H. A. SMITH
Assistant State Forester
Bulletin No. 1
F6b6 ( b COOPERATING WITH
THE FLORIDA FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS
THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,
STATE OF FLORIDA
il^7lrfBIrnfy ya]jjy m
Letter to Teachers from State Superintendent ................ 3
Letter to Teachers from Federated Women's Clubs............ 4
Lesson No.' 1-The Tree ................................ 5
Lesson No. 2- The Forest ................................ 6
Lesson No. 3-Florida's Idle Forest Land ................... 7
Lesson No. 4-Forest Products in Our Everyday Life........ 8
Lesson No. 5-Forests and Industry ....................... 9
Lesson No. 6-The Forests and the Cattle Industry........... 11
Lesson No. 7-Forestry ........ .......................... 12
Lesson No. 8-Who Practices Forestry ..................... 13
Lesson No. 9-Forest Fires in Florida ...................... 14
Lesson No. 10-Damage Done by Forest Fires................ 15
Lesson No. 11-The Causes of Forest Fires.......... ....... 16
Lesson No, 12-How Forest Fires Can be Prevented .......... 18
Lesson No. 13-The Florida Forest Service......... ......... 19
Lesson No. 14-The Forests and Birds ..................... 21
Florida Land Statistics by Counties ......................... 22
Books and Bulletins of Interest ............................ 23
STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
TO THE TEACHER:
Florida has been blessed with a great natural resource in her millions of acres
of forest land. The lumber and allied forest products industries constitute the
principal manufacturing group in the State. In 1925, it accounted for one-third
the total value of our manufactured products and employed more than one-half
our wage earners. Conservation of soil and atmospheric moisture, preservation of
humus, the effect upon climatic conditions and the protection of the birds which
hold in check the insect hordes are of tremendous value to agriculture. The scenic
beauty and recreational values of protected forests cannot be denied.
Forest fires annually sweep over great areas of our forest land. It should be
self-evident that our soils cannot continue to produce to their maximum under this
condition. Idle or semi-idle acres must result. The forest products industries
must decline and agriculture carry on under a handicap. The scenic beauty and
recreational values must depreciate.
I am informed that 75 percent of the problem of growing a crop of timber in
Florida, with its resultant advantages, is the elimination of this evil of the forests.
Thus, forest fire prevention has become a great public need and the use of these
lessons in instilling an appreciation of the value of forests into the minds of
the school children of Florida has my most hearty approval.
W. S. CAWTHON,
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
? LIBHMff v,:
AN APPEAL FROM THE
FLORIDA FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS
TO OUR TEACHERS:
The success of Forest Conservation as undertaken by the Florida Forest Service
less than one year ago vitally affects the welfare of the entire State. The State
Forester must have the an;tance of the edul.atirnal agencies of the State in order
that all people may. have a sympathi-tic undlieritanLlig of the needs and aims of
>T4fe Federation of Women's Clubs, which has long been a friend of Conservation,
have offered their assistance in enlisting adult interest, and your State Superin-
tendent, Mr. W. S. Cawthon, has endorsed the Conservation movement, stressing
educational work with nature study already in your curriculum.
We appeal to you to make these lessons full of interest to your pupils and feel
that in doing so you are taking a most patriotic part in this Statewide effort to
preserve the natural beauty and resources of Florida.
MRS. GEORGE B. ROSS,
Chairman, Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources.
MRS. ROBERT B. STURKIE,
Chairman, Forestry and Wild Life Division.
MRS. WALTER L. WYLIE,
Chairman, Parks and Natural Scenery Division.
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION
Lesson No. 1
HOW THE TREE FEEDS.-A tree is a woody plant with a single stem. It has
three main parts: Roots, Stem and Crown. The roots in most cases are invisible
because they are underground. They make the contact with soil particles through
tiny root hairs which absorb soil water. It is conducted to the leaves through the
stem. Here the soil water is brought in contact with carbon dioxide taken from
the atmosphere by the leaves or needles of the tree. The leaf or needle then acts as
the laboratory for the tree and by action of sunlight upon the leaf the water and
carbon dioxide are turned into a form of sugar, a plant food. This plant food is
then conducted downward and distributed through the tree, adding to its growth.
THE CAMBIUM LAYER.-The growing portion of the tree lies near the outside
of the tree and is known as the cambium layer. This cambium layer is the slippery
portion just beneath the bark which serves as a protection for it. Such protection
is necessary because should anything happen to cause the cambium layer to die,
the tree, too, would die. The bark on some trees is much heavier than on other
trees which accounts for the fact that some trees can be bruised and even burned
more severely than others and still live.
WHERE TREES COME FROM.-Trees for the most part come from seed. The
oaks from acorns, and the pines from small black seed contained beneath the scales
of pine cones. The seeds of the pine released from the cone have small wings
which enable them to sail some distance from the mother tree. When they light
in moist places under the proper conditions they germinate or sprout, sending up
minute stems that do not become woody for sometime. This is a very crucial
period for the tree. Like human babies, the little baby trees are subject to numer-
ous "infant" diseases and thousands die before they get firmly established. If it
does get through the first year, however, its troubles are not over. Its little
terminal bud is close to the ground and its stem is so slender and sensitive to heat
that even light fires passing over the ground are very likely to kill it.
TREES AND FIRE.-Many years must pass before the tree is able to withstand
even ordinary fires, and it is extremely important in these early stages that
nothing interfere with the food supply. Fires that destroy the humus and grass
mulch upon the ground destroy the fertility of the soil and even when the seeds
are not destroyed by fire, the removal of the mulch deprives the seed of moisture
so that it is not likely to germinate. This destruction of soil fertility and the
elimination bf moisture also decreases the growth of the larger trees, so, fire is
one of the enemies with which trees have to contend.
TREES AND INSECTS.-Thousands of insects live in the woods and derive
their nourishment from trees. Strong healthy trees can withstand their attacks
just as strong healthy human beings can better withstand the attack of disease
germs. Any factor, therefore, that tends to decrease the vitality of the tree, such
as grass fires, poor soil, draught or excessive moisture tends to decrease the resist-
ance of the tree and make the work of the insect enemies more effective.
TREES AND FUNGI.-There are also hundreds of little tiny parasitic plants
that live on the trunks of trees. These are known as fungi. The fungi are gen-
erally visible as shelf-like projections on the trunks of trees, but the real damage
is done by the small roots of these shelf-like projections which reach into the
cambium layer and feed upon the food intended for the tree. If the roots become
so numerous as to encircle the tree and dry up the cambium layer, the tree will
die. The wood upon which the fungi works is known as "rotten" wood. It is fungi
very similar in nature that causes the decay of the fence posts and telephone poles,
as well as timbers used in the construction of buildings. Here, again, vigorous
healthy trees are more immune than trees weakened by fire and lack of nourish-
ment. Fire is often largely responsible for loss by both fungi and insects since the
heat splits open the bark and allows the insects and the fungi to find their way
into the interior of the tree.
TREE HABITS.-Some trees like to grow in dense stands with other trees of
the same species. This is true of the pine. Other trees, however, prefer to grow
in mixture with many different kinds of trees like the hickory and the maple.
6 THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
There are some trees, too, which prefer lots of sunlight, like the yellow pines,
but there are others which prefer shade like the dogwood. Then, there are trees
which like a dry location like the long leaf pine and the oaks and others which
prefer swamps and the edges of lakes like the cypress and the gums.
Most trees, however, demand a certain amount of light and, of course, all trees
demand food and, like human beings, they are constantly striving to receive as
much of each as they possibly can. When trees are planted close together they
grow faster in height in an effort to keep above one another and so assure a cer-
tain amount of light for their leaves so that food can be manufactured for the tree.
In the same ways the roots are constantly reaching out for more food to send to
the leaves, so there is a constant struggle for existence among trees, just as there
is among men.
On the other hand, however, when a tree is grown out in the field and not close
to other trees, it does not have to struggle so for its existence. It has an abun-
dance of food available to its roots and lots of air from which to draw the carbon
dioxide necessary for its existence. When a man ceases to have to struggle for
his existence he quite frequently grows fat and lazy and so does the tree. It puts
on many branches that it would not have in the woods and, while its branches
grow larger, the tree itself does not grow as tall, and every one of those branches
makes a knot in the lumber when the tree finally gets to the sawmill. We often
say: "Those old field pines are no good, they have too many branches and they
don't grow tall." Yet, if those trees were planted closer together, or if other
trees were planted among them, they, too, would grow tall, would eliminate their
branches and produce good clear lumber.
