943/44) bound with the 6th Biennial report of the Florida Geological survey.
Numbering Peculiarities: Biennium ending Dec.31.
General Note: 13th (1957/58) has a subtitle "Salt water fishing."
General Note: Vols. for 1961/62-1963/64 include biennial reports of the individual divisions of the Board of Conservation.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001589422
oclc - 01410803
notis - AHL3395
System ID: UF00075929:00008
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Succeeded by: Biennial report - Florida Department of Natural Resources

Full Text
cI-3Z.


FLORIDA STATE BOARD
OF


CONSERVATION


14a-*,' -.e4-~- -


555
loth
1951- 52
TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT


















UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES


i____


II II







BIENNIAL REPORT


STATE


BOARD


CONSERVATION

1951-52


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor


57tziaa








I 0 +t






FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


DAN McCARTY
Governor

0 0


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State


J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


CLARENCE M. GAY
Comptroller


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


THOMAS D. BAILEY
Supt. Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


*0


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor of Conservation


















CHARLIE BEVIS '//(ai C W. V. KNOTT BUILDING
Supervisor Telephone 2-4850

April 1, 1953




Honorable Dan McCarty,
Governor,
Tallahassee, Florida.

Dear Governor McCarty:

We respectfully submit the Biennial Report of the State Board of
S Conservation for the years 1951 and 1952.

During the period covered, much good and basic information was
obtained on the biology of certain salt water resources. This infor-
mation was garnered in spite of relatively meager financial means.
These studies should be maintained and, if possible, enlarged.

Insufficient funds were, to a certain extent, responsible for the
almost complete lack of an effective conservation program in Flor-
ida. It has been pointed out in previous Biennial Reports and else-
where that the vast resources of our marine waters are being grossly
neglected. Some aspects of the fishing industry have reached a criti-
cal stage which I believe admits of no complacency on our part.


Respectfully,

CHARLIE BEVIS,
Supervisor










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Review .......................... ..................... 7

Commercial Fisheries ....................................... 10

Licenses Issued for Biennium ................................... 13

Commercial Marine Fish Landings (Food Fish), 1951 ........ 16

Commercial Marine Fish Landings (Non-Food Fish), 1951 .... 17

Commercial Fish Landings, 1951 ............................ 18

Commercial Marine Fish Landings (Food Fish), 1952 ........ 19

Commercial Marine Fish Landings (Non-Food Fish), 1952 .... 20

Commercial Fish Landings, 1952 ........................... 21

Oyster Division .......................................... 23

Sports Fishing ............... .......................... 36

Fisheries Investigation ..................................... 39

Arrest and Conviction Reports ............................. 55

Trends ............................................... 56

Financial Reports ....................................... 63








































oto courtesy St. Augustine and St. Johns County Chamber of Commerce
... in St. Augustine, the shrimp fleet is in...


REVIEW

The past two years were challenging ones for the sports and com-
mercial fishing interests of Florida. Old problems, never before well
defined, came into sharp focus. Several crises that had been devel-
oping for many years, emerged during the biennium.
Mullet, long a dietary staple of the people of the Southeastern
United States and one of the chief products of Florida's marine
waters, became the State's number one commercial fishery problem

7










during 1952. In a sense, the mullet crisis was a highly dramatized
and magnified picture of Florida's other commercial fishing industry
problems.
A detailed study of the problems connected with mullet should
prove highly valuable to anyone interested in the welfare of Flor-
ida's salt water wealth.
Such a study would undoubtedly reveal that inconsistent methods
of production, irregular quality, and primitive marketing practices
have allowed other fish from northern production centers to com-
pete successfully with Florida produced mullet.
Many informed persons believe that the unfortunate situation
regarding mullet will not change to any marked degree until a
dependable supply of uniformly high quality fish is produced. In
some cases, to compete, mullet will have to be dressed, filleted, and
possibly frozen in attractive wrapping.
The State Board of Conservation, charged with the administration
of salt water resources, was financially unable to provide the effec-
tive leadership needed to solve the many problems that bedevilled
the salt water fishing industries of the State.
The commercial and sports fishing interests of Florida and the
supporting industries such as boatbuilding, net supply, trucking
services, gear manufacturing, and fuel and power supply, have been
estimated to be worth $300,000,000.00 to $600,000,000.00 a year. To
license and administer this vast resource, to enforce laws pertaining
to it, and to safeguard it in a highly competitive field, Florida spends
about $250,000.00 a year, or .05% of the total value of the resource.
Even more amazing is the sum spent on research for the greater
utilization and wiser exploitation of marine products. All told, the
State invests approximately $45,000.00 a year on scientific studies
aimed at a better and more sensible harvesting of its marine wealth.
This represents .009% of the total value of the resource, a ridicu-
lously low amount when compared with the financial arrangements
of other states and private industry for the same purpose.
An important function of the State Board of Conservation and the
one most familiar to the public is that of law enforcement. Accord-
ingly, this function suffered most from lack of funds-as it always
has. Conservation agents were paid an average salary of $165.00 a
month. Thirty-six of them were distributed over the coast of the
State. Many of them, unable to live on their salaries, were forced
to supplement their income by extra employment.
8









One of Florida's greatest needs is a complete revision of laws
relating to salt water resources. In many cases, even skillful lawyers
have been perplexed as to the status of certain laws and the legality
of certain fishing methods. Gradually, the public at large and mem-
bers of the legislature have become aware of the antiquated system
of laws under which the State Board of Conservation has been
forced to function. A substantial and beneficial overhauling of fish-
ery laws is expected in the 1953 session of the legislature.
From the standpoint of marine conservation the period 1951-52
could probably be described in one word-awareness. Long neg-
lected laws, insufficient funds, antiquated methods, and irrational
harvesting, all seemed to simultaneously bedevil salt water exploi-
tation and by doing so brought the various crises and problems
sharply into focus. To mention only a few evidences of this aware-
ness, the following can be mentioned:
1. The popular interest in the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries In-
stitute held annually in Miami Beach and sponsored by the
Marine Laboratory of the University of Miami.
2. The founding and organization of the Southeastern Fisheries
Association during 1952.
3. Recommendations by the Attorney General's office for salt
water legal revision.
4. Plans by the University of Miami Marine Laboratory for a
full-scale economic study of Florida fisheries.
5. Strong popular support for the enlargement of the basic studies
on Florida's salt water animals and plants.
6. Growing popular support for a general fishing license for the
financial support of an enlarged and more effective State
Board of Conservation.
As a result of an aroused coastal population, it is confidently ex-
pected that many of the problems will be removed within the next
biennium and that Florida can begin travelling the road back to
its former greatness and prosperity in the salt water sphere.








































. warm waters long coast line vast fishing enterprise.



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
The warm waters that wash Florida's long and intricate coastline
have long supported a vast fishing enterprise. Giving direct liveli-
hood to over 10,000 Floridians and contributing indirectly to the
support of many thousands more, Florida's great salt water fishing
industry ranks fourth in the nation. Only California, Massachusetts,
and Virginia exceed it.
10










An immense wealth of boats, equipment and gear has been as-
sembled for the harvesting of Florida's bountiful marine resources.
Over 870 documented vessels (5 tons and over) were active in 1951.
In addition, 5,850 boats, and motor launches of various types, were
used to bring our famous seafood to market. Over 3,155,000 square
yards of gill nets were used to snare fast swimming fishes such as
mullet and trout; menhaden were trapped in 88,750 square yards of
purse seines. The beaches and flats of the inland waters were drag-
ged by 557,160 square yards of haul seines.
This staggering list could be continued almost indefinitely and
could include such miscellaneous items as 12,145 crab pots, 2,865
fish traps, 11,510 lobster traps, 465,470 square yards of trammel nets,
600,000 yards of trot lines, 554 shrimp trawl nets making a com-
bined length of 11,887 yards, 275 pairs of oyster tongs, etc., etc.
With this navy of boats and almost endless array of equipment,
Florida fishermen produce some $22,000,000.00 worth of salt water
products annually.

navy of boats almost endless array of equipment.










Passing through the establishment of one of the 689 wholesale
seafood dealers of the State, the edible products may then be made
available to the public through one of Florida's 3,600 retail seafood
dealers, or may be rushed to one of the other states for consumption.

FOOD FISHERIES
Shrimp is king. It leads in pounds produced (42,641,853 in 1952)
and in value ($10,600,000.00 for the same year).
In the past 15 or 20 years, several new shrimping grounds have
been discovered in the Gulf of Mexico, one of them near Tortugas,
in the coastal waters of Florida. This new ground, known usually
as the Key West area, has greatly enhanced production during the
past few years.
Florida's shrimp fleet is now strongly based on larger type vessels
that pursue shrimp at ever greater distances from the home port
(see Trends). There is always the hope and possibility that new
grounds may be discovered for our growing fleet of modern vessels.

In volume and value, shrimp is king of the food fish.










