Front Cover
 Title Page
 Back Cover

Biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075929/00001
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1937
Publication Date: 1936-1968
Frequency: biennial
Subjects / Keywords: Natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Saltwater fishing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida State Board of Conservation.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1936/38-1967/68.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1936/38-1959/60 called 3rd-14th.
Numbering Peculiarities: 6th (1943/44) bound with the 6th Biennial report of the Florida Geological survey.
Numbering Peculiarities: Biennium ending Dec.31.
General Note: 13th (1957/58) has a subtitle "Salt water fishing."
General Note: Vols. for 1961/62-1963/64 include biennial reports of the individual divisions of the Board of Conservation.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001589422
oclc - 01410803
notis - AHL3395
System ID: UF00075929:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Succeeded by: Biennial report - Florida Department of Natural Resources

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Back Cover
        Page 65
Full Text


Biennial Report

Biennium Ending

Dec. 31, 1938


** *
*= .

T 1 C1l

F'loraa Sitae Boara



R. L. Dowling, Supervisor






I -


Gov. Fred P. Cone, chairman; R. A. Gray, W. V. Knott, James M. Lee, Nathan
Mayo, Colin D. English, George Couper Gibbs, and R. L. Dowling, supervisor.
/ 0 733

Letter of Transmittal
Tallahassee, Florida
March 1, 1939
To His Excellency,
Fred P. Cone,
Governor of the State of Florida,
Chairman State Board of Conservation,
It is my privilege and duty, in compliance with state law,
to submit to you and the State Board of Conservation an ac-
counting of my work as Supervisor, or Business Manager, of
the Conservation Department for the two year period ending
December 31st, 1938.
The activities of the Conservation Department are wide
in scope. Under our supervision are the entire salt water
resources of the state. The magnitude of the Florida sea-
foods industry is described in detail on pages 12, 13, and 14.
We have endeavored to get a correct census on the production
of seafoods by sending out questionnaires to all producers,
and following up by personal contact. We feel that the
figures given are fairly accurate.
A definite study and knowledge gained from personal
contact with fishermen and dealers in the various producing
centers compels your Supervisor to say that Florida's once
prosperous industry is on the decline.
With a limited number of men in the field, we have en-
deavored successfully to enforce the Conservation laws, pro-
hibit illegal fishing and supervise and patrol the waters of
forty-one counties. There is need for a larger force of men,
some changes in our laws, as well as other conservation work.
The rehabilitation of our oyster beds is an outstanding ex-
ample of what can be done when money and man power are
provided, and intelligent management is used in carrying out
such a constructive program. Results of this work, which be-
gan several months ago, are detailed on other pages of this
book. It is recommended that the oyster planting work be
carried on for another two years or longer. No project has
brighter prospects of achievement for the good of all con-
We have the honor also to submit herewith brief reports
of the Geological and Archaeological Divisions for the last
Respectfully submitted,
Supervisor of Conservation.

Conservation Program Enhanced

Florida's Conservation Department program has been
enhanced recently by settlements in the courts and by legis-
lation of three or more controversial subjects, all of which
have ended happily for the State of Florida.
The first was a decree by United States Court of Appeals,
which held that Florida has the right, under its Constitution,
to exercise jurisdiction and control over its waters and to
pass and enforce laws and make arrests in regulating domestic
affairs within the constitutional boundaries. These bounda-
ries extend on the Gulf 3 marine leagues from shore at mean
low tide, or a distance of more than 10 miles.
The second decision was by the Supreme Court of Florida,
which held as valid and workable a state law requiring a
license tax on all boats that fish. They held that such license
fees must be paid annually. That settled a controversy of
long standing.
After numerous conferences and efforts by the Supervisor
of Conservation, a third victory was accomplished by the
passage of a reciprocal license law by the Georgia Legislature,
affecting Florida citizens who would sell fish and seafoods in
The recent General Assembly of Georgia adopted a uni-
form license law, placing non-residents on an equal basis with
those residing in Georgia. The law is conditioned upon Flor-
ida's Legislature enacting similar legislation, repealing the
old retaliatory license law. To the Florida seafoods industry
this is of major importance and is the result of an effort begun
by the Conservation Department two years ago to remove all
trade barriers between the two states.

Florida's Commercial Fishing Industry
'Production figures compiled by the Conservation De-
partment for the years 1937 and 1938 show that approximate-
ly 99,000,000 pounds of edible fish and seafoods were caught
and sold in Florida in 1938. Sixty-seven varieties of edible
fish and shellfish were produced commercially. Some of
these are the choicest of seafoods.
Florida's shoreline is longer than that of any other state.
The wide belt of producing waters which wash the shores of
both the east and west coasts is a vast storehouse for this
food supply. It is natural that in these semi-tropical waters
there would be not only an abundant supply, but a wide variety
of species.
The Conservation Department made an earnest effort, in
a recent survey, to obtain an accurate census of the amount of
production in all of the forty-one counties that touch salt
water. The result of this survey is found in the table pub-
lished on pages 12, 13, and 14.
Commercial fishing is Florida's oldest industry. Foreign
boats began fishing in Florida waters long before the terri-
tory became a possession of the United States. Until quite
recently there has been a seemingly inexhaustible supply of
fish for commerce and sport, but the extensive use by fisher-
men, of powerful boats, and modern tackle with the employ-
ment of other wasteful methods have combined to greatly
deplete the fish resources in some localities.
When the fishing business began to decline, and the catch-
ing of an ample supply of fish became more difficult, fisher-
men resorted to longer seines and more effective tackle. When
market prices dropped these fishermen endeavored to recoup
their losses by taking more and more fish. These practices
have, in some instances, not only depleted the supply, but have
demoralized the market.
We find that, generally speaking, market conditions and
distribution both are badly in need of improvement. As a
definite remedy the Conservation Department has plans for
the construction of a number of cold storage and quick freez-
ing plants. These units should be located at strategic points
of production along the coast, and their services made avail-
able to dealers and fishermen alike. Lack of these storage
facilities and adequate distribution have brought about de-
moralized price cutting, and other hazards to an equitable
facility of feeding out to the consumer Florida's wonderful
supply of fish and shellfish.


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Such a chain of plants would enable all producers, large
or small, to carry their products to the consuming markets
at the proper times and seasons or store them during periods
of peak production for sale at times later on when the demand
for them is greater.
Despite figures which reveal production of many tons
of food fishes there is unmistakenly a decline in this produc-
tion from year to year. Some dealers who formerly took an
annual catch of as much as 15,000,000 pounds of fish now
are reporting only 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 pounds each year.
The table on pages 16, 17, and 18 seeks to show in a concise
manner where this annual production of seafoods comes from,
what it amounts to in the aggregate, and the variety produced
in the waters of this state. It is believed that this is the first
authentic record the department has been able to compile.
Figures were obtained from the more than four hundred li-
censed dealers handling seafoods in the State of Florida.
Conservation laws fix closed seasons, limit the size of
fish and shellfish that may be taken, define salt waters, pre-
scribe methods to be used in taking fish and shell fish, pre-
scribe lengths of nets and seines, and the sizes of mesh, seek
to regulate the transportation and sale of seafoods as well
as the boats and vessels engaged in fishing in some of the
waters where the supply is depleted.
There are forty-one counties that border in the waters
under the Supervision of the Conservation Department. It
would necessitate the employment of a larger force of men
to patrol and supervise all of this territory if adequate pro-
tection and enforcement are to be given this important fish-
ing industry.
The department has been able to carry on with a limited
force of field workers, and despite this handicap is able to
report one of the most successful closed seasons on mullet
in 1938 and 1939 ever attempted before. Closed seasons on
other fishes as well as regulations to prohibit the illegal
catching, and sale and distribution of seafoods have been en-
forced with satisfactory results.
The department has no fish hatcheries and proceeds on
the theory that one closed season is worth a number of hatch-
eries. All of the fishes, sponges, shellfish and other products
in the waters of Florida of economic value belong to and are
the property of the citizens of Florida. It is from this natural
wealth the fishing industry must draw its supply of products



for a livelihood. On pages 34 and 35 will be found a table
showing the number of arrests of those who violated the
Conservation laws, the disposition of these cases in the courts,
and the amounts of fines and costs remitted during the two
calendar years of 1937 and 1938.

Millions of pounds of Menhaden and Sharks are taken
annually in Florida waters. The Menhaden is a small fish,
too oily for food. It is taken in great quantities with fine
mesh nets, sometimes in deep waters far from shore. Its
flesh is pressed and the oil extracted. The residue then is
ground into meal and used as an element in commercial fer-
tilizers. The industry is one of importance in Florida. Five
plants for processing Menhaden fish and extracting the oil
and meal are operated in the state. Hundreds of boats and
a larger number of men are employed in the industry.
Menhaden fishing is an old, well-established industry,
and thrives on both the east and west coasts.
Shark fishing is a comparatively new and promising in-
dustry in Florida. This fish, until recently looked upon as
a nuisance and predator, now is considered valuable for its
liver oil and the skins.
Thousands of tons of sharks are caught annually. The
oil is rendered from the livers and sold commercially for its
value as a nutrient in dog and poultry feeds, and also for hu-
man consumption.
The skins are tanned and made into leather bags and
many novelties. The teeth and eyes are consumed by the
novelty trade, and the heads, and backbones also are utilized
for the same purpose.
Shark fishing, which employs a number of men at good
wages, is carried on at eleven places in the state, both on
the east and west coasts. Plans now are said to include pro-
posals for processing the large amount of flesh for fertilizer
purposes. This by-product heretofore has been thrown over-
board as pure waste.
The same conservation laws governing the taking and
licensing of other fishing operations govern shark and men-
haden fishing. It should be noted, however, that Florida law
does not permit the taking and using of food fishes for oil
or fertilizer purposes.