So, individual trees like individual human beings have their likes and dislikes,
their good habits and their bad habits and their enemies and diseases.
In the early days before man appeared upon the scene, Nature was able to take
care of her own children, but in the face of the great industrial advance which
has increased the fire hazard, weakened the vitality of the trees and concentrated
the enemies in smaller areas it becomes necessary for man to come to Nature's
assistance and an increased love for trees, through increased knowledge of them,
is essential to the rendering of that aid.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
(1) How does a tree get its food? (2) Where is the food prepared? (3) Where
is the cambium layer? (4) Where do pine seeds come from? (5) How many seed
will a tree produce? (6) When is the most sensitive period in the life of a tree?
(7) How does fire help insects and fungi? (8) Name some tree habits? (9) Why
is it necessary for man to help trees live?
Lesson No. 2
We learned in the previous lesson that the individual tree is a good bit like the
individual human being. It is a living, growing organism that has its likes and
dislikes, its struggles and its joys as well as its enemies and diseases.
As the tree is comparable to the individual, so the forest which is a community
of trees is comparable to the town or city which is a community of individuals. It
takes all kinds of people to make a city and it takes all kinds of trees to make a
woods or forest. The trees may sometimes be of DIFFERENT SPECIES or fam-
ilies such as are found in the mixed forests of oak, hickory, elm, gum and maple,
but even when the trees are all of one species there are still found different quali-
ties which go to make up the forest as a whole. To begin with, a forest contains
trees of DIFFERENT AGES just as a town contains old people as well as young.
Can you imagine a town that contained no young people to replace the older ones?
Such a condition would be like a forest which had no young trees, no seedlings or
saplings to replace the older trees as they grow old and fall or as they are cut out
by the axe of the lumbermen.
All the individuals of the town are striving to get the most they can out of life
and so the individual trees of the forest take advantage of every bit of sunshine
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 7
and rain that they can possibly reach in order to grow as fast as possible. Some
trees (and some human beings) come from hardy, thrifty stock and they prosper
Some trees (and some human beings) are more susceptible to attacks by disease,
so we find both in the forests and in the towns, a few weak individuals who are
very apt to be run down in the struggle for existence. These are represented in
the forest by the slender trees of the same age as their brothers but with a smaller
The foliage of the weakened pine is generally of a greenish yellow that in itself
betokens poor health.
Then again we find the great strong predominant trees-aggressive in their
fight for life and taking up much more room than is really necessary for the pro-
duction of the timber they represent. They have their counterpart in humanity
also and it is to be regretted that they attain the positions they hold only through
crowding out others. Their aggressiveness has often resulted in the death of less
aggressive trees when by a proper division of available resources both trees could
have achieved a fair success in life. They are the "WOLVES" of the forest that
crowd out the weaker ones and in so doing put on additional branches that tend
to lessen the QUALITY of their wood, notwithstanding the great QUANTITY
that is produced.
Like humanity, however, the forest as a community has as the greatest number
of its members the good average sturdy and dependable individual which can be
counted on at all times to take just what is necessary from life to enable it to
carry on a useful existence, and to return to the world value for value. They are
the ones that believe in the old adage, live and let live, and as the result, maximum
production can be expected from a given area or within a given community.
And so understanding first the individual trees and then the community of trees
we get a better idea as to what steps must be taken in order to insure their well
being. We could not begin to handle a government for the people and by the people
with a consideration of towns and cities alone. We must know the traits and
habits of the individuals themselves. And so in Forestry. Before we attempt to
carry out any plan for the forest or before we attempt to adapt the forest to our
plans it becomes necessary to understand first the single tree and later on that
tree in relation to its neighbors.
FLORIDA'S IDLE FOREST LAND
Lesson No. 3
No accurate survey has ever been made to determine the extent and location of
forested or wooded areas in Florida. We know, however, that the total land area
of the State is about thirty-five million one hundred and eleven thousand acres.
We know, too, that, according to the 1927 agricultural census, only about one
million two hundred and thirty-one thousand acres are in cultivation. This leaves
a vast area of our State unaccounted for. After deducting for towns, roads, build-
ings, lakes, streams, and so forth, it has been estimated that the forest area of the
State covers twenty-three million six hundred and sixty-one thousand seven hun-
dred and four acres. This means that sixty-seven percent of our total land area
is, or should be, growing timber.
FOREST LAND.-The term "forest land" is sometimes misunderstood. Wild
land capable of producing forests and not being used for any, other purpose
SHOULD be used for growing timber. Regardless of whether it is producing
timber or not, it is forest land just the same.
IDLE LAND.-According to the nineteen twenty-seven Agricultural Census,
only eight hundred forty-one thousand nine hundred and two acres of merchantable
timber remains to be cut. Of course, there are many thousands of acres of second
growth timber but very few of these are fully stocked. Fire, heavy lumbering,
and poor turpentining methods have resulted in a very few trees to the acre which
is a condition comparable to the field of corn where many hills failed to produce.
It has been estimated that there are ten million idle forest acres in Florida, of
which about three million acres are either in scrub oak or are areas where forest
trees are not restocking.
8 THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
FOREST LAND AND TAXES.-So, with sixty-seven percent of our area in
forest land, and almost one-half of that area not properly restocking itself with
trees, we have an idle land problem which is of very great importance to our State.
No business man can continue to prosper as long as he permits one-half of his
resources to lie idle. And, so no government can continue to prosper as long as
one-half of its resources are ignored. Idle forest acres are worth no more than
idle cultivated acres. If the land does not produce an income the owner cannot
afford to pay taxes on it. He therefore lets it go back to the "State." In 1927,
over four million acres of this sort of land reverted to the State of Florida. This
means that even at ten cents an acre in taxes, over four hundred thousand dollars
was lost to the people for the carrying on of government-for protection, for roads,
and for schools-or else it means that the remaining property owners must make
up this amount by increasing their own tax payments.
THE PASSING OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY.-At one time the larger
part of our forest area provided an income for its owner-produced timber which
had to be manufactured and in this way supplied the wage earners with employ-
ment. But failure to properly care for this land caused the industry to disappear
in certain localities. Sawmills were taken but because there were no more trees
to cut. Towns were abandoned, or practically so, because there was no employ-
ment for the men who lived there.
It is understood, of course, that much of Florida's land can be used for agricul-
tural purposes but it has taken a good many years to get one million two hundred
and thirty-one thousand acres under cultivation and, until such time as the land
is needed for agriculture, or some other purpose, it should be used for growing
Our forest land is a real natural resource and with proper care and protection
it can be brought back once more into a state of productivity and become an asset
instead of a liability.
NEED FOR PROMPT ACTION.-For every year that we delay, however, the
problem of reforestation becomes more difficult. Forest fires destroy the fertility
of the soil and the more valuable trees become more scarce. If we start in promptly
and sincerely, however, we can stop the fires, save the young trees and restore
fertility toQthe soil. This will bring back into usefulness our twenty-three million
acres of land, not just temporarily, but under careful management for all time to
come, and we can guarantee to future generations a one hundred percent utiliza-
tion of one hundred percent of our area, with permanent industries and permanent
prosperity for all.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
The table in the appendix will give the total area of your County, the area of
improved pasture and the area of cultivated land. From this table can be secured
a rough idea of the approximate acreage in your County which is, or should be,
(1) What is forest land? (2) What is the total land area of Florida? (3) How
many acres of forest land in Florida? (4) What part of the State's area does this
represent? (5) What part of the County in which your school is located is in
forest land? (6) What is meant by the term idle acres? (7) What causes idle
acres? (8) Why is "new ground" more productive than land which has been cul-
tivated for many years?
FOREST PRODUCTS IN OUR EVERYDAY LIFE
Lesson No. 4
There is not one single thing that we use during the day that is not made of
wood, by the use of wood, or is transported by the use of wood. Forest products
are used by everyone; therefore, anything which tends to diminish the supply of,
or increase the cost of forest products is felt by every man and woman in the State.
