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Biennial report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075929/00002
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1940
Publication Date: 1936-1968
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Saltwater fishing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1936/38-1967/68.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1936/38-1959/60 called 3rd-14th.
Numbering Peculiarities: 6th (1943/44) bound with the 6th Biennial report of the Florida Geological survey.
Numbering Peculiarities: Biennium ending Dec.31.
General Note: 13th (1957/58) has a subtitle "Salt water fishing."
General Note: Vols. for 1961/62-1963/64 include biennial reports of the individual divisions of the Board of Conservation.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001589422
oclc - 01410803
notis - AHL3395
System ID: UF00075929:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Succeeded by: Biennial report - Florida Department of Natural Resources

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
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Full Text
































3 3

















FOURTH BIENNIAL


REPORT



BIENNIUM ENDING

DECEMBER 31, 1940


FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF CONSERVATION











R. L. DOWLING, Supervisor

TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Tallahassee, Florida
January 25, 1941
To His Excellency,
S Spessard L. Holland,
Governor of the State of Florida,
Chairman, State Board of Conservation,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Sir:
It is my duty, in compliance with the laws of the State of
Florida, to submit to you an accounting of my work as Supervisor
of the State Board of Conservation for the biennium beginning
January 1, 1939 and ending December 31, 1940.
The activities of the Department are wide in scope. Under
the supervision of this Department are the entire salt water re-
sources of Florida, which include all species of fish, shellfish, sea-
foods and other salt water products of any kind.
The magnitude of this resource is described in the report which
follows, showing the production during the calendar years of 1939
and 1940. The figures were obtained by sending questionnaires
to all producing dealers in the state, followed up and checked by
agents of this Department.
The producers were requested to render a report showing their
production for the years 1939 and 1940, giving as accurate an in-
ventory as possible listing each specie produced, and I believe the
figures hereafter quoted will be fairly accurate as far as they go.
Much seafood is gathered and consumed, however, by persons
who have no license and we have no way of checking on the volume
thus taken and can make no accurate estimate.
A definite study of the production, methods of catching and
harvesting, as well as processing and canning, fish and seafoods in
the various producing centers has been made and compels your
Supervisor to say that without more legal means of controlling and
supervising the industry, production is bound to decline.
With a limited number of men that we can support in the field,
we have endeavored to enforce the law, prohibiting the illegal

3


123778











catching, transporting and handling of fish and seafoods to as full
an extent as the law and the efforts of this limited force will permit.
There is a need for a larger force; many changes and amend-
ments are needed in our conservation laws, permitting an extensive
program of enforcement and a continued rehabilitation of the
oyster and clam beds. This most important work should be carried
on.
Respectfully submitted,
R. L. DOWLING, Supervisor.













COMMERCIAL FISHING


Commercial fishing is reputed to be Florida's oldest industry.
Fishing operations were carried on in Florida waters long before
the territory became a possession of the United States, and until
recently it has been seemingly thought that the supply was inex-
haustible.
It is conceded that Florida's shore-line is longer than in other
states and that our border extends farther out into the sea. This
wide belt of producing waters that wash both the east and west
coast is a vast storehouse or producing ground for this food supply.
These tropical waters produce a wide variety of fish, seafoods,
and other products of aquatic life.
Production figures compiled by the Conservation Department
for the years of 1939 and 1940 show that approximately 147,182,448
pounds of edible fish were caught and sold in Florida during those
two calendar years. 51 varieties of edible fish are included in this
report.
An earnest effort has been made to obtain an accurate report of
the amount of production in all the forty-one counties that touch
on the salt waters and are under the supervision of this Depart-
ment.
The result of this survey is found in the tables printed on pages
17 and 19 of this report.
The extensive use by fishermen of powerful motor boats and
modern fishing tackle, together with increased demands made on
our fishing resources by tourists and residents, added to the waste-
ful methods of harvesting, have combined to deplete the fishing
resources in many localities. As the decline becomes more apparent,
fishermen have resorted to longer and deeper seines, smaller mesh
nets and more effective tackle.
When market prices have dropped, fishermen have endeavored
to recoup their losses by taking more fish. These practices have in
many instances not only further depleted the supply, but have de-
moralized the markets. Despite figures which reveal production of
an enormous tonnage of edible fish and seafoods, as well as non-
food species, there is unmistakable evidence of a decline in pro-
duction.











Methods of marketing and distribution, also merchandising
practices, are in need of improvement.
Quick-freezing and cold storage plants have now been proven
to be practical and necessary and there is a great need for a chain
of such plants to be located at strategic points along the coasts and
their services made available to fishermen and dealers alike.
Lack of such storage facilities, compel the fisherman to sell his
catch quickly which often necessitates price-cutting; and the lack
of uniform distribution facilities often has curtailed to a consid-
erable extent the consumption of fish and seafoods.
If a chain of quick-freezing and cold storage plants were con-
structed and operated in such a way that all producers, large or
small, could carry their products to them for freezing, to be con-
veyed to the consuming markets at proper times, it would do much
toward obtaining better prices and increasing the consumption of
fish and seafoods.
Figures shown in tables on pages 17 and 19 show in a concise
manner where the production comes from and what it amounts to
in the aggregate, as well as the total amount of each species, which
would indicate where freezing and storage facilities would be
required.

NON-FOOD AND TRASH FISH

Production of non-food fish, including sharks, menhaden and
other non-food fish, constitutes another important phase of the salt
water industry.
Millions of pounds of menhaden and hundreds of tons of sharks
are produced annually in Florida waters and are now being pro-
cessed in a profitable manner.
The menhaden is a small fish, very oily and not generally used
for food. They are taken in great quantities with fine mesh nets,
mostly in the deep waters off-shore. Its flesh is pressed and oil
extracted. The residue is ground into meal and used in commer-
cial fertilizer, tankage, etc.
This industry is one of considerable importance in Florida.
Five plants were processing menhaden at the time of our last
biennial report in 1938. There were five plants operated during
1939 and 1940.











Hundreds of boats and much other equipment is employed in
this industry. As you will note, the 1939 and 1940 figures will show
a marked increase in the production of menhaden in Florida
waters.

Shark-fishing is comparatively a new, but promising industry
in Florida. This predator, or "Lion of the Sea," until recently
was looked upon as a nuisance and a menace to our fish supply, but
the shark is now beginning to have a commercial value. The liver,
oil and skins are in good demand and there is a growing interest
in the processing of oil which is rendered from the liver. This oil
is sold commercially as a nutrient in chicken feed, dog and cat
food, and also as being fine for human consumption. The skins are
tanned and made into leather which has many useful purposes.
The teeth and eyes are used in the novelty trade and oftentimes
the head and backbone of the shark are utilized in the same manner.

There are no figures available as to the amount of oil processed
but there is evidence that this is a growing industry and will prove
profitable to the owners and will furnish much employment for
labor.

It has been the policy of this Department to encourage all such
industries as they employ a goodly number of persons and remove
this predator from our waters.

SHRIMP

More than 14,477,780 pounds of shrimp were produced and mar-
keted from Florida waters during the calendar years of 1939 and
1940. It is estimated that as many as three hundred shrimp boats
ply our waters at intervals in search of this choice seafood.
It has been said that shrimp are like millionaires ... they spend
the winter in Florida.
It can be truthfully said that Florida waters are most produc-
tive of shrimp of superior quality and they should command a
superior price in the market.
Much improvement in marketing of Florida shrimp could be
worked out, since most of the shrimp produced in Florida waters
are consigned rather than sold f. o. b. shipping point.
Much regulation, not now on the statute books, is needed for
the protection of shrimp.












It is conceded by the best informed that shrimp spawn in the
outside waters as they migrate up and down the coast. The small,
young shrimp immediately go into the inside, or brackish waters
to grow to maturity.

If caught in the inside waters, the major portion of the shrimp
have not reached their normal growth. Your Supervisor believes
that these shrimp should be protected by prohibiting the catching
of shrimp in the inside waters by any method other than a common
cast net, so that immature shrimp could be returned to the waters
while yet alive.

In catching shrimp with a trawl, all immature shrimp are com-
pletely destroyed as they are dead when the nets are brought in
and under-sized shrimp are returned to the water dead and worth-
less.

Protection such as suggested would permit many people who
are not able to own power equipment to make a living catching
shrimp in the inside waters without destroying the under-sized
shrimp.

The power boats with heavier equipment would find an abund-
ant supply of shrimp in the outside waters if shrimp were pro-
tected in the inside waters and the supply could not be depleted,
since mature shrimp are produced in one season.

OYSTERS
Nothing in America's long list of foods excels the oyster. It is
not only palatable, but is one of the finest foods in health-giving
qualities. Eaten raw or cooked, relished both ways, it is easily as-
similated and provides a beneficial diet for young or old, weak or
strong.

Florida oysters are noted for their fine quality. More than
994,765 gallons of this fine product were produced and marketed
from Florida waters during the two calendar years of 1939 and
1940.

There is much improvement that could and should be made in
the marketing of Florida oysters consumed in Florida or brought
in from other states, notwithstanding the fact experts concede that
Florida's warm waters will grow oysters more quickly than any
other state and they are of superior quality.











Much rehabilitation work has been done for the oyster industry
during the past two calendar years and rehabilitation work should
be continued by the Conservation Department.
Many hazards threaten our oyster supply. The oyster has
many natural enemies and from time to time Providential disas-
ters occur to obliterate them entirely for a time.
Unless supervision and rehabilitation methods are constantly
pursued, the supply becomes gradually depleted.
A few years ago, Florida's supply of oysters was at a low ebb
of production and shucking houses, canning plants and oyster pro-
ducers had been reduced to a minimum.
There were few, if any, well-ordered and sanitary plants in
operation. In the past four years much improvement has been
noted in that connection. Sixty-four sanitary plants have been
certified by the State Board of Health and are now in active opera-
tion under improved, sanitary conditions.
Some planting and rehabilitation projects have been carried on
in the past two years by the Work Projects Administration, spon-
sored by this Department, and a large acreage has been planted or
rehabilitated. The work has practically ceased, however, due to
the fact that all available WPA labor is needed on Defense Pro-
gram projects.
During the Biennium the department worked with the W. P. A.
in planting 983,711 barrels of oyster shell which covered approxi-
mately 2,073,093 square yards.
Pollution is a real threat to the oyster industry. Towns and
cities as well as large manufacturing plants in many coastal sec-
tions, are discharging raw sewerage into the rivers and bays that
pollute the waters for miles around and make oyster culture im-
possible. For that cause alone, two of the most productive oyster
sections in the state have been condemned.
There exist in the state today oyster bars planted during the
past two or three years that are furnishing a livelihood for a large
number of persons who would otherwise be on relief.

CLAMS

At the beginning of the writer's supervision of this Department
.the clam industry was given consideration.











It was found that dredging operations had been carried on for
many years in the waters of Monroe and Collier County and a large
canning plant was in operation at Collier City.

Investigation also disclosed the fact that the wrong kind of
equipment was being used and the dredge was destoying, or break-
ing a large percentage of the clams that were dug, which was in
itself a great waste.

In addition to this, the broken clams and shells going back
into the ground created a menace to the rehabilitation of the beds.
Wherever the dredge was working the ground was left in an un-
even condition that practically eliminated clam production for
many years to come.

At the suggestion of this Department, an improved dredge has
been installed and is now in operation. The improved machinery
is breaking practically no clams and the work of the dredge is be-
ing done in the deeper waters, resulting in no hazard on the future
supply. This leaves the shallow waters for hand-digging of clams.
We find that clam harvesters are required to pay two cents a
barrel privilege tax whereas oyster producers are required to pay
five cents a barrel. Your supervisor would recommend that the
price of the tax on clams be increased and made uniform with the
tax charged on oysters.

Florida has unusually fine clam beds and more manufacturing
plants would find a supply here.

CRABS

The demand for crab-meat has been growing constantly and
several new plants for packing crab meat are now in operation.
In some counties where one plant was in operation three years
ago, we now find as many as six plants all finding a ready market
for the meat that is produced from blue claw crabs.
Three years ago the crab-meat producers asked for some pro-
tection of the female, or sponge crab and the State Board of Con-
servation passed a resolution forbidding the catching of sponge
crabs.
The producers have cooperated with this ruling and it has been
most beneficial to the industry in all parts of the state.











Figures show that a large amount of crab meat is shipped into
the state each year and this industry invites increased production
in Florida.
This increased activity in crab-meat production is furnishing
employment for a large number of persons who otherwise would
be idle during the summer months when employment is most
needed.

FLORIDA LOBSTER OR CRAWFISH
The Florida spiny lobster, commonly called the crayfish, or
crawfish, is abundant in the Miami and Key West waters of south-
ern Florida.
The delicately flavored meat of the Florida crayfish is admit-
tedly as good as the northern lobster, but there is a difference in
the two. The Florida species has no pincers or large claws, has
longer legs, and is marked conspicuously, having long, whip-like
antenae studded with spines.
Conservationists tell the same tale of wanton waste of lobsters
they do of oysters, shrimp, turtles, clams and fishes.
Besides being a prized seafood, one that is much sought after
by man, the Florida crayfish is taken in large quantities as bait
by fishermen who fish for larger game. This practice of catching
crayfish for bait has induced many violations of state laws regu-
lating size limits and closed seasons, and has caused much trouble
for those charged with enforcing the laws.
Fishermen call it the crawfish, dealers ship it as Florida
lobsters, and experts label it spiny lobster. But whatever the
name most convenient, it has found an important place in the
fishing industry of south Florida. It is being demanded more
than ever by Americans who are learning to appreciate fine food
and Florida seafoods.

Where and How Crayfish Are Caught
Most of the crayfish are caught less than a mile from shore.
The largest one ever taken measured 17 inches in length and
weighed 8 pounds. Fishermen take them with hook and line.
No special permit is required. The average market size is about
9 and 10 inches in length and these weigh a pound or slightly
more. -State laws are being enforced to put a stop to the catch-
ing of crayfish weighing less than a pound after cooking.-r











Some of Its Habits
Crayfish is a prolific breeder. Florida lobsters, or crayfish re-
quire only three weeks for incubation of the eggs. Spawning is in
the spring and summer.
Lobsters and crayfish are bottom fish. They are not free swim-
mers and they do not appear in schools. Soft-shelled lobsters, like
soft-shelled crabs, are not another species, but appear only, as
shedders, a temporary state following their casting off of their
old shells to permit growth of the body.
Crayfish require about three years growth to reach marketable
size.
As a Food
The meat of the lobster, or crayfish, is rich in minerals and
health factors. It contains phosphorous in large quantities and
this fact is highly important to consumers of these sea luxuries.
There is said to be no food yet discovered which conveys phosporous
so readily into the human system in an agreeable form, and readily
assimilated, as the flesh of the crayfish and the crab.


SPONGES
One of Florida's splendid industrial resources is the sponge
industry, which employs many people and is susceptible to a
healthy increase by rehabilitation methods well-known to the
best informed.
During the past four years, this Department has found a con-
stant patrol necessary in order to regulate the taking of sponges.
Our efforts have been rewarded to a considerable extent in the
elimination of the taking of under-sized sponges and the enforce-
ment of the diving laws.
Many instances which space will not permit us to mention,
show that law enforcement in this connection has been well worth-
while.
Amendments to the sponge laws are essential.
The annual production of sponges is shown in the tables on
pages 21, 22 and 23 of this report.
Less than two years ago, a blight appeared and caused much
alarm among those interested in the sponge industry. An investi-
gation by this Department showed that at various intervals in the

12











past such a blight had occurred and usually was not of long dura-
tion. Federal authorities were called in and the final result of the
investigation showed that while a large number of sponges were
killed by the blight, for some unknown reason the blight passed
away and young sponges were found to be growing, with no real
damage to the ultimate supply.

Production was curtailed for awhile, but only one crop was
seriously affected.

Lack of space forbids our mentioning many other products of
the sea which add much to Florida's wealth.


SPORT FISHING

Sport or pleasure fishing has played an important part in
making Florida famous all over the world.

The Florida State Chamber of Commerce is authority for the
statement that two million six hundred thousand tourists came to
this state during the season of 1939-40 for recreation.

Your Supervisor ventures to say that many thousands of these
visitors went fishing one or more times during their visit as a part
of that recreation.