The two principal varieties of non-food fish taken com-
mercially in Florida waters are the menhaden (or porgies),
and the shark.
SSix menhaden fisheries reported production totaling
173,685,332 pounds of menhaden in 1938.
Ten shark fisheries, which are operated on both the east
and west coasts of Florida, reported catching last year more
than 4,400,000 pounds of this non-food fish. It should be
explained here that the flesh of the shark is not at the pres-
ent time of economic value. The principal value of the shark
is in its liver oil and in the skins.
There are no figures available of the amount of oil pro-
duced or refined, but it is a well-known fact that shark fish-
ing is a growing industry, returning profits to the dealer
and good wages to the fishermen.

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Oyster Production
Oysters are better known and more generally esteemed
than any other product of the great food supply which comes
from salt water. Florida is one of the leading oyster pro-
ducing states. Florida oysters have more than one advant-
age over those produced in other states. They grow quickly
to a large size.
Our warm climate and our pure waters combine
to provide ideal growing conditions, and oysters mature in
about one-half the time required farther north. The flavor
of the Florida oyster is unexcelled.
During the 1937-1938 license year, the Conservation De- ~
apartment licensed 115 wholesale dealers and 1287 retail
dealers to engage in the business. One canning factory also
was authorized to operate in the Apalachicola area and one
also in the Fernandina area.
As a source of food supply, oysters have played an im-
portant part since Florida was first discovered by white
man. Even prior to that the Indians are known to have sub-
sisted largely on oysters and other seafoods in localities bor-
dering the long peninsula shoreline. Those engaged today
in mining oyster shell find unmistakable evidence of what
caused the great mountains of oyster shell to be piled in many
places along the coast. Indian relics are being uncovered
in these piles of shell, and quite often there are well-pre-
served remnants of campfires which prove that feasts of
oysters were the common food of these natives for perhaps
thousands of years before white man set foot on these shores.
Nothing in America's long list of pure foods excels the
oyster. It is not only a palatable food but one of the very
finest in health-giving qualities. It is eaten raw or cooked,
and relished both ways. It is easily assimilated and provides
a beneficial diet for the young and the old, the weak and
the strong. Mixed with milk, as in a stew, it is said to pro-
vide the nearest approach to a perfectly balanced meal. Too
much cannot be said for Florida's oyster; first, because its
production does not anything like supply the demand, even
in Florida. The potential market is unlimited. There cer-
tainly must be a future for Florida oysters far surpassing
anything that has been reached in the past.
Man-made waste and providential disasters combined
a few months ago to almost destroy the supply of Florida
oysters. The industry had just about "hit bottom" two years

Until your Supervisor took up the work in this office in
February, 1937, oyster planting had been carried on in a
limited way in Florida in the waters of Choctawhatchee Bay
largely through government aid and some local sponsorship.
In December of the same year a county project was
launched in Franklin. This project later being transferred
into the state-wide oyster planting project. In April, 1938
the Conservation Department, as sponsors, and in coopera-
tion with the Workers Progress Administration launched a
state-wide oyster rehabilitation project with plans for trans-
planting and rehabilitating the oyster beds in a number of
counties. At the close ofthe last biennium this oyster rehabili-
tation work was in progress in eighteen counties, sixteen of
which are operating under the state wide set-up. The results
obtained are very well pictured in the table presented on
page 22. The success of this work is reflected in letters,
and daily reports from fishermen, public officials, and civic
organizations in every county where this work was under way.
Oyster culture is not new. In Asia the work has been
going on for centuries. There is nothing mysterious or com-
plicated about it. Farming under the sea is an industry which
science and practical experience have well defined.
Back in 1726 Benjamin Franklin describes one phase
of the oyster industry and methods employed in England in
transplanting them. From a recent book of Franklin by Carl
Van Doran the following bit of Franklin's Journal is taken,
describing a summer voyage to England:
"From Cowes the ship was to sail early Friday
morning, but her wind was adverse, and Franklin,
with other restless or curious passengers, went
ashore to see Newport, the 'metropolis' of the Isle
of Wight, and Carisbroche Castle, 'which King
Charles the First was confined in'. About Charles
and his fate Franklin said nothing. His eyes were
for living sights.
"I think Newport is chiefly remarkable for oys-
ters, which they send to London and other places,
where they are very much esteemed, being thought
the best in England. The oyster merchants fetch
them, as I am informed, from other places, and lay
them upon certain beds in the river (the water of
which is, it seems, excellently adapted for the pur-
pose) a-fattening; and when they have lain a suit-
able time they are taken up again and made fit for







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The Sponge Industry
Any report on conservation work in Florida would be
incomplete if it did not also include progress made recently
by the state in protecting and promoting the sponge industry.
A recent federal court decision which has reestablished
the right of the conservation department to make arrests,
and extend its supervision as far out as ten miles from shore-
line, according to the constitution, has been responsible for
clearing up a great deal of confusion and simplifying the work
of the conservation agents.
This matter had been a controversial one involving court
litigation for a long, long time. State law prohibits the diving
for sponges within territorial waters, but there had been
some question raised, and one federal court judge had held,
that the state had no right to arrest a violator beyond the
three-mile limit.
During the last year the conservation department has
established a patrol of some of the principal sponge produc-
ing areas, and in some places has set markers in the form
of buoys to guide the fishermen, who for the most part ap-
parently do not want to violate the law, nor will they do so
if they are assured of just what the law is.
Conservation agents also have been active in cooperat-
ing with sponge fishermen, both the divers and the hookers,
and have assisted the producer in delivering to the markets
only the legal size sponges. The department has sought the
friendship and respect of everyone connected with the in-
Your supervisor has the assurance of both the sponge
diver and the hooker, as well as the dealer, that the state's
program of conservation in which the protection and propa-
gation of sponges are recommended will be welcomed on
their part and their cooperation will be forthcoming.
A few changes in the sponge laws are needed and these
also will be recommended with the support and the advice
of those directly connected with the industry.

State Conservation Fund

January 1st, 1937 Through December 31st, 1937

Total Balances on hand January 1st, 1937............$ 22,831.38
Total Receipts from Commercial
Salt Water Fishing Industry........$ 55,032.58
Total Receipts from Oyster Industry 12,453.76
Total Receipts from Sponge In-
dustry 977.40
Total Receipts from Pleasure Fish-
ing Boat Industry 6,036.40 74,500.14 $ 97,331.52

Total Expenditures from Adminis-
trative and Office Division-- ...... $ 16,835.77
Total Expenditures from Field
Division 46,247.39
Total Expenditures from Oyster
Rehabilitation Division.................. 2,810.90 65,894.06

Total Balances on Hand December 31st, 1937...... 31,437.46 $ 97,331.52

State Conservation Fund

January 1st, 1937 Through December 31st, 1937
Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund
in Comptroller's Office January 1st, 1937.... $ 21,905.20
Balance Credited to State Board of Conserva-
tion in Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee, Flor-
ida, January 1st, 1937 753.13
Unpaid Checks on Hand January 1st, 1937...... 173.05 $ 22,831.38


Shrimp Canning Factory Licenses....$ 200.00
Wholesale and Retail Fish Dealers
Licenses 32,600.00
Resident Fishing and Oystering
Vessel Licenses 14,192.80
Non-resident Fishing and Oyster-
ing Vessel Licenses 2,235.00
Non-resident Fishing and Oyster-
ing Licenses 3,300.00
Resident Shrimp Boat Licenses........ 249.10
Non-resident Shrimp Boat Licenses 250.00
Non-resident Shrimp Fishi.g.. .
Licenses. *...

.* .* 25
*. ..
"" ..'""..... .
... .. ... ..