THE FOREST AND FOOD.-Man's greatest needs are food, shelter, clothing
and education. Our food is produced very largely by cultivating fields surrounded
by wooden fences, or fences with wooden posts, by the use of tools or wood, or with
wooden handles. It is prepared in wooden buildings and transported in wooden
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 9
(or partly wooden) boxcars over thousands and thousands of wooden crossties on
the railroad. Generally, it is put up in paper or pasteboard bags or boxes made from
wood. Nuts, syrups, sugar, fleshy fruits, grapes, honey, flavoring extracts, and the
meat of game animals are all products of the forest. Then, too, agriculture benefits
by reason of the influence of forests on the moisture supply of air and soil, and by
reason of the protection afforded birds which hold in check the insect hordes which
would destroy all crops if uncontrolled. A large part of the natural cattle range
of the United States lies in the forested areas.
THEFOREST AND SHELTER.-It is needless to state that the forest has fur-
nished us our shelter. Wooden houses are still most common, even in Florida.
Where brick and stucco have been used for outside walls, wood has entered most
largely into the frame and the interior finish and equipment of our homes. In our
fuels, wood is a direct product of our forest, and coal is mined only by using many
millions of feet of timber each year. Electricity is developed from water power
kept constant by forested hills, and is transmitted over wires on wooden poles.
THE FOREST AND CLOTHING.-Our clothing today is made through the use
of wooden implements from wool and cotton that owe their cheapness to a large
extent to the existence of forested areas. Shoes are made from the skins of
animals, made into leather by the use of tannic acid, obtained from wood. Some
tanneries today are going into South and Central America to get a sufficient supply
to keep them going. A large part of our silk today is artificial silk made from
wood fiber. It is quite likely that the tie or stockings you are wearing have the
tree as their origin. And all of these things are wrapped in paper or contained in
cardboard boxes made from wood. The forest furnishes dyes, wooden buttons,
wooden lasts for shoes and forms for hats and gloves.
THE FOREST AND EDUCATION.-All education is the accumulated knowl-
edge of centuries determined and kept alive by the books we read and study, and
by the daily press. The paper upon which the words of books and newspapers are
printed is made from wood. The drain upon our forests for paper manufacture
amounts to thousands of acres annually. Diminishing forests increase the cost of
the newspaper on the street, and the school books in the schools.
FORESTS AND RECREATION.-The Forests of Florida provide recreation for
thousands in hunting and fishing and camping. They influence beneficially the
health of a community through these possibilities for recreation, and through the
pure air and water provided by them. Lumber and allied forest products provide
labor for fifty percent of our total population. They provide the rosin and turpen-
tine of the paint trade, and charcoal for the chemist and manufacturer. Transpor-
tation is dependent upon forests from the container in which the article is shipped
to the wooden ship or car in which it is transported-to the wooden ties beneath the
rails and the wooden poles upon whose wires messages controlling the train's move-
ments are carried. Piling used for construction of wharves consist of round tim-
bers from the forest.
So forest products are essential to our everyday lives, for no matter what we
buy we must always pay for the increased cost of the forest products concerned
with the manufacture or transportation of that particular article.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
(1) Name one thing that is not made of wood, by the use of wood or transported
by the use of wood? (2) What are man's greatest needs? (3) How does the wel-
fare of the forest affect our food supply; our shelter; our education; our clothing?
(4) Who pays the freight on lumber purchased outside of Florida?
FORESTS AND INDUSTRY
Lesson No. 5
LABOR OUTSIDE THE FOREST.-The Forest in industry represents much
more than the few men engaged in the woods and at the sawmill or turpentine
camp.. Every forest operation represents a community that must be housed and
fed. Storekeepers, doctors and lawyers are just as necessary for such commu-
nities as they are in mill or factory towns. After the timber is ready for the
10 THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
market it must be hauled on the railroad and the elimination of lumber as freight
would mean a great reduction in freight tonnage in Florida. Transportation of
lumber means that railroads must be built and freight cars constructed and main-
tained. These industries alone employ hundreds. At the delivery points-the retail
yards-many thousands are again employed in trucking the lumber to its place
of utilization. The planing mills employ thousands in preparing the lumber for
use, and in the manufacture of special items, such as windows and doors, crates, etc.
STATUS OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY.-The lumber industry ranked ahead
of all others in Florida until recently, and it still means more in dollars and cents
than any other manufacturing industry. In 1925, forty-five million dollars worth
of lumber was manufactured, or twenty-one percent of the value of all Florida's
manufactured products. In 1923, twenty-two thousand two hundred fifty-eight
persons were engaged in the lumber industry. These people received over eighteen
million dollars in salaries and wages. The lumber and allied forest products in-
dustry produces one-third of the total value of our manufactured products and
employs one-half of our wage earners.
LIFE OF THE INDUSTRY.-According to a survey compiled by the Southern
Pine Association in 1924, ninety-nine percent of all the Florida pine mills now
operating will have exhausted their supply of timber within fifteen years-pro-
duction within these mills will be ninety-three percent below the present-a reduc-
tion of ninety-three percent will mean an estimated output of only one hundred
million feet in 1940. In 1925, the manufacturer of crates, hampers and boxes used
by the citrus and truck crop industries of Florida alone used one hundred sixty
million board feet, and it is estimated that this will double within ten years. So,
the large mills operating today in Florida will not be producing enough timber to
manufacture her own shipping crates, unless some step is taken to insure new
growth. There undoubtedly will be a spurt in the production from small mills
but it is highly probable that the annual output of all mills fifteen years hence
will be far below our estimated annual consumption.
NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY.-The Naval Stores industry produces products
to the value of nineteen million eight hundred thousand dollars and in 1925
employed more than fourteen thousand people who received ten million dollars in
salaries and wages. In 1908, one million four hundred and twenty-two thousand
barrels of turpentine and rosin were produced, and in the season of 1925 and
1926 only seven hundred and fifty thousand barrels, a reduction of forty-seven
percent. Peak years in the Carolinas were followed by a steady decline and almost
virtual extinction of the industry. Wilmington, N. C., was once a great naval
stores port just as Jacksonville is today, but it is no longer. Many leaders in the
industry in Florida recognize the present situation as an indication of what is to
come unless we can prevent forest fires and put the idle lands of the State to work
CONSUMPTION VS. PRODUCTION.-In 1925, for the first time, Florida con-
sumed more lumber than she produced, and for the first time in her history found
it necessary to go outside her boundaries to secure forest products. Conditions
were, of course, unusual but we hope for continued increasing populations and
1925 was just a forecast of what is to come. The people of Florida paid over five
million five hundred thousand dollars in freight on timber brought in from the
outside in that year, notwithstanding the fact that she has a large acreage of land
suited for timber growing.
FOREST LABOR.-So, Florida's forests provide employment for over seventy-
one thousand people, pay wages annually to the amount of sixty-four million dol-
lars, and produce material valued at over one hundred million dollars.
PERMANENT PRODUCTION.-In contrast to the rapidly declining naval stores
industry in Florida, attention is called to the Landes district of France where an
area of two million acres-less than the area of five of our counties-supports a
population of one million four hundred' thousand and produces almost as much
gum as Florida. This industry has been maintained in France for eighty years.
Careful methods of turpentining and fire prevention have made the industry per-
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 11
Our forests are too closely tied in with our industrial welfare to permit our
State to ignore our vast acreages of forest land.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) How many forest industries are in existence in your community? (2) How
many were there ten years ago? (3) Are forest products increasing or decreasing
in your community? (4) Are there more men or fewer men employed in forest in-
dustries? (5) What part of Florida's wage earners earn their livelihood from the
woods? (6) What part of Florida's manufactured products come from the lumber
and allied forest products industry? (7) Was there as much turpentine and rosin
produced in 1925 and 1926 as there was in 1908 ? (8) Why do not North and South
Carolina still lead in the naval stores industry? (9) What reduction will there be
in lumber production from Florida's present mills in the next fifteen years? (10)
What country has been producing turpentine on the same area for the past eighty
years? (11) How can this be accomplished in Florida?
THE FORESTS AND THE CATTLE INDUSTRY
Lesson No. 6
TREES AND CATTLE-Two Money Crops.-There is no conflict between for-
estry and the cattle industry in Florida. The two go hand in hand. Probably no
State in the Union is so blessed with possibilities for raising both cattle and timber
on the same lands.
EVILS OF CATTLE INDUSTRY.-Of course; razor-back hogs should not be
permitted to roam in young long leaf pine stands because everyone knows they
will root up the tender roots of this particular tree. Some cattlemen still have
the idea that they must burn in order to "green up the woods" but a good many
have long since realized that this is working to their disadvantage in the long run.
