• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Main














Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Florida naval stores
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075926/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida naval stores
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 62 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wyman, Lenthall, b. 1888
Coulter, C. H
Florida Forest Service
Southern Forest Experiment Station (New Orleans, La.)
United States -- Bureau of Chemistry and Soils
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: Florida Forest Service :
In cooperation with the Southern Forest Experiment Station and the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1933
 Subjects
Subject: Naval stores -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forest products industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Lenthal Wyman and C.H. Coulter.
Numbering Peculiarities: Revised edition.
General Note: Originally published by the Florida State Dept. of Agriculture, 1929?
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075926
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46801811

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Foreword
        Page 6
    Main
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
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        Page 41
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        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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Full Text







FLORIDA NAVAL
STORES


By
LENTHALL WYMAN
United States Forest Service
and


Florida Forest Service and Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Dept of Agriculture




i i
(LORIDA '
Applied Forestry
and
Forest Protection
?REST SEWC O




I .54' Bulletin No. 9.
SpF 6 Jb July, 1933.



4 4 4I)-o4.oM THE HUNTER PRESS,TALLAHASSEEO
vf.M, THE HUNTER PRESS. TALLAHASSEE















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


_II-- C I -







74t


,- r :Y1



-Ja
,, ,v a .
r
k 4.









400
\~ if *















Fig. 1. Dipping and loading gum to be hauled to the still. The man on the horse, called the "Woods Rider," supervises
the work in from six to ten crops of cups.










FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


SCIENCE
LIBRARY


ACKNOWLEDGMENT


The writers wish to express their appreciation for
valuable assistance rendered by Mr. Carl F. Speh, Sec-
retary-Manager of the Pine Institute of America, Inc.,
in preparation of the Bulletin and particularly in the
section dealing with the leases. Acknowledgment is
made to Messrs. H. M. Wilson, E. M. Sessoms, H. Wei-
bert and S. Berg for helpful criticisms and advice in the
preparation of the leases.









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9


CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION
THE TURPENTINE CAMP
CHOOSING A LOCATION
LEASES
CUPPING
CUPS __-__
CHIPPING THE TREES _-.-- -
DIPPING AND COLLECTING THE GUM
RAISING THE CUPS
BOILING AND CLEANING CUPS
SUPERVISION-THE WOODS RIDER
FIRE PROTECTION
DISTILLATION
The Still
Stilling ___-
Turning Out
Handling Rosin
Costs
STORAGE AND GRADING
ROSIN PRICES AND GRADES
MARKETING
YIELD
YIELDS PER CROP FOR SIZES, SPECIES, AND SI
FINANCIAL RETURNS
SUMMARY OF PRODUCING COSTS AND
RETURNS IN 1929
USES ____ _- ___-
OUTPUT
OUTLOOK FOR THE INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA --
ADVICE AND ASSISTANCE
NAVAL STORES LEASE


4
6
7
8
10
10
11
14
16
20
20
23
23
23
28
28
29
30
33
33
33
35
36
36
FES--- 43
44


45
46
46
48
48
50









FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


FOREWORD



This bulletin, published originally by the
Florida State Department of Agriculture, has
been revised to include present dy"t rends in
improved naval stores practice. It is reprinted
by the Florida Forest Service.
Mr. Lenthall Wyman, author of the original
bulletin, for ten years director 6f the Starke
Branch of the Southern Forest E13Bpeimintit Sta-
tion, has devoted his time particularly to the
woods problems of the naval stores industry.
Mr. C. H. Coulter, cooperative agent in naval
stores work in Florida, has been in close touch
with actual operations both in the woods and
at stills. He has contributed much practical
information in this revision.
During the past four years, woods work, still-
ing practices, and the protection of turpentine
timberlands from fire have greatly improved.
These changes are discussed in this revision.
The bulletin should prove a valuable guide
and reference to the timber operator, to the
landowner who leases timber for naval stores
and to those industries that deal in or use naval
stores.

JOHN B. GLEN, Vice-Pres.,
Florida Board of Forestry.













FLORIDA NAVAL STORES

By
LENTHALL WYMAN
and
C. H. COULTER


Published by the Florida Forest Service, in cooperation with The Southern
Forest Experiment Station and the Bureau of Chemistry
and Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture.



T HE NAVAL STORES treated in this publication are rosin
and turpentine produced from crude gum, which is extract-
ed from certain southern pine trees by repeated scarring
or chipping and then distilled. These products are known as gum
turpentine and rosin. About four-fifths of all the naval stores
manufactured in the United States are obtained in this way. The
remaining fifth is obtained by steam or destructive distillation
and solvent extraction from pine stumps, knots, lightwood, and
mill refuse. Naval stores obtained in this way are known as wood
turpentine and rosin.1 Although this difference is observed in
the names of the products, the qualities and uses of gum turpen-
tine and rosin and wood turpentine and rosin are very simliar.