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* :

Resident Menhaden Fishing Boat
Licenses 31.60
Non-resident Menhaden Fishing
Boat Licenses 30.00
Non-resident Menhaden Fishing
Licenses 20.00
Purse Seine Licenses 650.00
Dredge Boat Licenses 125.00
Excess Net Tags 5.00
Court Costs and Witness Fees.......... 392.23
Refunds 118.91
Miscellaneous Collections ............. 577.94

Canning Factory Licenses...............
Wholesale and Retail Oyster Deal-
ers Licenses
Lease Rentals and Fees....................
Miscellaneous Collections:
Royalty and Shell
Mined from Shell
Lease No. 241 by
Duval Engineering
and Contracting
Company, Jackson-
ville $ 23.33
Certified Copy of
Oyster Lease .......... 2.00



25.33 $ 9,425.60

Two Cent Privilege Tax....................$ 1,750.67 $ 1,750.67

Three Cent Privilege Tax................$ 1,277.49 $ 1,277.49

Resident Sponge Boat Licenses......$ 827.40
Non-resident and Alien Sponge
Boat Licenses 150.00 $


Resident Pleasure Fishing Boat
Licenses $ 5,461.40
Non-resident Pleasure Fishing Boat
Licenses 575.00 6,036.40 $ 74,500.14

TOTAL TO BE ACCQ O TEI F~RG..: *-'... $ 97,331.52

*** .*.
*. .*

.. ,'.... ,-'.. *
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State Conservation Fund
January 1st, 1937 Through December 31st, 1937

Salaries $ 12,260.49
Traveling Expenses 12.37
Printing and Stationery............ 2,191.81
Postage 675.00
Telephone 381.49
Office Supplies 307.55
Office Expenses 522.21
Office Equipment 415.40
Bonds and Insurance ................ 69.45


Salaries $
Traveling Expenses ..................
Printing and Stationery ..........
Boats Tags
Educational and Advertising....
Bonds and Insurance ................
Miscellaneous Field Expense....
Purchase and Maintenance of
Equipment Other than Boats
Purchase, Maintenance and Op-
eration of Boats:
Purchase of Boats
and Boat Equip-
ment and re-
c o n d i tioning
same ..................$ 4,330.59
Supplies for Boats 171.44
Gasoline and Oil
for Boats .......... 1,199.08
Subsistence of
Crew .................. 346.84
Rent, Dockage and
Other Miscel-
laneous Ex-
pense .................. 797.00

$ 16,835.77




REFUNDS 321.73 $ 46,247.39

Franklin County:
Salaries ..............$ 862.10
Boat Rents .......... 103.05
Shell Purchased.... 186.97
Hauling and
Planting Shell. 806.11
Gasoline and Oil 123.10
Miscellaneous Ex-
pense .............. 159.57 $ 2,240.90

Walton County:
Salaries ................. 450.00
Boat Rsnts .......... 120.00 570.00 $ 2,810.90

THROUGH DECEMBER 31ST, 1937 $ 65,894.06
Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in
Comptroller's Office December 31st, 1937....$ 4,691.08
Balance Credited to State Board of Conserva-
tion in Capital City Bank, Tallahassee,
Florida, December 31st, 1937 23,264.44
Balance Credited to State Board of Conserva-
tion in Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee,
Florida, December 31st, 1937 3,080.29
Unpaid Checks on Hand December 31st, 1937...... 401.65 31,437.46

$ 97,331.52

State Conservation Fund
January 1st, 1938 Through December 31st, 1938
Total Balances on Hand January 1st, 1938..........$ 31,437.46
Total Receipts from Commercial
Salt Water Fishing Industry....$ 57,394.82
Total Receipts from Oyster Indus-
try 19,134.67
Total Receipts from Sponge Indus-
try 2,745.45
Total Receipts from Pleasure Fish-
ing Boat Industry 10,561.30 89,836.24 $121,273.70

State Conservation Fund
Total Expenditures from Adminis-
trative and Office Division......$ 21,759.46
Total Expenditures from Field Divi-
sion 55,902.79
Total Expenditures from Oyster
Rehabilitation Division............. 14,219.58 $ 91,881.83
Total Balances on Hand D1cember 31st, 1938 ...$ 29,391.87 $121,273.70

State Conservation Fund
January 1st, 1938 Through December 31st, 1938
Balance Credited to State Conservation Fund in
Comptroller's Office January 1st, 1938........$ 4,691.08
Balance Credited to State Board of Conserva-
tion in Capital City Bank, Tallahassee,
Florida January 1st, 1938 23,264.44
Balance Credited to State Board of Conserva-
tion in Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee,
Florida, January 1st, 1938 3,080.29
Unpaid Checks on Hand January 1st, 1938..... 401.65 $ 31,437.46

Wholesale Fish and Seafoods Deal-
ers Licenses $ 21,902.50
Retail Fish Dealers Licenses............ 10,736.25
Resident Fishing and Oystering
Vessel Licenses 14,182.16
Non-resident Fishing and Oyster-
ing Vessel Licenses .............. 2,300.00
Non-resident Fishing and Oyster-
ing Licenses 1,035.00

Resident Shrimp Boat Licenses ... 748.00
Non-resident Shrimp Boat Licenses 250.00
Non-resident Shrimp Fishing
Licenses 40.00
Resident Menhaden Fishing Boat
Licenses 655.55
Non-resident Menhaden Fishing
Boat Licenses 1,200.00
Non-resident Menhadden Fishing
Licenses 1,285.00
Purse Seine Licenses 550.00
Dredge Boat Licenses 100.00
Excess Net Tags 26.00
Court Costs and Witness Fees ........ 302.09
Refunds 185.33
Miscellaneous Collections ................ 1,896.94

Canning Factory Licenses ................$ 150.00
Wholesale Oyster Dealers Licenses.. 1,110.00
Retail Oyster Dealers Licenses........ 7,165.00
Lease Rentals and Fees ................... 1,461.58
Miscellaneous Collections:
Royalty and Shell
Mined from
Shell Lease No.
241 by Duval
Engineering and
Contracting Co.,
Jacksonville ......$ 6,256.50
Royalty and Shell
Mined from
Shell Lease No.
244 by Paving
Materials, Inc.,

$ 57,394.82

Jacksonville ...... 164.04 6,420.54 $ 16,307.12

Two Cent Privilege Tax ................$ 1,522.96 $ 1,522.96

Three Cent Privilege Tax..............$ 1,304.59 $ 1,304.59

Resident Sponge Boat Licenses ......$ 675.45
Non-Resident and Alien Sponge
Boat Licenses 525.00
Non-Resident and Alien Sponge
Fishing Licenses 1,545.00 2,745.46

Resident Pleasure Fishing Boat
Licenses $ 10,036.30
Non-resident Pleasure Fishing
Boat Licenses 525.00 10,561.30


$ 89,836.24

State Conservation Fund

January 1st, 1938 Through December 31st, 1938


Salaries $ 13,525.34
Traveling Expenses ................ 2,781.90
Printing and Stationery .......... 972.05
Postage .................. 825.00
Telephone 1,226,69
Office Supplies 575.53
Office Expense 343.50
Office Equipment 861.12
Bonds and Insurance ................ 50.00
Repairs to Chemistry Building 598.33


$ 21,759.46

Salaries $ 27,055.47
Traveling Expenses .................. 11,882.98
Printing and Stationery .......... 2,858.65
Postage .................. 585.00
Telegraph 515.40
Boat Tags 688.50
Educational and Advertising.... 250.00
Legal Expenses 274.25
Bonds and Insurance ............... 185.00
Miscellaneous Field Expenses.... 720.20
Maintenance and Operation
Miami Office 327.91
Purchase and Maintenance of
Equipment other than Boats 64.65
Purchase, Maintenance and
Operation of Boats:
Purchase of Boats
and Boat Equip-
ment and Re-
c o n di tioning
same ..................$ 4,112.75
Supplies for Boats 243.97
Gasoline and Oil
for Boats ........ 3,293.92
Subsistence of
Crew ............... 738.15
Rent, Dockage and
other Miscellan-
eous Expense.... 870.22
Ins urance on
Boats ............... 825.00 10,084.01


410.77 $ 55,902.79

Brevard County:
Gasoline and Oil..$ 7.50 $ 7.50

Dade County:
Gasoline and Oil.. 7.00 7.00

Duval County:
Gasoline and Oil.. 11.16 11.16

Franklin County:
Salaries and La-
bor 1,525.00
Boat Rents ............ 549.39
Shell Purchased. 119.34
Supplies ............... 125.28
Gasoline and Oil
and Expense
Accounts ............ 330.40
Miscellaneous Ex-
pense ............... 128.89 2,778.30

Levy County:
Gasoline and Oil.. 35.00 35.00

Okaloosa County:
Salaries ................ 75.00
Gasoline and Oil
and Expense
Accounts .......... 426.52 501.52

Santa Rosa County:
Gasoline and Oil
and Expense
Accounts .......... 198.92 198.92

State Wide Project:
Salaries and La-
bor $ 3,070.97
Gasoline and Oil
and Expense
Accounts .......... 4,078.99
Purchase and
Maintenance of
Equipment ....... 3,098.25
Miscellaneous Ex-
pense ................. 2.50 10,250.71

Volusia County:
Gasoline and Oil.. 54.47 54.47

Walton County:
Salaries and La-
bor 375.00 375.00 $ 14,219.58

DECEMBER 31ST, 1938 $ 91,881.83
Balance credited to State Conservation Fund in
Comptroller's Office December 31st, 1938 ....$ 1,053.58
Balance Credited to State Board of Conserva-
tion in Capital City Bank, Tallahassee,
Florida, December 31st, 1938 27,427.89
Unpaid Checks on Hand December 31st, 1938 .... 910.40 29,391.87


Counties Arrests Convictions Costs & Fees
A lachua 1 ...... $.................
Brevard 8 8 102.75
Collier 9 .... 89.60
Dade 10 5 13.50
Duval 6 2 4.00
Hillsborough 1 ................
Lee 9 1 9.13
L evy 3 ..................
Martin 6 25.24
Monroe 5 1 15.50
Nassau 1
Palm Beach 10 10 79.46
Pinellas 4 1 4.80
St. Johns 5 5 7.11
St. Lucie 1 ...... 7.48
Sarasota ......... 14.01
Taylor 7 7 18.50
Volusia 2 1 1.15