NUMBER OF LICENSES ISSUED FOR BIENNIUM

1951
Wholesale Seafood ...................................... 685
Retail Seafood .............. .... ........................ 3,633
Non-Resident Fishing .................................... 407
Commercial Boats ..................................... 7,528
Pleasure Boats ........................................ 1,466
Shrimp Boats .......................................... 770
Sponge Boats ........................................... 42
Snapper Boats ........................................... 17
Menhaden Boats ........................................ 30
Oyster Boats .......................................... 100
Purse Seines ......................................... 10
Non-Resident Boat Tax ................................ 619
Excess Nets ......................................... 164
Gathering Sponges-Section 374.26 ........................ 15


1952
Wholesale Seafood ....................................... 689
Retail Seafood ................. .......................... 3,588
Non-Resident Fishing .................................. 270
Commercial Boats ...................................... 6,825
Pleasure Boats ....................................... 1,456
Shrim p Boats ....................... ................. 711
Sponge Boats ......................................... 73
Snapper Boats .......................................... 20
Menhaden Boats ........................................ 40
Oyster Boats ......................................... 72
Purse Seines ................. ......................... 12
Non-Resident Boat Tax ................................ 628
Excess Nets ............................................ 242
Gathering Sponges-Section 374.26 ....................... 37
13










In volume, mullet is king of the fin fish and, of all the fisheries,
second only to shrimp. In 1951 and 1952, more than fifty million
pounds were produced. From a high of fifty-five million pounds in
one year (1942), production has steadily declined. In 1952, the low-
est year for which reliable records exist, about 24,400,000 pounds
were produced.
Undoubtedly, mullet could have been produced in much greater
quantity in 1952 had the market been stronger. Feeble demand and
low prices kept production down although both coasts of Florida
had an abundance of fish.
In order to avoid the chaotic conditions that existed in the mullet
market in 1952, dealers will be forced in many cases to compete
with cheap fish from northern production centers. This will mean
producing a standardized product, fresh, and probably prepared in
some manner for the housewife. Modern trends to frozen fillets,
ready for cooking, are gradually forcing round fish off the market
in many places.
In 1952, 8,181,211 pounds of crabs were produced. Crab meat pro-
duction and marketing are filled with difficulties and uncertainties.
Prices are not as stable as in many of the other seafoods and ex-
tremely rigorous control must be kept over production at all times
to insure an uncontaminated product. Florida producers have suc-
ceeded well in this highly competitive and tricky industry. Their
production in 1952 places their product third of all seafood items
produced in the State.
Of the fin fish, Spanish mackerel was fourth in volume in 1952.
Caught extensively on both coasts, it accounted for 7,156,933 pounds
of the State's production. Demand for mackerel held fairly steady
during the biennium. It is considered one of the most flavorful of
Florida's fish.
Demand for Red Snapper continued unabated during the bien-
nium and the 5,888,965 pounds produced gave it a rank of fifth
among our harvested food fish. Private concerns and the State
financed studies on preservation, handling, and marketing. Dealers
were noticeably concerned with appearance and texture and showed
interest in new techniques and procedures aimed at prevention of
deterioration of snapper before they reached retail market. This
augurs well for the future of the snapper industry.
Although groupers usually bring a relatively low price in the
market, the demand for them is fairly steady and production re-







I


All told, including turtles, at least 255,320,516 pounds.


mains high. In 1952, 5,249,335 pounds were caught and sold. This
production placed grouper sixth in volume of all Florida's edible
marine products.
Speckled trout, considered one of our finest eating fishes, main-
tained a fair price and fair demand (with a few weak spots) during
the biennium. Trout ranked seventh in volume of all food fish
harvested with a total production of 4,707,946 pounds in 1952.
The King Mackerel, or King Fish, besides being one of Florida's
favorite sports fish, is considered one of the nation's most delectable
scale fish. Our production reached 2,527,036 pounds in 1952, placing
King Fish above the tenth ranking Blue Fish (2,033,198 pounds).
As expected Menhaden led the non-food fish in 1952 with a total
production of 130,768,581 pounds.
All told, the Florida fishermen produced at least 255,320,516
pounds of food and non-food products during 1952. In 1951 this total
was 207,342,314 pounds.










SUMMARY OF


FLORIDA COMMERCIAL MARINE FISH
LANDINGS FOR 1951*
FOOD FISH


No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
Amberjack ................................................ 60,441
A ngelfish ................................................. 2,756
Barracuda .............................................. 76,094
Bluefish .................................................. 1,732,096
Bluerunner ............................................ 843,127
Bonito ................................................. 12,653
B utterfish ................................................ 1,935
Cabio .................................................. 25,843
Catfish (fresh) ......................................... 1,032,602
Catfish (sea) ........................................... 895,869
Cero .................. ................................... 5,457
Croaker ................................................ 98,476
Dolphin .................................................. 25,313
Drum (black) ........................................... 129,517
Drum (red) ........................................... 1,072,481
Eels .................. ................................... 16,521
Flounders ............................................... 99,839
Goatfish .................. ............................... 93,379
Groupers ............................................. 6,879,587
Grunts .................................................. 212,739
Hogfish .................. ................................ 29,342
Jacks (common) ......................................... 720,647
Jewfish ................................................... 120,563
Kingfish (mackerel) ..................................... 3,096,013
Kingfish (whiting) ........................................ 1,334,277
M ullet (black) ............................................ 24,848.463
Mullet (silver) .......................................... 4,226,865
Permit ................................................ 41,041
Pigfish ................................................. 43,361
Pinfish ................................................ 259,167
Pompano .............................................. 966,190
Porgy ................................................... 95,577
Porkfish ............................................... 2,524
Sea trout (grey) ............................. .. ........... 80,668
Sea trout (spotted) ........................................ 4,161,337
Sea trout (white) ........................................ 396,279
Shad .................................................. 321,444
Shad (hickory) .......................................... 28,593
Sheepshead .................. ................... ......... 168,263
Snapper (lane) ......................................... ......
Snapper (m angrove) ...................................... 483,069
Snapper (m utton) ........................................ 148,211
Snapper (red) ........................................ 4,809,856
Snapper (yellowtail) ...................................... 437,649
Snook ................................................. 699,004
Spanish mackerel ........................................ 8,287,436
Spot .................................................. 358,952
Sturgeon ................................................ 3,170
Triggerfish ............................................. 29,220
Tripletail .............................................. 21,726
Unclassified ........................................... 2,560,566
Warsaw ................................................ 212,314

TOTAL FOOD FISH ....................... .......... 72,308,512

*Revised from Recap. of 1951 Fish Census.










SUMMARY OF




Species Reported


FLORIDA COMMERCIAL MARINE FISH
LANDINGS FOR 1951*
NON-FOOD FISH
No. Lbs.
Reported


Alew ives .................................................. 535,764
C igarfish ................................................. 57,906
Menhaden ............................................ 82,963,587
Sharks ................................................. 7,277
Tenpounder ladyfishh) .................................... 994,071

TOTAL NON-FOOD FISH ............................. 84,558,605

SHELL FISH
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
Oysters ................................................. 735,304
Clams .................................................. 16,541
Scallops ............................................... 251,654
Conchs ................................................ 22,522

TOTAL SHELL FISH ............... ................. 1,026,021

CRUSTACEA
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
Blue crabs (hard) ......................................... 8,318.356
Blue crabs (soft) .......................................... 3,436
Spiny Lobster .......................................... 3,097,472
Stone crabs .................. ................... ......... 66,315
Shrimp ............................................... ... 37,940,314
Shrimp Upper East Coast ...................... 8,233,274
Shrim p Tortugas .............................. 19,246,367
Shrimp Campeche ............................. 8,219,168
Shrimp Upper West Coast ...................... 2,241,505

TOTAL CRUSTACEA ............. ........................ 49,425,893

MISCELLANEOUS
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported


Tur
Tur
Tur
Tur
Squ


ties (green) ........................................... 6,446
ties (loggerhead) ...................................... 5,088
ties softshelll) ......................................... 10,843
ties (snapper) ........................................ 64
id ............................................. ...... 842

TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS ............................ 23,283

GRAND TOTAL .................................... 207,342,314


*Revised from Recap. of 1951 Fish Census.
17








SUMMARY OF FLORIDA COMMERCIAL FISH LANDINGS FOR 1951*


Counties


Bay .. ............................
Brevard ...........................
Brow ard .............................
Charlotte .............................
C itrus ................................
C ollier ...............................
D ade ................................
Dixie ................................
D uval ...............................
Escambia and Santa Rosa .............
Franklin .. ..........................
G ulf .................................
H illsborough ..........................
Indian River .......................
L ee ..................................
o L evy ..............................
M anatee ...........................
M artin ...............................
M onroe ..............................
N assau ...............................
O kaloosa .............................
Palm Beach ..........................
Pasco and Hernando ..................
Pinellas ..............................
Putnam and Clay ................... ..
St. Johns and Flagler ..................
St. Lucie .............................
Sarasota .............................
T aylor ...............................
Volusia ...............................
Wakulla and Leon ...................
TOTALS ....................... .


Food Fish
3,258,922
3,332,982
284,331
2,981,159
1,334,070
8,118.047
7,916,700
414.351
619,567
3,330,548
2,886,714
987,290
2,913,762
1,219,008
3,387,510
1,897,777
3,308.918
1,480,980
1,127,634
311,758
1,782,974
5,771,356
689.813
4,093,597
1,455,198
334,130
2,908,055
1,016.877
812,230
1,279.181
1,053.073
72,308,512


84,558,605 1,026,021 49,425,893 23,283 207,342,314


*Revised from Recap. of 1951 Fish Census.


Non-Food
Fish
565,581
13,681



1,150


162,398
3,121,743
119,534
4,274
197,659
417
899
80,909
23,898
1,649
79,594,492
112,972
938
3,000
12,573
513,594
5,163
19,362
2,509


210


Shell Fish
183,403
128

5,715
71,689

350
8,278
17,486
3,535
548,796
26,504
481

92,186
665
438

8,005
8,491
35
15,780

3,484

6,309

16,650

3,588
4,025


Crustacea
3,371
1,322,339
4,785
1,136,715

1,157,589
1,909,529

6,032,339
932,502
2,565,259

191,700
788,136
12,558,257
216
355,111
35,701
13,301,004
2,378,578
4,861
416,149

239,619
293,954
2,122,858
720,670
76,462

786,158
92,031


Misc.