While this invading army of fishermen was taking a heavy toll
of our food and game fish, another large army of our own residents
was fishing for food and fun and a tremendous tonnage of fish
was removed from Florida's waters.

Although this phase of fishing activities has helped to make
Florida famous, yet our commercial fisheries have contributed in
equal proportion by making available hundreds of tons of delicious
food products, so valuable to mankind.

The tides that wash our long shore-line bring a bounty of
wealth that cannot be matched elsewhere and this great resource
came to Florida as a heritage from nature. A vast crop was plant-
ed with no help from man. This crop requires no cultivation; no
fertilization; yet it yields bountifully to seasonal harvesting.

Many thousands participate annually in fishing tournaments
in Florida and bring in to the state a vast wealth unsurpassed by
any other recreational feature.











Realizing how valuable this resource is to our state, we will be
indeed neglectful if we fail to maintain a well-ordered, well-
equipped Conservation Department to regulate the taking of this
heritage by establishing closed seasons during the spawning time
of the various species, creating bag limits and rehabilitation meth-
ods to preserve the supply and regulate the industries which sub-
sist thereon.
Much controversy has been evident between the commercial
and sport fishermen. A definite study of the importance of both
phases of our fishing resources and benefits compels your Super-.
visor to state that there is little need for such controversy.
School fish can be caught by no other method than nets. The
size of mesh, size of twine and length of nets with proper closed
seasons will protect our school fish.
Other species are caught with hook and line and the sportsman,
as well as the commercial fisherman, should be agreed on methods
of preserving the supply.
Size limits and closed seasons will perpetuate the supply.
A well-ordered and well-equipped Conservation Department can
enforce the regulations if supplied with sufficient revenue to main-
tain an adequate force to do the work.
If our law-makers will consistently inform themselves as to the
needs of legislative measures, always conferring and cooperating
fully with the organized Conservation Department of the State,
Florida's fishing resources can be maintained on a high standard
and Florida can retain her fame as a sport fishing center; also, the
commercial fisherman will better thrive under such regulations as
he agrees are essential.
At the end of this biennium, fish and seafood producers and
dealers are enjoying a more prosperous period than in many dec-
ades prior to this time.
Fish and all kinds of seafoods are bringing better prices and
more than ten thousand fishing boats are actively engaged in catch-
ing fish from Florida's waters to supply this increased demand.
More dealers are in business than heretofore during this ad-
ministration.
All men interested in fishing are constantly agreed that con-
servation of our salt water resources is one of the outstanding
problems and necessities.











During the past few years, Florida's fishing resources have
had much favorable publicity.
Through the efforts of your Conservation Department the mag-
nitude and merits of fish and other salt water resources have been
brought to the attention of the public and the rank and file of
our people today are clamoring for better conservation of our fish-
ing resources, due to the fact that they are better informed on the
subject.
Your Supervisor respectfully requests the State Board of Con-
servation to support and maintain the work which is now in
progress.
The State Board of Conservation, as a Department, is supported
entirely from license fees collected from wholesale and retail sea-
food dealers; boat licenses; privilege tax on oysters and clams;
etc.
No money has been furnished this Department during the past
four years from the General Revenue Fund, other than the appro-
priation for the Geological Division which has the supervision of
the mineral resources and is supported entirely from an appropria-
tion from the General Revenue Fund.
Your Supervisor recommends that a small inspection tax be
placed on all mineral products such as phosphates, clay, etc.,
which would not be a burden on those industries and yet would
furnish ample revenue for carrying on that most important work
without being a drain on the General Revenue Fund.
Florida Law provides that a license be paid on all boats plying
in the salt waters of Florida if engaged in any way in fishing.
There has been a lot of opposition to the payment of this license;
it has been hard to collect and it takes a tremendous amount of our
agents' time to get this revenue.
Your Supervisor would recommend that this law be repealed
and a more equitable method found to finance the Department,
many of which he could suggest.

Respectfully submitted,
R. L. DOWLING,
Supervisor of Conservation.
















SPECIES REPORTED


FOOD FISH

Amberjack ............................ ...
B luefish..................................
Blue Runner...............................
Bottom Fish (Mixed) ..................... .
Bream ...... ...........................
Ballyhoo .................................
Butterfish. ...............................
Cabio. ................... ..............
C at F ish .................................
Cero............................... ........
Cigar Fish. ........................ .....
Crappie................ ........... .....
C revalle....................... ..........
C roaker.............................. ......
Dolphin. .............. .. .........
D rum ..... .........................
E els............ .............. ..........
Flounders.................................
G roupers.................................
G runts...................... ............
H erring .... ................. ..........
H ogfish...................................
Jew fish.......... ...................... .
K ing M ackerel.............................
K ing Fish ................................
Lady Fish ................................
M ackerel...................... ..........
M ullet ..................................
M utton Fish...............................
Permit............ ...... ..............
Pigfish ..................................
Pinfish (Sailors Choice) ...................
Pom pano...... ....................... .....
Porkfish...................................
Red Fish (Bass) .................. ..........
Shad ...................................
Shad, H ickory ............................
Skipjack..................................
Sheepshead...............................
Snapper, M angrove.........................
Snapper, R ed.............................
Snook ....................................
S pot ....................................
Sea Trout, Gray............................
Sea Trout, Spotted .......................
Sturgeon ..................................
Tripletail. ................... ...........
T urbot...................................
Y ellow tail ....................... .........


TOTAL FOOD FISH.................. ..............


STATISTICS FOR 1939-1940
1939


REPORTED
TAKEN



5 Counties
25 Counties
9 Counties
27 Counties
14 Counties
2 Counties
6 Counties
5 Counties
15 Counties
2 Counties
2 Counties
10 Counties
4 Counties
4 Counties
4 Counties
11 Counties
2 Counties
19 Counties
21 Counties
5 Counties
2 Counties
3 Counties
12 Counties
19 Counties
11 Counties
1 County
23 Counties
33 Counties
8 Counties
7 Counties
6 Counties
5 Counties
26 Counties
3 Counties
25 Counties
6 Counties
1 County
7 Counties
19 Counties
17 Counties
17 Counties
16 Counties
13 Counties
13 Counties
30 Counties
2 Counties
2 Counties
1 County
4 Counties


POUNDS
REPORTED



74,483
2,628,434
514,147
2,191,334
1,804,856
11,400
25,593
17,207
2,572,572
21,000
75,930
594,813
31,952
19,420
111,140
112,147
24,294
241,845
4,817,282
49,260
505,043
92,180
183,111
3,304,339
295,947
5,000
8,858,511
32,921,522
232,590
74,930
21,300
11,420
936,106
17,000
475,840
354,785
41,662
340,023
81,361
202,804
5,037,288
500,215
69,721
237,542
3,046,233
12,146
12,275
1,750
207,875

74,019,628














SPECIES REPORTED


NON-FOOD FISH

Alewives..................................
Menhaden..................................
Porgies... ................................
T rash F ish ................................

TOTAL NON-FOOD FISH..............


CRABS, CRAYFISH, AND SHRIMP

B lue C rabs ................................
Stone C rabs ..............................
C rayfish..................................
Conches.................................
Shrimp ...............................


SHELL FISH

Oysters..................................
Clam s..................................
Scallops...................................


REPORTED
TAKEN


I. ________________________


2 Counties
7 Counties
3 Counties
5 Counties


9 Counties
5 Counties
8 Counties
2 Counties
14 Counties


32,000
78,270,519
35,261
18,127

78,355,907




2,294,224
56,901
405,296
47,040
6,150,953

8,954,414


GALLONS

844,076
3,045
16,732

863,853


87,070


17 Counties
6 Counties
7 Counties


TOTAL ..... .......................... ...............


Turtles. .................... ..........


POUNDS
REPORTED


TOTAL .................................. ..............


_~


4 Counties












1940


SPECIES REPORTED


FOOD FISH

A m berjack ................................
Barracuda.................................
Bluefish...................................
Blue Runner........................ ......
Bottom Fish (Mixed) .................. ....
Bream ............................. ......
B allyhoo ..................................
Butterfish. ................................
Cabio.....................................
C at Fish .................................
C ero .....................................
Cigar Fish.................................
C rappie..................................
C revalle...................................
C roaker...................................
Dolphin. ................................
D rum ....................................
Eels......................................
Flounders.................................
Groupers........... .....................
G runts..................................
Herring ..................................
H ogfish..................................
Jewfish..................................
King M ackerel.............................
Kingfish ................................
Ladyfish..................................
M ackerel..................................
M ullet....................................
Mutton Fish...............................
Permit....................................
Pigfish ....................................
Pinfish (Sailors Choice) ....................
Pom pano..................................
Porkfish.................................
Red Fish (Bass)................... ........
S had ....................................
Shad, Hickory .............................
Skipjack.................................
Sheepshead................................
Snapper, M angrove.........................
Snapper, Red.............. .............
Snook .....................................
Sp ot.....................................
Sea Trout, Gray...........................
Sea Trout, Spotted........................
Sturgeon..................................
Sunfish ...................................
T ripletail.................................
T urbot .. .......................... .....
Y ellow tail ................................


TOTAL FOOD FISH................... ..............


REPORTED
TAKEN




9 Counties
1 County
25 Counties
9 Counties
27 Counties
14 Counties
1 County
7 Counties
5 Counties
16 Counties
2 Counties
2 Counties
10 Counties
5 Counties
5 Counties
2 Counties
12 Counties
1 County '
18 Counties
22 Counties
5 Counties
2 Counties
2 Counties
15 Counties
20 Counties
12 Counties
1 County'
23 Counties
33 Counties
8 Counties
5 Counties
5 Counties
7 Counties
25 Counties
2 Counties
24 Counties
7 Counties
2 Counties
6 Counties
17 Counties
16 Counties
16 Counties
16 Counties
10 Counties
13 Counties
31 Counties
2 Counties
I County
2 Counties
1 County
2 Counties


POUNDS
REPORTED




35,561
75
1,995,215
671,059
2,218,305
1,309,018
103,600
32,119
12,186
2,923,926
24,600
108,711
'303,208
17,320
137,240
114,420
144,586
16,623
124,988
4,818,808
27,775
438,767
86,050
189,506
2,286,022
239,571
9,000
9,422,560
33,718,807
169,866
88,844
8,898
17,677
947,583
4,400
490,045
345,362
29,659
374,007
115,622
199,803
4,422,138
545,549
61,829
271,642
3,332,745
4,200
225
17,600
1,400
184,100

73,162,820














REPORTED POUNDS
SPECIES REPORTED TAKEN REPORTED


NON-FOOD FISH

Alewives .................................
Menhaden..................................
Sharks ....................................
Trash Fish .............................
P orgies................. ...................

TOTAL NON-FOOD FISH............


CRABS, CRAYFISH AND SHRIMP

Blue Crabs ...................... ........
Stone Crabs .............................
Crayfish...................................
Conchs ..................................
Shrimp .................... ........ .......
Squid....................................


T OTAL ............................


SHELL FISH

Oysters ...................................
Clam s....................................
Scallops ..................................


2 Counties
7 Counties
2 Counties
4 Counties
3 Counties

..............


14 Counties
4 Counties
9 Counties
2 Counties
17 Counties
1 County





20 Counties
8 Counties
8 Counties
8 Counties


T OTAL ............................ .. ............


T urtles....................................
Frogs ....................................


4 Counties
1 County


31,084
77,431,895
6,371
49,264
87,969

77,606,583




3,955,880
44,104
399,837
42,950
8,326,827
80

12,769,678


GALLONS

150,689
1,906
269,221

421,816


31,883
41,627












TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE, INC.
TARPON SPRINGS, FLORIDA
1939
ANNUAL REPORT ON SPONGES SOLD THROUGH THE
TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE, INC.

ROCK ISLAND SHEEPWOOL
Average
Bunches Total per Bunch

Large Wool .................. 3,865 $ 142,582.27 $ 36.89
Medium and Small Wool........ 17,964 239,941.72 13.35
Large Wool Rags.............. 10,415 281,329.07 27.01
Medium and Small Wool Rags... 31,025 252,444.77 8.13
63,269 $916,297.83
YELLOW GRASS WIRE
Yellow ........................ 40,316 $ 79,249.67 $ 1.94
Grass......................... 15,893 24,490.81 1.54
Wire......................... 9,262 15,515.55 1.68
65,471 $119,256.03
GRAND TOTAL

Bunches Total

Rock Island Sheepwool-All Grades. ........... 63,269 $ 916,297.83
Yellow-Grass-Wire......................... 65,471 119,256.03
128,740 $ 1,035,553.86
DISTRIBUTION OF CATCH
Hook Boats
Diving Boats Inshore

Rock Island Sheepwool-
Middle Range...................... $644,163.38 $ 81,933.84
M iddle Deep........................... 130,062.79 ...............
Deep W ater ........................... 60,137.82 ................
$ 834,363.99 $ 81,933.84

Yellow Middle Range .................. $ 47,133.82 $ 15,668.87
Yellow Middle Deep.................... 12,744.87 .............
Yellow Deep W ater...................... 3,702.11 ................
$ 63,580.80 $ 15,668.87

Grass ................................. $ 17,420.40 $ 7,070.41
Wire........ .......................... 15,515.55 ...............
$ 96,516.75 $ 22,739.28

Total Catch by Diving Boats ...............................$ 930,880.74
Total Catch by Hookers ....................... .. ... .... 104,673.12
GRAND TOTAL-All boats .................................... $1,035,553.86













TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE, INC.
TARPON SPRINGS, FLORIDA
1940
ANNUAL REPORT ON SPONGES SOLD THROUGH THE
TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE

ROCK ISLAND SHEEPWOOL
Average
Bunches Total per Bunch
Large Wool ................... 5,083 $179,616.10 $35.33
Medium and Small Wool........ 12,021 205,032.30 17.05
Large Wool Rags.............. 8,173 215,949.12 26.42
Medium and Small Wool Rags.. 21,300 225,525.74 10.59

_46,577 $826,123.26
YELLOW GRASS
Yellow ....................... 3,162 $ 8,566.40 $ 2.70
Grass... ..................... 6,752 12,520.93 1.85

9,914 $ 21,087.33
GRAND TOTAL

Bunches Total
Rock Island Wool ........................... 46,577 $ 826,123.26
Yellow Grass ................................ 9,914 21,087.33

56,491 $ 847,210.59
DISTRIBUTION OF CATCH

Hook Boats
Diving Boats Inshore

Middle Range Wool .................... 712,462 $ 71,294.26
Middle Deep W ool ..................... 42,367 ...............

$ 754,829 $ 71,294.26

Yellow.............................. $ 7,322.80 1,243.60
Grass. ................................ 3,632.87 8,888.06

$ 10,955.67 $ 10,131.66

Total Wool, Diving and Hooker .......................... $826,123.26
Total Yellow Grass, Diving and Hooker ......... .......... 21,087.33

GRAND TOTAL. ..................... ............... $847,210.59














SPONGES SOLD ON DOCK AT KEY WEST, FLORIDA

1939


W ool.........................
Grass........................
Yellow .......................


Bunches


12,425
353
2,044


Total


$ 48,989.95
107.06
1,537.78


Average
per Bunch


$ 3.94
.30
.75


* Conservation Department unable to get figures for 1940.
































RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS

January ist, 1939 through December 31st, 1939
























S...-.... .. ...
4'. o* 4 ,

\..'-.o -., .5..,
....... -... .
.", > *.. .. -. .. .* .
-* ** '* < .













STATE CONSERVATION FUND
SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
JANUARY 1st, 1939, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1939
BALANCES AND RECEIPTS

Total Balances on Hand,
January 1st, 1939 ............... $ 29,391.87


Total Receipts from Commercial Salt
Water Fishing Industry.......... $ 75,836.01
Total Receipts from Oyster Industry. 16,512.26
Total Receipts from Sponge Industry 3,858.25
Total Receipts from Pleasure Fishing
Boat Licenses .................. 13,372.40


109,578.92 $138,970.79


DISBURSEMENTS

Total Disbursements from Adminis-
trative and Office Division....... $ 23,268.77
Total Disbursements from Field Di-
vision......................... 77,736.96
Total Disbursements from Oyster Re-
habilitation Division ............ 2,638.36 $103,644.09


Total Balances on Hand December
31st, 1939......................