TOTALS 88 41 $392.23

Number Fines Fees and
Offense of Assessed Mileage
Offenders Collected
Closed Season Violation ........................ 11 $ 25.00 $ 9.13
Illegal Seines or Nets ................................ 25 95.00 194.87
Undersize Crayfish 9 ............ 33.75
Operating Business Without
License 6 ........... 6.40
Illegal Fishing 1 ........................
Illegal Shrimping 11 100.00 6.81
Possession Mullet, Closed Season...... 10 70.00 59.40
Undersize Mullet .. 2 ........... 11.37
Violation Sponge Law 7 1.00 18.50
Violation Turtle Law 6 120.00 52.00

TOTALS 88 $411.00 $392.23

Counties Arrests Convictions Costs & Fees
Brevard 4 4 $ 37.75
Collier 8
Dade 1 1 11.75
Duval 2 ......
Hillsborough 1 .... 3.20
Lee 6 2 19.24
Lake 1 1 17.38
Levy 1 ...... 2.00
M anatee 4 ..................
Monroe 27
Nassau 7 5 43.80
Palm Beach 13 9 117.52
Pinellas 11 ..................
St. Lucie 2
St. Johns 1 1 14.25
Sarasota 2 1 5.20
Taylor 2 ..................
Volusia 2 2 30.00

TOTALS 95 26 $302.09


Violation Sponge Law
Violation Shrimp Law ........................
Violation Turtle Law
Violation Crayfish Law ........................
Violation Closed Mullet Season.........
Undersize Mullet
Illegal Fishing
Illegal Seines
Fishing Closed Waters
Operating Seafood Business
Without License


umber Fines
of Assessed







Fees and
$ 35.26




The activities of the Geological Division for the period
July 1, 1936 to December 31, 1938, are briefly set forth under
the following headings:
Activities and Accomplishments
Future Work
Mineral Production
Personnel: The members of the Geological Survey dur-
ing the period July 1, 1936 to December 31, 1938, have been
as follows:
Herman Gunter, Geologist and Administrative Head.
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist. (Services ended
August 1, 1937.)
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary. (Services ended Septem-
ber 1, 1937.)
Tinnie D. Williams, Secretary.
Pearl Gatlin, Stenographer.
J. Clarence Simpson, Office and Museum Assistant.
Activities and Accomplishments: The State Geologist,
as head of the Geological Division, has attended to the rou-
tine correspondence and to the consulting work of the office.
Interest in the potential oil, gas and other at present unknown
mineral deposits in Florida has been most active and this
has placed an increasing demand for information about the
geology, structure and stratigraphy of Florida on the Geologi-
cal Division. This has been met in as satisfactory a manner
as possible although it is evident that with additional assist-
ance more details about such fundamentally important mat-
ters could be made available. Field trips collecting data for
reports and examining mineral properties have also from time
to time been made.
The State Geologist has served as a member of the Apa-
lachicola Basin Sub-Committee of the Mobile-Suwannee
Drainage Basin Committee and as a member of the sub-com-
mittee of Peninsular Florida Basin Committee on Under-
ground Water Resources. Two meetings have been attended,

one at Albany, Georgia and one at Jacksonville. Reports are
being formulated covering the findings and recommendations
of these committees for submission to the National Resources
At the request of the Florida Railroad Commission to
the Supervisor of Conservation the State Geologist prepared
a brief dealing with the mineral resources of Florida for pres-
entation at the Southern Commodity Rate Case Hearing of
the Interstate Commerce Commission held in Buffalo, N. Y.,
July, 1938. This case was originated by the Southern Gov-
ernor's Conference. It attacked the rates on certain com-
modities from the South to the North as being preferential
of the northern manufacturer and prejudicial to the southern
shipper. The Florida Railroad Commission presented perti-
nent data most comprehensively which reflected the position
of the southern shipper and those of Florida in particular.
That efforts of the Railroad Commission in this matter will
be rewarded is suggested in the report rendered by Com-
missioner Lee of the Interstate Commerce Commission and
Examiner Corcoran, which recommends that on most of the
commodities involved, rates from the South to the North be
made on basis of the scale within the North. If this report
is adopted by the Interstate Commerce Commission the result
will be of untold benefit to the southern shipper and manu-
facturer. It largely supports the contention of the Southern
S During November, 1938 the Congressional Committee
on Phosphate conducted a hearing at Lakeland, Florida, dur-
ing which time data were presented dealing with the Florida
deposits. This meeting in Florida was the concluding one by
the Committee, others having been held at Pocatello, Idaho
and Knoxville, Tennessee. The State Geologist was invited
to be present at this hearing by Representative J. Hardin
Peterson, a member of the Committee. A paper was present-
ed outlining the geology and the potentialities of the Florida
deposits. It was a very informative meeting and was suc-
cessful from the Florida point of view in that the Committee
decided that it was not necessary to curtail production or to
restrict the exportation of phosphate. It was conclusively
demonstrated that Florida had vast deposits of commercial
phosphate and, too, it was shown that the producers were
commendably using all possible refinement in mining meth-
ods, thereby reducing loss of phosphate to the minimum.
Formerly the soft and the very fine phospate was lost since
mechanical means alone were not sufficient for recovering
it. Flotation and tabling methods are now in use, both of
which are proving commercially successful.

The Assistant Geologist was engaged in a report on the
ground water supplies of western Florida. The field work
on this was completed at the time his services were termi-
nated and the report will appear in the near future. It is a
cooperative report between the United States Geological
Survey and the Florida Geological Survey.
Exhibits: The Geological Division participated in the
exhibits of the Conservation Department at the Florida Con-
stitution Centennial held at Port St. Joe during December
7-10, 1938. Preparations were also being made for displays
at the DeSoto Exposition and Fair to be held at Tampa in
the Spring.
It would seem that if State Departments are to regular-
ly take part in displays at various expositions and fairs it
would be wise to provide a fund for such purposes. With an
appropriation available it would be possible to plan more
definitely the character of exhibits and to make more ade-
quate preparations.
1V Accomplishments: For a number of years efforts have
continually been made to have owners and drillers of wells
save samples of the cuttings in addition to complete logs
and other information that may be of permanent value. It
is gratifying to record the response. There is now on file
in the Survey offices samples from nearly 400 wells located in
different parts of Florida. Some of these have gone to un-
usual depths, the deepest being 6,180 feet. Numbers of water
wells attain a depth of 1,000 feet but more often the range
is considerably less. Federal and State agencies, corpora-
tions, municipalities, engineers and individuals cooperate in
this matter of saving well samples so that the Survey is
building up an increasing amount of information about the
subsurface materials. The samples are studied by members
of the Survey and by other specialists in this field. The
results of these studies are on file and available to the public.
Publications: During the period covered by this report
the following bulletins have been issued:
Bulletin 15. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwan-
nee Limestone of Florida, by W. C. Mansfield, 1937,
334 pp., 21 pls., 3 figs., 2 tables.
Bulletin 16. Stratigraphy and Micropaleontology
of Two Deep Wells in Florida, by W. Storrs Cole,
1938, 76 pp., 12 pls., 3 figs.
The first mentioned report differentiates the limestones
of Florida that heretofore were included under the one for-

mation name, Tampa, and this new formation is termed the
Suwannee from typical exposures on the river of that name.
Difference in chemical composition between the two forma-
tions as well as distinct faunal content form the basis upon
which the new formation name of Suwannee was established.
It is a distinct contribution to the stratigraphy of the State.
The second bulletin listed gives a detailed study of the
samples from a well drilled as a test for oil northeast of
Marianna, Jackson County, to a depth of 5,022 feet and a
1,037 foot well at Port St. Joe drilled as a test for water.
These bulletins have been well received and have helped to
fill the demand for more detailed knowledge about the strati-
graphy of Florida.
Other special literature of the Conservation Depart-
ment has been issued in which the work of the Geological
Division is brought to the attention of the general public.
This character of literature will do much toward populariz-
ing the work of the Conservation Department and acquaint
the citizens of the State with the constructive work the de-
partment is doing. Furthermore, press releases appear from
time to time which convey current information about inves-
tigations or contemplated developments.
Works Progress Administration Project: A very broad
and inclusive mineral resource survey sponsored by the Super-
visor of Conservation was planned in connection with the
Works Progress Administration and submitted to the State
Offices February 18, 1938. This project proposed the inves-
tigation of every phase of Florida's economic geology, known
and potential, and making the results available in printed
form. It received the approval of the State Administrator
and was approved by certain district agencies and Federal
agencies in Washington. After thorough consideration by the
Washtington Works Progress Administration office it was
disapproved but without prejudice. Such action was finally
taken for the reason that trained technical supervision could
not be supplied a project of such magnitude.
A second project proposing the survey of some of the
mineral resources of the State was submitted on October 1,
1938. This received State Application No. 30719 and the
approval of the State Administrator. After thorough review
the approval of Works Progress Administration in Washing-
ton was given as shown by Presidential letter December 7,
1938, the project bearing the Official Project No. 665-35-C-
196. It is hoped that allocation of funds for this will soon
be made so that work can be actively begun.