1,979

306
697


652

408
8,000


100


893


9,172
1,006

70


Total
4,011,277
4,669,130
289,116
4,123,589
1,405,759
9,275,636
9,829,708
422,629
6,669,698
4,429,680
9,122,512
1,133,328
3,110,869
2,204,803
16,038,778
1,907,557
3,745,376
1,540,579
14,438,392
82,293.319
1,900,842
6,205,116
692,813
4,349,273
2,271,918
2,469.466
3,648,087
1,112,568
812,230
2,068,927
1,149.339











SUMMARY OF FLORIDA COMMERCIAL MARINE FISH
LANDINGS FOR 1952
FOOD FISH
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
Amberjack ............................................... 82,405
Angelfish .. ...............................................
Barracuda ... ......................................... 66,998
Bluefish .................................... ....... .. .2,033,198
Bluerunner ........................................ 1,042,582
B onito ................................................... 11,996
Butterfish ................................................ 7,748
Cabio ................................................... 21,647
Catfish (fresh) ....................................... 2,340,270
Catfish (sea) ............................................ 709,516
Cero ..................................................... 2,535
Croaker ................................................. 195,835
Dolphin .................. ............................... 26,237
Drum (black) ............................................ 112,224
Drum (red) .................................. ........ 808,762
E els ..................................................... 12,086
Flounders ............................................... 154,696
G oatfish ................................................ 114,999
G roupers .............................................. 5,249,335
G runts ................................................ 152,252
Hogfish ............... ................. .......... ...... 20,427
Jacks (common) ........................................ 698,913
Jew fish ................................................. 84,419
Kingfish (mackerel) .................................... 2,527,036
K ingfish (whiting) ...................................... 1,569,398
Mullet (black) .......................................... 24,444,968
Mullet (silver) ....................................... 2,682,318
P erm it ...................................... ......... 26,394
P igfish ................................................. 44,530
Pinfish ................................................ 194,143
Pom pano ................................................ 952,514
Porgy (W hite Snapper) .................................... 90,183
P orkfish ................................................. 30,812
Sea trout (grey) .................. 35,201
Sea trout (spotted) ..................................... 4,707,946
Sea trout (white) ... ..................................... 263,618
Shad .................................................. 203,029
Sheepshead ............................................... 118,749
Skipjack .................................................. 76
Snapper (lane) ............................... ...... ..... 590
Snapper (m angrove) ...................................... 354,289
Snapper (m utton) ........................................ 180,915
Snapper (red) ................................. ......... 5,888,965
Snapper (yellowtail) ...................................... 389,972
Snook ................................................. 579,106
Spanish mackerel ...................................... 7,156,933
Spot .................................................. 400,797
Sturgeon ................................................. 1,921
Triggerfish ............................................... 73,159
T ripletail ................................................ 13,963
U classified ............................................ 2,684,888
W arsaw ................................................. 290,764

TOTAL FOOD FISH ................................ 69,856,257
19











SUMMARY OF FLORIDA COMMERCIAL MARINE FISH
LANDINGS FOR 1952
NON-FOOD FISH
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
Alewives .................... ............................. 293,324
B allyhoo .................................................. 4,083
Cigarfish ................................................ 396,415
M enhaden ... ....................................... 130,768,581
Sharks .... ............................................... 28,530
Tenpounder ladyfishh) .................................... 337,116

TOTAL NON-FOOD FISH ............................. 131,828,049

SHELL FISH
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
C lam s .................. ................................ 14,721
Conchs ................................................. 14,698
Oysters ................................................ 539,767
Scallops ................................................. 192,033

TOTAL SHELL FISH ................................. 761,219

CRUSTACEA
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported
Blue crabs (hard) ......................................... 8,181,211
Blue crabs (soft) .......................................... 16,026
Spiny Lobster ........................................... 1,612,356
Stone crabs .............................................. 99,294
Shrimp ................................................. 42,641,853
Shrimp Upper East Coast ...................... 6,439,789
Shrimp Tortugas .............................. 11,463,661
Shrimp Campeche ............................. 21,796,279
Shrimp Upper West Coast ...................... 2,942,124

TOTAL CRUSTACEA ................................. 52,550,740

MISCELLANEOUS
No. Lbs.
Species Reported Reported


S quid ............. ........................ ...............
Turtles (green) .. .....................................
Turtles (loggerhead) ......................................
Turtles softshelll) ........................................
Sponge (yellow) .. .....................................
Sponge (sheepswool) ...................................
Sponge (wire) ... .......................................
Sponge (grass) .. ......................................

TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS ............................

GRAND TOTAL ......................................


1,666
86,764
29,757
6,254
15,570
159,897
4,629
19,714

324,251

255,320,516









SUMMARY OF FLORIDA COMMERCIAL FISH LANDINGS FOR 1952


Counties
Bay and Gulf ........................
Brevard ..............................
Brow ard .............................
Charlotte ............................
C itrus ...............................
C ollier ....... .......................
D ade ................................
D ixie ................................
D uval ................................
Escam bia ............................
Franklin .............................
H illsborough .........................
Indian R iver .........................
L ee .............. ...................
L evy .................................
M anatee .............................
M artin ..............................
M onroe ..............................
N assau ..............................
O kaloosa ............................
Palm Beach ..........................
Pasco and Hernando .................
P in ellas .............................
Putnam .............................
St. Johns ............................
St. Lucie ............................
Sarasota .............................
T aylor ...............................
V olusia ..............................
W akulla ........................... ..
GRAND TOTAL ..................


Food Fish
4,496,540
3,209,050
205,824
3,286,696
1,146,729
5,343,195
6,079,983
680,815
895,174
4,620,604
3,549,592
2,363,229
1,231,078
4,167,317
1,161,446
3,044,305
1,703,055
759,374
364,792
1,832,677
5,458,037
584,847
4,713,944
2,529,537
183,015
1,876.771
1,832,779
745,846
612,679
1,177.327
69,856,257


Non-Food
Fish
604,266
342
19,175
92
170

3,800


77,176
10,763,886
3,775
20,010
3,073
78
24,130
36,726

119,975,560
83,473
2,793
1,287
5,431
196,174
4,713
511
227
154
1,027

131,828,049


Shell Fish
30,304


4,711
21,191


438
12,826
7,375
451,145


186,572



14,003
5,800

1,000

5,481

6,411

10,776

518
2,668
761,219


Crustacea
47,158
1,455,987
2,517
245,525

446,629
1,401,490

5,979,269
1,138,665
2,996,488
9,381,410
585,004
12,495,999
25
205,483
34,561
11,070,072
2,419,394
320
11,650

453,385
317,488
1,190,512
261,313
1,078

409,318

52,550,740


Misc.




29,000

1,789
1,000

1,616

495

17
80,979


4,010


200

198,583
6,254


308



324,251


Total
5,178,268
4,665,379
227,516
3,537,024
1,197,090
5,789,824
7,487,062
682,253
6,887,269
5,845,436
17,761,111
11,748,909
1,836,092
16,852,978
1,242,528
3,273,918
1,774,342
11,847,459
122,765,546
1,916,470
5,473,680
586,134
5,376,824
3,049,453
1,384,651
2,138,595
1,845,168
746,000
1,023,542
1,179,995
255,320,516











SPONGES SOLD IN AREA OF KEY WEST, FLORIDA

1951
Wool Sponge ..... 2,100 bunches $10.00 per bunch average $21,000.00
Yellow Sponge .... 125 bunches 3.00 per bunch average 375.00
Grass Sponge ..... 150 bunches 1.50 per bunch average 225.00
Total ................................................ $21,590.00

1952
Wool Sponge ..... 1,700 bunches $ 9.00 per bunch average $15,300.00
Yellow Sponge .... 120 bunches 3.00 per bunch average 360.00
Grass Sponge ..... 200 bunches 2.00 per bunch average 400.00
Total .................... .......... ... ............ $16,060.00



ANNUAL REPORT OF SPONGES SOLD THROUGH THE
TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE, INC.

1951

Rock Island Sheep Wool ................... 1,071,148 lbs. $74,980.38
Grass Sponges ............................ 109,954 5,981.63
Yellow Sponges .................. ........ 122,739 3,682.17
Total ................................................ $84,644.18

1952
Rock Island Sheep Wool ................... 1,707,760 lbs. $119,543.21
Grass Sponges ............................ 244,207 7,326.21
Yellow Sponges ........................... 222,819 6,684.57
Total .................... ......... .... ........... $133,553.99







































... by this procedure, a $250,000.00 increase in production .



OYSTER DIVISION

When the Oyster Division was activated during the first week
of February, 1949, very little was known about the basic biology
of the American oyster as it grows on both coasts of Florida. The
length of the spawning season, the intensity of spawning, rate of
growth, length of growing season, and limiting factors of oyster
survival and well-being were unknown.
23









Nothing was known of the exact potential of various areas which
had figured prominently in the oyster production of the past. Much
interest existed in some areas in the private cultivation of oysters,
but it was not possible, with the information then available, to give
advice to those private cultivators who asked for help.
It was therefore decided by the officers of the Oyster Division
that the most urgent need in the rehabilitation of Florida's oyster
industry was knowledge of the basic biology of the Florida oyster
and facts concerning the various coastal areas of Florida where
oysters might be cultivated.
After the basic biological facts were discovered and recorded, it
was then possible, using this knowledge, to carry out certain meas-
ures which would substantially increase the number of oysters
grown in the State.
This brief report will therefore be divided into two parts, Investi-
gation and Rehabilitation, in the same manner that the work has
been divided.

INVESTIGATION
Baby Oyster Production. Reproduction of oysters in Apalachicola
Bay was intensively studied during the summers of 1949, 1950, and
1951. The results obtained exceeded the fondest hopes of the biolo-
gists and interested persons in the industry. It was found that a
commercially exploitable set of young oysters occurred from April
until November, and that an intensely heavy production of baby
oysters occurred during June, July, August, and September.
The findings are in sharp contrast with those obtained in Chesa-
peake Bay and Long Island Sound where the insufficient production
of baby oysters has seriously handicapped the industries of those
areas for many years. Not only is the length of the spawning season
in those areas usually very short (six weeks to two months), but
in some seasons the production is an almost total failure and is
usually disappointing.
The long, intensive spawning of Florida's oyster confers a potent
advantage to those who wish to cultivate in this area. There is no
risk that expensive cultch planting operations will be a complete
loss, and the cultch can be planted eight months out of the year
instead of the short time that is available in northern waters.
Studies are at present being conducted by the U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service (with the help of the Florida Oyster Division)









into the possibility and practicality of using some of the vast num-
ber of baby oysters produced in Florida as seed oysters in northern
waters. Early results of these studies indicate that the spawning
temperature of the Florida oyster is so high that the seed which is
transplanted from Florida to the Northeast would not be able to
reproduce itself. This would mean that seed oysters would have to
be transplanted from Florida to northern waters each year just as
the Japanese oyster is carried across the Pacific Ocean each year
and transplanted into the coastal waters of the State of Washington.
In addition to the reproductive difficulty, there is also some evi-
dence that Florida oysters are unable to live through the cold
winters of northern waters.
These studies are being continued.
Growth. It has already been established that oyster growth in
Long Island Sound and Chesapeake Bay is approximately an inch
a year and that this growth takes place only during the warmest
part of the year. During the cold winters of northern waters oysters
hibernate and do not grow at all. In the warm waters of Florida,
growth is continuous throughout the year and is extremely rapid.
Growth rate studies in Apalachicola Bay carried out over a two
year period have shown that, on an average, oysters will grow from
microscopic to harvesting size in about a year and a half. This same
growth in northern waters could only be accomplished in about four
years or longer.
In extreme cases three inches of growth was accomplished in
Apalachicola Bay in 37 weeks and growth of six inches in 18 months
is known to have occurred.
Anyone interested in oyster cultivation from a business stand-
point cannot fail to see the advantages of the very rapid growth
rate that has been found to exist in Florida.
Limiting Factors. Most of the estuaries where oysters are grown
in Florida are small and shallow. This means that in many cases
the fresh waters issuing from the mouths of rivers does not get
well mixed with the salt water of the contiguous bays and coasts
before passing over the oyster reefs. This is believed to be a domi-
nant factor in oyster quality in Florida.
Studies especially centered in Apalachicola Bay, but carried on
in others parts of Florida as well, have supported this theory.
Oysters thrive in a mixture of fresh and salt water but if the