35,326.70 $138,970.79


STATE CONSERVATION FUND
JANUARY 1st, 1939, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1939
RECEIPTS

Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in
Comptroller's Office, January 1st, 1939. ....... $ 1,053.58
Balance Credited to State Board of Conservation
in Capital City Bank, Tallahassee, Florida, on
January 1st, 1939 ........................... 27,427.89
Unpaid Checks on Hand January 1st, 1939 ....... 910.40 $ 29,391.87
COMMERCIAL SALT WATER
FISHING INDUSTRY

Resident Wholesale Fish Dealers Li-
censes (Collected under Old Law). $ 4,915.00
Resident Wholesale Seafood Dealers
Licenses (Collected under New
Law).......................... 23,355.00
Resident Retail Fish Dealers Licenses
(Collected under Old Law)....... 2,379.50


I












Resident Retail Seafood Dealers Li-
censes (Collected under New Law) $ 21,840.00
Wholesale Crab Meat Plant......... 50.00
Alien Retail Seafood Dealers Licenses 150.00
Resident Commercial Fishing and
Oystering Vessel Licenses ........ 10,977.70
Alien or Non-resident Commercial Fish-
ing and Oystering Vessel Licenses. 850.00
Alien or Non-resident Commercial
Fishing and Oystering Licenses 970.00
Resident Shrimp Boat Licenses...... 1,629.65
Alien or Non-resident Shrimp Boat
Licenses ...................... 1,000.00
Alien or Non-resident Shrimp Fishing
Licenses ....................... 230.00
Resident Menhaden Fishing Boat Li-
censes ......................... 627.05
Alien or Non-resident Menhaden
Fishing Boat Licenses........... 1,075.00
Alien or Non-resident Menhaden
Fishing Licenses ................ 750.00
Purse Seine Licenses ................ 525.00
Dredge Boat Tax. .................. 25.00
Excess Net Tags ................... 63.00
Permit Tags ....................... 174.50
Court Costs and Witness Fees....... 918.05
REFUNDS ......................... 75.70
Miscellaneous Collections:
Aetna Insurance Company, Hart-
ford, Conn: Insurance
on State Boat No. 1
burned at Jacksonville
April 17th, 1939..... $1,500.00
Costas Panagis, Tarpon
Springs for Law En-
forcement in Sponge
Areas............... 300.00
Confiscated Mullet and
Roe................ 432.76
Confiscated Crayfish 11.82
Confiscated Shrimp.... 2.85
Confiscated Shrimp
Trawl.............. 15.00
Confiscated Nets....... 89.00
Confiscated Leads,
Corks and Lines..... 94.00
Confiscated Hoop Net.. 2.00
Redeposit Warrant
No. 68611-Kinsey &
Son, DeFuniak Springs 4.40
Redeposit Warrant No.
69386-Supt. of Docu-
ments, Washington,
D .C................ 1.00












M. C. Newman-Wela-
ka-Refund Storage
paid Welaka Fish
Company, Welaka...
Refund Court Costs-
Cunningham vs. Ski-
riotes by U.S. Treas-
ury, Washington .....
Refund on Insurance
Policy C-103739 on La
Salle Sedan.........
Hartford Accident and
Insurance Company,
Hartford-Safety
Driver Award-Policy
No. 75044-71659-
Buick Sedan.........
Reimbursement Long
Distance Call-Fran-
ces Taylor, Pensacola,
May 2nd, 1939......
Reimbursement Long
Distance Call-G. W.
Peterson, Miami ....
Reimbursement Gasoline
and Oil Chas. W. Gas-
kill, Bradenton ......
Balance due on Boat Li-
cense-Wm. L. Smith,
Islamorada..........
Aetna Insurance Com-
pany, Hartford, Conn.
-Reimbursement
damages to various
State Boats.........
A. J. Robida, Jax-
Trade LaSalle Sedan
for 1937 Pontiac Sedan
Tag for above LaSalle..


3.00


14.10

7.53




4.67


1.20

.25

55.97

.40



99.66

600.00
16.25 $ 3,255.86 $ 75,836.01


OYSTER INDUSTRY

Lease Rentals and Fees. ............ $ 1,252.55
Wholesale Oyster Dealers Licenses
(Collected under Old Law)........ 175.00
Retail Oyster Dealers Licenses (Col-
lected under Old Law)........... 675.00
Canning Factory Licenses........... 100.00
Duval Engineering & Contracting
Company, Jacksonville-Royalty
and Shell Mined from Shell Lease
N o. 241........................ 11,490.62
Paving Material, Inc., Jacksonville-
Shell from Shell Lease No. 244.... 110.92 $ 13,804.09















Two CENT PRIVILEGE TAX

Two Cent Privilege Tax............ $ 1,484.80 $ 1,484.80


THREE CENT PRIVILEGE TAX


Three Cent Privilege Tax ...........$ 1,223.37


SPONGE INDUSTRY

Resident Sponge Boat Licenses ......$ 1,363.25
Alien or Non-resident Sponge Boat
Licenses ....................... 500.00
Alien or Non-resident Sponge Fishing
,Licenses....................... 1,995.00


1,223.37


3,858.25


PLEASURE FISHING BOAT LICENSES

Resident Pleasure Fishing Boat
Licenses. .................... 12,347.40
Non-resident Pleasure Fishing Boat
Licenses. ....................... 1,025.00 13,372.40 $109,578.92

TOTAL TO BE ACCOUNTED FOR ......................... $138,970.79








DISBURSEMENTS


ADMINISTRATIVE AND OFFICE DI-
VISION:
Salaries. ........................ $ 15,786.91
Traveling Expenses .............. 3,112.20
Printing and Stationery ........... 508.07
Postage......................... 1,335.00
Telephone....................... 1,275.22
Office Supplies.................... 484.64
Office Expense.................... 294.86
Office Equipment ................ 177.64
Mailing and Clipping Service ...... 200.00
Bonds and Insurance ............. 89.73
Advertising and Educational Ex-
pense......................... 4.50 $ 23,268.77












FIELi) DIVISION:
Salaries........................ $ 40,771.88
Traveling Expenses.............. 19,957.26
Printing and Stationery........... 3,184.70
Postage......................... 175.00
Telegraph....................... 415.04
Badges and "X" Tags for Cars
and Trailers.................... 19.72
Educational and Advertising...... 1,111.99
Legal Expenses .................. 325.10
Bonds and Insurance............. 1,649.75
Miscellaneous Field Expense ...... 233.81
Repairs and Upkeep Chevrolet
Sedan ........................ 135.62
Repairs and Upkeep LaSalle Sedan 1.50
Repairs and Upkeep Pontiac Sedan 46.61
Repairs and Upkeep Buick Sedan.. 284.26
Miami Office Expenses:
Rent.................$300.00
Telephone............. 135.08
Office Supplies......... 3.25
Office Expense......... 12.00
Office Equipment...... 109.76 560.09

Jacksonville Office Expenses:
Rent.................$130.00
Telephone............ 140.88
Office Supplies......... 28.47
Office Expense......... 6.00
Office Repairs ......... 44.72
Office Equipment...... 160.90 510.97

Purchase and Maintenance of
Equipment other than Boats.... 41.60
Rent, Purchase, Operation and
Maintenance of Boats:
Groceries ........$ 298.38
Gasoline and Oil.......2,842.72
Rent and Dockage..... 732.50
Supplies for Boats...... 136.65
Miscellaneous Repairs
and Upkeep of Boats. 1,922.22
Miscellaneous Expense.. 47.42
Payments on "Watson
Boat".............. 375.00
Miscellaneous Equip-
ment for all Boats... 421.27
Insurance on Boats .... 712.50 7,488.66

REFUNDS 823.40 $ 77,736.96












OYSTER REHABILITATING DIVISION:
Charlotte County:
Gasoline and Oil and Ex-
pense Accounts......$180.17
Supplies. ............. .27.35
Miscellaneous Expense.. 6.00
Boat Expense and Re-
pairs............... 20.70

Franklin County:
Gasoline and Oil and Ex-
pense Accounts...... $ 74.27
Supplies.............. 41.55
Miscellaneous Expense.. 51.00

Okaloosa County:
Gasoline and Oil and Ex-
pense Accounts...... 112.09

Santa Rosa County:
Gasoline and Oil and Ex-
pense Accounts...... 142.10
Boat Rents and Repairs 120.00

Sarasota County:
Miscellaneous Expenses. 37.50

State Wide Project:
Salaries. ............. .$600.00
Expense Accounts and
Gasoline and Oil... 1,101.10
Supplies .............. 12.86
Miscellaneous Expenses. 15.82
Insurance on LaSalle
Sedan.............. 91.45

Walton County:
Gasoline and Oil and Ex-
pense Accounts...... 4.40


234.22




166.82


112.09



262.10

37.50







1,821.23


4.40 2,638.36


TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS JANUARY 1ST,
1939, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st,
1939 $103,644.09


Balance credited to State Conserva-
tion Fund in Comptroller's Office
December 31st, 1939............
Balance credited to State Board of
Conservation in Capital City
Bank, Tallahassee, Florida, De-
cember 31st, 1939..............
Unpaid Checks on Hand December
31st, 1939. ....................


$ 2,495.94


32,012.11

818.65 35,326.70

$138,970.79












ARREST RECORD, JANUARY 1st, 1939 THROUGH
DECEMBER 31st, 1939

Convic- Costs and
COUNTY Arrests tions Pending Acquitted Fees


Brevard............ 3 ...... 1 2 $...
Broward........... 2 ...... ...... 2
Citrus............. 3 3 ...... ...... 80.25
Collier.............. 6 3 ...... 3 122.55
Dade.............. 11 3 ...... 8 9.39
Duval............. 12 2 ...... 10 82.02
Escam bia.......... 1 ...... ...... 1 ...
G ilchrist ........... 1 ...... ...... 1 ...
G ulf............... 1 ...... 1
Indian River....... 2 2 ...... ...... 5.88
Lafayette*......... ...... ...... 253.28
Lake.............. 3 1 ...... 2 20.75
M anatee........... 3 2 ...... 1 8.20
M arion............ 13 13 ...... ...... 78.00
M artin............ 4 1 ...... 3 3.88
M onroe**.......... .. 1 1..
Palm Beach........ 12 12 ...... ...... 184.35
Pinellas ............ 10 1 9 ...... 8.00
Putnam ............ 4 ...... ...... 4 ...
St. Lucie........... 4 ...... ...... 4 ..
Taylor............. 7 2 3 2 36.75
Volusia............ 3 3 ...... ...... 24.75

106 49 14 43 $918.05

Handled by this Department-Should have been sent Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission-Refunded to that Department, December 31st, 1940.
** Costs paid in 1940.





















RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
January Ist, 1940 through December 3Ist, 1940












STATE CONSERVATION FUND
SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS
JANUARY 1st, 1940, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1940
BALANCES AND RECEIPTS

Total Balances on Hand
January 1st, 1940............... $ 35,326.70
Total Receipts from Commercial Salt
Water Fishing Industry .........$ 74,665.07
Total Receipts from Oyster Industry. 10,111.89
Total Receipts from Sponge Industry. 3,115.35
Total Receipts from Pleasure Fishing
Boat Licenses................. 12,205.35 100,097.66 $135,424.36


DISBURSEMENTS

Total Disbursements from Adminis-
trative and Office Division...... $ 24,258.36
Total Disbursements from Field Di-
vision........................ 87,013.25
Total Disbursements from Oyster
Rehabilitation Division.......... 311.37 $111,582.98

Total Balances on Hand December
31st, 1940..................... 23,841.38 135,424.36


STATE CONSERVATION FUND
JANUARY 1st, 1940, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1940
RECEIPTS

Balance Credited to State Conserva-
tion Fund in Comptroller's Office
January 1st, 1940.............. $ 2,495.94
Balance Credited to State Board of
Conservation in Capital City
Bank of Tallahassee, Florida, on
January 1st, 1940 .............. 32,012.11
Unpaid Checks on Hand January 1st,
1940................. ........... 818.65 $ 35,326.70
COMMERCIAL SALT WATER
FISHING INDUSTRY

Resident Wholesale Seafood Dealers
Licenses................ .....$ 27,020.00
Canning Factory Licenses........... 200.00
Resident Retail Seafood Dealers Li-
censes. ................ ........ 25,535.00














Non-resident Retail Seafood Dealers
Licenses....................... $ 50.00
Resident Commercial Fishing and
Oystering Vessel Licenses ........ 12,029.60
Non-resident Commercial Fishing
and Oystering Vessel Licenses.... 900.00
Alien or Non-resident Commercial
Fishing and Oystering Licenses ... 740.00
Resident Shrimp Boat Licenses...... 1,524.05
Alien or Non-resident Shrimp Boat
Licenses....................... 625.00
Alien or Non-resident Shrimp Fishing
Licenses........................ 160.00
Resident Menhaden Fishing Boat
Licenses ....................... 686.85
Alien or Non-resident Menhaden
Fishing Boat Licenses ........... 1,125.00
Alien or Non-resident Menhaden
Fishing Licenses................ 1,275.00
Purse Seine Licenses................. 550.00
Dredge Boat Tax.. .............. 50.00
Excess Net Tags.................... 36.00
Permit Tags ....................... 324.50
Court Costs and Witness Fees....... 392.42
REFUNDS......................... 63.02
Miscellaneous Collections:
Aetna Insurance Company, Hart-
ford, Conn.: Reimburse-
ment Damage to Boat
"Chris-Craft" ......... $180.08
Aetna Insurance Company,
Hartford, Conn.: Reim-
bursement Damage to
"P. A. Watson" Boat.. 31.67
Reimbursement Work-
men's Compensation In-
surance, Grover Hack-
ney, Fort Meyers...... 63.00
Reimbursement Work-
men's Compensation In-
surance, Chas. W. Gas-
kill, Bradenton......... 2.57
Redeposit Warrant No.
102923-Lake City Re-
porter, Lake City...... 35.00
Redeposit Warrant No.
20239-Geo. H. Leon-
drd, Milton........... 10.00
Reimbursement Telephone
calls from Miami Office 5.58
Sale of Confiscated Fish. 920.83
Sale of Confiscated Cray-
fish................... 29.90
Sale of Confiscated Nets. 50.00
Sale of Confiscated Leads,
Corks and Lines ....... 15.00
Sale of Confiscated Seines. 35.00 1,378.63 $ 74,665.07













OYSTER INDUSTRY


Lease Rentals and Fees ............$
Duval Engineering & Contracting
Company, Jacksonville,
Florida: Royalty and Shell
Mined from Shell Lease
No. 241 .......... .... $5,634.38
Bradenton Dredging Com-
pany, Inc., Bradenton,
Florida: Royalty on Shell
Lease No. 36........... 117.79
Kinzie Brothers Steamer
Line, Ft. Myers, Florida:
Shell mined from Shell
Lease No. 64........... 604.59

F. F. Myers, Jacksonville-
Blue Print of Oyster Lease
N o. 505 ................ 2.00
John J. Klarer, Fernandina-
Blue Print of Hooper
Lease.................. 2.00
J. J. Myers, Jacksonville-
Photostatic copies of
Privilege Tax Reports... 5.30


1,851.64











6,356.76


9.30 $ 8,217.70


Two CENT PRIVILEGE TAX

Two Cent Privilege Tax............$ 1,073.30 $ 1,073.30

THREE CENT PRIVILEGE TAX

Three Cent Privilege Tax...........$ 820.89 $ 820.89

SPONGE INDUSTRY

Resident Sponge Boat Licenses ......$ 965.35
Alien or Non-resident Sponge Boat
Licenses. ....................... 475.00
Alien or Non-resident Sponge Fish-
ing Licenses.................... 1,675.00 $ 3,115.35

PLEASURE FISHING BOAT LICENSES

Resident Pleasure Fishing Boat Li-
censes........................ $ 11,855.35
Non-resident Pleasure Fishing Boat
Licenses. ........................ 350.00 $ 12,205.35 $100,097.66

TOTAL TO BE ACCOUNTED FOR ................ ............... $135,424.36













1940
DISBURSMEENTS

ADMINISTRATIVE AND OFFICE DI-
VISION:
Salaries. ........................ $ 16,897.00
Traveling Expenses .............. 3,591.18
Printing and Stationery............ 311.70
Postage......................... 1,311.00
Telephone....................... 1,175.78
Office Supplies.................... 488.79
Office Expense .................. 150.08
Office Equipment ................ 179.60
Mailing and Clipping Service ...... 55.00
Premium on Bonds ............... 90.00
Workmen's Compensation Insur-
ance........................... 8.23 $ 24,258.36


FIELD DIVISION:
Salaries......................... $ 49,259.38
Traveling Expenses.............. 18,885.78'
Printing and Stationery ........... 2,415.92
Telegraph....................... 227.53
Tires, Tubes and Tags, for Trailers 15.61
Boat Tags for 1939 and 1940 Boat
Licenses....................... 1,129.82
Premium on Bonds ............... 170.00
Workmen's Compensation Insur-
ance.......................... 611.66
Legal Expense.................... 190.33
Education and Advertising Expense 88.70
Miscellaneous Field Expense....... 121.95
Repairs and Upkeep of Chevrolet
Sedan ........................ 117.31
Repairs and Upkeep of Plymouth
Sedan........................ 162.18
Repairs and Upkeep of Pontiac
Sedan........................ 195.00
Jacksonville Office Expense:
Rent................. $360.00
Telephone and Telegraph 304.46
Office Supplies.......... 19.42
Miscellaneous Expense.. 31.41
Equipment............. 2.25 717.54

Miami Office Expense:
Rent................. $300.00
Telephone and Telegraph 232.19
Office Supplies.......... 12.35
Miscellaneous Expense.. 12.00 556.54

Rent, Purchase, Operation and
Maintenance of Boats:
Groceries ............. $196.96
Gasoline and Oil.......3,869.90













Rent and Dockage..... 901.47
Supplies ............ 200.32
Repairs and Upkeep of
Boats................2,400.32
Purchase of Boats and
Boat Equipment..... 2,388.46
Miscellaneous Boat Ex-
pense.............. 115.22
Insurance on Boats .... 972.57
Purchase of Outboard
Motors ............ 184.50

REFUNDS ........................