Cooperation: A cooperative policy has always been
maintained and has been found to be mutually advantageous.
Cooperation is maintained with the U. S. Geological Survey
in geologic, paleontologic, physiographic and ground water
studies. A report on the physiography of Florida is in prep-
aration and will appear as a cooperative report very short-
ly after the completion of some additional field work
which is now in progress. Cooperation is also main-
tained with the U. S. Bureau of Mines and the U. S. Bureau
of Census in the collection of statistics on the mineral pro-
duction of the State. This avoids duplication of effort and
works toward uniformity of results. The cooperation of the
State Board of Health in the matter of data relating to drain-
age wells is deeply appreciated and acknowledged. The State
Road Department has also been generous in turning over
many cuttings and cores from overpass and bridge locations
in different parts of Florida. The State Chemist cooperates
in the matter of analyzing samples of rocks, soils and waters.
The Geological Survey has endeavored on every hand to co-
operate with various cities, towns, organizations and indi-
viduals in giving out information about the natural resources
and especially so in the development of adequate water sup-
plies. That such service is being made use of is shown by
the calls for it.
Future Work: Plans have been formulated for complet-
ing a report on the white burning clays of Florida through a
cooperative agreement with the United States Bureau of
Mines. The field work and much of the laboratory research
has already been accomplished but there yet remains some
unfinished work in both of these fields before the manuscript
can be completed and prepared for publication. Through
agreement with the Bureau of Mines it will be possible to
utilize the excellent laboratory facilities of such Bureau at
both Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Norris, Tennessee. The Flori-
da Geological Survey by the terms of this agreement will
collect the samples desired and furnish transportation facili-
ties for the research worker.
Arrangements have also been made for a detailed geol-
ogical survey of two counties in Florida by the Research
Division of the Louisiana Geological Survey. Through the
excellent and liberal support given that institution by the
State that survey has been able to issue very detailed reports
on a number of counties or parishes of Louisiana. These
publications have in turn been directly responsible for much
of the development work now under way in that State. The
Director of Research of Louisiana conferred with the Super-

visor of Conservation of Florida and the Geologist of the
Conservation Department during December 1938. As a result
of that conference an agreement was entered into whereby
the Research Division of Louisiana can furnish a trained
and experienced worker to survey two counties of Florida
in a manner similar to that employed in Louisiana under
what is considered most satisfactory terms. It was further
agreed that if the plan was found satisfactory here in Florida
additional counties could be undertaken on terms tentatively
agreed upon. It is felt that this will initiate a type of work
not heretofore undertaken in Florida and that there will be a
demand for it after the results of these first two counties
become available.
There is a rapidly growing interest in the potential pos-
sibilities of the southeastern states as producers of oil, gas,
sulphur, salt and perhaps other as yet unknown minerals,
and Florida seems to be attracting many who are earnestly
seeking dependable data. Some deep wells have already been
drilled and from a number of these samples of cuttings and
cores have been saved and deposited with the Florida Geolo-
gical Survey. Rather deep water wells have also been drilled
so there is a gradually increasing fund of information to be
had from detailed studies of such samples. Most of the
samples have been studied by various persons and much has
been learned but with time there comes refinements in meth-
ods as well as changes in interpretations. These may or may
not alter the general conclusions already arrived at but re-
cently there has come the opportunity of having the samples
from key wells studied by a recognized micropaleontologist
at a very nominal cost and then have samples from inter-
vening wells studied by graduate students under his direct
supervision, but at no cost to the Florida Geological Survey.
This plan makes possible the study of samples from numbers
of wells throughout the State under the supervision of a
trained specialist which suggests uniformity of results that
may otherwise not be possible. This plan is now in progress
and it is hoped that upon completion of the studies of the
samples from this first well that others can be sent until
all the key wells have been completed.
Developments: The Escambia Pottery Company at Pen-
sacola has been reorganized and now operates under the name
of Florida Ceramic Company. This company has a large
stock of.varied wares, beautiful, artistic and attractive. In
the manufacture of these art wares Florida clay is used.
Also during the period covered by this report a new pottery
has been established near Tampa, The Floramics Company,

located about 2 miles north of Sulphur Springs. This pottery
is specializing in souvenir pieces of all kinds and manufac-
tures an interesting line. In the manufacture of this ware,
too, Florida clay is used in goodly proportion.
The Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company com-
pleted a modern plant at Kendrick, Marion County, for the
production of a complete line of lime products. These include
quick lime, hydrated lime for both chemical and masonry
purposes, and a new masonry limestone building unit that
it is said possesses unusual characteristics as a building
material. Agricultural limestone is also produced as has
been done for years, as well as road material.
Interest is growing in the matter of prospecting for deep
lying structures that may be favorable to the trapping of
oil, gas or other valuable mineral deposits. The Gulf Refining
Company has done extensive geophysical prospecting in sou-
thern Florida, particularly through Collier County. The Sun
Oil Company has also been engaged in this character of work,
centering their activities in Lee County. The results have
not been made public.
The deep test of the Oil Development Company of Flori-
da, south of Groveland, Lake County, which had a depth of
6,118 feet when the Second Biennial Report was printed,
reached a depth of 6,129 feet in May, 1937, and has been in-
active since. The well northeast of Marianna, Jackson Coun-
ty, was completed at the depth of 5,022 feet and reported
upon in Bulletin 16 of this Survey. The second well by Ma-
lone and Pope near Wimauma, Hillsborough, was abandoned
on November 15, 1936 at a reported depth of 964 feet. The
test by the Florida Oil Discovery Company near Cedar Key,
Levy County, is still active and has a reported depth of about
4,400 feet and the well by the St. Mary's River Oil Corpora-
tion north of Hilliard, Nassau County, is drilling at more
than 4,400 feet. Samples from some of these tests have been
submitted to the Florida Geological Survey and this coop-
eration, which is entirely voluntary on the part of those re-
sponsible for having the wells drilled, is much appreciated.
Such samples furnish information about the subsurface
materials that would otherwise not be known and it is upon
such data gradually accumulated from different parts of the
State that state-wide information about the underlying struc-
ture and stratigraphy is based.
Another well that is causing much interest is one begun
December 31, 1938, just south of the townsite of Pine Crest,
deep in the Everglades, Collier County. This is being drilled

by the Peninsular Oil and Refining Company under the su-
pervision of R. B. Campbell, Geologist, Tampa, Florida. A
very modern, heavy duty, rotary drilling rig is used which
is capable of drilling to depths greater than any yet reached
in Florida.
Appropriation Requested: The appropriation requested
for the Biennium 1939-1941 is shown below. This is a very
modest request for the operation of the Geological Division
but it is a substantial increase over the current appropriation.
The work of the Survey has suffered on account of lack of
personnel and equipment. Additional trained help is needed,
as well as additional equipment. The budget that has been
prepared and approved by the Supervisor of Conservation
makes provision for this needed help and with it the Geolo-
gical Survey can more nearly fill the important place of gath-
ering and disseminating information about the mineral re-
sources of the State to its citizens and others who may be
interested in their development.

State Geologist $ 3,600
Assistant Geologist 3,000
Assistant Geologist 2,700
Research Assistant 2,400
Field and Museum Assistant 1,800
Secretary 1,500
Stenographer 1,320
Drilling Operator 1,620
Assistant Drilling Operator ........ 1,200
Traveling Expenses $ 3,000
Printing and Stationery 3,500
Field, Office and Museum Supplies ........................ 1,000
Postage, Express, Freight, Telephone, Tele-
grams 700
Clay. Laboratory Equipment and Replace-
ments 500
Cars, trade-in 600
Incidental Expenses 600
Cooperative Research Studies 7,500
One Core Drill and Operating Equipment...... 2,500
One 1-ton Truck, Grico rear-end and power
winch 1,600
One four-wheel Trailer with brakes ........................ 975
Replacements and Operation of Drilling
Outfit 500

SThe total value of the mineral output of Florida during
1936 was $12,942,097, an increase of $1,281,542 over that of
1935. During 1937 the total value was $13,777,623 or $835,-
526 more than for 1936. These figures may not be entirely
complete for a number of producers of clay and clay prod-
ucts, sand, mineral waters are known not to have made re-
turns. If all such production figures could have been col-
lected the total would be somewhat more than above indi-
cated. Statistics on mineral production are collected in co-
operation with the United States Bureau of Mines, Wash-
Florida leads the nation in the production of phosphate,
producing approximately 80 per cent of the United States
total and it has held this position since 1894. Production
of Florida phosphate began in 1888 with the mining of river
pebble phosphate from Peace Creek, near Arcadia. The min-
ing of river pebble ceased a number of years ago, the com-
mercial phosphates now being the land pebble, hard rock and
Soft phosphate is associated with both the hard rock
and the land pebble deposits and most of it was formerly
lost in mining and washing operations. Through various
means this soft material is now being reclaimed along with
much fine phosphate that in the earlier days found its way
to the waste ponds. Quite an industry has sprung up in
the reclamation of this soft phosphate from the waste ponds
of former operations. The material is ground and used di-
rectly on the soils and also as a filler in fertilizers.
The great advances in mechanical and flotation meth-
ods now in use in mining phosphate has made possible profit-
able exploitation of deposits that were formerly considered
non-commercial and so has added many thousands of tons
to the minable reserves of this mineral in Florida and in turn
has given many years of life to the industry at the present
rate of mining. The phosphates produced during 1936 to-
talled 2,624,900 long tons valued at $8,528,523 and during
1937, 2, 996,820 long tons valued at $9,142,985.
Amalgamated Phosphate Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New
York. Plant at Brewster.
American Agricultural Chemical Co., 50 Church St., New
York. Plant at Pierce.