In Escambia County, some of the cattlemen are so much opposed to burning the
woods that they are considering offering a reward for the arrest and conviction of
anyone setting out fires.
WOODS BURNING.-"Greening up the woods" is an old custom that had its
origin when the country was thinly populated and there were not many cattle. In
those days the cattle were able to get the early green growth in the spring and
then by moving to neighboring unburned ranges they could get their winter feed,
and it was not necessary for the owner to buy feed for them in the fall and winter.
In those days there was an abundance of marsh grass, wild oats and switch cane, all
shallow rooted species that could not withstand the heat of the annual fires. These
grasses made splendid fall and winter feed but have been driven from the range by
repeated burning when the humus was destroyed, soil fertility lowered and their
roots injured. : !,j
THE PROBLEM OF THE STOCKMAN.-The wire grass which was also present
in those days to some extent had deep roots. The fire didn't hurt wire grass with
the result that the greater part of Florida's natural range today has been taken up
by this species, together with broom sedge. These two grasses provide an unsatis-
factory fall and winter feed with the result that the winter feed bill runs up or
the cattle run down. The biggest problem of Florida's stockmen today is to pro-
vide a satisfactory winter feed, and the best feed Nature provides is destroyed by
The natural spread and reseeding of improved range grasses, such as carpet
grass and Lespedeza, is prevented also with the result that those men who are
seeking to improve the condition of their range and their stock cannot do so.
The United States Department of Agriculture maintains an agricultural experi-
ment station at McNeill, Miss. As a result of the experiments carried on at that
station with one herd grazing on carpet grass and another on natural burned
range it was discovered that the herd grazing on carpet grass gained an average
of eighty pounds per head while grazing on but 1.5 acres per head, while the herd
grazing on natural range gained but 21.8 pounds per head, notwithstanding the
fact that each animal was allowed ten acres on which to graze. According to this
THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
experiment, the cattle on natural range lost weight rapidly after June 15, bearing
out the contention that the greatest problem of the stockman is to provide fall and
FIRES COSTLY.-So, forest fires not only damage the forest from the seed to
the mature tree, but it destroys the humus and lowers the soil fertility. In addi-
tion, they drive from the range the best grasses our State has ever known, and
interfere with the improvement of the range. Forest fires as related to the cattle
industry illustrate just one more place where the curse of the forest eats into the
pocketbook of the farmer and the stockman.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
(1) What two phases only of the cattle industry are injurious to forestry? (2)
What range grasses were common in Florida when the first settlers arrived? (3)
What range grass is common now? (4) What is the stockman's biggest problem?
(5) How does range burning affect this problem? (6) What are the effects of
forest fires on improved ranges? (7) What effect has a forest fire on the stock-
man's pocketbook? (8) Who has studied carefully the effects of range burning on
the cattle industry?
Lesson No. 7
In Lesson No. III, we saw that our vast acreage of land constitutes a problem
in Florida. In fact, we have more land than we are using to advantage. In
Lesson No. IV, we learned that forest products are indispensable in our everyday
life and, in Lesson No. V, we learned that our supplies of timber were rapidly
diminishing. In view of these facts, the obvious thing to do is to use the land
for the growing of timber as a crop-that is, FORESTRY.
FORESTRY DEFINED.-Forestry has been defined as the utilization of forest
areas for their products-major and minor.
By major products are meant lumber and building material and naval stores. By
minor products are meant the foods, by-products and such indirect benefits as
places of recreation and beauty.
FORESTRY AND BUSINESS.-It has been said that that Forestry is best which
pays best and this is true. Forestry must first, last and all the time be practical,
must yield an income on the money invested. It must be based on sound business
principles, otherwise people will not practice it.
FORESTRY-A PRODUCT OF NECESSITY.-In the early days of settlements
in countries, states and communities it is not necessary. Timber is cut to get it
out of the way to make room for houses and fields-lumbering in the beginning is
apt to be very wasteful-only the best trees are taken and smaller trees are ruined
in the process. But, as countries mature, trees become scarce and finally the time
comes when Forestry must be practiced if we are to continue to have wood, and
we have just seen that we must have wood.
WHY WE SHOULD START NOW.-That point has been reached in America
today, and in Florida as well. Thirty-nine states have departments concerned with
the welfare of the forest land. It takes time to raise a timber crop, so, if we are
to have lumber when the pinch comes, we must start now, for we are rapidly
getting to that place where we have to go great distances to get what we want.
There is much timber on the Pacific Coast but the freight must be paid. That
increases the cost of the lumber, and the wages paid for its manufacture do not
go to the citizens of our State.
KINDS OF FORESTRY.-Forestry we have said must be practiced and it may
be practiced in several degrees. Forest protection which gives the trees a chance
to reproduce themselves is Forestry. The planting of forest tree seedlings and
their care is Forestry. The raising of the seedlings in nursery beds is Forestry,
and the scientific cutting to insure regeneration and maximum growth is Forestry.
FORESTRY AND FOREST PROTECTION.-But, it makes no difference how
many seedlings we raise-how many trees we plant-how careful we are in han-
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 13
dling them, or how scientific we may be-nothing we can do will improve the
situation, if we cannot stop fire. Forest protection is seventy-five percent of
Forestry in Florida.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES
(1) What is Forestry? (2) Why does it become necessary to practice Forestry?
(3) What kinds of Forestry have we? (4) .Why should we start now to practice
Forestry in Florida? (5) What good is scientific Forestry without forest pro-
WHO PRACTICES FORESTRY
Lesson No. 8
Practically every civilized nation in the world has had at some time or another to
start in with the practice of Forestry in order to assure a full utilization of land
and production of timber for their own requirements. Forestry is no new thing.
France and Germany have been caring for their forest areas for centuries and
much of the timber used by those countries during the recent war came from hand
planted and carefully managed woods. China has found it necessary to enter into
an elaborate conservation program as a result of the erosion on her many hills
which followed deforestation and fires. One lumber company in Europe has been
practicing Forestry on the same area for over five hundred years.
THE UNITED STATES has been no exception and our Government's Forestry
has taken two distinct forms. First, the scientific management and protection of
her more than one hundred fifty-three million acres of government-owned forest
land, and, second,' the encouragement of private forestry through co-opera-
tion with the states. On her own lands she maintains practical demonstrations
of the value of forestry and forest protection and through the states she assists
financially and technically the forest activities on private lands.
THIRTY-NINE STATES OF THE UNION today have organizations concerned
with forestry work. Every southern state east of the Mississippi River has a
department in its government interested in Forest Conservation. Some of them,
like Pennsylvania and New York, own great acreages of state forest land which
are held in trust for the people of the state for the major and minor products of
the forest; for the maintenance of pure water supplies, and for places for hunting,
fishing, camping and general recreation. Intensive protective organizations are
maintained and from a condition where fires overswept the forest areas annually
as they now do in Florida, these states have reduced their losses to a minimum.
SOME COUNTIES in the United States are also practicing Forestry-not only
forest protection, but scientific handling of woodlands and the planting of forest
tree seedlings. CITIES, TOO, own municipal forests which when properly handled
serve as the playgrounds of the people, and as a source of revenue as well.
Some cities in Europe derive such revenues from their forest lands that it is no
longer necessary to levy taxes-the income from the forest taking care of the
cost of government.
BUSINESS.-But it is not only governments that are concerning themselves with
forestry today. Hard-headed business men at the head of large corporations have
seen the handwriting on the wall and are employing foresters as the supervisors
of their forest properties. Large lumber companies, railroads, paper companies and
water companies are rapidly engaging in the protection of their properties from
fire, and some are engaging in extensive tree planting campaigns, even maintain-
ing their own nurseries for providing forest tree seedlings as planting stock.
INDIVIDUALS.-Smaller companies, too, are beginning to take care of their
forest properties, and in Florida dozens of individual property owners have listed
their lands in protective associations and are securing assistance from State and
Federal funds in the protection of their property.
But Forestry is something which affects and in turn is affected by every man,
woman and child in the country. Regardless of the expenditures made by the
United States Government;by the states, or by the large property owner, Forestry
THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
cannot be successful to the greatest degree unless, the mind of every man, woman
and child is fully alive to the situation; to the importance of forests in their lives,
the damage done by fire and to the necessity for care with fire in the woods, and
the punishment of those who are careless.