The term "naval stores" dates back to the early days of the
seventeenth century when wooden sailing vessels used large quan-
tities ofi tar and pitch obtained from the evergreen forests of
Sweden and other northern European countries. Tar and pitch,
although manufactured from crude gum at the present time, are
of minor importance. Their use and the use of turpentine and
rosin in the maritime trade has dwindled to small proportions;
yet the name "naval stores" has persisted in the industry.2

1. Grosvenor Dawe "Florida, An Advancing State." 1928.
2. "Naval Stores." Trade Information Bulletin No. 454.









FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


Florida's position in naval stores production is an important
one. The output of the State is 31 per cent of all the naval stores
manufactured in the United States and 21 per cent of the world
production.
Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris, Miller) and slash pine (Pinus
caribaea, Morelet) are of paramount importance in the industry
in Florida, although other pines are sometimes turpentined. Both
longleaf and slash pine grow throughout northern and western
Florida and as far south as the Everglades. Locally longleaf
grows on the sand ridges and drier sites of the flatwoods, and
slash pine is found in the ponds and wetter situations. With protec-
tion from fire, slash pine is inclined to occupy the drier locations
as well.
Longleaf pine3 may be recognized by its very long needles,
which vary from 8 to 15 inches in length, occurring always three
in a bundle. The twigs are stout and blunt. Buds, which are
locally called "candles," are thick and silvery white when they
start growth in the spring. The cones or burs are from 8 to 12
inches long.
Slash pine4 has shorter leaves, from 8 to 12 inches long,
growing in bundles of 2's or 3's. The twigs are slenderer than
longleaf twigs. The buds are reddish brown and less stout than
the buds of the longleaf pine. Cones are egg-shaped, from 3 to 5
inches long, with prickles on the shiny brown end of the cone scale.
THE TURPENTINE CAMP
A representative turpentine camp consists of a fire still,
spirit shed and glue pot, rosin yard, blacksmith and cooperage
shed, cup cleaning vat, barn, and wagon shed.
The word "quarters" is applied to the group of dwellings that
house the manager, woods riders, and laborers.
The typical turpentine camp operates about 10 crops of faces.
.A "crop" is a timber tract containing enough trees to hang
10,000 cups.

3. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Farmers Bulletin 1486, Longleaf Pine
Primer.
4. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Farmers Bulletin 1256, Slash Pine.









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9.


I


Fig. 2. 40-year old Slash Pine stand, Bradford County, Fla. These
faces are in their sixth year and have nearly reached the limit of
practical working. Narrower chipping would have made possible
from 2 to 5 years longer working.


m.









FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


CHOOSING A LOCATION

In starting a new turpentine operation, the first step is the
location of an adequate supply of timber to last for at least 8
years under usual management. The best turpentine timber is
rather open-grown, with large full crowns. Locations near rail-
roads or highways and where labor is plentiful and easily kept are
desirable, although many turpentine operations lack these advant-
ages.
LEASES

The timber is usually leased from the owner for periods of
from 3 to 5 years. Prices of leases vary with the size and quality
of timber, cost of labor, prices received for turpentine and rosin,
distance from shipping point, and a number of other factors.
From 21/2 to 3 cents per face per year for leasing was the average
price in 1929-30. This amounts to from $2500 to $3000 for 10
crops each year. In 1926, when naval stores prices were high,
7 cents per face per year was not an exceptional price, but in 1932
many leases were made at about 2 cents per face per year.

Large owners frequently lease their timber on a percentage
basis. In such cases the operator pays from 15 per cent to 30 per
cent of the gross sale value of the turpentine and rosin produced,
the payment varying according to the producing capacity of the
timber, the grades of rosin, and the various other factors which
influence lease values as mentioned above.

While the percentage basis is fair to both owner and operator,
it can be used successfully only if the owner supplies the operator
with all, or at least a great percentage, of his gum. If several
individuals are concerned, it will be found difficult to maintain
accurate records.

For the owner of a small block of timber a simpler, though
less desirable, form of lease must be used. Leases providing three
different bases of payment, based on commercial lease forms in
common use but embodying restrictions and specifications which
safeguard the timber owner's interests without imposing any hard-
ships on the operator, are given at the end of this bulletin.









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 11

There is a tendency on the part of modern operators to ac-
quire title to their timber lands rather than to lease them. This
policy is commendable, leading as it does toward a better class of
work, since the operators are personally interested in the highest
ultimate product from the land on which they are working.

CUPPING

Before actual cupping begins, it is necessary to select and
mark the trees which are to be worked and to indicate the side
of each tree on which the face is to be placed. It is good practice
to cull trees that are spike-topped or that have poorly developed
crowns. Such trees are apt to die or at least to dry-face badly
before being chipped for the full working life of the face. Care
in locating the face also reduces possible future losses from dry-
face caused by severed bark bars or old scars. Waste from ill-
fitting gutters and cups and reduced production from narrowed
faces may also be avoided to a considerable extent if the location
of the face is selected by a competent man.