Coronet Phosphate Co., 19 Rector St., New York. Plant
at Coronet.
International Agricultural Corp., 61 Broadway, New
York. Plant at Mulberry.
Phosphate Mining Co., 110 William St., New York. Plant
at Nichols.
Southern Phosphate Corp., Baltimore, Md. Plant at Ridge-
Swift and Company, R.F.D. No. 1, Bartow.
J. Buttgenbach & Company, Lakeland. Plant near Fe-
licia, Citrus County.
C. & J. Camp, Ocala. Plant near Felicia, Citrus County.
Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Co., Savannah, Ga. Plant
near Hernando, Citrus County.
Colloidal Phosphate Sales Co., Dunnellon.
Connell and Shultz, Inverness.
Dixie Phosphate Co., Ocala.
Loncala Phosphate Co., Ocala.
M. R. Porter, Ocala.
Soil Builders, Inc., Orlando.
Superior Phosphate Co., Dunnellon.
Lakeland Phosphate and Fertilizer Co., 225 E. Main St.,
The limestones of Florida have contributed generously
to the industrial development of the State, having a wide
range of chemical and physical properties they serve a wide
variety of useful purposes. The most extensive limestone
formation in Florida is the Ocala. This formation over a
large area in west-central peninsular Florida and in northwest
Florida in the Jackson County region. So far as shown by
well samples it underlies the entire State. It is a soft, light
colored, highly fossiliferous limestone of exceptional purity
and is admirably suited for road base material. The high
chemical purity of this stone makes it useful also for the
manufacture of chemical and agricultural limes. The fine
system of State Highways have been constructed largely with
this material as a base and its availability for this purpose
has greatly facilitated the industrial and recreational develop-
ment of the State.
The Ocala limestone is also the chief water-bearing for-
mation of the State, yielding most generously untold quanti-

ties of water for every purpose. Mining operators, factories,
mills, municipalities and individuals depend upon water from
this source and many of our largest and best known springs
are fed subterraneously from it.
There is at present, too, a more definite trend toward the
use of natural building stone for both private and public
construction and it is believed that as more people become
acquainted with the possibilities of our various limestones
that greater use will be made of them for construction pur-
poses. Several of the native limestones are used for building,
both the dressed product and the rough stone. The corralline
limestone of the keys of southern Florida, Floridene stone of
Manatee County, the Miami oolitic limestone, the Coquina and
the Marianna limestone are most generally used for building
Within recent years the native dolomitic limestone has
come to the fore and it is being produced in Levy, Citrus and
Sarasota counties. Experiments have shown that soils in
the citrus belt are often deficient in magnesia and the appli-
cation of ground dolomite or magnesian limestone, is said to
have a very beneficial effect. The production of this mineral
so close at hand should insure a reasonable and readily avail-
able supply at all times. It is known that dolomitic limestones
are found at localities other than those at which they are be-
ing at present produced and these deposits will undoubtedly
be utilized as the demand for this character of material
The Florida Portland Cement Company has a modern
plant at Tampa, the raw materials of clay and limestone
coming from pits and mines near Brooksville, Hernando
County. Other uses for native limestones include riprap,
ballast, aggregate and top dressing for roads.
Silicified limestone or flint is sometimes used as a rough
building stone but finds its principal use as an aggregate in
concrete, for ballast and for top dressing for roads.
A total of 1,611,687 tons of limestone, lime and crushed
flint were reported during 1936 with a value of $1,770,952.
During 1937 the reported production was 1,636,399 tons
valued at $1,607,972.
The lists that follow indicate the names and addresses of
the producers of various limestones and the purposes for
which used.

Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Brooksville.
Dixie Lime Products Co., Ocala. Dolomite plant at
Florida Lime Products Co., Ocala.
Florida Dolomite Co., Pembroke. Plant near Sarasota.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Key Largo Stone Quarries, Inc., Coral Gables.
Mizner Products Inc., Palm Beach. Plant at Islamorada.
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. W. 7th St., Miami. Plant at
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. W. 7th St., Miami.
Hobe Sound Stone Co., Stuart. Plant at Hobe Sound.
Seminole Rock & Sand Co., N. W. 14th St. and Red Road,
Naranja Rock Co., Naranja.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Brooksville.
Cummer Lumber Co., Kendrick.
Ocala Limerock Corp., Ocala. Quarry also at Haile.
Williston Shell Rock Co., Williston. Quarry also at Haile.
Newberry Corporation, 512 Dyal-Upchurch Bldg., Jack-
sonville. Haile quarry.
Broward County Highway Dept., Ft. Lauderdale.
S. P. Snyder & Son, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale.
Ocala Road Base Material Co., Ocala. Quarry at York.
Bell Rock Co., Miami.
The Broward Quarries, Inc., 2004 N. W. North River Dr.,
Seminole Rock & Sand Co., N. W. 14th St. & Red Road,
Mills Rock Co., 301 N. W. 79th St., Miami.
Naranja Rock Co., Inc., 4333 N. 27th Ave., Miami.
Maule Ojus Rock Co, Ojus.
Dade County Highway Dept., Miami.
City of Miami,, Miami.

Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Brooksville.
Marianna Lime Products Co., Marianna.
Crushed Rock Co., Ft. Myers.
Connell & Shultz, Inverness.
Thompson Williston Mine, care Duval Engineering & Con-
tracting Co., 512 Dyal-Upchurch Bldg., Jacksonville.
L. B. McLeod Construction Co., Williston.
Cummer Lumber Co., Kendrick.
Dixie Lime Products Co., Ocala.
Martin County Highway Dept., Stuart.
Mizner Products, Inc., 503 Wm. Penn Road, Palm Beach.
Werner Rock Co., New Port Richey.
T. A. Thompson, Branford.
National Gardens Coquina Rock Co., 314 N. Grandview
Ave., Daytona Beach.
Florida East Coast Railway, Broward County.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Marianna Lime Products Co., Marianna.
Cummer Lumber Co., Kendrick.
Miami Lime and Chemical Co., Inc., Rt. 2, Box 317, Miami.
Dixie Lime Products Co., Ocala.
Florida Lime Products Co., Box 478, Ocala.
Florida Portland Cement Co., 305 Morgan St., Tampa.
Alachua County Stone, Inc., High Springs.
M. M. Thomas Flint Rock Corp., 109 E. Broadway, Ocala.
Standard Rock Co., Morriston.
Fullers earth is a clay-like substance possessing the
property of clarifying and bleaching crude oils. These valua-
ble characteristics caused a great demand for the clay for
many years and Florida was for a long time the principal
producer of fullers earth. The industry in recent years has
suffered in competition with bentonite and bentonitic clays.
These clays when chemically treated have exceptional bleach-
ing properties and they have given the natural fullers earth
clays keen competition.

Florida is known to have deposits of these bentonitic
clays, although the extent and quality is yet but little known.
Perhaps with proper research in the field and laboratory
Florida may be able to recapture its former position as a
producer of bleaching clays.
The following companies are producers of fullers earth:
Floridin Company, 220 Liberty St., Warren, Pa. Mines
at Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
Fullers Earth Co., 10616 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. Mine
at Midway, Gadsden County.
Superior Earth Co., Inc., Ocala. Mine at Superior, Marion

Sand is one of the State's most abundant minerals, how-
ever, much of this sand lacks special properties needed for
various industrial uses. Here and there about the State are
deposits of sand ideally suited for mortar and good mortar
sand is also obtained as a by-product in mining kaolin and
other deposits.
There is one glass factory in Florida using native sand
and limestone. The Florida Glass Manufacturing Company
at Jacksonville makes a variety of glass jars and bottles.
Their products are well made, clear and free from stain.
Florida has deposits of white sand that it would seem
are suitable for the manufacture of different kinds of glass-
wares and it has unlimited supplies of almost pure high
calcium limestones. It seems possible therefore that the
State should produce not only glass for containers of all de-
scriptions but other types such as structural and plate glass
as well. With such a large demand for glass containers in a
fruit and vegetable producing state like Florida it would seem
that this field should be one of much promise.
Gravel has for many years been produced in Florida,
especially in the northern and western sections. The original
source of this gravel is in the states to the northward, from
which they have been transported by stream action. Com-
mercial production has centered mainly along the Apalachi-
cola and Escambia Rivers and in Jackson County.
The total reported production of sand and gravel in 1936
was 629,662 tons with a value of $394,908, and for 1937 a
large increase was reported, the total being 965,322 tons
valued at $751,523.