OYSTER REHABILITATION DIVISION:
Charlotte County:
Gasoline and Oil....... 22.04 $

Nassau County:
Gasoline and Oil....... 55.05
Transportation of
Workers ........... 48.00
Supplies .............. 2.78

Santa Rosa County:
Gasoline and Oil ...... $ 20.00
Boat Rents............ 126.00

Sarasota County:
Miscellaneous Expense.. 37.50

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS JANUARY 1st, 1
THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1940

Balance Credited to State Conserva-
tion Fund in Comptroller's Office,
December 31st, 1940............
Balance Credited to State Board of
Conservation in Capital City
Bank, Tallahassee, Florida, De-
cember 31st, 1940 ..............
Unpaid Checks on Hand, December
31st, 1940....................


11,229.72

918.28 $ 87,013.25



22.04




105.83


146.00

37.50 311.37

940
$111,582.9'


$ 4,530.75


18,303.58

1,007.05 $ 23,841.38

$135,424.36













ARREST RECORD JANUARY 1st, 1940, THROUGH
DECEMBER 31st, 1940


Convic- Costs and
COUNTY Arrests tions Pending Acquitted Fees


B ay ............... 2 ...... 2 ...... $ ...
Citrus............. 7 2 1 4 20.50
Collier.............. 6 ...... 6 6
Dade.............. 6 2 ...... 4 4.00
Dixie...........:.. 3 1 2 ...... 2.00
Duval............. 5 1 ...... 4 14.01
G lades............. 1 1 ...... ...... 2.00
L ee................ 1 ...... ...... 1
M artin............ 4 1 3 ...... 2.00
M onroe*........... .. .. ...... ...... 16.63
Palm Beach........ 4 4 ...... ...... 31.28
Pasco.............. 9 9 ...... ...... 167.20
Pinellas............. 3 ...... 3
Sarasota........... 4 2 2 ...... 9.70
St. Lucie........... 2 2 ...... ..... 4.76.
Taylor............. 4 4 ...... ...... 98.50
Volusia............ 5 1 4 ...... 19.84

66 30 23 13 $392.42


Arrests made in 1939.

















GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1











PURPOSE AND WORK OF A GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

A Geological Survey has a twofold -purpose, to dispense edu-
cational information and to promote and encourage the economic
development of the State's mineral wealth. The successful prose-
cution of either of these duties yields data that are closely con-
nected with and promote the other.

Florida has a vast wealth of non-metallic minerals. Some of
these such as phosphate and limestone have been extensively de-
veloped and constitute an important factor in the annual income
of the State. There are many others, however, that are entirely
undeveloped or only partially developed, while others are poten-
tial. The data necessary before such development can take place
cannot ordinarily be accumulated by an individual or combine
of individuals in private industry. The cost involved would far
exceed any future profit because the data must be detailed and
encompass large areas. This same valuable general information
can, however, be gathered by a State Geological Survey at an
infinitely smaller cost and leave only the prospecting of individual
mineral deposits to the private operator. At the present time
there is greater demand for the type of work that is being done
by the Geological 'Department than there has ever been before.
The industrial development of the South is an assured fact and
with this there is a steadily growing demand for. data on the
mineral resources of the Southern States and Florida in particular.

As an educational organization the Geological Survey is as-
suming a place of real importance. Our .-1i.,iIl are stressing the
importance of a knowledge of our natural resources and their
conservation. The citizens of Florida are becoming conscious that
we have a prized mineral wealth and are seeking information
about it. To supply these demands, the Geological Survey must
prepare an entirely different type of publication than is demanded
by the commercial developer or technical geologist. Such infor-
mation has been supplied in formal reports and through pam-
phlets prepared for the State Department of Education, newspaper
releases and information circulars. In addition many specific
questions are answered by direct correspondence.
Pure science is the tool of industrial development. A State
Geological Survey must, therefore, from time to time issue pub-
lications of an abstract nature. This is particularly true in order
to obtain a clear and comprehensive picture of the geologic his-











tory and stratigraphy of a State. Through a detailed knowledge
of the relation and extent of various geologic formations and the
conditions under which they were deposited, it is possible to
predict the possible deposits of economic importance that may
be found in any formation. With such information available a
prospecting program for any specific mineral or type of mineral
deposit can more rapidly be completed, because only those areas
where the formation known to bear the mineral desired occurs
need be prospected, and other areas can be eliminated before field
work is begun. The area and extent of a formation cannot be
definitely known until a thorough knowledge of the fossil fauna
of the formation is obtained. The detailed study of fossil faunas
is, of course, a problem in pure science. The Florida Geological
Survey has attempted to fulfill this pure science requirement by
publishing from time to time paleontologic studies of different
formations.
Through the printed media alone, it is impossible to entirely
fulfill the demands for a knowledge of the mineral resources and,
geology of the State. As a supplement exhibits of various kinds
are necessary. The ideal is to have small exhibits in all schools,
colleges and libraries of the State. This is impossible, however,
without specific funds for that purpose. In order to supply the
need for visual education the Florida Geological Survey has built
up and maintains a Museum in connection with its office. This
Museum is not as comprehensive as would be desired, but efforts
are made to keep representative displays of Florida fossils, min-
erals and mineral industries on view. Representative mineral
specimens are also supplied to schools and other organized groups
and every assistance possible is offered in helping to establish local
Museums.
PERSONNEL
The members of the Geological Survey during the period
covered by this report have been:
Herman Gunter, Assistant Supervisor of Conservation Depart-
ment. State Geologist and Administrative Head of the
Geological Department.
Sidney A. Stubbs, Assistant Geologist
J. Clarence Simpson, Field and Museum Assistant
Tinnie D. Williams, Secretary
Pearl Gatlin, File Clerk and Stenographer
Mary Francis Lamb, Typist (To December 31, 1940)
Henrietta O'Quinn, Typist










SURVEY QUARTERS


From December, 1927, to December, 1939, the Survey offices
and museum were located on the ground floor of the Martin
Building. With the creation of the Florida Highway Patrol by
the 1939 Legislature and the organization of the department later
in the year, the space occupied by the Geological Survey was al-
loted to the Road Patrol. Through the generous and courteous
assistance of Dr. Edward Conradi, President of the Florida State
College for Women, the State Board of Control provided space
in the Old Lower Dining Hall of the State College. This space
was remodeled and provisions for offices, laboratory and museum
were made. The new quarters are much more commodious than
the space formerly occupied and for that reason it has been
possible to make our museum more attractive and instructive than
heretofore. It has also greatly facilitated the work of the Survey
by making it possible to have the various necessary equipment
much more accessible. For convenience in locating the office and
museum of the Survey, attractive signs and markers have been
placed at the south sidewalk entrance to Reynolds dormitory and
at other appropriate places on the College grounds. Figure 1
shows the location and how to get to the Geological Survey offices
and museum.
The space now occupied by the Geological Survey covers ap-
proximately 3,000 square feet. Of this space about 1,100 square
feet are used for offices and the library, about 600 square feet
for laboratory and specimen storage, and the remainder for
museum exhibition.

LIBRARY

The library of the Florida Geological Survey is one of the
most complete Geological libraries in the southeast. Efforts have
been made to gather together all papers in any way relating to
the geology and paleontology of the State. At the present time
the library has a total of between 6,000 and 7,000 books and
pamphlets. These publications cover an almost complete file of
the geological reports of the United States Geological Survey, an
almost complete file of the reports of other State Geological
Surveys, reports from many foreign countries including Cuba,
Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, and some European, African, and Asiatic countries pub-
lishing papers on geology. There are also nearly complete files




















































_U I
MAGOMB STREET L
n IF
Fig. 1-Showing location of Geological Survey offices at the Florida
State College for Women.

48











of most of the leading geological journals. In addition to the
various books and pamphlets mentioned above, the Geological
Survey has a large file of topographic, aerial, geologic and cul-
tural maps. These maps are absolutely necessary for any kind
of geologic investigation and are frequently used by the Survey,
other State Departments and individuals in the State.

MUSEUM
In connection with various geologic investigations, the Geo-
logical Survey has acquired a large number of geological speci-
mens. These specimens include extinct vertebrate and inverte-
brate animals, mineral samples and examples of finished products
produced from Florida minerals. As the specimens are received
they are carefully catalogued and cross-indexed so that they
will be available for ready reference. Most of the material is
necessarily of value only for study purposes, but many specimens
are obtained that are worthy of display. In compliance with
the law creating the State Geological Survey, a museum has al-
ways been maintained. This museum is of inestimable value for
educational purposes. The average person can get a rapid picture
of the mineral resources and geology of the State in a short time
spent in the Geological Survey museum.
A large collection of invertebrate fossils are available for
study purposes. These collections include all classes of inverte-
brates, but the bulk of the specimens are of Foraminifera and
Mollusca. Foraminifera are generally used for the correlation of
the geologic sections represented in different wells. For that rea-
son these fossils are exceedingly important in geologic studies in
Florida. At the present time there are about 3,000 catalogued
slides, many of which represent Holotypes in the survey collec-
tion and slides are being continuously added. The slides are filed
in a specially constructed cabinet so that anyone desiring to refer
to the species represented may do so immediately.

Fossil mollusks have long served as the basis for surface cor-
relations and age determinations of the various geologic forma-
tions. By the study of the fossil shells contained in any rock it
is possible to determine its age. For that reason it has been
necessary for the Geological Survey to assemble as large a col-
lection of these as possible. Nearly every formation known to
occur in the State is represented by a typical collection of fossil
shells characteristic of the formation. In the museum an exhibit











has been prepared showing the physical features of each forma-
tion and a group of the shells used to characterize that particular
formation. In addition to this exhibit, there are several thousand
shell specimens, that can be referred to by the serious student,
filed in cabinets.
In addition to the fossil shells, there is a representative col-
lection of the living marine, fresh-water and land shells of Florida.
An outstanding collection is one of several hundred specimens
representing the known species of the famous Florida Tree Snail
(Liguus). Many of the specimens represented are today either
very rare or extinct. Representative examples are on display in
the museum while others are stored in cabinets where they may
be referred to for study purposes. The collection of living marine
shells is as yet inadequate but new specimens are being continu-
ously added. Due to limited space, it is impossible to exhibit
more than a few representative shells, but study trays are being
prepared which can be used by anyone having shells to identify.
For the geologists, these shells are very valuable in determining
the relationship of fossil shells and in determining the condi-
tions of deposition of various formations by comparison with
living conditions of present day shells. The Geological Survey
will be very pleased to receive gifts of private collections. These
collections will be catalogued with due credit to the donor and
displayed, or properly stored and taken care of.
The State of Florida is exceedingly rich in the remains of
vertebrate animals that lived in North America during and before
the Ice Age. Outstanding among these animals was the American
Mastodon (Mastodon americanus). Huge herds of these massive
beasts roamed the woodlands and bathed in the crystal rivers of
the Florida of the past. When one of these huge animals became
mired in the soft marl that is frequently found in our rivers and
springs, he was without doubt soon completely covered and today
we find nearly entire skeletons remaining. The vast number that
must have been here at one time is shown by the frequency with
which bones and partial skeletons are found by the casual observer.
The Geological Survey now has three almost complete skeletons
and various bones of many others. During the summer of 1940,
through the courtesy of the Loncola Phosphate Company, Ocala,
a very perfect head including tusks and many other bones of a
skeleton were removed from the Itchatucknee River just below
Itchatucknee Springs.












In the fall of 1930, through the courtesy and assistance of
George T. Christie of Wakulla Springs an almost complete skeleton
was removed from the north side of the spring just outside of
the big boil. Because of the method of recovery and the very
fragile state of preservation, many bones were broken and a few
of the smaller were lost during the removal operations. Those
recovered were treated and restored and the skeleton partially
mounted on the ground floor of the Martin Building where it
remained until the Geological Survey was moved to Florida State
College for Women in December, 1939. The mastodon has now
been completely restored and is on display in the museum at the
new quarters. This is the only completely mounted specimen in
any museum in the southeast.
Contemporaneously with the mastodon, a true elephant was
living in Florida. This elephant was much larger than the
mastodon or any living elephant. Many of these animals stood
15 to 16 feet tall. Complete skeletons of these elephants are rare,
but occasionally have been found. Individual odd bones are, how-
ever, of quite common occurrence. For comparison with the
mastodon a left front leg of one of these elephants has been
mounted in the museum. This leg from the top of the shoulder
blade, or scapula, to the ground measures 11 feet.
A most unique exhibit in the section of vertebrate animals is
that of the skull of a small Miocene horse. This skull was taken
at the old Thomas Farm in Gilchrist County, during the Spring
of 1940, restored, prepared for exhibit and loaned to the Flori la
Geological Survey by the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Har-
vard University, through the courtesy of the Director, Dr. Thomas
Barbour.
During the Miocene Period (about 25 million years ago) herds
of tiny horses no larger than a dog roamed the prairies of Florida.
These were strange little creatures, quite different from the horses
of today. In general shape they were apparently a little like a
small mule, but were different from any living member of the
horse family in that they were much smaller and had three toes.
One of the most famous of the localities at which the remains
of these little horses have been found is the old Thomas Farm
in Gilchrist County. This locality was discovered by J. C. Simpson
in 1930 and first excavated by the Florida Geological Survey during
January and February, 1932. Since then various institutions and
individuals have worked the deposits. In the spring of 1940
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, pur-











chased this site and by a generous cooperative agreement, the
Harvard Museum, The Florida Geological Survey, and the Uni-
versity of Florida are to have equal rights for excavation at
Thomas Farm.
The mineral collections displayed in the museum are largely
confined to the Florida specimens. Few people realize the variety
of minerals found in the State of Florida and an effort has been
made to show representative samples of as many -of these as
possible. At the same time effort has been made to show the
commercial use of each mineral displayed.
Very recently Mr. J. Eugene Brown of Jacksonville, Florida,
has very kindly donated his collection of ore-bearing minerals to
the Geological Survey. This collection contains representative
specimens of various ores found in the United States that Mr.
Brown has personally collected in his travels. A case will be pre-
pared for this collection and it will shortly be placed on display
in the Museum.

COOPERATION
The work of the Geological Survey is closely related to the
work of a number of other State Departments and to various
Federal Agencies. For that reason close cooperation is advan-
tageous in order to accomplish the most constructive work and
to avoid duplication of efforts. During this biennium direct co-
operation has been maintained with the United States Geological
Survey, the United States Bureau of Mines and the United
States Bureau of Census, and with the School of Geology of the
Louisiana State University. In addition cooperative assistance
has been given the National Resources Planning Board, the State
Planning Board, the Florida Forest and Park Service, the State
Board of Health, and the State Road Department.
Two cooperative projects have also been undertaken with the
Federal Work Agency-Works Project Administration. One with
the Book-binding branch of the Library Service Project calls for
the binding of all unbound reports now in the Survey Library.
The second project is with the University of Florida Sponsored
Federal Writer's Project. This calls for the preparation of in-
formation booklets of general interest.