Progressive operators cup no trees under 9-inch diameter,
4 feet 6 inches above the ground, and work only one face to a
tree at a time.

In preparing the tree for hanging cups, the best practice is
to smooth off the outside bark, care being taken that no wood is
exposed except where knots or burls must be cut in order to seat
the cup properly. This facing may be done with a broadaxe or
with a hogal (Figure 5). If the hogal is used for facing, it may
also be used to cut the first streak.

To set the gutters-if the Herty system is used-a slanting
cut or gash is made on each side to a depth of one-half inch into
the smoothed surface, the lower ends of the cuts being about 12
inches above the ground (Figure 3). These cuts are made with a
broadaxe or a gutter-chisel driven in with a maul. Galvanized
iron or zinc gutter strips are inserted into the cuts. These gutter
strips are 21/2 inches wide and long enough to go the full length
of the cut with a slight overhang at the lower end and are bent
or crimped lengthwise along the center. With this style of gutter,










FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


Fig. 3. Hanging Herty cup after installing gutters and chipping
first streak. No wood is exposed below first streak.

a clay Herty cup holding from one quart to three pints of gum is
commonly used. Conical galvanized iron or Birdeye cups suitable
for this cupping system are also on the market. The clay cup is.


r





FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 13


a14


Fig. 4. The Ball System of installing tins. Cup and tins raised
after one year of working. Note that no wood is exposed below
first incisions-


AI;M









14 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


hung on one eight penny nail; the conical metal cup rests on two
nails.

The Ball system of installing tins (Figure 4.) uses a gutter
and an apron. The gutter has much the same slant as the Herty
gutter, while the apron is horizontal, or parallel to the top of the
cup. The apron has no crimp, being flat galvanized iron sheeting
2 inches wide. A flat-bottomed, rectangular-shaped McCoy style
cup, resting on one or two nails is used with the Ball installation.
Slanting and horizontal axe cuts are used to seat the tins.

Two other systems of installing tins-the one-piece apron
and the two-piece apron-are sometimes used with flat-bottomed
rectangular McCoy cups. The one-piece apron is concave and is
usually installed with a concave broadaxe. The pieces of the two-
piece apron overlap at the center and are inserted in two axe
cuts. The outside corners of the aprons are usually turned up
to direct the gum into the cups. With this style of cupping, the
first streak can be chipped several inches nearer to the ground
than with the Herty or the Ball system.

The work of setting tins and hanging cups may be done as
late as March but should be done in December and January, be-
cause early facing stimulates heavy early season gum flow. The
cost of tin setting was about $6.50 per thousand faces in 1932.
Day laborers were paid about 60 cents to $1.00. Ten dollars per
thousand is more nearly right as an average figure to use for
tin setting.
CUPS

A satisfactory cup should not discolor the gum. It should
not be easily broken by freezing or rough handling. It should
be inexpensive. It should be light in weight. Finally, it should
not heat up so as to increase evaporation of volatile material from
the crude gum. Clay, aluminum, and zinc cups do not discolor
gum. Galvanized iron and zinc cups withstand rough handling
and these and aluminum cups are not easily damaged by freez-
ing. Clay and galvanized iron cups have the lowest initial costs
but zinc and aluminum cups have a junking value. Clay cups do






































Fig. 5. Tools used in cupping trees.
1. Broad ax; 2. Pringle ax; 3. Maul; 4. Hogal; 5. Hack; 6. Puller; 7. Push down scraper;
8. Pull down scraper; 9. Gutter puller; 10. Dip-paddle.
1. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- Bra x .Pigea;3 al .Hgl .Hc;6 ulr .Ps onsrpr;










FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


not heat up as rapidly as metal cups but are very heavy and hard
to handle. Aluminum cups are very light in weight. The differ-
ence in rosin grades that may be made from gum collected in
clean or in rusty cups is usually great enough to warrant dis-
carding old rusty equipment and replacing with either new gal-
vanized iron cups or cups made of clay, zinc, or aluminum. Many
other cup materials are being tested; such as, glass, wood, paper,
and veneer, but thus far, none has proved practical.

Herty clay cups cost from $200 to $250 per crop; oblong
galvanized cups cost from $300 to $400 per crop; oblong aluminum,
and zinc about $500 per crop.

CHIPPING THE TREES

The first "streak" should be put on the trees at the time the
cups are hung. Streaks are cut with hacks, which come in several
sizes, the most widely used being number 1's and number O's.
The hacks are mounted on 15-to-24-inch wooden stocks or handles
with weights of about 5 pounds on the end. Considerable skill
is needed to use a hack properly; but a fair chipper can chip from
1500 to 1800 faces per day, or from 7000 to 9000 faces per week.
Once a week, from about the first of March until November, a
new streak is placed on every tree just above the one last made.