The following reported production of sand and gravel:
P. H. Carlisle, Panama City.
Alfred Destin Co., 235 Southwest Fourth Ave., Miami.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Seminole Rock and Sand Co., Miami.
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
-Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, Box 715, Lake
Southern Phosphate Corp., Bartow.
Diamond Interlachen Sand Co., Box 4667, Interlachen.
Benton Manson Company, Inc., P. O. Box 2215, St. Peters-
The clays of Florida in addition to fullers earth that are
produced commercially and from which clay products are
made may be grouped into kaolin, pottery clays and common
brick making clays. The kaolin is a fine white burning clay
which is used in the manufacture of white wares of different
kinds, and because of its unusual qualities is in great demand.
The following companies operated in Florida during 1936 and
1937 and have for numbers of years:
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J. Mine
at Edgar.
United Clay Mines Corp., 101 Oakland St., Trenton, N. J.
Mine at Crossley.
Florida clays are used in the manufacture of common
brick, tile, pottery and in the making of Portland cement.
Unfortunately figures are lacking on the value of clay
products, however, it is known that they contribute sub-
stantially to the annual mineral production and wealth of
the State, and are coming more and more in use.
Florida has large deposits of exceptionally pure and high
grade diatomaceous earth, both in western Florida and in
the lake region of the Peninsula. In Florida the deposits
occur much like peat, and may vary quite a great deal in
purity and thickness in different parts of the formation.
Because it occurs under conditions vastly different from con-
ditions prevailing in other sections of the United States, new
methods of mining, treatment and preparation for the market
are employed. Many troublesome factors in this respect have
been overcome and the industry is gradually growing. De-
tails as to extent of the different deposits should be de-

termined and with such additional details it is confidently
believed that development would follow. At present one com-
pany is operating in Florida, the American Diatomite Com-
pany, Clermont, Lake County, and they market a very superior
product. Another company at Clermont, The Air Kondition-
ing Company, is manufacturing a cleaning cream, a polishing
cream and moisture proof salt and pepper shakers, in all of
which diatomaceous earth plays a most prominent part. It
is not unlikely that other utilitarian products will also, be
manufactured from diatomite.

Peat is formed by the slow decomposition of vegetable
matter under extremely moist or wet conditions. Its principal
use in foreign countries is for fuel and although not used
for that purpose here in Florida it has been found valuable
and helpful as a filler for fertilizer, for conditioning heavy
soils and for light soils lacking humus. Peat has the property
of both increasing the moisture retaining ability of a soil and
returning beneficial bacteria to soils that have been depleted
and it is widely used for these purposes.
The following companies reported production:
Florida Humus Company, Zellwood.
Panama Humus Company, Panama City.

1936 1937
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Pebble Phosphate (long
tons) 2,454,272 $ 7,845,767 2,872,413 $ 8,600,512
Hard Rock Phosphate*
(long tons) .......... 170,628 682,554 124,407 542,473
Limestone, Lime and
Crushed Flint ........... 1,611,687 1,770,952 1,636,399 1,607,972
Sand and Gravel .......... ... 629,662 394,908 965,322 751,523
Kaolin and Fullers Earth 87,133 981,538 75,130 860,786
Peat, Diatomite, Cement 1,266,376 1,414,357
$12,942,097 $13,777,623
Including soft phosphate.

State Board of Conservation
January 1st, 1937 Through December 31st, 1937
Unexpended Balance for Salaries
January 1st, 1937 $ 4,475.83
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fund-Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 8,000.00 $ 12,475.83

Unexpended Balance for Necessary
and Regular Expenses Jan-
uary 1st, 1937 4,316.73
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fund-Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 4,500.00

Salaries $
Traveling Expenses
Printing and Stationery..................
Postage and Post Office Box Rent..
Telephone and Telegraph................
Field and Office Equipment .........
Miscellaneous Office Supplies-.......
Miscellaneous Office Expense ........
Insurance and Bonds
Field Work Preparatory to a Report
on the Physiography of Florida

Balance Absorbed by
General Revenue
Fund from Sal-
ary Account June
30th, 1937 ............$ 24.59
Balance Absorbed by
General Revenue
Fund from Neces-
sary and Regular
Expense Account
June 30th, 1937.... .43

Unexpended Balance
in Salary Account
December 31, 1937 4,016.67
Unexpended Balance
in Necessary and
Regular Expense
Account December
31st, 1937 .............. 4,236.32

8,816.73 $ 21,292.56


500.00 $ 13,014.55

$ 25.02

8,252.99 $ 21,292.56


State Board of Conservation
January 1st, 1938 Through December 31st, 1938

Unexpended Balance for Salaries
January 1st, 1938 .$ 4,016.67
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fund-Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 8,000.00 $ 12,016.67

Unexpended Balance for Necessary
and Regular Expenses January
1st, 1938 4,236.32
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fund-Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 4,500.00 8,736.32 $ 20,752.99


Salaries $ 8,040.00
Traveling Expenses 592.07
Printing and Stationery ................. 48.47
Postage and Post Office Box Rent 241.40
Telephone and Telegraph-.............. 46.23
Field and Office Equipment..-..... 7.35
Miscellaneous Office Supplies....... 166.19
Miscellaneous Office Expense........ 303.43
Insurance and Bonds 62.30
Miscellaneous Field Expense......... 204.06

Unexpended Balance
in Salary Account
December 31, 1938..$ 3,976.67
Unexpended Balance
in Necessary and
Regular Expense
Account December
31, 1938 7,064.82


11,041.49 $ 20,752.99



1. Effigy Parakeet. 2. Effigy Deer. 3. Effigy Duck.
All from Jones Mound Site VIII A.


The Florida State Archaeological Survey entered into the
Archaeological program of the Works Progress Administra-
tion on November 13, 1935 as sponsoring agency for the Dade
County and Hillsborough County Archaelogical Projects.
Shortly thereafter, on December 11, 1935, the State Archae-
ological Survey was transferred by executive order to the
State Board of Conservation.
The continuance of this work in Hillsborough County was
made possible by the interest and support of Mr. R. L.
Dowling, Supervisor of Conservation, and cooperating Federal
officials. The Museum of the University of Tampa also gave
much valuable assistance, all of which contributed to the
success of the project.
Funds for this work were supplied by the Works Progress
Administration and the personnel was taken largely from
their certified rolls, utilizing men who through age or infirmi-
ties were incapable of employment on other projects. The
work served both a humanitarian and scientific purpose.
When the huge volume of notes and records compiled by this
project are studied and published in detail, it will contribute
largely to our knowledge of the early history of Florida in
that section.

Permission to excavate was generously given by the
owner, Dr. T. C. Jones. The site was situated near the east
bank of Pemberton Creek, near Thonotosassa, in the SE1/4
of Section 13, T 28S, R20E; and comprised a burial mound of
sand measuring 80 feet from east to west and 70 feet from
north to south with a height of three feet in the center. The
mound was situated between the open points of a horseshoe-
shaped ridge of sand. The ridge faced with its open end to
the east. Between the burial mound and the inner curve of
the shoe lay an open level court. Both the mound and the
ridge had been extensively weathered, however, the original
plan of the site was still clearly obvious. The lowest level of
burials was 36 inches below the general level of the ground,
and extended underneath the visible mound. For convenience
sake this has been called the "cemetery level." During exca-
vation at this site a total of 174 burials were encountered. In

-Is -

3 views of excavating operations. Jones Mound, Site VIII A.

the north center-half of this older cemetery there had been
a great deal of intrusion, and there is evidence that the visible
portion of the site, or the mound proper, was erected as a
result of restriction and crowding of the available burial area.
Between the cemetery level and the mound was a thin irregu-
lar layer of humus. In the eastern half of the mound proper
and decreasing towards the cemetery level and towards the
western margin of the mound, were found many small tri-
angular "Bird Points." In Hillsborough County, at least,
evidence shows that this type of arrowhead is comparatively
recent. Several small fragments of copper were found in the
mound proper, and one small fragment comes from the area
of heaviest intrusion in the cemetery level. Analysis proved
the copper to be of European origin. The western half of the
cemetery gives evidence of much age, often nothing but the
enamel crown of teeth were left to show where a burial
had been.
Near the surface of the mound, at a depth of 12 inches
were found two circular house floors of greasy black soil ap-
proximately 15 feet in diameter. No post holes could be
found in connection, however, there was a good deal of ash
and charcoal suggesting that the structures may have burned.
House floor No. 2, had been disturbed by pot hunters. In the
eastern undisturbed half, lying in section 137, partly in and
immediately below the floor, a burial of an old woman was
found, of the same semi-flexed type as those of the lowest
level. The cranium had not filled with soil and the preserva-
tion of the bones did not indicate very great age, unfortu-
nately, being so near the surface, roots had split and broken
the skeleton.