CO-OPERATION.-Forestry is a long-time proposition and it is right that the
government, state and national, and the property owner should join hands in the
work. But nothing they can do can offset the damage done by the careless..indi-
vidual-the hunter, hiker, camper or the range burner. It is a four-way propo-
sition, too-everybody must help, because "Everybody Loses When Timber Burns."
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) How long have people been practicing Forestry? (2) How can one company
practice Forestry on the same land for five hundred years? (3) How does the
United States practice Forestry? (4) How many states are practicing Forestry?
(5) What are the advantages of state-owned forests? (6) County Forests? (7)
City forests? (8) How many acres of forest land does New York own? (9) Penn-
sylvania? (10) Florida? (11) Why does the farmer and other private land owners
need assistance in the practice of Forestry? (12) Why should the public help the
private property owner?
FOREST FIRES IN FLORIDA
Lesson No. 9
We do not have any record of the number of forest fires that have occurred in
Florida, or of the acreage burned over each year by these fires. Likewise, we know
nothing of the number of fires from each cause, nor have we any accurate record of
the damage done annually. No one will ever know these things accurately for the
years that have passed. But we do know there have been too many fires-that
they have occurred as the result of carelessness and fallacious ideas; that too great
an acreage has been burned over and that the damage done has been far beyond
the understanding of us who have as yet only begun to feel the pinch of the timber
FIRES AND THE POCKETBOOK.-All through the winter months great clouds
of smoke have rolled over the countryside during the day and in the late evening
settled upon the highways, endangering automobile traffic. In the night-time the
reflections from fires can be seen in almost any direction and few casual observers
have recognized in the reddened sky a real cause of the increased cost of the things
they use in their everyday life, the loss of industry and the increased taxes. But
it is there just the same, crawling and creeping, or racing and roaring, the spread-
ing flames of Florida's annual fires, slowly but surely eating their way into the
pocketbooks of her citizenry-Florida must pay the cost of these annual tributes
FIRES THE RESULT OF MAN'S INDIFFERENCE.-We know, however, that
of all the causes listed for fires in Florida, only one is beyond control by man.-
That one is lightning, and since most of our electric storms are accompanied by
rain we know that that cause is comparatively insignificant in consideration of the
vast numbers that occur through the mistaken ideas or carelessness or indifference
of man. We have every reason to believe that more than ninty-seven percent of
the fires which occur annually in Florida are the result of man's indifference and
we know from the experience in other states and in other countries that this ninety-
seven percent can be stopped.
NUMBER OF FIRES.-It has been estimated that in the year 1927 some 15,000
forest fires swept the Piney Woods of Florida. Over thirteen million acres were
burned over. Seventy-five percent of the problem of growing a crop of timber in
Florida isto prevent forest fires. This means that it is primarily man's careless-
ness that stands between a one hundred percent utilization of our land area and
the present idle or semi-productive areas that surround us on every side. It is
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION
man's indifference that has raised the monuments of charred forests, abandoned
farms, idle industries and unproductive acres that are so apparent throughout the
length and breadth of Florida.
WHEN FIRES WILL STOP.-When the time comes that man realizes the value
of the forests to him and his part in their destruction, then and then only will fires
stop and our millions of acres be set to work once more. We have come up
through generations feeling that forest fires are the usual thing and never stop-
ping to think how unnecessary they really are. And now we know, not only how
unnecessary they are but how easily they can be eliminated. And we know not
from guesswork but from actual facts and figures obtained from neighboring
states that have tried it under practically similar conditions.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) How many forest fires, according to estimates, occurred in 1927 in Florida?
(2) How many acres of Florida's land burned over? (3) When do forest fires
burn in Florida? (4) How do we know that over 97 percent of these fires can
DAMAGE DONE BY FOREST FIRES
Lesson No. 10
LOSS TO GROWING TIMBER.-A conservative estimate of the yearly toll
taken by forest fires in Florida places the loss at about eight million dollars a
year. It is difficult to make such an estimate but cut-over lands are capable of
producing two hundred board feet per acre per year and two-thirds of the poten-
tial crop which is prevented from growing each year has a value of that amount.
Should that timber be permitted to grow it would provide each year one billion
six hundred million board feet of lumber or enough to build one hundred thousand
six-room houses, each containing sixteen thousand board feet of lumber.
There are other less direct losses from fire which if expressed in terms of the
dollar Would raise the estimated loss many thousands and possibly millions of
dollars. These losses are very apparent to those who are familiar with the situa-
tion but it is extremely difficult to attempt to place a value on them.
Unscarred trees of pole size or larger seldom if ever are burned down; they may
be killed by severe fires but the thick bark usually prevents outright destruction.
This has led to the common expression: "The fire didn't damage the timber; just
blackened the trees up a little."
Most fires scorch a goodly percentage of the trees and may deaden the growing
tissues beneath the bark at the base where the heat is more intense. Small trees,
merchantable for cord wood, ties, poles and wood pulp and for turpentining, are
most likely to suffer such injuries. Frequently, the fire scars that do not heal
over are enlarged by subsequent fires and develop into "cat faces." Each fire
may burn a little deeper, particularly in the case of the dry or pitchy faced trees
and they may finally burn down.
INSECTS AND FUNGI.-Fire wounds are like sores on the human body which
cause trouble if germs are allowed to enter. Spores of parasitic or rot-producing
plants, fungi, find their way into the tree through these fire scars. Frequently,
this is not discovered until years after the fire when a hollow tree is passed up
by the lumberman or fails to produce its full board feet content when a large part
of the wood is thrown out as defective at the mill.
SEEDLINGS.-Baby trees by the millions have had their leaves burned brown
or entirely burned off by woods burning, and seeds dropped from the cones are
destroyed as they lie in the "rough" and frequently before they even have a chance
to sprout. It is the loss of the seed and baby trees as well as the saplings and poles
that help to make the great open places in the forest idle acres that should be
GAME AND SONG BIRDS.-Quail and wild turkey, the principal game birds
of Florida, nest on the ground and forest fires destroy the nests and eggs in large
numbers. Fires that occur after the chicks have hatched out are likely to take
16 THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
their toll before the birds are able to fly. Many insectivorous birds known to be of
great benefit to farmers suffer the same fate as the quail and the wild turkey.
Wild game animals, such as the squirrel and opossum, are frequently killed out-
right by forest fires, or smothered to death in their holes or nests. This applies
particularly to the young. Many a fawn has been trapped by fire and has perished
in its efforts to escape.
Quail feed largely upon seeds of weeds, grasses and other plants. Fires burn
up practically all this kind of food and force the birds to seek other feeding
grounds and other shelter.
SOILS.-Forest fires impoverish soils too, and thus lower the value of the soil
for the production of lumber or the production of farm crops later on. The Bureau
of Soils, United States Department of Agriculture, made a chemical analysis of one
ton of long leaf pine needles and discovered that the nitrogen and phosphoric acid
within those needles would be worth in commercial fertilizers three dollars and
fifty-nine cents. Many hundreds of thousands of tons of "Long straw" is destroyed
by fires each winter in Florida when it should be used to improve the growth of
RETARDED GROWTH.-The Southern Forest Experiment Station in Louisiana
measured off plots of equal area containing equal numbers of long leaf pine seed-
lings. One plot was burned over every year, the other plot was carefully protected
from fire. At the end of three years they found one thousand and fifty-five trees
to the acre on the unburned plot that were one inch in diameter four feet from the
ground, while on the burned plot they found only one hundred and eighty-nine trees
that were one inch in diameter. The trees on the burned area had made an average
height growth of two and seventeen-hundredths feet in three years, while in the
same period the trees on the unburned area had made an average height growth
of six and twenty-three-hundredths feet. From this it is evident that on unburned
land long leaf pine will grow nearly three times as fast as they will on burned
over land. When they measured the diameters as well as the height they found
that twenty-eight times as much wood fiber was produced on the unburned area
as on the burned area.
GRAZING.-This loss of fertility has its effect on tree growth as well as on the
growth of grasses. The effect of fire on grazing has been brought out in the lesson
on Forests and the Cattle Industry, so it is enough to state here that repeated fires
have practically eliminated our best wild grasses such as wild oats and switch
cane which formed the most satisfactory fall and winter feed and has been respon-
sible for the rapid spread of wire grass which late in the season becomes tough,
woody, unpalatable and furnishes little nutriment.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
Secure if possible a pine cone and seeds of the pine. Show the children how
many there are in a cone and therefore how many there must be on a tree with
hundreds of cones. Keep some seeds on a wet blotter and allow them to germinate.