WATER RESOURCES STUDIES


Florida has been bountifully blessed by an abundant supply
of potable water. This water is by far the most important asset
of the State. Our large springs, the largest of their kind in the
world, yearly attract thousands of visitors because of their size
and exquisite beauty. Thousands of wells have been drilled to
supply the ever increasing demands for water to supply agricul-
tural, municipal, commercial and domestic needs. In many parts
of the State flowing wells are obtained at relatively shallow
depths and each year huge volumes of water are discharged
through these flowing wells. The demand for well water for citrus
and truck irrigation is steadily increasing. This results in a greatly
expanded development of the well systems and water reserves
of Florida.
This expansion has brought about certain problems that have
required detailed and serious study. As water is a mineral, the
Geological Survey has since its establishment devoted considerable
time to the study of ground-water supplies. These new problems
have, therefore, naturally fallen to the Geological Survey. During
this biennium, advice and assistance have been given to many
municipalities, commercial enterprises, well drillers and indi-
viduals. Specific mention may be made of aid in problems that
have confronted the cities of Lake City, Marianna, Pensacola,
Haines City, Sanford and Tallahassee; the Suni-Citrus Products
Company, Haines City, the Florida Fruit Canners, Incorporated,
Frostproof, the State Armory Board, Camp Blanding, the Na-
tional Park Service and various contractors developing water
supplies at the new Army and Navy bases being established in
the State.
A particularly perplexing problem has arisen in relation to
the newly established citrus pulp feed industry. These plants have
large volumes of liquid waste to dispose of. Because of trouble-
some and undesirable conditions arising from the disposal of
these wastes by surface means, drainage wells have been resorted
to. In order to protect the ground water used for domestic and
municipal supplies from pollution, the State Board of Health has
adopted stringent regulations concerning the use of drainage wells
and much time has been devoted to planning specifications for
these citrus pulp waste disposal wells.
In cooperation with the State Board of Health, the Florida
Geological Survey has been working on plans that will eventually










make it possible to eliminate the use of drainage-wells in most
instances. The drainage well problem has become acute in many
areas. .There was a time when some cities disposed of all street
waters and both treated and raw sewage through wells into the
underground water reservoir. Waters for municipal supplies were
drawn from near-by lakes. In recent years, however, it has been
found that the available supply of lake water was inadequate to
take care of the needs, and it became necessary to resort to wells
to supplement the lake waters. Long use of drainage wells had
so polluted much of the well waters that real difficulties arose in
obtaining suitable well water. The Geological Survey will con-
tinue to study these problems until a solution has been found.
As has been the practice of the Geological Survey for many
years, active cooperation has been carried on with the Water
Resources branch of the United States Geological Survey. In
the past, valuable information to the citizens of the state has
accrued from this relationship and every effort has been made
to expand this program. As a result of the cooperative work, a
report on Artesian Water in The Florida Peninsula by V. T.
Stringfield was issued by the United States Geological Survey in
1936 as Water-Supply Paper 773-C. Other reports on water sup-
plies in local areas have been released by the State Geological
Survey from time to time.
At present a report is in preparation on the artesian water
supplies of West Florida. This will be a companion volume to
the one on Peninsular Florida. The data for this report were col-
lected over a period of years, and the information contained will
be of great value to water supply developers in that area.
Work is also progressing toward a detailed report on the
subsurface geology and underground water supply of Nassau,
Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties in northeast Florida. The
paper plants at Fernandina and Jacksonville, the city of Jack-
sonville, and the various Military and Naval reservations in these
counties use large quantities of water. It is therefore desirable
that detailed information be available should any water supply
problem arise. Where such large quantities of water are being
used, there is always some danger that water supply difficulties
may develop.
A large part of the field work in this area has already been
completed, particularly in the areas subjected to the heaviest
draft. Plans now include extending the work into all parts of the











counties in order to acquire the greater details necessary for
satisfactory interpretations. When all the work has been com-
pleted, a report will be issued.
Because of the spectre of a grave municipal water-supply
shortage, the cities of Miami, Miami Beach, Coral Gables and
Dade County initiated an extensive and detailed cooperative study
of the available surface and well supplies in that territory late
in 1939 with the U. S. Geological Survey. The water study is
a part of the more comprehensive joint investigation sponsored
by the National Resources Planning Board. The information in
the file of the Florida Survey has been made available and con-
ferences have been held with the workers from time to time that
have proved very beneficial to both organizations. A memorandum
setting forth the conclusions based on results obtained during
1940 is on file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey and
available to all interested persons.
Late in 1939 a proposal was made to establish a paper pulp
mill at Pensacola, Florida. Navy and City officials were apprehen-
sive of the possible effect of this mill upon the water supply of
Pensacola, and called on the Florida Geological Survey for in-
formation. Because of the scope of the undertaking a three-way
cooperative agreement was worked out with the United States
Geological Survey, the Florida Geological Survey and the City
of Pensacola. In this way it was possible to carry out a detailed
study of the water supply of Pensacola and Escambia County.
Several months were spent in that area by members of the State
and Federal Survey. A preliminary report was issued in June,
1940, and as a result the mill has been located and is now under
construction at a site agreeable to all parties concerned. A copy
of this report may be consulted by interested parties in the office
of the Florida Geological Survey at Tallahassee, and it is antici-
pated that in time a detailed printed report on both the sub-sur-
face geology and hydrology of West Florida from the Yellow
River westward will be available.
Because of insufficient funds it has been impossible for the
Florida Geological Survey to cooperate as actively in surface
water studies as would be desired. The field work in these studies
is carried out by the Surface Water Branch of the Ground Water
Division of the United States Geological Survey. The work is
made possible by an equal matching of funds with the Federal
Government and the data made available are of considerable
economic importance. Some of the uses of such data may be











mentioned. The water powers of Florida have not been adequately
developed. Stream-flow data are essential to such developments.
With sufficient information about the surface waters it is possible
to plan drainage and irrigation programs intelligently. Without
such data drainage plans that may prove destructive may be
undertaken and drainage programs that would be very beneficial
may never be initiated.

LEGISLATION NEEDED
Efforts have been continued toward constructive water con-
servation legislation. This effort has been toward true conserva-
tion, which means intelligent development and in no way is aimed
at curtailing the use of water by any individual or group of in-
dividuals who use such water judiciously and without waste. It
has already been stated that water is our most'important natural
resource and it behooves us to protect this valuable asset and
thereby assure an adequate supply both for ourselves and for
posterity. Already we have seen certain areas of the State facing
grave water-supply problems because of unwise development which
has brought about pollution by underlying salt water and a
serious lowering of head. In order to guard against further de-
velopment of such problems the Geological Survey will continue
to strive for constructive legislation aimed at protecting our
water supplies.

PETROLEUM PROSPECTING AND DEEP DRILLING
During recent years there has been a continuously increasing
interest in the possibilities of petroleum production in Florida.
The fact that production is now a fact in Mississippi lends much
encouragement to those interested in Florida.
Various individuals and large oil companies have been doing
prospecting in the State. Geophysical work has been done in much
of west Florida and some has been carried on in the Peninsula,
particularly the central and southern portions.
In addition to the geophysical work carried on by private
interests, the United States Geological Survey has completed sev-
eral east-west and north-south pendulum traverses in the State.
This work was part of a program covering a large part of the
Eastern Seaboard, and much pertinent data have resulted. This
information has been published from time to time in the Trans-
actions of the American Geophysical Union. Prior to this, various











geophysical readings had been taken by the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey and published by that organization.
A magnetometer survey was made of certain State-owned lands
in 1935 through the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund.
The largest of these tracts are in the southern part of the State,
but there are some in other portions. The report by L. Spraragen
covering the results of this work has never been published, but
anyone interested may examine it, in the offices of the Engineer
and Secretary of the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund,
State Capitol Building, Tallahassee.
Leasing has been active in many parts of the State. It is
reported that the Humble Oil and Refining Company now has
large acreages in both west Florida and the southern part of
Peninsular Florida. The Gulf Oil Company and the Sun Oil
Company are said to have holdings in west Florida. The Sinclair
Oil Company has been active in the Peninsula, but no holdings in
their name have been reported, and the Shell Oil Corporation is
also reported to have done some work in west Florida.
During the time covered by this report the Peninsular Oil
and Refining Company completed its deep test for oil in Collier
County at a depth of 10,006 feet. A set of cuttings and cores
from this well was deposited with the Geological Survey by
Robert B. Campbell, President. The St. Marys River Oil Cor-
poration test in Nassau County was completed early in 1940 at
a depth of 4,818 feet and samples from this were presented the
Survey by J. Eugene Brown, President. This well was particu-
larly interesting in that it penetrated a considerable thickness
of black shale of a character not heretofore suspected to underlie
Florida. Samples from the Florida Oil Discovery Company well
in Levy County have been supplied to the Survey by Edward
A. Hill, Consulting Geologist, to their present depth of 5,266 feet.
At the present time there is only one well active in Florida.
This is an off-set well being drilled by William G. Blanchard and
Associates in Dade County, near the Tamiami Trail about 43 miles
west of Miami. The first well was drilled to a depth of 1,270 feet
and a gas flow was reported. On September 11, 1940, shortly
after this gas was reported, the State Geologist and Assistant
Geologist visited the well and obtained samples of the gas. Four
of the eight bottles of gas collected were submitted to the United
States Bureau of Mines, Central Experiment Station at Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, for analysis. The following is a report submitted
by Dr. R. R. Sayers, Director, United States Bureau of Mines,











Washington, October 22, 1940. Analyses by G. W. Jones, Chemist,
Explosives Division.


BOTTLE No. 1 2 5 8 Average

PERCENT BY VOLUME
Carbon dioxide ............. 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3
Illuminants ................ .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Oxygen.................... 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6
Hydrogen .................. .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Carbon monoxide........... .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Methane.................. 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.5 53.4
Ethane.................... .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Hydrogen sulphide.......... .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Gasoline vapor............. .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Nitrogen................... 43.0 43.0 42.7 42.5 42.7

AIR-FREE ANALYSES
Carbon dioxide ............. 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4
Methane.................. 63.5 63.6 64.9 65.0 64.2
Nitrogen................... 36.0 36.0 34.9 34.6 35.4

The above analyses indicate the nature of the gas and are
largely self explanatory, however, certain observations might be
made. Its principal constituents are methane and nitrogen, petro-
leum hydrocarbons other than methane being absent. The gas is
essentially a marsh gas type. It differs, however, from a typical
marsh gas in the low carbon dioxide content. An explanation of
this might be the fact that the gas is in contact with and passes
through large volumes of water. Carbon dioxide is soluble in
water and a large part of it would be removed in this way.
The Geological 'Department has a vast amount of information
in the form of well logs, records and well samples that are of
much value and use to those interested in oil prospecting in
Florida. This information has been kept available for examination
and study by interested parties. Many individuals and oil com-
panies have availed themselves of this information and it has
been of great help in directing their activities. Invaluable aid has
been given by the water well drillers of the State in saving well
cuttings and we gratefully acknowledge this assistance.
The Survey will appreciate the cooperation of everyone having
wells drilled in saving samples of the cuttings, at not greater than
10-foot intervals and sending these to the Geological Survey, Tal-
lahassee, for study and report. By so doing a permanent record










of the well is made which is available for future reference. Special
bags for the saving of samples and information about water sup-
plies and well location will be supplied to interested parties upon
request.

GEOLOGIC WORK IN PROGRESS
The last report on the structure and stratigraphy of Florida
was contained in the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Florida
Geological Survey in 1926. Since that time, a vast amount of
additional data have been gathered and many additional deep
wells have been drilled. Much progress has also been made toward
zoning the deeply buried formations of the State. These advances
have brought about a real need for a revised publication on the
subsurface geology and structure of Florida. Work is now in
progress on such a revision. The amount of detailed study neces-
sary means that progress is slow, but it is hoped that this paper
will be completed some time within the year.

The late Tertiary formations of Florida have long attracted
the paleontologist. The Pliocene and Pleistocene beds along the
St. Johns River are of particular interest because an understand-
ing of their true relationship may throw light on some local
structural features. Large collections have been made from the
various exposures, and this material has been prepared for study.
As time permits these faunal assemblages will be studied anid a
report on the various formations made.

GEOLOGIC WORK CONTEMPLATED

The county geologic reports initiated by the work in Holmes
and Washington Counties will be continued. County reports of
this nature are of real value to the mineral developers and it is
hoped that the whole State may eventually be covered by such
reports.

Gypsite deposits are known in the vicinity of Panasoffkee and
Inverness in Peninsular Florida. The quality and extent of the
deposits are not well known, however. There is an ever growing
demand for gypsum in construction work and also in the manu-
facturing of cement and these deposits can without doubt be
developed if their extent and quality can be proved of commercial
value. Plans are being made to attempt to work out a WPA
project to adequately prospect this gypsite.











Many years have elapsed since the limestones and marls of
Florida were published on. During this interim many new locali-
ties have been found and numerous new uses have been discovered.
Outstanding among these is the greatly increased use of limestone
in the construction of dwellings both in the form of cut stone
and as aggregate in concrete blocks and poured walls. This has
given rise to a demand for information on local supplies from
a standpoint of quality and quantity. Should facilities be made
available, a study of the limestones of the State will be undertaken
with a view of collecting specific data as to quality, quantity and
potential uses.
Paleontologic studies of the various formations of the State
will be continued. A detailed paleontologic study of the Ocala
Limestone has never been made. With the present refinements in
geologic knowledge the necessity for such work is apparent. It is
planned that work will be begun toward a thorough study of the
fauna and possible zones of the Eocene Ocala Limestone.

NEEDS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

The present quarters of the Geological Survey are larger than
any heretofore occupied, but there is still a need for more space.
Under the present conditions it is impossible to properly store
for reference and study purposes, all the mineral specimens and
samples received. This material is of extreme importance to the
everyday work of the Department and should be immediately ac-
cessible in order to make for the most efficient operation of the
Department.
Our laboratory space is extremely small. This necessarily
means facilities for physical tests of various minerals are in-
adequate. Laboratory space is needed to allow for complete
physical tests of our limestones, sands, gravels and other minerals.
SIt has been impossible to operate the clay laboratory of the
Geological Survey for a number of years because of lack of funds
for personnel and maintenance. Clay is one of the most outstand-
ing of the potential mineral industries of Florida. At present
there are only a fraction of the clay industries in the State that
could be developed if extensive research on our clay deposits
could be carried out.
The Geological museum is a definite asset to the people of
Florida. It not only serves as an educational medium but is also











a source of recreation to many. The larger and more complete
museums yearly attract thousands of people. With slightly larger
space and more funds, it would be possible to build up a museum
of Florida Geology and Paleontology that would become an at-
traction to visitors from all parts of the nation.

APPROPRIATION REQUESTED
The appropriation requested by the Geological Survey for the
Biennium July 1, 1941, to July 1, 1943, is essentially the same as
that requested by this department and passed by the Legislature
of 1939. All special expense items were, however, vetoed by the
Governor and a large part of the funds approved were never made
available.

The following appropriation has been requested:


July 1, 1941, to July 1, 1942, to
June 30, 1942: June 30, 1943:

Salaries.............. $19,280.00 Salaries............ $19,280.00
Necessary and Regu- Necessary and Regu-
lar Expenses....... 11,150.00 lar Expenses........ 11,150.00
Special............... 17,100.00 Special............. 10,000.00

TOTAL............... $47,530.00 TOTAL........... $40,530.00


This appropriation although modest if approved will allow
for much more efficient operation of the Geological Survey. During
the preceding biennium the membership of the Geological Depart-
ment has been entirely inadequate. Funds were made available
for an office force large enough to handle office details, but there
has been a real need for more technical personnel. For this reason
it has been impossible to carry out field work of the scope desired
and essential. Funds for three new positions are being asked.
Before being moved to the State College for Women the Geological
Survey did not require the service of a janitor, this service being
furnished by the Custodian of the Martin Building. Since the
move, however, it has been necessary to employ -a janitor and an
amount is being asked for to take care of this expense. During
this biennium an extra stenographer was added to the staff to
enable the Survey to meet the increased demands for specific in-
formation that cannot be dispensed through the usual publica-











tions. It is felt that the amount of work facilitated by this stenog-
rapher justifies that addition as a permanent position. A request
is being made for an engineer draftsman. There has long been a
need for a draftsman on the Survey staff. During the course
of a year many charts, maps and drawings are prepared in con-
nection with the various geologic investigations. Under the present
condition this retards to a large extent the accomplishment of
the Geologic workers who have endeavored to do this work. With
the addition of a draftsman the amount of work completed would,
therefore, be much greater than at present.