The best practice calls for a streak cut from one-fourth to
.one-third of an inch high and one-half inch deep in slash piin
and from one-third to four-tenths of an inch high and three-
fourths of an inch deep in longleaf pine. The depth must be modi-
fied to suit the timber if the maximum yield consistent with
keeping the trees vigorous is to be obtained. Large crowned,
open-grown longleaf may be chipped three-fourths of an inch
deep; but crowded, small-crowned trees should have a shallower
streak. Many operators also have a streak put on every 3 or 4
weeks during the winter in order to clear out the gum-soaked
wood and give employment to their labor during the slack season.
Chippers were paid from 40 to 60 cents for chipping a thousand
faces in 1932. Average wages in the past were probably from
$1.00 to $1.50 per thousand.





FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9 17
















p6
II
, o I: l

i.. .J..4- '.


Fig. 6. Deep chipping causes dry face. The wood above deep streaking
becomes unproductive and yields little or no gum. Tree are often
killed by too heavy working.







18 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


,W^I


i -
LAO*.~^|R


^ i -tf 3


Fig. 7. Longleaf gum hardens forming scrape. Streaks on this tree
are regular and even, 3-8 of an inch each in height.







FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 19


1114 ,
'A
a,. f


r*


Fig. 8. Gathering Scrape. The scrape box is leaned up against the
tree to catch flakes of scrape. A dull iron which does not remove
the wood is preferable.










FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


Smooth, even chipping at regular intervals, done with a sharp
tool by a chipper who knows his job, is a very important factor
in getting good gum production.

DIPPING AND COLLECTING THE GUM

Cups fill up on from 3 to 5 streaks, the number depending
on the season, the height of the face above the cup, and the size
and nature of the tree. When most of the cups are full they are
"dipped." Frequent dipping keeps down the loss from evapora-
tion and helps to prevent discoloration of the gum. The dipper
empties the gum from each cup into a wooden or galvanized metal
dip bucket the size of a nail keg, which he carries from tree to
tree. This bucket holds, from 35 to 50 pounds of "dip," as the
crude gum is called when gathered from the cups. The gum is
next put into 50-gallon barrels stationed at convenient places in
the crop. These are later collected and hauled to the still.
From 6 to 12 dippings are made during a turpentine season. Ex-
perienced dippers can dip from 2 to 4 barrels a day. They were
paid from 40 to 60 cents per barrel for this work in 1932; but,
at average wages in the past, they received about $1.00 per barrel.
It takes from 275 to 300 cups of gum to fill a barrel.
During the course of the season some of the gum hardens on
the face, forming what is known as "scrape." This constitutes
from 5 to 10 per cent of the total yield of slash pine trees and
from 20 to 30 per cent of longleaf yields. At the end of the sea-
son scrape is gathered and packed down in loose stave rosin bar-
rels to be carried to the still. Scraping has cost about $1.25 per
300-pound barrel on the average, but for 1932 the cost was only
from 50 to 75 cents per barrel.
RAISING THE CUPS
Every year or two, tins are pulled and raised close to the
top of the face. It is good practice to discard rusty tins and use
new ones. The tins are raised in order to shorten the distance
from streak to cup and thus avoid gum wastage, evaporation, and
lowering of grades due to excessive scrape formation and the
consequent oxidation. Raised tins are seated by means of cuts
in the face made with broadaxes or gutter chisels.









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9.


& )L


Fig. 9. Pulling high faces. Even though cup has been raised, evap-
oration of turpentine and lowered rosin grades result from gum
running down the long face. A Birdeve metal cup is in use.




















O




-4





o











Fig. 10 Chipping at the left; canvas cover keeps bark and chips out of the dip. At right, collecting
gum to be hauled to the still.









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9.


An alternate method is to make a shallow streak with a
hack near the top of the old face, and nail the tins under the
shelf formed by the cut. The most satisfactory tack found so
far is a No. 18 cadmium-plated heavy hide tack with a count of
190 per pound. The cups are raised so as to fit closely under the
tins.

The frequency with which tins are raised depends upon prices
of the higher rosin grades. It is more important to raise tins
when prices are high than when they are low, and when there is
a marked difference in the value of grades. Longleaf pines,
which build up scrape rapidly, will repay the cost of raising better
than slash pines, which build scrape slowly.

BOILING AND CLEANING CUPS

In order to remove dirt and caked gum from the cups they
are "bunched" at intervals and boiled and cleaned out. The cost
of collecting the cups, cleaning, and rehanging in the woods limits
the frequency of cleaning, which is done to make high grade rosin.
Some operators clean their cups only when rehanging on virgin
faces.

SUPERVISION-THE WOODS RIDER

All of the woods work, including chipping and dipping, is
supervised by a "woods rider" whose duty it is to see that the
various jobs are done carefully and thoroughly. He sees that
dip barrels and scrape barrels are distributed when needed, keeps
account of piece work, and directs such jobs as facing, raking,
et cetera. He lays out the boundary limits of the various working
units, which are called drifts, and acts as field manager. In small
operations, the still owner does the woods riding himself.