Point out to the children how easy it will be for the so-called light burning to kill
the germ. Point out the open places in the forest near the school where trees
should be growing but are not because the fire destroyed these seeds. If there has
been an area burned over near your school probably no better place exists for a
lesson in forest protection. There can be found fire killed trees, fire scarred boles
and dead seedlings. Germinated seeds can also be found in the proper season.
(1) What is the monetary loss to Florida as a result of forest fires? (2) How
does fire aid insects and fungi that live on the forest trees? (3) What causes the
open places in the woods? (4) Name two song birds that nest on the ground?
(5) What game suffers through forest fires? (6) How much is growth retarded
by burning? (7) Why is growth retarded by the very light fires?
THE CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES
Lesson No. 11
We know what causes a large part of our forest fires in Florida, even though we
do not know how many of our fires come from each separate cause. For purposes
of classification, for comparison with other states and with other years, the Florida
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 17
Forest Service will keep an accurate record of all fires that start on her protective
units and eventually, of course, of all fires within the State. This is necessary
because obviously the proper steps for their elimination cannot be taken until we
know what causes them. Nine classifications are used primarily because the
remedy for each of the several causes within one classification is practically the
same. In this lesson we will deal with fires by their exact causes. In the lesson
on Preventing Forest Fires, we will deal with the classification.
TWO CLASSES.-All forest fires fall into one of two classes-Preventable and
Unpreventable. In the unpreventable class we have but one cause and that is
lightning and since most of our electrical storms are accompanied by rain we have
very few of these. It has been estimated that less than three percent of our fires
fall into this group.
That means that more than ninety-seven percent of our fires are preventable.
This group automatically divides itself into two classes. Those fires which are set
intentionally and those that are set carelessly.
INCENDIARISTS.-The fires which are set intentionally are generally set with
the idea of improving the pasture for cattle which as we have brought out in pre-
vious lessons it does not do. Sometimes, however, they are set with the idea of
doing injury to the property owner for some fancied wrong. In either case, the
fire setter is violating the law which provides a fine and imprisonment for setting
fires. Regardless of law, however, he violates the sacred rights of property which
stipulate that one man has no right to destroy what belongs to another. When
one man destroys the trees that belong to his neighbor he is depriving him of
something of great value and of something which his neighbor has every right to
preserve. Fires of this class are known as incendiary fires.
CARELESS SPORTSMEN.-The greatest number of our fires in Florida, how-
ever, probably occur as the result of negligence or carelessness on the part of
individuals. The person who is responsible for such a fire doesn't mean to set a
fire but, because he is careless or indifferent or ignorant, he does something which
causes the woods to burn. A hunter, fisherman, camper, or hiker who leaves
his campfire unprotected or builds it in an unsafe place might cause a fire. He
might throw down a lighted cigarette or cigar or match, or the hot ashes from
his pipe and with no intention of starting a fire actually cause a blaze that will
cover hundreds of acres before it is stopped by fire wardens, farmers or by rain.
BOYS AND GIRLS.-Fires have been known to start from boys and girls
building fires against the sides of logs or old stumps just to warm their hands,
and even when they think it entirely out have fire spread from the old punky wood
which may hold fire for hours or even days.
AUTOMOBILISTS.-Many fires come from autoists who throw burning tobacco
or matches from the car into the grass along the side of the road, and sometimes
fires are caused from sparks from burning homes and burning automobiles.
RAILROAD.-Railroad engines, both on the large railroads and on the logging
railroads, cause fire by throwing hot sparks from the smokestack. These fires
might be said not to be the fault of man but it is. some man's duty to see that the
proper kind of spark arrestors are installed in those engines and to see that they
are properly maintained. Someone, too, is responsible for the safety strips, which,
if properly maintained, would prevent fires. Careless firemen have been known
to throw red hot clinkers from their cabs and to start fires in this way.
AGRICULTURE.-Many fires, too, come from the burning off of old fields by
farmers who are getting ready to plow, and from the burning out of fence rows
and brush piles. Sometimes people try to burn paper and dry leaves near their
homes adjacent to woodlands, and cause fire in this way. In some states brush
burning fires have been so troublesome that brush burning is forbidden by law in
certain sections during certain periods, and in others permits must be obtained
from forest officials before brush can be burned in the dangerous seasons. Such
steps should never be necessary if these people realized the value of forests and
the danger from fire.
THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
Much has been said in Florida about the man who sets fire to his neighbor's land
on purpose, but after all the fire that is set carelessly does just as much damage
as the fire set on purpose, and it is useless to try to stop fires from one cause,
no matter how illegal it may be, if fires are permitted to start from other sources.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) Name two classes of forest fires? (2) What percentage of our fires are pre-
ventable? (3) Name ten things which might cause a forest fire. (4) What is the
difference between an incendiary fire and a careless fire? (5) Which does the most
HOW FOREST FIRES CAN BE PREVENTED
Lesson No. 12
The preceding lessons have pointed out that the great majority of forest fires
are man caused and therefore preventable. Back of the entire fire prevention
program is the fact that man does not realize to just what extent he is affected
by fires, and to what extent he is responsible for them. He has been indifferent
to the forests so long, accepting them as a matter of fact, that it is difficult for
him to understand that he will not have them with him forever. Therefore, forest
education first, last and all the time must be directed at the mental attitude of
the individual. We must all acquire a forest consciousness-a new understanding
of the value of forests, and the part we must play in their perpetuation.
We have just seen where forest fires come from. There is nothing wonderful
about it-unless it be our indifference to facts that affect the very foundation of
our industrial welfare. There is no spontaneous combustion-no fires caused by
the wind rubbing sticks together. There is nothing spiritualistic in the matter of
fires. Forest fires occur simply because man has introduced fire into an inflam-
mable territory-that he has not taken the proper precautions with that fire, with
the result that what is at one time his greatest servant becomes in a moment of
inattention his enemy. Each and every cause of forest fires for which man is
responsible can be eliminated by a few simple precautions, and the results will
be well worth the efforts taken.
RAILROAD FIRES can be prevented by the use of spark screens on the loco-
motives and the construction of safety strips along the tracks. Letters of instruc-
tion to employees demanding care in the burning of ties and punishment for
infractions of those rules will eliminate carelessness on their part.
CAMP FIRES.-Fires resulting from camp fires and warming fires can easily
be prevented by carefully selecting the places where the campfires are to be built,
and clearing a strip free of inflammable debris for at least a radius of three feet
from the fire. Fires should never be built against old stumps or hollow trees or
against old logs where the punky surface may retain the sparks for hours or even
days before breaking out into flame. And when leaving the place the fire should
be carefully extinguished with water or if no water is available, by shoveling
mineral earth upon it so that there will be no chance for it to break out. No fire
should ever be left unguarded, particularly in the dangerous season.
SMOKER'S FIRES can be eliminated by a few simple rules. Never let people
with you throw away lighted cigarettes, cigars, matches, or burning tobacco from
the pipe. These should be carefully extinguished at all times before they are
discarded. Particularly is this true when in automobiles because the discarded fire
may start forest fires after the person responsible is many miles away. We
wouldn't do that in our homes, so why should we do it in the forests which provide
BRUSH BURNING FIRES are fires which can be eliminated by simple precau-
tions on the part of individuals burning off the fields or burning brush from the
fence rows. There is no question but that brush must be burned, but with a little
care it should not be necessary to burn it in the dangerous months of February,
March and April. Brush can be cut before these dangerous periods and burned
as it is cut. It will not burn as well, of course, and it will take longer but it is
better to spend a little time in the safe disposal of the hazard than it is to have
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 19
the fire get beyond control. Such fires may destroy hundreds of acres of young
timber belonging to the individual responsible for the fire and others.
When it is necessary to burn brush in the dangerous season it should be burned
only in the evening after the sun and the wind have gone down, and it should be
carefully guarded until every spark is extinguished. Brush should never be burned
in the daytime during this period without having adequate help to control the
blaze and without having plenty of water at hand. It must be borne in mind that
even on a calm day the heat of the fire will generate its own air currents setting
up little whirlwinds that may carry sparks great distances. An ounce of preven-
tion is worth a pound of cure.