Because of a lack of available funds the technical staff of the
Geological Survey has been inadequate for several years. Monies
were appropriated by the 1939 Legislature for a sufficient number
of geologists to supply the demands made upon the Geological
Survey. Only a portion of this money was available for use.
The current request is the same as that made in 1939 and if
it is approved, the work done by the Geological Survey will be
greatly increased.

The Special Expense item requested includes a sum for co-
operative work with various Federal Agencies. This cooperation
has been carried on for many years in a limited way and great
benefits to the State have accrued. The United States Geological
Survey through its various divisions will match any money put
up by the State for geologic investigations of various kirns.
Because of the greatly increased working facilities available
through such an agreement, it is possible to accomplish much
more than could be done by the State Survey alone with an
equal fund.

The continued development of the mineral industries of
Florida depends upon the acquisition of detailed data about the
extent and nature of our mineral reserve. It is known that Florida
contains many undeveloped or partially developed mineral de-
posits. Among these may be mentioned gypsite, peat, diatomaceous
earth, dolomite, clays, earth colors, and deposits of ilmenite and
other heavy minerals in the beach sands. To determine the po-
tential commercial worth of these materials it will be necessary
to carry out an extensive system of test borings throughout the
State. Funds are, therefore, being requested in order to purchase
a core drilling machine and provide for its operations. It is felt
that the returns to the State in increased mineral development
will many times exceed the cost of operation.












PUBLICATIONS
An important function of a State Geological Department is
to compile and publish pertinent geological data so that it will
be readily accessible to those interested in the geology and mineral
possibilities of the State. Throughout the years of its existence
the Florida Geological Survey has regularly issued detailed re-
ports on the geology of the State. These publications cover all
the many diversified fields of geology helpful in understanding
the geological history and mineral resources of Florida.
During this biennium two bulletins (No. 17 and No..18) have
been published and five manuscripts have been completed. These
manuscripts are now being edited and will be published as bul-
letins in the near future.
Bulletin 17, Scenery of Florida, Interpreted by a Geologist,
by C. Wythe Cooke, 1939, 118., 58 figs.
This bulletin is primarily designed for the layman, but it ad-
heres strictly to scientific accuracy. It is, therefore, equally valu-
able to the professional geologist. There has long been a need for
such a publication in order to better acquaint the people of
Florida with the reasons for the various physical features of the
State. It is felt that this bulletin fills that need.
Bulletin 18, Notes on the Upper Tertiary and Pleistocene
Mollusks of Peninsular Florida, by W. C. Mansfield, 1939, 75 pp.,
4 pls., 2 figs., 5 tables.
This bulletin discusses many heretofore unrecorded exposures
of late Tertiary deposits and proposes two new names for Florida
formations. There is considerable uncertainty as to the exact re-
lationships of many of our late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene
deposits. It is important that these relationships be established so
that more accurate structural or paleogeographie maps can be
drawn. Dr. Mansfield spent many years studying these deposits in
Florida and his various papers on the paleontology of the State
have been of great aid to the various stratigraphic workers. This
bulletin published posthumously has added greatly to the paleon-
tologic knowledge of the Peninsula.
In addition to the regular publications of the Geological Sur-
vey the following papers have been prepared by members of the
staff and published in other scientific journals.
The Future of Florida Archeological Research, by Sidney A.
Stubbs; Florida Academy of Sciences, Proc., Vol. 4, pp. 266-270,
1939.











This is a short paper prepared to point out the wealth of
archeological material to be found in Florida and how it is being
destroyed. Conservation measures are suggested.
Studies of Foraminifera From Seven Stations in the Vicinity
of Biscayne Bay, by Sidney A. Stubbs; Florida Academy of
Sciences, Proc., Vol. 4, pp. 225-230, 1939.
A list of recent Foraminifera with remarks on the relation of
such studies to geologic investigations.
Pliocene Mollusks From a Well at Sanford, Florida, by Sidney
A. Stubbs; Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 510-514,
1940.
Lists 87 species of Pliocene mollusks from Seminole County.
The relation of these to the Recent fauna is briefly discussed and
the nature of species persisting into the Recent mentioned.
Solution A Dominant Factor in the Geomorphology of Penin-
sular Florida, by Sidney A. Stubbs; Florida Academy of Sciences,
Proc., Vol. 5, 1940.
Describes the physiography of the region, the development of
the lakes through the central part of the Peninsula and the role
that solution has played in their origin.
Source Materials for Florida Aboriginal Artifacts, by J. Clar-
ence Simpson, Florida Academy of Sciences, Proc., Vol. 5, 1940.
Describes some of the artifacts found in Florida, their method
of making and finishing. Also gives the location of some of the
aboriginal quarries in the State and the character of stone found.

Manuscripts Ready For Publication. The manuscripts now
prepared and being edited cover a variety of subjects. The in-
terest in possible oil production in Florida has created a growing
demand for detailed paleontologic information concerning, the
subsurface formations of Florida. Through the courtesy of Mr.
Robert B. Campbell, President, Peninsular Oil and Refining
Company, Tampa, a complete set of cuttings and cores from the
10,006-foot test for oil drilled by that company near Pinecrest in
Monroe County was deposited with the Florida Geological Survey.
These samples have been studied by Dr. W. Storrs Cole of Ohio
State University and his manuscript is now ready for the printers.
This paper will be issued as Bulletin No. 19.

It has been possible to complete the studies of the white-firing
clays of Florida begun by the Florida Survey in 1929. Frank
Westendick, Assistant Geologist, completed most of the field work











and laboratory tests prior to the closing of the clay laboratory in
1934. In April 1939 through the aid of a cooperative agreement
entered into with the United States Bureau of Mines, Mr. Westen-
dick was given two three-month temporary appointments with the
Bureau. During this time he was to assemble and compile for
publication all data he had acquired during his period of work
on the kaolin between 1929 and 1934. It was found that this
period was insufficient to complete the manuscript and when his
appointment with the Bureau of Mines expired the Florida Geo-
logical Survey assumed his salary for another three months. The
manuscript has now been completed and is being edited by Rich-
ard W. Smith, Mineral Economist, United States Bureau of Mines,
Southern Experiment Station, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. It will be
issued as Bulletin No. 20 of the Florida Geological Survey, and
the wealth of information contained in the report should greatly
stimulate interest in Florida kaolin. The report is replete with
detailed data that should be of much help to operators and pros-
pective developers.

A report on the Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties,
Florida, has been completed by Robert 0. Vernon. This work
was made possible by a cooperative agreement with the School of
Geology of Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. The report
contains detailed geologic maps of these two counties and suggests
various economic possibilities for the various formations. Pains
have been taken to establish the relation between the various ex-
posures and the report promises to be a valuable contribution to
the geology of the State. This will be issued as Bulletin No. 21.
Two manuscripts are in hand relating to the vertebrate paleon-
tology of Florida. These are contributions to the Florida Survey,
one by G. Miles Conrad of the American Museum of Natural
History, New York, entitled; "A Fossil Squirrel-Fish from the
Upper Eocene of Florida", describes a new fossil fish from the
Ocala limestone at Florida Caverns State Park, two miles north
of Marianna, Jackson County, and the other is by Joseph T.
Gregory, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas,
Austin, on "The Rostrum of Felsinotherium ossivalense". This
paper redescribes and carefully figures an extinct dugong found
in the Bone Valley Pliocene of Florida. It is planned that these
papers will form Bulletin No. 22.
There is an increasing demand for literature of a non-scien-
tific nature describing the mineral resources and geologic history












of Florida. Through the aid of the Work Projects Administration
Writers' Project of Florida such reports are now in progress.
These will be issued in the form of illustrated booklets and as
leaflets and will cover a number of subjects. Three papers have
already been prepared, as follows: "Prehistoric Animals of Flor-
ida", "'Minerals of Florida"' and" Diatomite Industry of Florida".
It is planned to have separate papers written dealing with the
history and development of our various mineral industries and
other allied subjects. These pamphlets should be of interest not
only to the citizens of the State but to the teachers in our schools
and to those desiring a rapid review of the geology of Florida
without having to delve through technical papers.
In addition to the regular publications of the Geological De-
partment, newspaper items are released from time to time in order
to acquaint the people of the State with the type of work being
done by members of the Geological Department. These items are
of service in making known to the citizens the type of service that
is available to them by the Geological Department.

COMPLETE LIST OF REPORTS PREPARED BY
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The following is a complete list of publications issued by the
Florida Geological Survey since its creation in 1907. Those pre-
ceded by an asterisk are now out of print and not available for
distribution. Copies have, however, been deposited in all the lead-
ing libraries of the State and these may be referred to there. In
the case of Annual Reports published prior to the combining of
the Geological Survey with the Conservation Department, separate
papers are sometimes available, when the complete report is out
of print. These separates are preceded by a dagger sign.
Annual Reports
*First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a
chapter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay,
brickmaking clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making
materials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a
review of the more important papers published previous to the or-
ganization of the present Geological Survey.
*Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures,
one map.
This report contains: (1) a preliminary report on the geology of
Florida, with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic












and geologic map of Florida, prepared in cooperation with the United
States Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth
deposits of Gadsden County, with notes on similar deposits found else-
where in the State.

*Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 30 text figures.
This report contains: (1) a preliminary paper on the Florida phos-
phate deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian
water supply of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida
peat deposits.

Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures,
one map.
This report contains: (1) the soils and other surface residual ma-
terials of Florida, their origin, character and the formation from which
derived,; (2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the
production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1910 and 1911.

*Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures,
two maps.
This report contains: (1) origin of the hard rock phosphate deposits
of Florida: (2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply
of eastern and southern Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida
during 1912; (5) statistics on public roads in Florida.

*Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries and resources of
Florida; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the
Dunnellon Formation and the Alachua Clays; (4) geography and vege-
tation of northern Florida.
*Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.
This report contains: (1) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural
resources of an area in Central Florida; (3) t soil survey of Bradford
County; (5 ozs.) (4) f soil survey of Pinellas County. (5 ozs.)
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) t human remains
and associated fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida. (6 ozs.)
*Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pls., 13 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) t additional studies
in the Pleistocene at Vero, Florida; (6 ozs.) (3) t geology between the
Ocklocknee and Aucilla rivers in Florida. (6 ozs.)
*Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls.,
9 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (1) geology between the Apalachicola and
Ocklocknee rivers; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description












of a new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3)
geology between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola rivers; (4)
mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.

*Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.
This report contains: (1) literature relating to human remains and
artifacts at Verp, Florida; (2) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations
in Florida; (4) geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; (5)
the age of the underlying rocks lof Florida as shown by the foraminifera
of well borings; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special ref-
erence to, structural conditions.

*Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921, 307 pp., 3 pls., 43 figs.
This report contains: (1) oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics
of mineral production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from the deep wells of
Florida; (4) geography of central Florida.

*Fourteenth Annual Report, 1922, 135 pp., 10 figs., one map.
This report contains: (1) statistics on mineral production. 1919 and
1920; (2) on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic
map.

*Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 266 pp., 2 pls., 55 figs.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1921 and 1922; (2) t a contribution to the late
Tertiary and Quarternary paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3 ozs.)
(3) t a preliminary report on the clays of Florida. (1 lb.)

*Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figs., two maps.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1923; (2) t a preliminary report on the limestones
and marls of Florida. (1 lb.)

*Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figs., two maps.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1924; (2) history of soil investigation in Florida
and description of new soil map; (3) t generalized soil map of Florida
in colors; (2 ozs.) (4) Elevations in Florida. (5) Review of the
structure and Stratigraphy of Florida. ( 6 ozs.)

*Eighteenth Annual Report, 1927, 206 pp., 58 figs.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1925; (2) t natural resources of southern Florida.
(1 lb.)

Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp., 5 pls., 36 figs., 9 tables.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1926; (3ozs.) (2) sand and gravel deposits of











Florida (8 ozs.) (3) t beach deposits of ilmenite, zircon, and rutile in
Florida; (4 ozs.) (4) t new species of Operculina and Discocyclina from
the Ocala limestone; (3 ozs.) (5) t new species of Coskinolina and
Dictyoconus? from Florida. (3 ozs.)

*Twentieth Annual Report, 1929, 294 pp., 40 pls., 4 figs., 1 map.
This report contains: (1) t administrative report and statistics of
mineral production in Florida during 1927; (3 ozs.) (2) geology of
Florida with geologic map; (3) extinct land mammals of Florida.

Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1931, 129
pp., 39 figs. (1 lb.)
This report contains: (1) t administrative report and statistics of
mineral production, 1928-1929; (5 ozs.) (2) f need for conservation and
protection of our water supply; (3 ozs.) (3) t the possibility of petroleum
in Florida; (3 ozs.) (4) t beaches of Florida; (6 ozs.) (5) t a fossil palm
nut of Attalea from the upper eocene of Florida; (2 ozs.)

Twenty-Third and Twenty-Fourth Annual Report, 1933, 227
pp., 11 pls., 23 figs., 3 tables. (2 lbs.)
This report contains: (1) t administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1930-1931; (4 ozs.) (2) t northern disjuncts in
northern Florida and cypress domes; (2 ozs.) (3) notes on the geology
and the occurence of some diatomaceus earth deposits of Florida and
diatoms of the Florida peat deposits; (4) Ground-water resources of
Sarasota County, Florida and exploration of artesian wells in Sarasota
County, Florida.

Bulletins
*Bulletin No. 1. The underground water supply of central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.
This bulletin contains: (1) underground water, general discussion;
(2) the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells,
spring and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution,
cavities, sinkholes, disappearing streams and solution basins; (4)
drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp .lands land disposal of sewage by
bored wells; (5) water analyses and tables giving general water re-
sources, public water supplies, spring and well records.

*Bulletin No. 2. Roads and road materials of Florida, 1911,
31:pp,,;4 pls.
This bulletin contains: (1) an account of the road building ma-
terials of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of im-
proved roads built by the counties of the state to the close of 1910.

*Bulletin No. 3. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods ofc the
Choctawhatchee formation of Florida, 1930, 189 pp., 21 pls.











*Bulletin No. 4. The foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion of Florida, 1930, 93 pp., 12 pis.
*Bulletin No. 5. (1) A fossil teleost fish of the snapper family
(Lutianidae) from the Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2) the
foraminifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida, 1930, 67 pp.,
11 pls. 2 figs.
*Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene foraminifera of
Florida, 1931, 79 pp., 7 pls., 3 figs., 2 tables.
*Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola terrace and associated beaches
and bars of Florida, 1931, 44 pp., 8 figs., 1 map.
*Bulletin No. 8. Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee
formation of Florida, 1932, 240 pp., 34 pls., 3 figs.
*Bulletin No. 9. The foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and
part of the Lower Miocene of Florida, 1932, 147 pp., 17 pls., 2
tables, 1 map.
*Bulletin No. 10 (1) Miocene land mammals from Florida; (2)
New heteromyid rodents from the Miocene of Florida; (3)
Aphelops from the Hawthorn formation of Florida, 1932, 58 pp.,
30 figs.
*Bulletin No. 11. Ground Water Investigations in Florida,
1933, 33 pp.
*Bulletin No. 12. New Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods
from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida, 1935, 50 pp., 5 pls.
Bulletin No. 13. Ostracods of the Area Zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee Miocene of Florida, 1935, 47 pp., 4 pls. (5 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 14. Additions to the Molluscan Fauna of the
Alum Bluff Group of Florida, 1936, 82 pp., 10 pls. (8 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 15. Mollusks.of the Tampa and Suwannee lime-
stones of Florida, 1937, 334 pp., 21 pls. (22 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 16. Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two
deep wells in Florida, 1938, 76 pp., 12 pls. (5 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 17. Scenery of Florida interpreted by a Geologist,
1939, 120 pp., 58 figs. (12 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 18. Notes on the Upper Tertiary and Pleistocene
mollusks of peninsular Florida, 1939, 76 pp., 4 pls., 2 figs., 5 tables.
(5 ozs.)