relative amounts of fresh and salt water vary the oyster is con-
fronted with serious physiological problems. Oysters exposed to
sudden fluctuations in salinity usually respond by closing their
shells and halting the feeding process. It is easy to see that when
feeding is interrupted several times each day some loss of vigor
can be expected.
Investigations made by the Oyster Division have shown where
regions of rapidly fluctuating salinities exist and these findings are
used in guiding the planting operations of the Oyster Division and
are passed on to those persons interested in private cultivation.
Pests, Parasites, and Predators. Without exception, all of the pests,
parasites, and predators found in Florida have been shown to re-
quire waters of high salinity in order to flourish.
Studies made throughout the coastal areas of Florida have shown
that Melongena corona (crown shell), Thais haemastoma floridana
(drill or conch), and Busycon perversum (left-handed whelk), are
snails which require a relatively high salinity and, where present,
cause much damage by eating oysters.
The oyster "leech", Stylochus inimicus, makes devastating attacks
upon the oyster beds of Florida whenever the salinity and tempera-
ture become high. Not technically a leech, Stylochus is a parasitic
flatworm.


. cause much damage to oysters.


..require a high salinity and ...










Dermocystidium marinum, a newly discovered fungus parasite
which has been incriminated as being the cause of catastrophic
mortalities of oysters in Louisiana, has recently been shown by
Oyster Division studies to exist in Apalachicola Bay and in the
Cedar Key area. These studies will be continued during the summer
of 1953 to ascertain the abundance of D. marinum in various Flor-
ida estuaries.
Temperature and salinity studies carried out by the Oyster Di-
vision in the leading estuaries of Florida, have made it possible for
private cultivators to avoid locations where salinities become high
enough for pests and predators to become bothersome. Naturally,
anyone desiring to take a lease and grow oysters would be well
advised to consult the biologists of the Oyster Division in order
that they can avoid areas likely to be damaged by pests.
Coastal Survey. Two biologists have maintained residences on the
east coast of Florida where they have made studies of the water
temperature, salinity, oyster growth rate, and general conditions of
tides, bottoms, etc. These studies were carried out in one or more
locations in the following counties: Nassau, Duval, St. Johns, Flag-
ler, Volusia, Brevard, Indian River, and St. Lucie.
Results of these investigations are now being written up and
edited. This information will be available to interested parties at
all times.
In addition, a study was made of oyster reproduction in the
vicinity of Wabasso. As was expected this study gave findings
which, by and large, coincided with those of Apalachicola Bay.
Apparently in line with higher water temperature, Wabasso oysters
seem to spawn about six weeks earlier than those in Apalachicola
Bay.
A biologist was stationed in Crystal River for a year (September
1951 to September 1952). This man carried out studies on tempera-
ture, salinity, bottom conditions, tidal flows, oyster growth rate, etc.,
in various locations of the following lower west coast counties: Hills-
borough, Pinellas, Citrus, Levy, and Dixie. In addition, oyster re-
production was studied at Crystal River.
Earlier investigations were made in 1949 and 1950 in the follow-
ing counties: Collier, Charlotte, Lee, and Sarasota.
A biologist was placed in residence at Milton during the summer
of 1952 where he supplemented earlier investigations in the follow-
ing counties: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton and Bay.




























Aim



S. with proper care, no damage to fish and shellfish.


Incidental Studies. Officers of the Oyster Division have received
numerous inquiries concerning the effects of dredging operations
upon oyster beds, shrimp grounds, and fishery resources in general.
Because of the importance of dredging operations to the State of
Florida and to individuals engaged in the business, the Oyster Di-
vision carried on an extensive study of dredging and its biological
effects. Results of this investigation have indicated that biological
damage due to dredging activities has frequently been highly over-
rated. It appears that, using proper diligence and care, dredging
operations can in many cases be carried out without fear of damage
to fish and shellfish.

REHABILITATION
Seafood Sanitation Laboratory. When the Oyster Division was
activated in February, 1949, the demand for Apalachicola oysters
28










was light due to a supposition on the part of many people in West
Florida, Alabama, and Georgia that the entire Bay was polluted
and the oysters were unsanitary. This belief was established be-
cause of an undue amount of newspaper publicity concerning a
small area of Apalachicola Bay which, two years previously, had
been shown to be suspect.
At the instigation of the officers of the Oyster Division, that
agency entered jointly with the Florida State Board of Health and
the County Commission of Franklin County in the establishment
of Florida's first Seafood Sanitation Laboratory.


... in Apalachicola Bay, tests of the waters.












































... in various stages of production, checks on purity and wholesomeness.

This Laboratory consistently makes bacteriological tests of the
waters of Apalachicola Bay, oysters in various stages of production,
and in other ways serves as a check on the purity and wholesome-
ness of the seafood produced in the general area.
If the Laboratory did not exist, the condemned area from which
shellfish could not be taken would be unduly large. No chances
could be taken with the public's health; hence, any area which
might at any time possibly be contaminated would necessarily be
closed as an extreme precaution.
30









The establishment of the Seafood Sanitation Laboratory in March,
1950, allowed a constant surveillance of the purity of various waters
in Apalachicola Bay. At times of high river, when pollution is found
more widely dispersed, the closed area is enlarged accordingly.
When the river is low and the pollution slight the restricted area
can be shrunken or completely eliminated. By this procedure, it is
conservatively estimated that $250,000.00 worth of oysters were
harvested from the general region of the mouth of the Apalachi-
cola River during the years 1950, 1951, 1952, which would other-
wise be permanently condemned and lost to production. This benefit
is completely independent of the fact that the wide publicity given
to the Seafood Sanitation Laboratory helped to give the Apalachi-
cola oyster a reputation for purity which greatly increased its
demand.
Law Enforcement. In September, 1951, two agents of the State
Board of Conservation were assigned to the Oyster Division and
functioned under the direction of the officers of that agency.
Several benefits have accrued as a result of this transfer of
responsibility. A uniformly high quality product has been main-
tained in the oyster industry by a strict enforcement of the three
inch minimum size law. Enforcement of this law has also resulted
in the protection of little oysters until such time as they had
reached 'a more desirable market size and a greater value. The
benefits to the natural oyster bars by the protection of the under-
sized oysters is of great importance.
Uniform quality and sanitary production of oysters was also in-
sured by strict enforcement of the law prohibiting the landing of
market oysters on beaches and subsequent delivery to the market
direct. By making sure that no oysters entered commerce, except
through certified, licensed houses, the Oyster Division helped to
maintain high standards of purity and quality.
The protection of Apalachicola Bay during the summer of 1952
was of great significance. It was the first time in many years that
the natural beds were not heavily damaged by illegal summer
fishing.
Consultation. Biologists of the Oyster Division maintained a close
liaison with the various members of the industry. Frequent inquiries
from persons interested in the cultivation of oysters and requests
for information were always considered to be of prime importance.









Consultation with private oyster cultivators will be continued at
no cost to the persons desiring information.
Planting Operation. When the Oyster Division was activated in
February, 1949, there was no material such as shell available for
use as cultch or substrate to which baby oysters could cling. Partly
to determine the usefulness of such material in this area, and partly
because no other material was available, a scrap drive was started
and old pieces of metal, tin cans, etc., were collected during the
summer of 1949.and were distributed to selected locations in Apa-
lachicola Bay. The results of planting metal in this area were
largely disappointing. In the possibly 50 percent of the instances
where the planting of scrap metal was successful, the benefits were
not renewable, i.e., once oysters were harvested from this material
there was no further possibility that the material would attract
additional oysters. It must remain an important conclusion, there-
fore, that the planting of junk and scrap metal in Apalachicola Bay
is impractical and should be discouraged.
Because dredged shell is the cheapest substrate that can be ob-
tained and used in planting operations, extensive tests were made
during the summer of 1950 to determine if baby oysters would at-
tach to this material. When it was found that baby oysters seemed
to have no particular aversion to dredged oyster shell, 3,000 yards
of this material were purchased for use on an experimental basis
in Apalachicola Bay. It was found that dredged shell had one out-
standing limitation: it could not be planted in any area where tidal
ebb and flow occurred, but had to be placed in quiet backwater
where tidal effects were principally vertical. The fact that dredged
shell can only be used in quiet waters considerably reduces its use-
fulness. However, where cultivation is desired in such waters the
low price of dredged shell makes it attractive.
It should be pointed out that in making the above experiments
with dredged shell only approximately 50 percent of the 3,000 yards
purchased was used. The remaining 50 percent, or 1,500 yards, will
be planted during the summer of 1953 where it has been previously
shown that the use of such material is successful.
Of the 1,500 yards used in experimentation, approximately 750
yards were lost to tidal effects mentioned earlier, and 750 yards
were successful and may be considered permanent, artificially pro-
duced oyster beds. During the summer of 1950, 88,000 bushels of
steamed shell and shell produced as a by-product of the local shuck-





(




*rsw. M B A. .-^


























during the biennium, 114,200 bushels for new beds .



ing operations were placed in Apalachicola Bay. Approximately 25
percent of this material was planted in thick piles in St. Vincent
Sound where it remains today in the form of artificially produced,
permanent reefs. Approximately 50 percent of this material was
planted thinly in scattered areas of Paradise Flats in St. Vincent
Sound in order to bring about a substantial increase in available
oysters in as little time as possible. At the time this report is being
written, January 14, 1953, this temporary, quick-yielding reef has
been heavily fished for two years and the benefits are beginning to
wane.
Approximately 25 percent of the shell planted in 1950 was lost
to the combined forces of the hurricane which came near Apalachi-
cola in September, 1950, and the unusually strong currents and tides
attendant thereto.