FIRE PROTECTION

Each winter when the gathering of scrape is finished and
most of the straw or leaf fall is over, some form of fire protec-
tion must be used to prevent the burning of the highly inflam-
mable turpentine faces with an accompanying loss of cups and tins.











24 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


Fig 11. Before and after burning. Burning has damaged cup and
tins and scorched the face. Scorching leaves the tree open to damage
by the turpentine borer and may result in a blow down two or three
years later.








FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9.


The old method of raking and burning is still common prac-
tice. The grass, straw, chips, and brush are hoed away from
turpentined trees for a distance of 2 or 21/2 feet. The cost of this
work depends on the ground cover, averaging around $3.00 per
thousand trees (in 1932), but it is higher where there is heavy
grass and underbrush. As soon as the trees are raked the whole
tract is burned, generally at a time when the ground is damp
and at a time when the operator counts on the fire's doing the
least damage to tuprentined trees.

Even with great care in the use of fire, some faces are burned
and cups and tins are destroyed. From 5 to 20 per cent of
the faces may be burned even after raking. Young growth
needed for restocking the "blank spaces" and for future working
is destroyed or damaged by the fire. The blackening and char-
ring of the bark above freshly hung cups and the scorching of
even high pulling faces lower the grades of rosin, with a conse-
quent reduction in the sale price. Fires are often allowed to es-
cape and burn uncontrolled over adjacent land notwithstanding
a State law which prohibits this and provides for a fine, or im-
prisonment, as well as liability for damages through civil court
action.

Over 35 turpentine operators in Florida are cooperating with
the State Forester in protecting 227,650 acres of turpentine woods
from fire. Fire lines are plowed, guards and organized crews are
equipped for fire fighting, and lookout towers are erected. Tele-
phone lines connect the "eyes of the service" with the fire-
fighting crews for speedy suppression of fires. This procedure
eliminate raking costs. Operators report increased gum yields
of from 10 to 20 per cent from timber which has been protected
from 2 to 4 years.








26 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


nigtI


FIG. 12. THE FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE PLOW CON
STRUCTING AN EIGHT-FOOT FIRE LINE IN ONE TRIP.
Lines of this width stop many slow-burning fires and are
used as a base from which to backfire to stop heavy fires.
During the years 1931 and 1932, the Forest Service constructed
5,230 miles, and private owners 2,848 miles of fire lines on fire
control units similar to that illustrated above.


The cost of breaking up a section of land into 10, 40, and
160-acre blocks by 8-foot fire breaks, with Florida Forest Service
equipment, amounts to $40.00, $20.00, and $10.00, respectively.
Since the State and Federal Governments share half the costs
when signed up for protection, the landowner and operator are
required to pay only $20.00, $10.00, and $5.00 per section, de-
pending upon the size of the blocks.

Raking and burning at $30.00 per section (10,000 faces on
640 acres or about 15 faces per acre) costs the owner and oper-
ator much more than fire lines and fire control. Lowered pro-
duction, poorer rosin grades, and the killing of young growth
represent a further financial loss.

The increasing number of operators cooperating with the
Florida Forest Service in fire control indicates that the value of
organized protection is becoming recognized.










FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE ,BULLETIN NO. 9. 27


INTENSIVE FIRE LINE SYSTEM IN TURPENTINE WOODS

One Section


LEGEND


SQUARE REPRESENTS 10 ACRES IN AREA
DOUBLE FURROW PLOWED FIRE LINE 7
TO 8 FEET WIDE.
OLD PHOSPHATE MINE PIT.
GOOD WOODS ROAD.
DIM WOODS ROAD.
OLD TRAM ROAD.


Drawn by


fig. 13.








28 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES

DISTILLATION

The Still

The still is a copper kettle surrounded by brick construction
over a fire box. The top is covered by a removable cap, or lid,
which is taken off while the still is being charged and is replaced
when the cooking commences. The connecting copper pipe, or
"arm," from the cap leads to a long spiril copper worm in a water
tank, or tub. The worm tail-pipe empties into a separator barrel
which collects the condensed "spirits of turpentine" and water.

Within the last four years over 48 stills have been erected
according to the approved plan of the Bureau of Chemistry and
Soils, United States Department of Agriculture. Still settings of
this type effect a great saving in wood, afford the best possible
insurance against fire, hold up twice as long as the average set-
ting and greatly reduce scorching on the sides of the kettle, thus
raising the rosin about two grades above those made with old
style settings.

In place of rule-of-thumb methods and inadequate materials
used in old style settings, the "Government Style Setting," as it
is known to the industry, is scientifically constructed of durable
materials. Adequate draft and proper distribution of heat around
the sides of the kettle result in a saving of wood used for distill-
ation. Fire brick, asbestos mortar, and asbestos sheeting, and
the special outside chimney and wing wall materially reduce the
insurance premium and nearly double the life of the still setting.







FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 29


0


-'------ r ~ -N


Fig 14. Approximately 48 turpentine stills built on ap-
proved government specifications are in use in Florida.
In addition to doubling the life of the still setting, making
better grades of rosin, and lowering the insurance costs,
these settings effect a great saving in wood used for
stilling.

Stilling

From eight to ten 50-gallon barrels of dip or from 10 to 14
barrels of scrape are emptied into the copper kettle along with
water. A fire is built under the still and the charge is heated.
As soon as the hardened gum has melted, it is good practice to.
skim off chips and trash before cooking.







30 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES

If the gum has not reached a high temperature no material
loss of turpentine will occur because distillation starts at about
212 degrees Fahrenheit.

Turpentine vapor and steam are conducted through the cap
and arm to the condensing coil and run out into the separator
barrel. The water, being heavier than the spirits, goes to the
bottom of the barrel and is drawn off. The spirits stay on top
and are run over into a second barrel; from this they are dipped
into glued oak barrels or run into storage tanks. By covering
the separator barrel and spirit tub, from 2 to 5 gallons of turpen-
tine per charge is saved, the amount depending on the tempera-
ture of the spirits. The covers prevent evaporation of spirits into
the air.

Usually the distillate consists of 50 per cent spirits and 50
per cent water at the beginning. As the original water in the
gum gets low-as first shown by a proportion of 55 per cent
spirits and 45 per cent water in a glass or 10-ounce wide-mouthed
graduated bottle-more water is constantly added to the charge
to replace that boiled over and to keep down the temperature
in the kettle. After about two hours of distilling, when the
spirits are only 10 per cent and the water is 90 per cent of the
distillate, the charge is nearly cooked. A little more spirits are
.allowed to come over if no discoloration appears. When only 5
per cent of the distillate is spirits, the water is turned off and
the water that remains in the rosin is allowed to cook out.

Turning Out

When the temperature reaches the turning-out point, the
still is uncapped. As soon as the majority of the foam is off and
the charge "goes nearly flat," the tail gate is opened and the hot
rosin is drawn off through the strainers into the rosin vat. The
stiller controls the water and fire to obtain the proper tempera-
ture for "turning out." The temperature range for "turning out"
the charge is between 290 and 315 degrees Fahrenheit. After
turning out, it is good practice to cool down the kettle and, before
adding more gum, wash the dirt and chips off the crown of the









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 31


rIle
F~



IAE ~


Fig. 15. Cap and outlet pipe leading to worm in cooling tub. This
conveys the turpentine and water vapor from the kettle
where the gum is cooked to the condensing worm.


s-



a
r i
i
I*ic:'










FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


Fig. 16. Hinged covers above separator barrel (right)
and spirit barrel (left) are open to show tail-pipe
and position of cover when turpentine is dipped.
These simple covers save from 2 to 5 gallons of tur-
pentine per charge, and also lower the insurance rate.
The automatic drain pipe, shown in the foreground,
maintains the low-wine level at 112 inches below the
level of the turpentine pipe shown at the top.








FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 33

still with six or more 10-quart buckets of water. This will pre-
vent burning or charring, and consequent lowering of rosin grade
of the next charge. This cooling water remains in the still.

Handling Rosin

In preparing the rosin, three strainers are used: the top
strainer of coarse mesh to catch chips, bark, leaves, and large
trash: the second or middle strainer, of fine mesh to catch smaller
particles of bark, dirt, and small trash; the lower strainer, with
a coarse mesh, lined with cotton batting, to filter out most of
the remaining particles. From the vat, after the strainers are
lifted off, the rosin is ladled or is run by gravity into rosin barrels
in which it is allowed to cool for from 48 to 72 hours. The barrels
are then rolled to the storage yard for inspection, heading, and
shipment. Rosin barrels hold 420 pounds of rosin on the average.
The barrel itself weighs from 80 to 100 pounds, the staves and
heading being manufactured from green pine blocks. In a cooper
shed near the still the staves and heading materials are made
up into barrels as needed. A few operators are shipping rosin
in galvanized iron barrels, but this is not yet common practice.
The buyers of rosin in metal barrels are favored by reduced
freight charges.
Costs

At the present time coopers and deck hands at the still re-
ceive from 60 cents to $1.00 per day. Stillers are usually paid
by the charge. The cost of stilling in 1932 averaged about $5.50
per unit, a unit consisting of one barrel of turpentine and 1,400
pounds (3 1-3 barrels) of rosin. This cost includes barrels, labor,
and materials. In 1929, the stilling costs were about $9.00 per
unit.