THE INCENDIARY FIRE is probably the most difficult fire to control. It is
the fire set by the "Fire Fiend" who doesn't realize the seriousness of the thing
he is doing, or who does it with some mistaken idea as to the benefits he will derive
without any regard whatever for the rights of others. He is the thief of the forest
fire setters who takes what belongs to his neighbor for his own selfish interest.
We can reach him only through education and through punishment for his evil
deeds. He must be shown what it means when the curse of the forest sweeps over
the land, and examples must be made of those who refuse to understand the
sacredness of property rights and the fact that "Everybody Loses When Timber
THE LUMBERING FIRES are mere questions of proper equipment on the
smokestack of locomotives and donkey engines and their proper maintenance.
Instructions must be issued to employes for care with fire in the woods and prompt
extinction of such fires that do start.
No matter what care we ourselves take with our woodlands and with the wood-
lands of others, we can always expect to have a few fires from various causes.
Burning houses, burning automobiles, lightning and so on cause a few fires every
year, so it becomes necessary for every man, woman and child to be on the alert
during the dangerous period. Such fires can be caught while they are still small
and easily extinguished, but if let go until they cover large acreages it will be
difficult for many men to handle them. Membership in protective associations
guarantees prompt action in the case of the fires that do start and a hastening
of the day when all of Florida will be under protection against this great curse of
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) Why is education necessary in Forestry? (2) Name two ways of preventing
forest fires which come from campfires? (3) Name two ways of preventing forest
fires which come from brush burning? (4) How can incendiary fires be stopped?
(5) Who should fight fires?
THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
Lesson No. 13
The basic forestry law of Florida was passed by the Florida State Legislature
of 1927 and signed by Governor John W. Martin on June 6th of that year. This
law created the Florida Board of Forestry, consisting of five members, which was
charged with taking such.steps as "will best serve the public interest to assist and
co-operate with Federal and State Department of Institutes, County, Town, cor-
poration or individual, to gather and disseminate information in regard to forests,
their care and management, to prevent and extinguish forest fires, and enforce
all laws pertaining to forests and woodlands."
THE BOARD OF FORESTRY was also charged with the appointment of a
State Forester who was required to be a man "technically trained in the profession
of Forestry." On April 1, 1928, the board appointed Harry Lee Baker, formerly
with the United States Forest Service, AS STATE FORESTER, and the work of
State Forestry was started in Florida for the first time.
Mr. Baker began at once the organization of FOREST PROTECTIVE ASSO-
CIATIONS composed of interested property owners who voluntarily assessed
20 THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
themselves at a certain rate per acre per year for the protection of their lands
from fire. In return for these payments, the United States Forest Service and
the Florida Forest Service spent one dollar for every dollar of private funds
With the funds thus made available, FIRE TOWERS are erected and connected
with forest officials by telephone. Observers are placed on the towers during the
dangerous season and all fires are promptly reported to the foremen in charge
of fire fighting crews who are appointed as FIRE WARDENS. These wardens
are equipped with fire fighting tools paid for from this co-operative fund.
In addition to the work of detection and extinction, an intensive FIRE PRE-
VENTION CAMPAIGN is undertaken on each area, including leaflets and
pamphlets dealing with the fire situation, and posters and signboards calling atten-
tion to the danger from forest fires. Moving pictures and talks are given in the
public schools and in public meetings elsewhere on the value of forest conserva-
In co-operation with the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, A NUR-
SERY FOR THE RAISING OF FOREST TREE SEEDLINGS was established
at the State Prison Farm at Raiford and four thousand baby trees were raised
the first year. In the fall of 1928, over a hundred pounds of seed of the long leaf,
slash and loblolly pines were collected for sowing during the winter of 1928-29.
Several small nurseries were established on private land under State supervision
in order to insure a sufficient number of seedlings to meet the tremendous de-
mands of property owners who were interested in the reforestation of their prop-
erties. The Florida Board of Forestry adopted a policy of DISTRIBUTION OF
TREES at cost at the Raiford nursery for reforestation purposes.
So, at the end of the first year of activity in Forestry, Florida can point to
preparations for reforestation of many thousands of acres with valuable trees.
Approximately one million acres of forest land is under protection in logical pro-
tective units varying in area from seventy-five thousand to one hundred thousand
acres. On these areas lookout towers have been constructed and many miles of
telephone lines built to connect them with the extinction organization, consisting
of the rangers, wardens and other fire fighters, all of which are equipped with the
latest forest fire fighting tools.
CO-OPERATION NEEDED.-However, no matter how intensively these areas
may be manned or patrolled, it will be impossible to secure a satisfactory degree
of protection on these areas nor within the State at large until the support and
co-operation of every man, woman and child has been secured, not only on these
areas but throughout the entire State of Florida. Every individual can help by
preventing fires, by putting out small fires, and by reporting to the warden or
ranger the fires that are too large for him to handle.
THE PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATIONS are made up of all property owners
within a designated area, be they large or small. The farmer with his eighty acres
of woodland who is interested in its protection is just as welcome as the corporation
with its twenty thousand. There is NO REDUCTION IN TAXES for those mem-
bers who join such associations. However, from the time that protection becomes
an assured thing, the growth on the timber will form an annual income of such
value as to enable the property owner to pay taxes.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) When was the law passed which created the Florida Board of Forestry?
(2) When was Florida's first State Forester appointed? (3) What is a Forest
Protective Association? (4) Name three parties that pay the cost of protection
in a protective association? (5) How will a forest protective association affect
taxes in a county where it is located? (6) How are fires discovered in these asso-
ciations? (7) Who puts out the fires? (8) Who pays for the fire fighting? (9)
Where was the first State forest tree nursery in Florida established? (10) Who
can get forest tree seedlings for reforestation purposes? (11) Under what con-
ditions? (12) How many acres of forest land were under protection in 1928?
(13) Why is planting useless without protection? (14) Who can join a forest
protective association ?
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 21
THE FORESTS AND BIRDS.
Lesson No. 14
(The outline for this lesson was supplied by the Department of Conservation
and Natural Resources of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs.)
In the complex system of civilization which has been built up about us in this
age of specialization the individual man has become dependent upon other men
for a large part of the privileges he enjoys. We have progressed so far and so
rapidly along this line that we seldom realize how interdependent we humans have
become. For a small price we buy a bottle of pickles in the store. We think of
it as a jar of pickles and nothing more. But just pause to consider who has
labored to make it possible for us to enjoy that product. To begin with, some
farmer in America produced the pickles and the apples from which the vinegar
was made in which the pickles are preserved. Spices were gathered in far off
tropical countries as was also the cork from the bark of trees that went to form
the stopper. Ships sailed the stormy seas in order to bring them to us. Tin was
mined at risk of life to provide the tin covering and in the spruce forests of the
Northlands lumberjacks got out pulp wood from which the paper was made that
is used as a label. Chemists Were called in for the preparation of the ink that
was used in printing the label and special sands were used to manufacture the
glass bottle. Hundreds of railroad men were used in the transportation of the
finished product. Few of us today could prepare pickles that will keep, still fewer
could make glass from sand, paper from wood, stoppers from cork and tin, or man
the ships or railroads necessary for their transportation. We depend on someone
else to do those things for us.
And this interdependence among individuals extends to forest areas also. Trees
as we saw in the lesson on The Forest are dependent one upon the other. But the
trees are dependent upon other things, too, and outstanding among these living
friends of the forest are the birds. Not only are the forests dependent to a large
extent upon the birds but the birds are dependent upon the forests.
The trees furnish buds, blossoms, fruits and seeds which birds use for food.
The trees provide hiding places, nesting places and leafy shelter from sun and
In return for this the birds assist in the fertilization of tree blossoms and aid in
the distribution and planting of tree seeds. But a far greater service is rendered
to the trees when the birds hold the vast insect hordes in check. Without the birds,
in all probability, the insects would become so numerous that few trees would be
able to withstand the effects of their work.
Insects that bore into the tree and dig out eggs beneath the bark are consumed
by the thousands by the birds of the forest and when eggs are hatched and tiny
grubs start their work of excavation inside the tree, it is the birds again upon
which the tree must depend if the damage is to be prevented.
Most birds are active in consuming the insects that attack the bark stem and
leaves of trees. Probably the most interesting, however, is the woodpecker. He
is the tree surgeon of the bird family in Florida and might well be called Dr.