By the beginning of planting season, 1951, experience had indi-
cated that any planting to be practical would have to be a perma-
nent installation, and an addition to the already existing natural
oyster bars. Consequently, all of the 50,500 bushels planted in 1951
was deposited on the Bay bottom in thick permanent piles. Ap-
proximately 10 percent of that year's planting operation was lost
because even in piles the shell was unable to remain in place
against some of the currents and tides encountered.
During 1952, therefore, piles were only made where they had
successfully remained in place from previous operations. Although
63,700 bushels of shell were planted in Apalachicola Bay during the
summer of 1952, none were lost except two small experimental con-
signments of dredged shell which were lost to tidal action as de-
scribed above. At the time this report is being written all of the
plantings of a permanent nature, made over a period of three years,
are supporting a luxurious growth of oysters and are appreciably
adding to the total product of this area.
During the four years of the Oyster Division's work, approxi-
mately 2,000 barrels of oysters were transplanted on an experi-
mental basis. Almost all of these transplantings flourished, became
semi-permanent installations, and have been heavily fished by the
oyster tongers.
In conclusion, it should be pointed out that these accomplishments
were made on a budget of $50,000.00 a year.











PUBLICATIONS OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF
OYSTER CULTURE

A Comparative Study of Oyster Condition. Science 109 (2841): 593. June
10, 1949.

Oyster Culture in Florida. Educational Bulletin #5, Fla. State Board of
Conservation and University of Miami Marine Laboratory. April, 1949.

Plans and Progress for Florida Oyster Resources. Proc. National Shellfish
series. 1949 (1950).

Summer Growth of the American Oyster in Florida Waters. Science 112
(2908): 338-339, Sept. 22, 1950.

Hydrographic Studies in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Proc. National Shell-
fisheries, 1950.

Spawning and Setting of C. virginica in Florida Waters. Proc. Gulf and
Caribbean Fisheries Inst. Vol. 3, 1950 (1951).

Variation in Salinity and Its Effect Upon the Florida Oyster. Part One:
Salinity Studies in Apalachicola Bay. Proc. Gulf and Caribbean Fish-
eries Inst. Vol. 3, 1950 (1951).

Spawning and Setting of Oysters in Relation to Seasonal Environmental
Changes. Bull. Mar. Research Gulf and Caribbean. 1 (2), pp. 111-135.
Aug. 1951.

Growth of American Oysters in Florida Waters. Bull. Marine Science Gulf
and Caribbean. Vol. 2 No. 2 (1952).

Effect of Dredging Upon Fish and Shellfish Technical Series, Marine
Laboratory, University of Miami. 1952.

Report on the Marine and Estuarine Fishes of the Apalachicola Region
With Notes on Seasonal Abundance, Ecology and Relation to Other
Commercial Fisheries. In preparation.








































Photo courtesy Marineland, Fla.
S. abundant enticing and hungry.



SPORTS FISHING

Florida's hungry fish continue to entice more and more Ameri-
cans into the open boats of our sub-tropical waters. Lured by the
prospect of hauling in such fighters as Sailfish, Kingfish, Tarpon,
Dolphin, etc., the sportsmen (and sportswomen) came by boat, car,
plane and train during 1951 and 1952 to sample salt water fishing
unsurpassed anywhere in the world.
36










Accurate statistics are unavailable to describe minutely the
growth of the salt water fishing industry. But those familiar with
the coast noted an ever-growing number of party boats and, along
with them, a startling increase in the number of tackle stores, sea-
side restaurants, dockside motels, etc.
It is estimated that there are probably 800 to 1,000 motor launches
along the coast of the State which, with their captains, are available
to take groups to the best locations for catching the scrappy deni-
zens of Florida's coastal waters.
Enthusiasts from as far away as Ohio, Tennessee, and Illinois
often fly to some selected spot in Florida for a week-end of good
fishing and return to their homes from the Sunshine State refreshed
and tanned.
Most Floridians are aware of the great increase in summer tourist
business since World War II. If this trend continues, the summer
tourist business will shortly be as important to the State as the
long-famous winter season. Certainly, one of the prime causes for

S. into the open boats of our sub-tropical waters, more Americans.
Photo courtesy Atlantic Coast Line Railroad










this great summer popularity can be found in Florida's lush and
varied populations of sports fishes and the bright sunny days that
make fishing so easy and enjoyable.
Our salt water fish are so abundant, in fact, that many sports
fishermen in recent years have been able to pay for their fun by
selling all, or part, of their catch. In some instances, sportsmen have
actually made a livelihood by being adept, catching great numbers
of fish, and selling them.
The practice of sportsmen selling their catch has become preva-
lent enough that in some years the so-called sports catch actually
offers serious competition to the products of the commercial fisher-
man who avowedly bases his livelihood on his ability to catch fish.
Perhaps the most serious friction between the sports fishermen
and the commercial fishermen in Florida stems from this situation.
The commercial fishermen contend that they must pay certain
licenses in order to operate, the sports fishermen are not obligated
to the same extent and that, therefore, an unfair advantage is con-
ferred upon the sports fisherman when he wishes to compete with
the commercial boatman.
This situation definitely needs to be clarified, and if the sports
fishermen who sell their catch are jeopardizing the welfare of
Florida's vast commercial fishing enterprise, some remedy should
be found.
Many people in Florida, among them active sports fishermen, are
in favor of a small nominal charge for a salt water fishing license.
They cite the fact that many other states have such a license, in-
cluding California, and that the money is badly needed in order to
support a sound Department of Conservation. The opponents of a
salt water fishing license maintain that a completely free fishing
situation is just one more added inducement for people to come
to Florida in search of piscatorial excitement and that no impedi-
ment, no matter how small, should be put in the way of the sports
fishermen.
It is anticipated that this issue will be brought more and more
before the public in future years.








































... so indispensable to salt water research, Miami University's famous
marine library serves the State.



FISHERIES INVESTIGATION
Scientific research on the marine fisheries of Florida is carried
out for the State Board of Conservation by the Marine Laboratory
of the University of Miami. Separate appropriations support re-
search on shrimp and on the rest of the fisheries.
The general fisheries work (excluding research on shrimp) done
in the 1951-52 biennium may be divided into 13 sections. These
39










sections are shown in the list below which may serve as an easy
index to the discussion to follow.
1. Fishery production statistics
2. Mullet
3. Mackerel and tuna
4. Fishing gear
5. Biscayne Bay fishery
6. Spiny lobster
7. Sponges
8. Snapper and grouper
9. Sailfish
10. Economics
11. Plankton fish studies
12. Emergency investigations: seismic oil explorations, pollution,
Red Tide
13. Information and education
The shrimp research has been conducted in 6 phases, as follows:
1. Life history
2. Technology: control of black spot, refrigeration
3. Exploration for new grounds
4. By-products from shrimp fishing
5. Live bait shrimp fishery
6. Reaction to electrical currents
In addition to the above 19 projects which were wholly or mostly
financed by State Board of Conservation funds, a large number of
activities were carried out by the Laboratory which add to our
knowledge of Florida's marine fishes but which were financed by
other agencies, at no cost to the State. These will be discussed briefly
later. Miami University's famous Marine Library, so indispensable
to salt water research, is also available for all state work.


GENERAL FISHERIES RESEARCH
1. Fisheries production statistics
The system of monthly reports of fishery landings which was
started in 1950 has been expanded and improved in the 1951-52
biennium. Continual efforts are made to increase the accuracy of
the landings and progress in this direction can be reported, although
it is recognized that complete accuracy is still far from being
achieved. In December 1951 the published reports were enlarged

40









to show a breakdown of species by county each month. This in-
creased the usefulness of the reports very considerably.
The statistical program is still being handled as a cooperative
venture with the Fish and Wildlife Service. This agency provides
a full-time statistician in Florida and publishes the reports from
the Washington office. The same scrupulous care is being taken
as formerly to protect the confidential information of individual
fish companies. No unauthorized agency or individual is permitted
access to landing records and published reports group the landings
of all companies in the county.
2. Mullet
Investigations have been conducted on two species of mullet, the
black or striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) and the silver mullet (M.
curema). The greatest emphasis has been on the former species,
which has received more research attention than any other fin fish.
This is consistent with its first rank in value among the Florida
commercial fishes.
The mullet program is being carried out in several phases, one
geographical area at a time being given intensive study. The first
area to be studied was West Florida, from St. Marks to Pensacola,
where sufficient detailed data are available to permit new regula-
tions to be proposed. The east coast of the State was the next to be
considered and the program there is progressing well. Concurrently,
the west coast, from St. Marks to Wakulla is being studied. Next
year the remaining area (the lower west coast) will complete the
detailed study.
A total of 5,550 tags have been put on mullet during 1951 and
1952. Many of the marked fish have been recovered and have re-
vealed valuable data on migrations, growth, mortality and fishing
rates. It appears from the data that several more or less distinct
populations of mullet exist, at least on the west coast. The existence
of races is being checked further by morphometric means (body
proportions, scale and fin ray counts, etc.). Mathematical analysis
of the great bulk of data on this subject is being made to discover
if races can be demonstrated by this means.



































S. from tags in the back .



A total of 22,547 mullet have been examined and measured from
commercial and experimental catches during the biennium for the
purpose of determining age and growth rates, fecundity, size and
season of spawning and related facts. Trustworthy data on these
variables have been secured for West Florida for two seasons and
for East and Midwest Florida for one season. For the first time,
facts are available on which to base proposed regulations for the
fishery.
A relatively small study on the silver mullet fishery was con-
ducted in 1951. Reports of this were issued in the Quarterly Reports.
3. Mackerel and tuna
The Family Scombridae (mackerel and tuna) received attention
during 1951-52. A taxonomic report was issued during the period
which assisted in an understanding of the complex systematic re-
lationships of the fish in this group. A fullscale study of the bluefin















4WA


S. knowledge of growth and migration .
43


r


J









tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is proceeding, including all phases of the
taxonomy, life history and general biology of this species. This in-
vestigation is financed principally by the Charles F. Johnson Re-
search Foundation, but some contributions have been made to the
study by the State fishery program.
Data were gathered on the little tuna (Euthynnus alleteratus)
in cooperation with Fish and Wildlife Service studies of this species.
Information on occurrence, size, food and related data was collected
in the summer of 1951.
The fishery (sport and commercial) for Spanish mackerel (Scom-
beromorus maculatus) and King mackerel (S. cavalla) was studied.
A small depth recorder, manufactured by the Bendix Corporation
was received on loan through the courtesy of Electronics, Inc., of
Jacksonville. Experiments were conducted to discover if this ma-
chine could be used to assist in the detection of mackerel at times
when ordinary methods were inadequate, such as during bright

... to determine a mullet's age, close scrutiny of his scales.