STORAGE AND GRADING

The turpentine is usually stored in 50-gallon oak casks which
are glued on the inside to make them tight. Metal barrels are
occasionally used for shipping turpentine, especially for inland
trade. Large operators usually store in metal tanks of from
11,000 to 14,000 gallons capacity and ship in tank cars.











34 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES










k





c<,-
-
9


Pr


(! .-" .


Fig. 17. Cooper shop in which rosin barrels are made up as needed.







FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 35


Before being shipped from Florida, every barrel of rosin
must be graded by a State inpsector. The recognized grades of
rosin and the proportion of the total crop in each grade are given
in Table 1. The grades are based on color, starting with the
palest grades at the top.
TABLE 11
Rosin Prices2 and Proportion of Total
Receipts by Grades.
Percentage of
Total receipts
Closing Quotations, Savannah, 1930 at Savannah and
Grade April 1 August 2 Dec. 6 at Jacksonville3
X $8.00 $6.25 $7.151
WW 7.80 5.20-.25 6.45j 4.3
WG 7.75 4.85-.90 5.00-.10 4.5
N 7.35 4.30-.35 4.50 7.7
M 7.35 4.30 4.35 11.8
K 7.35 4.25-.30 4.25 15.6
I 7.35 4.25-.30 4.25 17.8
H 7.35 4.25-.30 4.25 17.0
G 7.25 4.25-.30 4.20 9.4
F 7.05 4.25-.30 4.20 5.5
E 6.75 4.20-.25 4.00 3.4
D 6.30 4.20 3.951
B 6.00 4.20 3.65 3.0
1. Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1931-32.
2. Rosin is packed and shipped in "round" barrels of 500 pounds gross
or 420 pounds net weight, but quotations are always given in barrels
of 280 pounds.
3. Average for the years 1928-1930 inclusive.

In 1931-32, the difference in the price of rosin grades suc-
cessively from B grade to K ranged from 21/2 to 15 cents per bar-
rel. Above that grade the increase in price was much greater.
From K to M the jump was 35 cents; from M to N the increase
was 80 cents; between N and WG, 971/2 cents; and between WG
and WW, 371/2 cents. These differences held also for the year
1930-31, but vary greatly from year to year.







36 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


First class operators using clay, aluminum, or new galvanized
cups, doing careful work, excluding all avoidable trash from the
gum, dipping frequently, raising cups at least every other year
and stilling carefully, may get 90 per cent or more of their rosin
in the pale grades. Poor work, on the contrary, will often result
in 95 per cent of medium and low grades. On a 10-crop place,
35 barrels of spirits to the crop, the rosin yield would be about
1,150 "round" barrels (420 lbs. net weight). The difference in
returns per "round" barrel between pale grades and medium
grades might very well be about $2.00, making the aggregate
difference in returns amount to more than $2,000 annually. This
is the reward for good woods and stilling practices.

MARKETING

Marketing generally is done through a "factorage house," or
firm which provides the operator with the needed financial sup-
port and sells his product on a commission basis. For this selling
service a charge of 21/2 per cent of the net returns is made. The
cost of insurance, storage, et cetera, is also charged. Some oper-
ators sell direct to the wholesaler.

YIELD

The yields to be expected vary greatly with such factors as
soil type, weather, quality of timber, size of trees, height of faces,
and working practice. In general, we may say that the highest
gum yields may be expected under the following conditions5.

1. From flatwoods land free from hardpan. Though not a
great deal is known of the yields to be expected from different
soils, we do have some knowledge of this subject, and authentic
instances are known in which sand hill pine has produced much
less gum than has been obtained from flatwoods timber. Hard-
pan land, which frequently results in slow timber growth and
short trees, usually makes poor turpentine timber.

2. From timber in the south central part of the turpentine
pine belt. Timber in North Carolina, South Carolina, and southern

5 U S. Department Agriculture Bulletin No. 298.








FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 37


I ;


low


Fig. 18. Boiling and cleaning cups. Usually every year or two during
the winter, cups are taken off the trees and boiled
to remove dirt and hardened gum.


& -A








38 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES

Florida yields less than timber in the region between these locali-
ties.

3. With warm, dry weather, provided adequate soil moisture
is available. Experiments conducted at the Southern Forest Ex-
periment Station have shown a very close relationship between
temperature and gum yield.

4. From trees with long, wide, and full crowns.

5. From large timber. The amount of gum derived from a
tree varies directly with the size of the tree; and any tree under
9 inches in diameter, 4 feet 6 inches above the ground, is of
doubtful value as a money maker except when naval stores prices
are high.

6. From unscorched trees on unburned land. Sever scorch-
ing, resulting in heavy defoliation, is apt to deplete yields seri-
ously for a year following the fire. Trees growing on consistently
burned land probably yield less than trees on unburned soil6.

7. From chipping one-fourth to one-half inch high. The nar-
rower the chipping, the greater the number of working years
and, therefore, the greater the ultimate yield from the tree.