Peckwood. He performs surgical operations that saves trees. There are many
different kinds of woodpeckers and one of them at least, known as the yellow-
bellied woodpecker, sometimes does a good bit of harm to some trees. But the
harm birds do in the forest is more than outweighed by the good they do in con-
Few people are as well acquainted with birds as they should be, yet few studies
are more interesting than a study of birds. Examine woodpeckers closely as to
their form and coloring. Note particularly the structure of the claws, tail, head,
beak and tongue. See how well adapted they are for this work of forest protection.
Most of us are familiar with the robin red breast, the cardinal, the oriole, the blue
bird, the chickadee, the wren and the warbler and towhees. These birds are the
friends of the forest and thereby friends of man. Forests and birds have one
common enemy and that is fire. Fire destroys the nest and the eggs and young
of the low nesting birds and in destroying the homes and shelter of the birds it
also destroys the future home of man and adds to man's discomfort as well as his
economic loss by allowing insects to increase.
22 THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.
(1) How does the woodpecker know where to bore for the insect? (2) How does
he remove the insect? (3) How do forests help birds? (4) How do birds help
the forest? (5) How do birds help man? (6) What is the common enemy of birds
and forests? (7) Read "Birds of Florida," by Harold Baily, published by Williams
& Watkins, Baltimore, Md. This book brings out the relationship of birds to
agriculture and gives the food of each bird found in the State. (8) Read the "Inde-
pendence of Bird Life," by G. Inness Hartley, published by Century Company,
New York City. Especially valuable as an account of the birds' most important
functions, the preservation of the balance of Nature.
LAND STATISTICS FOR FLORIDA BY COUNTIES FROM
AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS OF FLORIDA, 1927
Total Cultivated Improved Unimproved
County- Area Land Pasture Land
Acres Acres Acres Acres
Alachua 579,940 61,9.94 42,041 475,905
Baker 354,065 11,010 78 342,977
Bay 435,572 5,322 188 430,062
Bradford 181,408 13,866 ---- 167,542
Brevard 671,626 10,271 2,401 658,954
Broward 990,227 5,111 958 984,158
Calhoun 356,717 16,032 600 340,085
Charlotte 439,572 1,612 898 437,062
Citrus 378,803 5,778 1,365 371,660
Clay 381,165 8,380 4,057 368,728
Columbia 538,925 69,989 420 468,516
DeSoto 381,578 4,731 1,323 375,524
Dixie 456,530 1,941 1,539 453,060
Duval 400,534 .3,930 9,458 3 387,146
Escambia 425,526 15,372 991 409,103
Flagler 332,453 4,201 637 327,616
Franklin 364,429 22 20 364,387
Gadsden 334,744 43,555 2,843 288,346
Gilchrist 222,122 9,601 370 212,151
Gulf 349,976 2,333 56 347,587
Hamilton 326,585 31,552 233 294,800
Hardee 403,972 16,326 2,584 385,062
Hernando 313,673 6,774 576 306,323
Highlands 640,121 16,680 364 623,077
Hillsborough 603,836 33,467 4,774 565,595
Holmes 334,642 45,027 310 289,305
Indian River 323,298 2,047 234 321,017
Jackson 658,052 163,590 5,806 488,656
Jefferson 387,828 69,003 1,456 317,369
Lafayette 348,357 11,502 70 336,785
Lake 674,793 14,618 3,756 656,419
Lee 485,459 13,171 124 472,164
Leon 448,197 37,740 688 409,769
Levy 724,143 .. 35,190 18,168 670,785
Liberty 500,346 3,930 318 496,098
Madison 451,384 54,739 1,549 395,096
Manatee 469,451 14,268 678 454,505
Marion 1,039,150 46,815 3,543 988,792
Martin 354,813 3,363 1,525 349,925
Nassau 399,093 3,623 168 395,302
Okaloosa 709,716 22,358 952 686,406
Okeechobee 484,015 1,488 650 481,877
Orange 513,907 13,257 4,511 496,139
Osceola 850,942 4,547 936 845,459
Palm Beach 1,447,550 10,835 1,785 1,434,930
Pasco 397,755 5,158 --- 392,597
Pinellas 131,393 13,069 7 118,331
Polk 1,153,965 10,939 4,407 1,138,619
Putnam 450,901 12,671 181 438,049
St. Johns 461,055 11,754 700 448,601
St. Lucie 359,679 3,866 518 355,295
Santa Rosa 663,876 33,027 1,389 629,460
Sarasota 352,287 4,385 73 347,829
Seminole 166,257 13,020 790 152.447
F( 3 (.n-,
LESSONS IN FOREST PROTECTION 23
LAND STATISTICS FOR FLORIDA BY COUNTIES-Continued
Total Cultivated Improved Unimproved
County- Area Land Pasture Land
Acres Acres Acres Acres
Sumter 352,197 18,235 4,357 329,605
Suwannee 479,381 40,378 1,755 437,248
Taylor 668,424 2,066 392 665,966
Union 155,949 16,890 396 138,663
Volusia 718,791 25,050 2,669 691,072
Wakulla 287,209 7,158 66 279,985
Walton 720,175 18,598 538 701,039
Washington 383,979 23,850 1,346 358,783
BOOKS AND BULLETINS OF INTEREST
"The Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States," by Charles R.
Van Hise. Published by the MacMillan Company of New York.
"Birds of Florida," by Harold Baily. Published by Williams & Watkins, Balti-
"The Importance of Bird Life," by G. Inness Hartley. Published by Century
Company, New York City.
"The Story of a Thousand Year Pine," by Enos A. Mills. Published by Hough-
ton-Mifflin Company, New York City.
"Trees as Good Citizens," by Charles Lathrop Pack. Published by American
Tree Association, Washington, D. C.
"Florida an Advancing State" (Industrial Survey), Authorized by the Florida
State Legislature of 1927 and carried through under the direction of Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida.
"Forestry in the South," by Page S. Bunker. Published by the American Tree
Association, Washington, D. C.
"The Forest," a Hand Book for Teachers, by D. Priscilla Edgerton. Published
by the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
"Making Woodlands Profitable in the Southern States," by Wilbur R. Mattoon.
Published by the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
"Principles of Plant Growth," by Wilfred W. Robbins. Published by John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., New York City.
"Our Trees and How They Serve Us," by Rufus S. Maddox and Almon E. Par-
kins. Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York City.
"Elements of Forestry," by Moon & Brown. Published by John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York City.
"Forest Fires in Florida," by the Florida Forestry Association, Gainesville, Fla.
"Our Insect Friends and Foes," by William Atherton DuPuy. Published by the
John C. Winstop Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
"Our Bird Friends and Foes," by William Atherton DuPuy. Published by the
John C. Winston Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
"Our Forests a National Problem," by Benjamin J. Rohan. Published by the
C. C. Nelson Publishing Company, Appleton, Wis.
"The Training of a Forester," by Gifford Pinchot. Published by J. B. Lippincott
Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
"The Forestry Almanac," written and published by the American Tree Associa-
tion, Washington, D. C.
"Timber, Mine or Crop," by the United States Forest Service. Published by
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
"The Care and Improvement of Farm Woods," by C. R. Tillotson. Published by
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
"Forests and Waters in the Light of Scientific Investigations," by Raphael Zon.
Published by the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
"Forestry Primer," fifteen lessons for children. Published and distributed free
of charge by American Tree Association, Washington, D. C,
FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE
BOARD OF FORESTRY
S. BRYAN JENNINGS, President, Jacksonville, Fla.
N. J. WICKER, Vice-President, Coleman, Fla.
SIMON F. WILLIAMS, Secretary, Jacksonville, Fla.
J. B. GLEN, Chipley, Fla.
A. A. PAYNE, Panama City, Fla.
HARRY LEE BAKER, State Forester, Tallahassee, Fla.
H. A. SMITH, Assistant State Forester, Tallahassee, Fla.
J. J. GOULDEN, District Forester, Starke, Fla.
R. R. WHITTINGTON, District Forester, Panama City, Fla.
G. L. DALLY, District Forester, Bartow, Fla.
H. J. MALSBERGER, Forest Assistant, Lake City, Fla.
C. H. COULTER, Forest Assistant, Tallahassee, Fla.
G. A. YOUNG, Forest Assistant, Wacissa, Fla.