V~xa LkMft*wrsmEss









nights when "phosphorescence" cannot be seen, and during periods
when muddy water concealed the fish. Very encouraging results
have been obtained which may be of considerable importance to
both sport and commercial mackerel fishermen. It has been shown
that mackerel can be detected by the depth recorder, sometimes
when their presence is unsuspected otherwise. Several other species
of fish, including barracuda and groupers, have been "picked up"
by the machine.
4. Fishing gear
Gear studies included trials on a "platform net" to increase the
efficiency of gillnetting for mulelt. These have so far been incon-
clusive but suggest that further experiments will be worthwhile.
Preliminary tests of Japanese-type floating long line gear were made
in 1951. With experienced operators this gear might be successful
in Florida although the number of men required to operate it might
make it uneconomical here.
A high-speed manual commercial fishing reel was described. This
device is designed to increase the efficiency of handline fishing for
snapper and grouper and permit fishing in deeper water.
Part of the difficulty of interpreting and enforcing conservation
laws is the uncertainty as to the gear referred to. To assist the
Legislature in writing the laws and to assist the agents and judges
to enforce and interpret them, a carefully compiled list of definitions
of commercial fishing gears was prepared.
5. Biscayne Bay fishery
A detailed study was made of the commercial fishery of Biscayne
Bay to evaluate the effect of netting on fish stocks, particularly with
reference to sport fishing.
Thirty-eight full-time and 30 part-time fishermen derive income
from the Biscayne Bay fishery and 1,640,000 pounds of fish were
caught in the bay over the two-year period of the study. Of these
fish, almost 98% were mullet, and only 0.5% were sport fish. The
retail value of the catch in the two years was $438,000. Gill nets
and cast nets were the only two commercial gears used, and no
damage to the ecology of the bay is believed to result from fishery
operations. It is concluded that closure of the Biscayne Bay gill net
fishery does not appear to be justified.
6. Spiny lobster
A technical report was issued in July 1951, culminating the spiny









lobster research which had begun in 1944. New biological informa-
tion was summarized in the report, including data on mating and
spawning seasons, sex ratios, weight-length and total length-tail
relationships and growth. Migrations were studied by means of
tagging and spiny lobsters were shown to travel considerable dis-
tances (over 100 miles) in some instances. It was concluded that
spiny lobster stocks were probably not declining. Suggested changes
in regulations included (1) changing the minimum size limit from
one pound weight to nine inches total length, (2) limiting the
amount of spiny lobsters caught for bait during closed seasons to
50 pounds, which must be kept on the boat, (3) returning egg-
bearing females to the water unharmed and (4) repeal of the
prohibition of lobster fishing in Broward County.
7. Sponges
A technical bulletin on a 1947-48 survey of the Florida sponge
beds was completed during the last biennium. The results of this
survey had been made available to the industry earlier, but certain
technical data were published for the first time with the issuance
of this report. Oceanographic conditions and fauna were studied at
38 stations from Dry Tortugas to Panama City. No commercial
sponges were found in depths over 10 fathoms. At 12 stations com-
mercial sponges were found in depths between 3 and 10 fathoms.
Abnormal biological conditions were observed at only one station.
Although incidences of recent damage to individual commercial
sponges were noted at several locations, no recurrence of the 1939
sponge disease was indicated.
8. Snapper and grouper
The red snapper and grouper fishery is one of Florida's oldest.
It has changed little in its production methods since its inception
and has received little attention from scientists. During the past
year and a half a detailed preliminary study of this fishery has
been conducted. This study has been supported only to a minor
degree by the State Board of Conservation, since it has been carried
on as a thesis research project by a graduate student. It will none-
theless be of considerable interest to Florida's fishing industry and
will be published as a Technical Bulletin of the State Board of
Conservation.
The description of the high-speed manual reel, mentioned in the
discussion of fishing gear above, also contributed to the information
on the snapper and grouper fishery.
46










9. Sailfish
Of special interest to sportsmen is the sailfish program. A total
of 301 tags have been put on sailfish with the cooperation of sport
fishermen and charter boat operators. Three of these tags have been
recovered, the first three tagged sailfish known to have been re-
captured anywhere. One of the recaptured tagged fish had carried
the tag for over a year. All three fish were caught in the same
general area where they were tagged.
Food studied of sailfish show that this species eats mainly fish
and cephalopods (octopus and squid). Mackerel and tuna appear
to be the main species eaten.
10. Economics
As biological and technological information on the Florida fish-
eries accumulates it has become increasingly apparent that serious
attention must be given to the economic aspects of the industry.
With this in view, a number of studies have been supported by
the State Board of Conservation. An important segment of the sport
fishing industry, charter boat fishing in Dade County, was investi-
gated in 1951. It was found that at least 36,000 people were carried
yearly by Miami area charter boats. Gross income from trade was
estimated $560,000 yearly.
Another important economic study supported in part by the
Board of Conservation was a marketing survey conducted in south-
ern seafoods in northern (principally midwest) markets by the
Materials Management Center of Wayne University, Detroit. This
study bluntly told Florida's fishermen and wholesalers that they
must produce high quality fish to maintain and expand their
northern markets. Proper packaging and transportation of the
fish is likewise vital.
A considerable number of additional economic studies (which
were not supported by state funds) have been reported at the
meetings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute and pub-
lished in the Proceedings of that organization. Further mention of
the Institute is made below.
Additional emphasis must obviously be placed on economic prob-
lems of the fisheries in the future.
11. Plankton fish studies
Fundamental biological research on the occurrence, abundance
and identification of fish eggs and larvae has been conducted during
47












- j


=-V I


.4'
.4CZ


ILA
jrS


-S/


... for gathering baby fish and eggs, a plankton net .









the biennium. Most of this work has been supported by other than
State funds, but the Board of Conservation has contributed some
money to it. More State support will be given beginning in Feb-
ruary when one scientist will be assigned full time to the new
South Atlantic Offshore Fisheries Investigation. This is a coopera-
tive study of the oceanographic conditions of the South Atlantic
area, which will pay particular attention to eggs and larvae of
commercially important fishes, including menhaden. The states of
Florida and Georgia and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service are
the cooperating agencies.

12. Emergency investigations
The Marine Laboratory has been called upon to conduct a large
number of emergency investigations during the biennium. Most of
these have been of a minor character, but at least two-the Red
Tide and the interference with fishing by oil exploration-have
been major projects.
Several investigations were made of fish deaths due to pollution,
notably in the Miami River and at Ft. Lauderdale. Reduced oxygen
content of the water was found to be responsible in all cases.
Late in 1952 an outbreak of Red Tide occurred on the Florida
West Coast. A team of biologists and hydrographers gathered data
on this, employing an airplane and a chartered vessel which was
equipped with portable oceanographic equipment. A series of hy-
drographic stations was made across two principal areas of the
outbreak. The organism was found to be the same as the one
responsible for the serious Red Tide of 1947, Gymnodinium brevis.
Cultures of the organism have been established and are growing
in the laboratory.
The 1952 outbreak was not as serious as that of 1947, but at the
time that this report was prepared (January 1953), Red Tide was
still present.
Analysis of the data collected will attempt to correlate hydro-
graphic conditions with the blooms of the Red Tide organism, to
increase our understanding of this serious phenomenon.
Increasing activity in underwater seismographic exploration for
oil has created new problems for the fishing industry. Following
oil exploration in the bays around Pensacola, vigorous protests
were received by the State Board of Conservation from the fishing
industry. Claims were made that the explosions killed fish and









shrimp and reduced shrimp catches. Following an investigation
of this matter, recommendations were made that the oil explora-
tions be postponed until after the shrimp and mullet seasons. This
recommendation was followed. A code was suggested to govern
future oil exploration and this will be submitted to the 1953 legis-
lature. Fishing industry protests against the oil company activities
near Ft. Myers and in the Florida Bay have been handled in the
same manner.
13. Information and education
A large volume of requests for information on marine life and
fisheries have been handled by the Marine Laboratory for the State
Board of Conservation. A weekly column entitled "Sea Secrets"
was distributed, beginning in January 1952, to Florida newspapers
and radio stations. The present number of subscribers totals 44. This
column presents accurate information about the sea in non-technical
language, in the form of questions and answers.
In cooperation with the Radio-Television Department of the Uni-
versity, the Marine Laboratory is now preparing a series of 10
fifteen-minute television films on the economics of the sea. These
are for national distribution and are designed to be used for edu-
cational purposes. This project is not supported by the State Board
of Conservation but will assist in the Board's work.
Staff members of the Marine Laboratory have acted as technical
advisors to the State Board of Conservation at meetings of the Gulf
States Marine Fisheries Commission and the Atlantic States Marine
Fisheries Commission.