While many artifacts were found in direct association
with the dead, the greatest number of burials had nothing in
association with them. Burial offerings consisted of orna-
ments, in place on the skeletons, and caches of ornaments,
etc., in direct association with skeleton remains. Very little
pottery was found, such as was found being largely plain,
fugitive red slip was noted, check stamp design was fairly
common, and several pieces of better ware, closely resembling
Weedon island type was found. Pottery seemed to be most
abundant in the mound proper, and that area of the cemetery
where intrusion was heaviest, but with few exceptions occur-
ring as random sherds. In only three instances was evidence
of intentional placing of potters or potsherds with the dead

The pelvic region of a child's skeleton was found covered
by fresh water unio shells. A number of infant burials were
found covered with red ochre, and usually with one or more
large shell beads in association. It is possible that infant
burials occurred throughout the mound but were only detected
when ochre was present. Beginning a few feet from the
margin of the mound and increasing toward the center were
adult burials with which red ochre had been used. The heads
and shoulders in some instances being virtually incased in it.
Three of the burials in the mound proper evidently had a
small earthen mound raised over them very much like our
modern graves, and these individual mounds had been
sprinkled with red ochre and later covered over with soil, in
one instance being covered with Potsherds and shell dippers.
All of the shell dippers found had been fashioned by breaking
and smoothing, and all were "killed." A feature worthy of
notice was the large number of shell beads of all sizes found
usually in place about the neck, and the unusual numbers of
beautifully worked stone and shell pendants. These pendants
were found in some cases in place on the necks, and in other
instances were found in caches near the bodies. With Burial
147 was found seven imported stone pendants including sev-
eral bird effigies, four shell pendants, two coral pendants, one
large stone celt, and six awl shaped shell objects.
A number of beautifully carved effigy pendants of stone
were found, as well as, several unfinished effigies of the same
stone and two that had been altered, the effigies included
several species of ducks, Florida parakeet, deer, ospry, etc.,
carved in fine detail and bearing a striking resemblance to
the wood carvings of the calusa, farther south. It is inter-
esting to note that nearly all of these pendants are of the
same stone, possibly from the same quarry.
Parts of three effigy duck heads were found in the Tho-
mas Mound at the mouth of the little Manatee River, which
seem to be of the same workmanship, and the base of another
is figured by Clarence B. Moore from that mound, unfortu-
nately the pendants in Thomas Mound had all been broken.

Situated on the South Prong of the Alafia River near
the town of Picknick, permission to excavate was given by
Mr. S. E. Thatcher, and Mr. W. L. Down, owners of the prop-
erty. The mound was constructed of black soil and was
superimposed over a broad, low, primary mound with a shal-
low sump completely encircling it.

Actual excavations at this site began on April 28, 1937
and continued through June 7. Preliminary measurements
showed the mound to be approximately 60x70 feet with a
height of 4 feet in the center, and had been badly potholed.
There is a record of the mound having been dug with slave
labor shortly before the Civil War, as a consequence of this
the upper three feet of the mound was so disturbed no
records of much value could be taken of that portion. A great
number of glass beads of all sorts as well as nearly 100 small
triangular "Bird Points" were screened out of this disturbed
Fortunately the lowest level of burials in this mound
had not been much disturbed because of depth, and good
results were obtained. Burials were loosely flexed as a rule.
Pottery was characterized by the prevalence of bottles, bot-
tle neck jars, and effigy lugs on bowls, the human effigy lugs
having pierced ears. One fine water bottle of about three quart
capacity was found in direct association with a burial. It
is ornamented with a series of negative open hands on sides
and neck, having, four fingers and a thumb, with a punctate
phallic symbol in the center of each hand. Several necks of
water bottles carrying phallic symbols were found that had
been severed from the base by sawing, also the complete base
of another bottle was found from which the neck had been
sawn, and the base had been used as a cooking pot. All
pottery at Thatcher Mound had been "killed" by drilling a
neat hole in the bottom. One restored bowl of about one
quart capacity is in the form of a frog, and is similar to one
found in western Florida by Clarence B. Moore.
At a depth of six feet, near the center of the mound and
lying immediately above the white sand of the base, was
the fragmentary remains of a skeleton and two copper coated
ear plugs of cypress wood. Flint spalls and bits of potsherd
were found to water level beneath the mound. Remains of
cypress stumps, roots, and knees, were abundant at water
level on the northern side of the mound in some instances
projecting over a foot into the mound soil itself, suggesting
that the mound was originally constructed partly in a cypress
swamp. Although, it is reliably reported that cypress does
not grow within a mile of the locality today. Conditions
must have been favorable to its growth at the time the mound
was built.
Thatcher Mound differed from others excavated in Hills-
borough County chiefly in the type pottery found. It is likely
that the mound is entirely Post Columbian and the upper
levels give evidence of very recent occupation. No definite

stratigraphy was found and it is possible that occupation at
the site was more or less continuous.
In the composition of this report no effort has been
made to theorize. However, a lack of space prevents the
inclusion of all field data that might influence the readers'
conclusions. It seems well to add a few pertinent observa-
tions gained at first hand, while excavation of the two sites
were being conducted and the results were being compiled in
note form.
Both Jones Mound and Thatcher Mound are outstanding
for the area, by having only one principal type of burial.
Whereas, the majority of sites excavated in Hillsborough
County contained a confusion of burial types. The evidence
presented by this and other facts suggests a long, more or
less continuous occupation by one culture group. The pot-
tery of Jones Mound resembles more or less the degenerate
Weedon Island type called Safety Harbor Ware. While the
pottery of Thatcher Mound seems more closely affiliated
with the area between the Manatee and Caloosahatchee
Rivers, characterized by pear shape, and bottle neck jars.
Decorative symbols depicting sex, on pottery from Thatcher
Mound was not observed anywhere else in the county. How-
ever, the fact that a number of long necked water bottles
from Thatchers Mound had been altered to round bowls by
sawing off the necks, indicates that these bottles were not
made by the natives of this site and were perhaps traded
in from some other area.
The feature find, of all the work done in Hillsborough
County from a museum standpoint is the collection of carved
stone effigy pendants. These pendants exhibit an unmis-
takable cultural connection with the Calusa wood carvings
further south. Evidence found in Jones Mound proves that
the pendants were made by the inhabitants of the site from
the imported rough stone, and is representative of their own
art in stone.


In most sections of Hillsborough County the Tampa
Limestone lies at the surface or near the surface. Exposures
of this formation can be seen at frequent intervals along the
principal rivers and streams of the County. The Tampa for-
mation varies from a rather soft more or less friable lime-
stone to hard flinty masses and siliceous beds.
Lying directly above the Tampa Limestone is the Haw-
thorn formation, which also contains some highly siliceous
beds and ancient reef formations with large Chalcedonized
coral heads and bars of highly silicified oyster shells. This
abundance of Chert and Chalcedony in a readily available
form, as well as the exceptional quality of this material,
and its sharply increasing scarcity to the Southward resulted
in extensive quarrying in parts of the County where it was
found near enough to the surface to be reached by the primi-
tive methods used. Much of this material was taken directly
from the stream beds and from the banks of the streams,
chiefly the Hillsborough River and the upper reaches of the
Alafia River. Along the south bank of the Hillsborough,
in the region known as the "Cowhouse," along the lower
reaches of Cypress Creek, and along the entire course of
Flint Creek, can be found evidence of the most intensive
quarrying operations so far found in the county. Quantities
of spalls, broken blanks, and rejects were consistently found
at a depth of 5 feet in exploratory trenches and road cuts at a
distance of one-half mile from the quarry sites in level sandy
woods. In this region the softer limestone has been dissolved
away by solution to the extent that the siliceous bodies pro-
ject from the surrounding terrain in ridges and mounds. The
Chert is of exceptional grade ranging from semi-transparent
to opaque and in various shades of red, brown, yellow and
In the preliminary research at the more important of
these quarries, only one finished blade was found. Quan-
tities of broken and complete blanks were found at random
everywhere. The method employed in quarrying was shal-
low trenching and pitting. The large boulders were broken
and fractured on the spot by the use of fire, and further re-
duced by striking with any suitable stone at hand. None
of the smaller hammerstones for suitable finishing work
were found at a quarry site. The material seems to have
been roughed out into suitable flakes and blanks, and fin-

ished elsewhere. Small triangular bird points have been
found in every Post Columbian Mound so far excavated in
the county, and are absent in the earlier mounds. This type
of projectile point was more common in Jones Mound and
Thatcher Mound and were increasingly abundant toward the
surface. Almost without exception they are made from a
peculiar mottled porcelain like material, that cannot be mis-
taken. The source of this material must have been worked
in very late Post Columbian times. An unusual fact is that
no other type of artifact other than these bird points were
found fashioned from this type stone.
Throughout the general area mentioned and especially
to the north and east of Lake Thonotosassa, a good grade of
sandstone is found. The majority of this material in a low
grade iron sandstone, but some has been noted that is more
or less white and free of iron. That these local sandstones
were used for abrasives has been proven by every mound so
far excavated in the county. Evidence found in the mounds
of Hillsborough County suggest that the red ochre used with
burials and as pigment for ceramics was obtained by burn-
ing this local iron sandstone until it changed from the brown
or yellow oxide over to the red. This burned sandstone hav
ing lost much of its bond was then crushed in a mortar and
the sand and ochre separated in water, after which the sus-
pended ochre was allowed to settle and the water to evap
orate. Using pebbles of iron sandstone and following these
methods, it was possible to obtain a good grade of red ochre,
which was free of sand, with very little labor. Some of these
burned pebbles along with natural pebbles of the same ma-
terial were found in the Jones Mound. The burned pebbles
contained a very high percent of red oxide which could readily
be rubbed off on the fingers.
In several Hillsborough county mounds, Chalcedony
Geodes were found. These Geodes are of the Ballast Point
type. Ballast Point is the only known natural outcrop where
these particular Geodes occur under conditions where they
could have been procured by the Indians. It is probable that
they were originally gathered at that point, and distributed
through the adjoining territory.