Press Bulletins
*Press Bulletin No. 1. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida,
February 6, 1913.











*Press Bulletin No. z. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida
during 1912, March 12, 1913.
Press Bulletin No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the
State Geologist at the Atlanta Meeting of the American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Science, December 31, 1913. (1 oz.)
Press Bulletin No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January
15, 1914. (2 ozs.)
*Press Bulletin No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in
Florida during 1913, May 20, 1914.
Press Bulletin No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal
Remains Found Embedded in the Earth, January 1915. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick,
April, 1915. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2,
1918. (2 ozs.)
*Press Bulletin No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10,
1918.
Press Bulletin No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during
1918, June 5, 1919. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 11. Statistics on Mineral Production in
Florida during 1918, October 6, 1919. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during
1920, May 9, 1921. (2 ozs.)
*Press Bulletin No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida,
April 4, 1931.

Report of Investigations
Report of Investigations No. 1. Mimeographed report on
Ground Water in Seminole County, Florida, 1934, 14 pp. (4 ozs.)
Report of Investigations No. 2. Mimeographed report on
Ground Water in the Lake Okeechobee Area. Florida, 1933, 31
pp. (8 ozs.)












PAPERS PREPARED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STAFF
MEMBERS BUT NOT PUBLISHED BY THE SURVEY.
(LIMITED NUMBER AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION)

Cole, W. Storrs and Ponton, G. M. New Species of Fabularia,
Asterocyclina, and Lepidocyclina from the Florida Eocene. American
Midland Naturalist, Vol. XV, No. 2, pp 138-147, 1934. (10 cents).

Gunter, Herman, Florida's Disappearing Lakes, The Florida Con-
servator, December 1934.

Stubbs, Sidney A. A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole
County. Florida, Florida Academy of Science, Proc., Vol. 11, pp 24-36,
1937. (10 cents).

Stubbs, Sidney A. Studies of Foraminifera from Seven Stations in
the Vicinity of Biscayne Bay, Florida Academy of Science, Proc., Vol. 4,
pp 225-230, 1939. (10 cents).

Stubbs, Sidney A. The Future of Florida Archeological Research,
Florida Academy of Science, Proc., Vol. 4, pp 266-270, 1939. (10 cents).

Stubbs, Sidney A. Pliocene Mollusks From a Well at Sanford Florida,
Journal of Paleontology, VI. 14, N. 5. September 1940. pp 510-514, 1940.
(10 cents).


MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS DEALING WITH FLORIDA
GEOLOGY AND RELATED SUBJECTS.
(LIMITED NUMBER AVAILABLE)

Fowler, Earl D., and others. Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida.
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.
1927. (10 ozs.)
Taylor, Author E., and others. Soil Survey of Lake County, Florida.
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.
1928. (6 ozs.)
Gardner, Julia, The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of
Florida. U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 142-E, 1928. (8 ozs.)
Cole, W Storrs, Oligocene Orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Wash-
ington County, Florida Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 21-28,
March, 1934. (15 cents).
Martens, James H. C., Beach Sands between Charleston, South Caro-
lina and Miami, Florida. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America,
Vol. 46, pp 1563-1596, 1935. (10 cents).
Mansfield, G. R., Geological Surveys in Florida, State and Federal,
Florida Conservator, March, 1935.












Stringfield, V. T. The Piezometric Surface of Artesian Water in the
Florida Peninsula. American Geophysical Union, Trans., Sixteenth An-
nual Meeting, 1935. (5 cents).
Black, A. P. and others. Fluorine in Florida Waters, Florida Section
of the American Water Works Assoc., Ninth Ann. Convention, Proc.,
1935. (5 cents).
Mendenhall, Herbert Drummond, What the Phosphate Industry Means
to the Florida Engineers. Read at Spring Meeting of the American
Society of Civil Engineers, Jacksonville, Florida. April, 1938. (10 cents).
Richards, Horace G., Marine Pleistocene of Florida, Bulletin of the
Geolog. Soc. of America, Vol. 49, pp 1267-1296, 1938. (10 cents).
Campbell, Robert B., Outline of the Geological History of Peninsular
Florida, Florida Academy of Science, Proc., Vol. 4, 1939. (10 cents).











ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The Second and Third Biennial Reports of the Geological Sur-
vey each contained a section of Archeology. This was a result of
the action taken by Governor David Sholtz on December 11, 1935,
when he suspended the State Archeologist on charges of mis-
feasance, malfeasance, and incompetency and neglect of duty
in office, and at the same time directing that the duties of the
State Archeological Survey be assumed by the State Board of
Conservation. This suspension was subject to Senate confirmation
at the 1937 session of the Legislature. On May 7, 1937, on the
recommendation of the committee appointed to study the case,
the Senate refused to confirm this suspension and Vernon Lamme
was automatically reinstated as State Archeologist. He officially
resigned on July 9, 1937, and the office was vacant until May 7,
1940, when he was again appointed State Archeologist by Governor
Fred P. Cone.
From December 11, 1935, until all work was completed in
September of 1937, the Archeological projects undertaken by the
Archeological Survey were sponsored and continued by the Geo-
logical Survey as a division of the Conservation Department. This
work was not new to the Geological Department because for years
prior to the passage of the bill creating an Archeological Survey,
the Geological Survey had taken an interest in such work and
offered facilities for storage of such artifacts as might be recovered
by various workers.
The State Archeological Survey, as created by the 1935 Legis-
lature, (Chapter 16,782, Act of 1935), has no provisions for salaries
or expenses. The position of State Archeologist becomes an hon-
orary position, therefore, and the intents and purposes of a State
Archeological Survey are lost. The State of Florida is rich in
Archeological sites and these should be carefully protected until
such a time as they may be examined by a reputable student of
the Florida Indian. Florida of all the States, should guard these
sites most zealously. They have an untold dollar value through
their fascination for the thousands of tourists who yearly visit
Florida.
At the present time, there is a definite move to establish a
museum of the Florida Indian. This museum would be designed
to serve as a research center for study of Florida Indian lore and
as a display center where those only casually interested in the
Indian artifacts of Florida might go to obtain a rapid view of
the early history of Florida's aborigines. This museum would also











serve as a permanent storage space for State owned Archeological
material.
A State Archeological Survey could be of great value in con-
nection with such a museum but as previously stated our present
Archeological Survey is entirely ineffective and exists in name
only. To make the present Survey effective would require an ap-
propriation not only for salaries but for supplies and equipment.
In the face of the demand for economy in State Government, an
appropriation of that magnitude does not seem justified when we
consider that the Archeological Survey could effectively operate
under departments already in existence and largely through funds
already appropriated.

MINERAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA DURING 1938-1939
Statistics collected in cooperation with the United States
Bureau of Mines and the United States Bureau of the Census.
The mineral industries of Florida represent the third largest
industry in the State, being surpassed by only the Agricultural
industry and the Recreational industry. During 1938 the total
value of minerals produced was $12,862,723, and in 1939 it was
$12,217,795. The 1939 figures show a slight decrease from the
1938 total. This is largely due to a sudden drop in phosphate
production on account of a decline of exports. The European war
stopped exports to Germany which has long utilized a large part
of the Florida phosphates, especially the hard rock. The domestic
trade is now, however, beginning to absorb a large part of the
production that was formerly exported.
The mineral production of the State has been fairly stable. At
present the general business trends are on an upward swing and
this is reflected in our mineral output. This is particularly true
in the production of building materials made of or derived from
limestone. The increased demand for limestone in the various
military bases of the State created the largest demand for crushed
limestone in the history of the industry. This stone was largely
used in road construction, but large quantities were used as con-
crete aggregate.
Through a cooperative agreement with the United States
Bureau of Mines and the United States Bureau of the Census,
statistics on production have been.collected for the various mineral
industries. These figures are available only through 1939. In the
following discussions of the individual minerals the various pro-
ducing companies are listed. There are, of course, some companies
not listed because they have not shown returns. Had all mineral










producing companies in the State listed returns, the total mineral
production for these years would have been slightly higher.

PHOSPHATE
Florida leads the world in the production of phosphate, ex-
ceeding that of any other State. Florida in 1939 produced a total
of 2,678,784 long tons of phosphates, including all kinds. Tunisia
is the next largest producer of the world showing a total of
1,934,200 long tons in 1938. Later figures are not available for
most foreign countries.
Three kinds of phosphate are produced in the State-hard
rock, soft rock, and land pebble. By far the most important of
these is the land pebble. The first phosphate was produced in
Florida in 1888 along the Peace River near Arcadia. This was the
type known as river pebble. It was only a short time later that
hard rock phosphate was discovered and mining operations begun
near Dunnellon. Hard rock production surged far ahead of the
river pebble and Dunnellon became a bustling town reminiscent
of the famous mining towns of the west. By 1890, mines were
also in operation in the land pebble phosphate district of Polk
County. For a number of years all three kinds of phosphate were
produced. The large supplies of land pebble phosphate and the
ease with which it was recovered eventually caused the river
pebble operations to be abandoned. The high quality of the hard
rock has caused a continuous demand for that product, but in 1939
there were only 89,096 tons of hard rock produced, as compared
with 2,678,784 long tons of land pebble.
Soft rock phosphate occurs with both the land pebble and the
hard rock deposits. For many years this material was lost in the
washing and crushing processes. Within recent years, however,
it has been found that this form of phosphate is decidedly bene-
ficial to the soil and can be used by direct application without
treatment of any kind. This has led to extensive working of the
old waste ponds for the recovery of this former waste and the
opening of some new deposits.
As previously reported, a Congressional Committee was ap-
pointed in 1938 to study the phosphate reserves of the United
States with a view of possible curtailment of production in Florida
in order to conserve the supply for future generations. The re-
sults of a hearing held by the Committee at Lakeland, November
28-30, 1938, have become available and show that Florida has an
enormous reserve. Based on the data presented and on present
consumption there is an estimated reserve that will last for some













1500 or 1600 years and there is little doubt that this figure will
become larger with more extensive information and refinements
in production methods. The accompanying table shows the re-
serves in Florida compiled from data presented at this hearing.
This table was prepared by Dr. George R. Mansfield of the United
States Geological Survey and is reproduced from his paper "Phos-
phate Deposits of the United States" in Economic Geology, Vol.
XXXV, No. 3, p. 417, May, 1940.
COMPANIES REPORTING PHOSPHATE PRODUCTION
1938-1939
Hard Rock:
J. Buttgenbach & Co., P. O. Box 67, Lakeland. Mines: near Hernando,
Citrus County.
C. & J. Camp, Ocala. Mines: near Hernando, Citrus County.
Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Co., Savannah, Ga. Mines: near Her-
nando, Citrus County.
Soft Rock:
Colloidal Phosphate Sales Co., Dunnellon. Plant: near Dunnellon.
Dixie Phosphate Co., Ocala. Plant: Dunnellon, Marion County.
Lakeland Phosphate and Fertilizer Co., 225 E. Main St., Bartow.
Plant: near Bartow, Polk County.
Loncala Phosphate Co., High Springs. Plant: Clark, Alachua County.
Mineral Plant Food Co., Orlando. Plant: Dunnellon, Marion County.
M. R. Porter, Ocala. Plant: near Hernando, Citrus County.
Soil Builders, Inc., Dunnellon. Plant: Dunnellon, Marion County.
Superior Phosphate Co., Box 476, Dunnellon. Plant: near Dunnellon,
Marion County.
Land Pebble:
American Agricultural Chemical Co., 50 Church St., New York. Mines:
Pierce, Polk County.
American Cyanamid Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York. Mines:
Brewster, Polk County.
Coronet Phosphate Co., 19 Rector St., New York. Mines: near Plant
City, Hillsborough County.
International Agricultural Corp., 61 Broadway, New York. Mines:
Mulberry, Polk County.
Pembroke Chemical Corp., Pembroke, Polk County.
The Phosphate Mining Co., 110 William St., New York. Mines: Nichols,
Polk County.
Southern Phosphate Corp., Baltimore Trust Bldg., Baltimore, Md.
Mines: Bartow, Polk County.
Swift & Co., Fertilizer Works, R. F. D. No. 1, Bartow, Polk County.





















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LIMESTONE, LIME, FLINT AND CEMENT


Since long before the dawn of written history, limestone has
been an important commodity to man. The ancient pyramids of
Egypt and Mexico, the Temples of Babylon and Greece and the
palaces of the proud rulers of ancient Rome were all made of
massive blocks of limestone. It is little wonder then that the ex-
tensive limestones of Florida have played an important part in
the cultural and economic development of Florida.

In peninsular Florida the most important limestone formation
is the Ocala limestone. This is a fairly soft cream to white highly
fossiliferous limestone of exceptional purity. It outcrops in a
large area comprising most of Marion, Alachua, Sumter, Hernando,
Citrus and Levy Counties. Many quarries have been opened in
this area to produce crushed lime for road building, agricultural
lime, chemical lime, quick lime and large quantities have been
used with cement for the manufacture of structural blocks.

The following is a typical analysis of Ocala Limestone.
Analysis of Limestone from Cummer Lumber Company, near Ken-
drick (Survey sample D-6, Seventeenth Annual Rept. p. 160.)
Silica (SiO2) ................................ ................ .68
Iron and Alumina (FE+AL) .................... ............ .32
Calcium carbonate (CaCO) ......................................... 98.16
Magnesium carbonate (MgCOs) ................................... trace
Undetermined .................................. ................. .84

TOTAL ............................. .... ...................... 100.00 -

In addition to the Ocala limestone the Suwannee and Tampa
limestones have been extensively quarried. These limestones are
harder and less uniform in physical character than the Ocala
limestone. They are used primarily for road construction and as
aggregate in concrete and in concrete products such as blocks
and tile.

Huge deposits of dolomitic limestone occur along the West
Coast of peninsular Florida from Wakulla County southward to
Manatee County. This material is widely used as a soil condi-
tioner and within the past few years the production of Florida
dolomite has begun and is expanding normally. Most of the
dolomite deposits are as yet not developed and considerable ex-
pansion may be expected as the demand for the product increases.











The following is a partial analysis of dolomitic limestone from
the Steinhatchee River near Clara, Taylor County. Analysis by
State Chemist May, 1938.
Laboratory No. M-762
Calcium Carbonate ...................... ......---------.. ---- 51.38%
Magnesium Carbonate ............... ........................ 40.74%

During the past few years there has been a growing demand
for a more permanent type of construction for dwellings and small
buildings than is possible when using wood. To meet this demand,
Florida has an abundance of limestone that can be cut into de-
sirable building blocks, particularly the Marianna limestone of
West Florida, the Ocala limestone, phases of the Hawthorn for-
mation, the Miami Oolite, the Coquina of the Peninsula and the
coral limestone of the Keys. In addition to the natural cut stone
large quantities of crushed lime are being used with cement to
form attractive and desirable building blocks. No sand is used
in some of these blocks and these are said to be as durable as the
natural cut stone.
Many Florida formations contain varying quantities of silici-
fled limestone and flint. During limestone mining these, must be
separated from the limestone. These are then crushed to suitable
size for concrete aggregate. Large amounts of this flint also occur
as residual boulders in areas where the original limestone has
been weathered away. The crushed flint is also used as railroad
ballast and in construction of jetties. Small amounts of uncrushed
flint are also used as building stones in the construction of rough
structures.
Limestone from a large quarry near Brooksville in Hernando
County is used with Florida clay for the manufacture of cement
by the Florida Portland Cement Company, of Tampa. There are
also many other limestone deposits situated near suitable clay
deposits that could be used for manufacturing high grade Port-
land cement.

COMPANIES REPORTING PRODUCTION OF LIMESTONE,
DOLOMITE, FLINT AND CEMENT 1938-1939
Road Metal and Concrete Aggregate
The Broward Quarries Inc., 2004 N. W. North River Drive, Miami.
Quarry: at Dania, Broward County.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Ocala. Quarry: near Brooksville, Hernando
County.