SHRIMP RESEARCH
1. Life history
This phase of the work has not received a major portion of the
research time because of pressing practical problems of more im-
mediate concern to the industry. Nonetheless some material has
been gathered on the fundamental biology of the shrimp.
2. Technology
The problem of the cause and control of "black spot" in fresh
and frozen shrimp received early attention in the biennium. It was
discovered that origin of this condition was not microbiological and
at the request of the shrimp industry a public announcement of
this fact was made. This was to help allay consumer suspicion that









black spotted shrimp were unfit to eat. Experiments on the control
of black spot led to the discovery that it could be avoided by ex-
cluding shrimp from the air. The most complete control is obtained
by keeping shrimp submerged in cold seawater. Details of this
technique were made available to the industry and were put into
use by shrimp producers.
The refrigerated seawater method of holding shrimp was also
studied to discover if a substitute could be devised for crushed ice
as a refrigerant. On the long trips present-day trawlers make, ice
is not a satisfactory refrigerant. The new method is being used by
some boats and it expected further application will be made of this
work.
Experimentation has also been carried out on freezing and cold
storage techniques. Methods of glazing, storage temperatures, and
related matters have been tested and this work is continuing.
3. Exploration for new grounds
Marine Laboratory biologists have assisted in the exploratory
fishing activities of the Fish and Wildlife Service vessel Oregon in
the Gulf, and the Fish and Wildlife Service and Gibbs Corporation
vessel Antillas. The latter boat is based at Miami. The Oregon has
made cruises only in the Gulf of Mexico, while the Antillas has ex-
plored grounds off Central America, the Bahamas, and Northeast
South America. Extension of present grounds is expected to result
from this work.
4. By-products from shrimp fishing
Considerable quantities of "trash" were caught by shrimp trawls
and are now discarded. This waste material can be converted into
valuable meal. Studies were conducted to find what quantities of
useable trash were caught and to investigate the economic feasi-
bility of establishing reduction plants. It was found that the pro-
portion of trash to headed shrimp averaged 2 to 1 on the East Coast
and 6 to 1 at Key West. Careful analysis of cost estimates of process-
ing and the market value of meal showed that a by-products in-
dustry might be established, if efficient methods could be devised
for collecting the scrap.
5. Live bait shrimp fishery
Live shrimp are the most popular bait for sport fishing in Florida.
Shrimp for this purpose are caught in Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay,
New Smyrna Beach, Tampa Bay and other areas. Trawling for



































... at the University of Miami, a floating laboratory .


shrimp in inside waters is illegal, but is widely done. An investi-
gation was conducted in the Florida Bay fishery to discover whether
this practice was harmful. It was found that the fishery was small
but valuable. Furthermore, the loss of live shrimp for bait would
handicap those who depend upon sport fishing for their income.
It was stated in the report of this investigation that the gear was
probably not adversely affecting the ecology of the area fished and
it was suggested that the fishery be legalized.

6. Reaction of shrimp to electrical currents
It has been known for some time that fish will react in a pre-
dictable manner to the influence of an electrical field. Use is made
of this in freshwater to catch fish, to remove predator fish, etc., and
extensive experiments are being conducted in Germany in attempts
to design electrical fishing gear which can be used in the sea.
52









Experiments in the Marine Laboratory have demonstrated for
the first time (as far as is known) that shrimp will react to an
electrical field. Under certain controlled conditions shrimp can be
forced to swim to one end of a tank. It may be possible in the future
to use this fact in opening up new shrimp grounds which are pres-
ently not capable of exploitation because of obstructions on the
bottom.
NON-STATE SUPPORTED FISHERY RESEARCH
Frequently in the above discussion there have been mentioned
fishery research activities which were carried on by the Marine
Laboratory with only partial support from the State Board of Con-
servation. Some of the expense of the following projects was borne
by outside agencies: statistics, mackerel and tuna, fishing gear,
snapper and grouper, economics, fish life histories, Red Tide, black
spot and refrigeration of shrimp, live bait shrimp fishery, explora-
tion for shrimp and tuna.
In addition to these there are a number of other fishery problems
being studied with little or no financial help from the State. Among
the most important of these are:
(1) The development of underwater television. This is being con-
ducted both by the Electronics Group at the Marine Labora-
tory and by the Fish and Wildlife Service Exploratory Fishing
Gear Development Section. This important Section has its
headquarters at the Marine Laboratory.
(2) The Bluefin Tuna program supported by the Charles F. John-
son Research Foundation.
(3) Studied of the Gulf Stream, supported by the U. S. Navy.
(4) Television programs for educational purposes, supported by
the Ford Foundation.
(5) Studies of plankton, supported by the National Geographic
Society.
(6) The Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute serves to promote
fishery research-biological, technological and economic-by
sponsoring an annual meeting. Its purpose of serving as a
meeting place where scientists, fishery administrators, and
members of the industry can exchange views on common
problems is meeting with increasing success. Five meetings
have now been held. No support for this Institute comes from
State funds, but its usefulness to Florida's industry is large.










PUBLICATIONS


Publications issued on results of fisheries research by the Marine
Laboratory for the State Board of Conservation include mimeo-
graphed reports, Education Bulletins, Technical Bulletins and pa-
pers in national journals. The Laboratory publishes the Proceedings
of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute (one number per
year), the Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean
(4 numbers per year), the Quarterly Reports of Fisheries Research
(4 numbers per year), Florida Landings (12 numbers per year)
and the Biennial Report on Fisheries Research. The following in-
dividual papers were issued in the biennium:

Beasley, Ernest A., Jr. 1951. Some economic aspects of charter boat fishing
in the Miami area. Proc. Gulf & Carib. Fish. Inst.
Broadhead, G. C. 1951. The organization of the Florida marine fisheries
statistical system. Proc. Gulf & Carib. Fish. Inst.
1951. The scientific names of the fishes reported in Florida
Landings. Spec. Serv. Bull. No. 5.
and C. P. Idyll. 1952. Proposed new regulations for the
northwest Florida mullet fishery. Mimeo.
Davis, C. C. and R. H. Williams. 1950. Brackish water plankton of man-
grove areas in southern Florida. Ecology. Vol. 31 No. 4.
Idyll, Clarence P. 1951. Black discoloration in shrimp. Spec. Serv. Bull.
No. 4.
Idyll, C. P., Higman, J. B., and Siebenaler, J. B. 1952. Experiments on the
holding of fresh shrimp in refrigerated seawater. Mimeo.
Idyll, C. P. and John W. Sutton. 1952. Results of the first year's tagging
of mullet, Mugil cephalus L., on the west coast of Florida. Trans. Am.
Fish. Soc. Vol. 81.
Larsen, Spencer A. 1952. Northern markets for southern seafoods. Proc.
Gulf & Carib. Fish. Inst.
Lewis, John B. 1951. The Phyllosoma larvae of the spiny lobster. Bull. of
Mar. Sci. Gulf & Carib. Vol. 1, No. 2.
Mefford, H. P. 1951. Interim report on silver mullet. Ms.
Moore, Hilary B. 1950. The relation between the scattering layer and the
Euphausiacea. Biol. Bull. Vol. 99, No. 2.
Rivas, Luis Rene. 1951. A preliminary review of the western North At-
lantic fishes of the Family Scombridae. Bull. of Mar. Sci. Gulf &
Carib. Vol. 1, No. 3.
Siebenaler, J. B. 1952. Studies of the "trash" caught by shrimp trawlers
in Florida. Proc. Gulf & Carib. Fish. Inst.
Siebenaler, J. B. and Winfield Brady. 1952. A high speed manual com-
mercial fishing reel. Tech. Series No. 4.
Schulman, Mary. 1952. A suggested reorganization of the Florida marine
fisheries laws. Mimeo.
Smith, F. G. Walton, A. Franco Medina and A. F. Brooks Abella. 1951.
Distribution of vertical water movement calculated from surface
drift vectors. Bull. of Mar. Sci. Gulf & Carib. Vol. 1, No. 3.
Vathis, George A. 1951. Problems of fishery administration in Florida.
Proc. Gulf & Carib. Fish. Inst.











ARREST AND CONVICTION REPORT-1951


Total
County Arrests
Brevard ............... 18
Broward ............... 8
Citrus ................. 3
Collier ................ 12
D ixie .................. 2
D uval ................. 8
Escambia ............ 1
Franklin .............. 4
H ardee ................ 3
Hillsborough ........... 2
L ee ................... 7
Levy .................. 8
M anatee ............... 2
M artin ................ 1
Monroe ......... ..... 7
Palm Beach ............ 6
Pinellas ............... 11
Sarasota .............. 8
St. Johns .............. 3
St. Lucie .............. 6
Taylor ................ 3
Volusia ................ 23
146


Acquittals Convictions Pending
4 13 1
0 8 0
0 3 0
0 12 0
0 2 0
2 6 0
0 1 0
1 3 0
0 3 0
0 2 0
1 6 0
1 7 0
0 2 0
0 1 0
0 7 0
0 6 0
0 11 0
0 8 0
0 3 0
0 6 0
0 3 0
4 19 0

13 132 1


ARREST AND CONVICTION REPORT-1952


County


Brevard ...............
Broward ...............
Citrus .................
C ollier ................
D e Soto ................
D uval .................
Franklin ..............
Hillsborough ...........
L ee .................
M anatee ..............
M onroe ................
Okaloosa ..............
Palm Beach ...........
Pasco .................
Pinellas ...............
St. Lucie ..............
Volusia ................


Total
Arrests


11
10
4
6
1
11
2
0
6
2
1
1
23
4
6
2
37

127


Acquittals Convictions Pending
2 9 0
0 10 0
0 4 0
0 5 1
0 1 0
3 8 0
0 2 0
0 0 0
0 6 0
1 1 0
0 1 0
0 1 0
2 21 0
0 4 0
1 5 0
0 2 0
3 33 1

12 113 2










































fnoto courtesy Sarasota News Bureau
S. at the housewives' instigation, processed shrimp and cellophane.


TRENDS
During the past two years several trends were noticeable which
substantially altered the fishing operations of Florida. Some of these
changes were continued from other years while others rapidly de-
veloped during the biennium.
THE USE OF NYLON IN FISHING FACILITIES
Nets
The trend toward the use of nylon webbing in gill nets continued
56










at an accelerated pace after its beginning about 1948. In 1950, it
was estimated that linen gill nets constituted about 80% of the unit
sales with nylon making up the remaining 20%. By 1951 sales of
each type of webbing was about equal. During 1952, about 15% of
the gill nets sold were linen, 85% were nylon.
Although nylon webbing costs more per pound, its tensile strength
is superior to linen. This makes for a reduction in skein size which
in turn reduces the weight of webbing needed to do a given job. As
a result, the apparent discrepancy in price between nylon and linen
is to a certain extent illusory. Length of life also affects the relative
price. Nylon nets are not greatly affected by salt water and they
last much longer than linen; consequently, the price difference is
again found to be misleading.
Rope
During 1952, nylon rope began to obtain acceptance in making
gill nets. Although costing about three times as much as the equiva-
lent units of cotton or manila, this price differences does not take
into account the much longer life of nylon rope in salt water. If
cotton or manila rope were used, several replacements would have
to be made during the life of the net. It is logical to assume that
considering replacement costs plus the expense of rehanging, nylon
rope is not as expensive as its initial cost might indicate.

UNDER WATER TELEVISION
Immediately following World War II, fishing craft utilized super-
sonic equipment. This gave the fishermen a chart showing the
character of the bottom and the location of the fish.
Subsequent electronic experimentation has developed under wa-
ter television, a medium that when put into common use, as it is
confidently expected to be in due course, will revolutionize the
fishing industry. By means of this procedure, people can actually
see the size of the fish, the size of the school, the exact kind of
fish, and the conditions under which it travels. They see the actual
picture.
Under water photography has already been used by some of the
oystermen of the northeastern section of the country. They see
what the oyster looks like in its native beds, how much mud sur-
rounds it, etc.
Research has benefited perhaps as much as actual fishing pro-
57









cedures, for now the scientist can eliminate the haphazard from his
sampling activities. Heretofore, it has been necessary to gather
samples of marine life as best may be, determine as far as possible
what percentage his sample is of the actual population, and com-
pute the value of his findings accordingly. Underwater television
will tend to abolish the archaic approximation method, and the
sample taken can be accurately applied to the quantity observed on
the television screen.

THE PLUS QUANTITY IN BY-PRODUCTS OF
COMMERCIAL FISHING
The fishing industry is today in the same position in which
slaughter houses found themselves two generations ago. They used
to throw away a big part of the carcass of the beef as trash. Today
what used to be discarded as useless brings as much or more
return as what was formerly considered the only usable portion.


S. alang with the shrimp, valuable trash fish ..

N PKISMmw









Uses have been found for the so-called by-products that make them
plus quantities.
So it may be with the fish catch.
New uses are being found, for instance, for fish meal. It has been
discovered that they are rich in dietary supplements that animals
need. Steps have been taken to perfect devices for rendering so-
called trash fish into useful materials.
The fishing industry at large is slow to take up this source of
added income, whether through lethargy or ignorance, but it is be-
lieved in time trash fish and sea-food by-products such as shrimp
heads and crab husks will be found to be a tremendous plus
quantity to the industry. For instance, in Pascagoula, Miss., there
is now a cat food factory which buys trash fish at a price that
makes it profitable for the fisherman to seek them per se.
Some of the more frequently found so-called "trash fish" are:
ground mullet, croker, eels, small ling, pin fish, spade fish, ribbon
fish, white trout, crab, squid, menhaden in small quantities, an-
chovies in small quantities, various types of undersized flat fish
such as flounder which never get to edible size, sea robins, and
others.


900

800


'19 '29 '39 '49'51
YEAR
S. each year, a greater number of boats, five tons and over .









LARGER BOATS IN THE SHRIMPING INDUSTRY
Due perhaps to increased navigational aids, larger demands for
jumbo shrimp, and other causes, the definite trend to larger hulls
for shrimp boats is a determining factor in the boat building in-
dustry. The demand for a bigger boat, one with a wider range and
increased capacity, has resulted in a back-log of orders that will
take a year or more to fill.

THE SEAFOOD INDUSTRY REFLECTS MODERN TIME-
SAVING, LABOR-SAVING AND EYE-APPEALING
FACTORS
The housewife is the basic and ultimate goal of seafood promotion
and consumption. She has been in recent years the target of a gi-
gantic educational program which has actually revolutionized mer-
chandising methods in every food bracket.
This is particularly true of the seafood industry. Forever gone is
the day of the pushcart peddler of piscatorial products. In his place
is the glass and chrome refrigeration counter of the gleaming super-
market, laden with cellophane packaged filleted fish, either fresh
or frozen but more often the latter. These are pan ready. Unsightly
scales and unwieldy whole fish are unsought and unloved by the
lady of the house.
Florida producers have been slow to accept the package market.
In a large respect, this has been responsible for the mullet devalua-
tion the State experienced recently.

"UNDER WATER HUNTING"
A recent increase of sports fishing under water has resulted in
a tremendous market for such specialized equipment as frog-feet,
goggles, oxygen tanks, arrows propelled by pressure, and a multi-
tude of "clubs" or associations of under water hunters. So efficient
and prolific have they become that commercial fishermen have in
some places been forced to take note of the decrease in seafood
population in their areas as a result.

MARKETING
A significant trend is shown in the installation of freezing equip-
ment. While Florida as a whole has been slow to take advantage of
this development, it is nonetheless evident that the freezer is the



































S. way down near the bottom, an increase in excitement .


answer to the marketing situation. When fish are abundant and
prices are cheap quick freezing, for future selling when fish are
scarce and prices are high, is an inescapable solution.
While refrigeration is a part of marketing, it is to be noted that
the United States government led research in this field that has
produced some significant facts. Foremost among these is the fact
that if one is going to freeze fish, this should be determined immedi-
ately the fish is taken. It should be cleaned and frozen as soon as
possible. The authorities warn against taking some fish that have
lain around for some time, not disposed of, then frozen. In this
more than any other instance, time is the essence.
Another factor in the freezing problem is that of temperature. It
has been found that temperatures should be very low even at the
outset.
Also important is the problem of packaging. It was found that a
strong tendency existed in freezing fish meat to de-hydrate it by
61









"burning". This has been off-set by sealing the product in plastic
bags.
Transportation is another vital phase of the marketing process.
Here too the fishing industry has seen great change. Railway Ex-
press, used with such excellent results in foregoing years, has been
replaced in almost all areas by trucks. This is not, however, true of
points where competitive, much used routes exist, such as New
Orleans to Chicago, Miami and Jacksonville to New York, where
competitive lines and competitive carriers keep rates low.

OYSTER CULTIVATION
It is hoped that people will begin to cultivate oysters, now that
the biologists of the state have demonstrated conclusively that
planting oysters on leased bottoms can be a profitable procedure.
Although it should be re-emphasized that while the oyster is 56th
in the national standing for volume of seafood produced, it is fourth
in value and if we take all of the seafood resources and all of the
fresh water resources and combine them, oysters are 9% of the
total in monetary value, exceeding shrimp and tuna. They are just
below salmon, which are 10%.
It is evident that oysters are Florida's "oil wells," for they grow
faster and better here than anywhere in the United States that
they have been studied to date.
Here again Floridians have been slow to take advantage of these
"acres of diamonds," and it is hoped they will find this added source
of proven revenue.











SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

1951
Balance credited to State Board of
Conservation Fund in Comptroller's
Office as of December 31, 1950 ... $ 12,693.74
Released 1951 ..................... $103,663.87
Released 1951 ..................... 99,294.45 202,958.32
$215,652.06
DISBURSEMENTS
Administrative and Office
Salaries .................................... $ 21,107.00
Traveling Expense .......................... 2,376.07
Printing and Office Supplies ................. 19,103.03
Telegraph & Telephone ..................... 2,252.75
Postage & Box Rent ........ ............... 1,736.62
Public Official Bond ......................... 35.00
Rent ...................................... 1,716.20
Freight ..................................... 176.12
Publications & Notices ....................... 206.30
Cleaning ................................... 41.21
$ 48,750.30
Field Division
Salaries .................................... $ 86,525.92
Traveling Expense ........................... 59,757.60
Maintenance & Operation Boats ............. 13,190.87
Insurance .................................. 4,571.42
Miscellaneous Items .................. ....... 897.21
$164,943.02
Balance credited to State Board of Conservation
Fund in Comptroller's Office as of December
31, 1951 .................................... 1,958.74
$215,652.06











SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

1951
Balance credited to State Board of Con-
servation, Oyster Division Fund in
Comptroller's Office as of December
31, 1950 ........................... $11,891.22
Released 1951 ........................ $22,500.00
Released 1951 ........................ 25,000.00 47,500.00

$59,391.22
Refunded to General Revenue .......... 5,025.92

$54,365.30


DISBURSEMENTS
Salaries ......................................
Traveling Expense ............................
Maintenance & Operation Equipment ..........
Telephone & Telegraph ........................
Printing & Office Supplies ....................
Postage .......................................
R en t .........................................
Other Contractual Services ....................
Chemical and Other Supplies ..................
Insurance ....................................

Balance credited to the State Board of Conservation
Oyster Division Fund in Comptroller's Office as
of December 31, 1951 ..........................


$27,168.74
5,050.46
4,261.13
589.25
1,027.14
73.10
1,289.86
8,047.49
3,332.20
649.56 $51,488.93



2,876.37

$54,365.30











SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

1952


Balance credited to State Board of
Conservation Fund in Comptroller's
Office as of December 31, 1951 ...
Released 1952 ..................... $103,669.50
Released 1952 ..................... 110,554.50


DISBURSEMENTS
Administrative and Office
Salaries ....................................
Traveling Expense ..........................
Printing & Office Supplies ..................
Telephone & Telegraph ......................
Postage & Box Rent .........................
Public Official Bond .........................
F right ....................................
Publications & Notices .................. ....
Cleaning ....................................

Field Division
S salaries ....................................
Traveling Expense ...........................
Maintenance & Operation Boats ..............
Insurance .................................
R ent ......... ...........................
M miscellaneous Items ................... ......

Balance credited to State Board of Conservation
Fund in Comptroller's Office as of December
31, 1952 ................... ... .........


$ 1,958.74

214,224.00


$216,182.74


$ 22,352.00
2,029.00
16,354.60
2,207.62
1,374.00
35.00
85.22
103.56
21.51 $ 44,562.51


$ 89,049.75
60,112.60
12,093.86
5,430.29
417.68
721.93 $167,826.11


3,794.12

$216,182.74











SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS


1952
Balance credited to State Board of Con-
servation, Oyster Division Fund in
Comptroller's Office as of December
31, 1951 ........................... $ 2,876.37
Released 1952 ........................ $25,000.00
Released 1952 ........................ 25,000.00 50,000.00


DISBURSEMENTS
S salaries ......................................
Traveling Expense ............................
Maintenance & Operation Equipment ..........
Telephone & Telegraph .......................
Printing & Office Supplies ....................
Rent .....................................
Other Contractual Services ....................
Chemicals & Other Supplies ...................
Insurance ....................................

Balance credited to State Board of Conservation,
Oyster Division Fund in Comptroller's Office as
of December 31, 1952 ..........................


$52,876.37


$23,470.94
9,809.86
4,115.16
550.53
803.12
1,990.98
3,854.27
2,458.80
649.56 $47,703.22


5,173.15

$52,876.37









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FVishermen haul full seine out on one of Florida's sunn.N beaches. This photo
and several others presented here by courtesy of the State Advertising Bureau.


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