Connell & Shultz, 204 Citrus County Bank Bldg., Inverness. Quarry:
Williston, Levy County; Lowell, Marion County.
Crushed Rock Co., Ft. Myers. Quarry: Hendry Creek near Ft. Myers,
Lee County.
Cummer Lime and Mfg. Co., Box 4640 Jacksonville. Quarry: Kendrick,
Marion County.
Dixie Lime Products Co., 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Quarry: Reddick,
Marion County.
L. F. Fernald Stone Co., 308 High St., Tarpon Springs. Quarry: near
New Port Richey, Pasco County.
Florida Lime Products Co., P. O..Box 478, Ocala. Quarry: near Ocala,
Marion County.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., 1760 Purdy Ave., Miami Beach. Quarry: Ojus,
Dade County.
The McDonald Corp., Citrus Center Bldg., Lakeland. Quarry: near
Brooksville, Hernando County.
L. B. McLeod Construction Co., P. O. Box 1919, Orlando. Quarry:
Williston, Levy County.
Miami Lime and Chemical Co. Inc., Rt. No. 2, Box 815, Miami. Quarry:
Coral Gables, Dade County.
Miami Oolite Rock Co., P. O. Box 1751, Miami. Quarry: South Miami,
Dade County.
Mills Rock Co., 301 N. W. 79th St., Miami. Quarry: near Miami,
Dade County.
H. L. Mills Estate Rock Co., Miami. Quarry: Dade County.
Naranja Rock Co., Inc., Naranja. Quarry: Naranja, Dade County.
National Garden Coquina Rock Co., 314 No. Grandview Ave., Daytona
Beach. Quarry: near Ormond Beach, Volusia County.
Newberry Corporation, 512 Dyal Upchurch Bldg., Jacksonville. Quarry:
at Haile, Alachua County.
Ocala Lime Rock Corporation, Ocala. Quarry: near Newberry,
Alachua County; Kendrick, Marion County.
Ocala Road Base Material Co., P. O. Box 107, Ocala. Quarry: near
Homosassa, Citrus County; York, Marion County.
Jack Quinn Inc., 116 N. E. 29th St., Miami. Quarry: Miami, Dade
County.
Seminole Rock and Sand Co., N. W. 14th St. and Red Road, Miami.
Quarry: near Hialeah, Dade County.
S. P. Snyder and Son, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale. Quarry: at Dania. Broward
County.
Thompson Williston Mine, c/o Duval Engineering and Constructing
Co., 512 Dyal Upchurch Bldg., Jacksonville, Quarry: Williston, Levy
County.













Troup Bros., 4151 Dixie Highway, Miami. Quarry: Coral Gables,
Dade County.
Williston Shell Rock Co., Ocala. Quarry: at Haile, Alachua County.
Curbing, Flagging and Paving
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. W. 7th St., Miami. Quarry: Islamorada
Key, Monroe County.
Miami Aggregate Company, P. O. Box 32, Miami. Quarry: near Miami.
Railroad Ballast
The McDonald Corporation, Citrus Center Bldg., Lakeland. Quarry:
near Brooksville, Hernando County.
Seminole Rock and Sand Company, N. W. 14th St. and Red Road,
Miami. Quarry: near Hialeah, Dade County.

Rough Construction Stone
The Broward Quarries, Inc., 2004 N. W. River Drive, Miami. Quarry:
at Dania, Broward County.
H. L. Mills, 3905 N. W. 27th Avenue, Miami. Quarry: near Miami.
Mizner Products Inc., 503 Wm. Penn Road, Palm Beach. Quarry:
near Tavernier, Monroe County.

Dressed Building Stone
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. W. 7th St., Miami. Quarry: Islamorada
Key, Monroe County.
Mizner Products Inc., 503 Wm. Penn Road, Palm Beach. Quarry near
Tavernier, Monroe County.

Agriculture Limestone
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala. Quarry: near Brooksville,
Hernando County.
Dixie Lime Products Company, 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Quarry: Red-
dick, Marion County.
Florida Lime Products Co., P. O. Box 478, Ocala. Marion County.
The McDonald Corporation, Citrus Center Bldg., Lakeland. Quarry:
near Brooksville, Hernando County.

Dolomite
Dixie Lime Products Company, 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Quarry:
Lebanon, Levy County.
Florida Dolomite Company, Pembroke. Quarry: at Pembroke, Sara-
sota County.
Gulf Dolomite Company. Quarry: Citrus County.
Lime
Cummer Lime and Mfg. Co., Box 4640, Jacksonville. Kiln: Kendrick,
Marion County.












Dixie Lime Products Company, 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Kiln: Reddick,
Marion County.
Florida Lime Products Company, P. O. Box 478, Ocala. Kiln: Ocala,
Marion County.
Miami Lime and Chemical Company, Inc., Rt. No. 2, Box 815, Miami.
Kiln: Miami, Dade County.
Flint
Alachua County Stone Company, High Springs. Crusher: High Springs,
Alachua County.
Standard Rock Company, Morriston. Crusher: Morriston, Levy County.
Sumter Flint Rock Company, Leesburg. Crusher: Linden, Sumter
County.
M. M. Thomas Flint Rock Corporation, 109 E. Broadway, Ocala.
Crusher: Zuber, Marion County.

Cement
Florida Portland Cement Company, Tampa.


SAND AND GRAVEL

Sand is one of Floridas' most abundant minerals. Much of it
is, however, not suitable for the various commercial uses to which
sands are put. The finer sands used in mortar are widely dis-
tributed but deposits of coarse sand are less common.

Sands of a purity suitable for glass manufacture occur in
abundance. One factory, the Florida Glass Manufacturing Com-
pany, is now operating at Jacksonville. This concern manufac-
tures various types of glass containers such as bottles, jars and
jugs. These are of good grade and free from stain. Other glass
ware could be manufactured from Florida sand and in time this
industry will undoubtedly grow.

The gravel deposits of Florida occur principally in northwest
and western Florida. The largest commercial production has been
in Escambia County principally along the Escambia River, along
the Apalachicola River near Chattahoochee and in parts of Jackson
County.
The statistical total sand and gravel production for 1939 shows
a very sharp drop. This figure, however, has a wide margin of
error because a large part of the total production was not reported.













COMPANIES REPORTING SAND AND GRAVEL
PRODUCTION 1938-1939

Acme Sand Company, Eustis. Operating: Eustis, Lake County.
Howard Backus, Miami. Operating: Miami vicinity, Dade County.
Benton-Manson Company, Inc., P. O. Box 2215, St. Petersburg. Op-
erating: Pinellas County.
P. M. Carlisle, Panama City. Operating: near Panama City, Bay
County.
Cummer Lime and Mfg. Company, P. O. Box 4640, Jacksonville.
Operating: Duval County: Leon County.
Alfred Destin Company, 235 S. W. 4th Ave., Miami. Operating: Bears
Creek, Dade County.
Diamond Interlachen Sand Company, 111 W. Adams, Jacksonville. Op-
erating: Interlachen, Putnam County.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales. Operating: near Lake Wales,
Polk County.
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J. Operating: Edgar,
Putnam County.
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee. Operating: Apalachicola
River, Gadsden County.
A. W. Hodges, Eustis. Operating: Orange County.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, P. O. Box 715, Lake Wales.
Operating: Lake Wales, Polk County.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, 1760 Purdy Ave., Miami Beach. Operat-
ing: Ojus, Dade County.
Panama Brick and Tile Company, Panama City. Operating: near
Panama City, Bay County.
Seminole Rock and Sand Company, N. W. 14th St. and Red Road,
Miami. Operating: near Miami, Dade County.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, Bartow. Operating: San Gully Mine;
Standard Mine, Polk County.


DIATOMITE

Diatoms are of two kinds, fresh water forms and salt water
forms. The diatomite deposits of Florida are all composed of
the fresh water forms and occur as an intimate mixture with peat,
making up the bottoms of many of our lakes and the basins of
some of our rivers. The fact that the diatomite occurs with the
peat has presented many production difficulties but these have
been worked out and an exceptionally pure product is now being
obtained.











Extensive deposits that are not being worked are known in
many parts of central Florida and in west Florida. These deposits
should be carefully prospected.
The following company produced diatomite during 1938-1939.
American Diatomite Corporation, Clermont, Lake County.

PEAT
Extensive deposits of peat are known in many parts of Florida.
Peat is formed by the slow accumulation of fiberous vegetable
matter under such conditions that complete decomposition does
not take place. Through the years, this produces a mass of par-
tially decomposed vegetable fibre.
Ordinarily peat is thought of as a fuel, but in Florida its
principal use is as a filler in fertilizers. It is also widely used as
a soil conditioner by direct application to the soil. It is beneficial,
used in this manner, because it increases the moisture holding
ability of the soil, adds some plant food and returns certain bene-
ficial bacteria to the soil.
Certain valuable waxes have been extracted from peat found
in continental Europe. During the present world crisis it has
become almost impossible to obtain these waxes from their original
source. It, therefore, seems that it would be advisable to thor-
oughly prospect the Florida peat deposits as a possible source
for such waxes.
The following plants produced peat during 1938-1939.
Florida Humus Company, Zellwood, Orange County.
Panama Humus Company, Panama City, Bay County.

CLAYS AND CLAY PRODUCTS
There are numerous deposits of clay in Florida that can be
used in the manufacture of many types of pottery and clay struc-
tural material. In addition there are large and extensive deposits
of kaolin mixed with sand. The Florida kaolin is superior to any
known deposit in North America. One quality that is peculiar
to the Florida koalin is its plasticity. This means that a lower
percentage of ball clay is necessary in order to produce a proper
mix. In addition to these qualities the Florida kaolin vitrifies at
a higher temperature than other kaolins and it fires to an ex-
cellent white.
The largest deposits of pottery clays in Florida occur in West
Florida, particularly in Santa Rosa and Escambia Counties. Suit-











able deposits are also known in the Peninsula. To date, these clays
have not been extensively developed, but the quality of the products
now being made in the State will undoubtedly lead to further
development.
At the present time there are a number of plants in the State
producing a good grade of common brick. Other clay structural
materials could be produced from the same clays that are now
going into brick manufacture. The present building program in
Florida is materially affecting the output of the brick plants and
adds materially to the total mineral production of the state.
Unfortunately, production figures for this industry are very
incomplete.
The following plants reported kaolin production during 1938-
1939.
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Edgar, Putnam County.
United Clay Mines Corporation, Hawthorn, Putnam County.

The following plants are known to have produced common
brick during 1938-1939.
A. B. Conner Brick Yard, Callahan, Florida.
Florida Brick & Tile Company, Jacksonville.
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley, Florida.
Taylor Brick and Tile Company, Pensacola.
Neal Lumber & Manufacturing Company, Blountstown, Florida.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee, Florida.

The following plants are known to have produced pottery from
Florida clay during 1938-1939.
The Floramics Company, Tampa, Hillsborough County.
Santa Rosa Pottery Company, Pensacola, Escambia County.
Crary Brothers, Bluff Springs, Escambia County.

FULLER'S EARTH

Commercial production of fuller's earth in the United States
began in Florida in 1895 and until the year 1924, Florida ranked
first as producer of fuller's earth.
Fuller's earth is a form of clay possessing peculiar properties
that make it useful for clarifying and bleaching various oils and
fats, and for many years this was the only material available for
that purpose. The bulk of the production naturally went to the
petroleum refineries, but large quantities were also used in clari-
fying various vegetable and animal fats and oil.











The rise of the petroleum industry was accompanied by a
parallel increase in fuller's earth production until 1930. About
that time the fuller's earth production began to show a decline
in production and that decline has progressed steadily ever since.
The most important factor accounting for this sudden decline
was improved and changed, petroleum refining methods and the
discovery that other clays could be used more effectively and at
an ultimate cheaper cost. Chief among these were the activated
or acid treated bentonites. It was found that bentonitic clays
which occur much nearer the refineries than does fuller's earth,
could be treated by certain acids to produce a clay that was as ef-
fective as a bleaching and clarifying agent as the fuller's earth and
lasted longer in use. In more recent years it has been found that
bauxite can also be used as a substitute for fuller's earth, and that
it can be revivified indefinitely. It does not, however, seem appli-
cable to oils, other than those with a pariffin base.
There is, however, an encouraging outlook in the gloomy
picture of the fuller's earth industry. Outstanding among the
possible new uses for fuller's earth is its use in water treatment,
particularly industrial waste waters containing oily matters or
other subtances that should be removed before disposal. The use
of the clay produces a heavy floe that reduces odors, and slows and
destroys bacterial action. In Florida this might be specifically
useful to plants disposing of waste matter underground through
drainage wells. By treatment with fuller's earth, it might be
possible to remove undesirable substances before the water enters
the drainage well and thereby almost pure water would be en-
tering the subsurface strata.
It has also been found that the absorptive powers of the Florida
clay can be greatly improved by special treatment. While damp
the clay is pugged or kneaded and then forced through slots.
This treatment produces a better product and makes it possible
to recover almost all the "fines" in granular form. This is the
form desired for the percolation method of oil refining.
It would therefore seem that the future of the fuller's earth
industry, in Florida is not entirely dark. This is one of the ex-
tensive and substantial minerals in the State and it is to be
expected that efforts toward finding substitute uses and markets
will be continued with increasing success.
The following Companies reported production of fuller's earth
during 1938-1939.
Floridin Company, Quincy and Jamieson. Gadsden County.
Superior Earth Company, Inc., Ocala. Marion County.





















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STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
JANUARY 1st, 1939, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1939
RECEIPTS


Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count January 1st, 1939 .......
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund July 1, 1939-Chapter
19280, General Laws of 1939.....

Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account
January 1st, 1939..............
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund July 1st, 1939-Chapter
19280, General Laws of 1939 ....


$ 3,976.67

16,320.00


$ 7,064.82

9,900.00


$ 20,296.67


16,964.82 $ 37,261.49


DISBURSEMENTS


Salaries...........................
Traveling Expenses ................
Printing and Stationery ............
Postage and Post Office Box Rent....
Telephone and Telegraph ...........
Field and Office Equipment.........
Office Supplies ................... .
Office Expense ................... .
Workmen's Compensation Insurance.
Operation and Upkeep of Cars.......
Moving Office from Martin Building
to Florida State College for Wo-
m en ..........................
Miscellaneous Field Expense .......
Cooperative Work with United States
Geological Survey-Washington,
D .C .... .......................

Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count absorbed by General Rev-
enue Fund June 30th, 1939......
Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account ab-
sorbed by General Revenue Fund
June 30th, 1939................

Balance in Salary Account December
31st, 1939 ................... .
Balance in Necessary and Regular
Expense Account December 31st,
1939 ............ .............


$9,835.00
1,204.35
1,294.53
185.20
93.20
2,230.42
1,456.98
321.90
29.26
241.98

56.40
831.56

366.67


$ .43


2.68

$ 10,461.24

8,649.69


$ 18,147.45






3.11


19,110.93 $ 37,261.49













STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
JANUARY 1st, 1940, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1940
RECEIPTS

Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count, January 1st, 1940......... $10,461.24
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund, July 1st, 1940-Chap-
ter 19280, General Laws of 1939.. 16,320.00 $ 26,781.24

Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account,
January 1st, 1940. ............. $ 8,649.69
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund, July 1st, 1940-Chap-
ter 19280, General Laws of 1939. 9,900.00 18,549.69 $ 45,330.93



DISBURSEMENTS

Salaries........................... $ 13,961.62
Traveling Expenses ................ 3,014.95
Printing and Stationery.............. 920.21
Postage and Post Office Box Rent... 142.14
Telephone and Telegraph ........... 59.40
Field and Office Equipment......... 1,299.82
Office Supplies..................... 486.09
Office Expense ..................... 617.63
Workmen's Compensation Insurance. 21.69
Operation and Upkeep of Cars....... 143.31
Moving Office from Martin Building
to Florida State College for Wo-
m en........................... 747.64
Miscellaneous Field Expense........ 2,261.33
Cooperative Work with United States
Geological Survey, Washington,
D.C........................... 1,980.87 $ 25,656.70

Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count, December 31st, 1940...... 12,819.62
Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account,
December 31st, 1940............ 6,854.61* 19,674.23 $ 45,330.93

Of this amount there are unpaid bills in the Comptroller's Office amount-
ing to $2,501.81, which will be paid as soon as the money is available in the
General Revenue Fund. This would leave an actual unexpended balance in
Necessary and Regular Expense Account of $4,352.80.