8. From moderately deep chipping, one-half to three-fourths
of an inch, depending on tree vitality. Slash pine should not be
chipped deeper than one-half inch but fast growing longleaf will
do best with deeper work. Deep chipping increases dry-face and
in a few years may greatly reduce the yield and the number of
cups per crop.

9. From moderately narrow faces and well-maintained life-
bars. Faces measuring in width about one-third of the bark
circumference are conservative.

10. From working one face per tree at a time. If 2 faces are
placed on a tree and worked at the same time, the yield from the

6. Alabama Forest News, Vol. 6, Sept., 1932.








FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 39


1A A".


Fig. 19. Yield of turpentine per crop for different sizes of trees. Note
that a crop of 71/2 inch trees yields only half as much turentine and
rosin as a crop of 12 inch trees.

2 faces is not over 70 per cent of the yield which could have been
obtained from those 2 faces worked one at a time.
11. From the practice of nailing rather than driving tins.
Driving tins results in insect attack, dry-face, and windthrow or
blowdown, all conducive to reduced yields.

12. From cutting 3 or 4 winter streaks at intervals of from
3 to 4 weeks.

13. From even, regular streaks cut with a sharp tool. Missed
streaks result in lowered yields.

In Florida the average yield per crop is 31 barrels of turpen-
tine. For the whole South 35 barrels is an average the figure
being brought up by the yield from large timber now almost a
thing of the past in the western territory. For every barrel of
turpentine there are manufactured, approximately, 3 1-3 round
barrels (420 lbs. net, each) of rosin, the combination of 1 barrel of









E i


Fig. 20. Repeated fires prevent restocking and so metimes burn down large trees as shown above.
In this case the roots were burned out.


*J.






FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9.


- 4i


, -


Fig. 21. Chipping a two-faced tree. Double cupping is not good
practice except where early cutting is planned as two faces worked
at once only yield 70 per cent as much gum as two faces worked
at a time. Note well-maintained life bar.




42 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


1'


-.


Fig. 22. Working small trees is unprofitable except in seasons of
high prices; and the majority of such trees will be worthless when
the first cupping is completed. Holding off working until at least
9 inches in diameter (at 4 feet 6 inches above ground) assures two
or more faces per tree and much higher yields.









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9.


turpentine and 3 1-3 barrels of rosin being called a unit. The South-
ern Forest Experiment Station at Starke is operating some slash
pine timber 40 years old, averaging 250 cups to the acre. The
trees have yielded 43.6 units per crop each year for 5 years of
working, which is the equivalent of 1.09 units per acre per year
or 5.45 units in 5 years. This is far above the average but is cited
as an example of what can be obtained.

The yield per tree for a season varies with diameter and the
various factors mentioned on Pages 36 to 39. Yields from slash and
longleaf pine trees, worked one face per tree, at a number of
points in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida, were combined to form
the basis of the following table:


TABLE II.

Turpentine Yields per Crop under Poor,
Medium, and Good Conditions.

Diameter of tree Slash Longleaf
4% feet Yield for 32-Streak Season.
above ground Poor Medium Good Poor Medium Good
Site Site Site Site Site Site
Inches bbls. bbls. bbls. bbls. bbls. bbls
6 16 19 24 18 21 24
7 22 26 32 22 26 31
8 27 33 39 27 32 37
9 33 40 47 32 38 44
10 39 46 54 37 43 51
11 46 53 62 42 49 58
12 52 61 69 47 56 65

The figures in Table II represent something approaching the
range of yields for timber of the sizes given, being a composite of
a large number of yield records from many points. A crowded
stand of slow-growing timber on a poor site will fall in the poor
class, whereas very vigorous, heavy-topped trees will fall in the
good class. Heavily overcupped crops will not give these averages
nor will heavy back-cupping operations.










FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


FINANCIAL RETURNS

The financial returns from turpentining work fluctuate very
widely and th's is the most discouraging feature cf the industry.
The best figures on returns are those computed by J. A. G. Carson
of Savannah, based on daily sales of large quantities of naval
stores on the open market. The figures in Table III represent the
value of the naval stores products at the still ready for shipment.
Manufacturing and timber operating costs, leases, depreciation,
taxes, et cetera, must be deducted, of course, in determining
profits.

TABLE III1

Value of Naval Stores Producls at Still
Ready for Shipment, 1922 to 1933.


Avg. selling
p'-ice net bbl.
spirits turp.
(59 gallons)

$17.43
18.33
22.45
23.37
24.51
39.32
45.33
44.57
39.37
47.93


Avg. selling
price. net bb.
rosin (500 Ib3.
gross, 420 lbs.
not).

$ 5.19
7.69
11.98
12.95
13.29
19.97
17.75
15.82
7.35
7.47


Avg. selling
price net per
un:t of one bbl.
spirits turp.
and 3 1-3 bbls.
rosin2
$ 34.73
43.96
62.38
66.54
68.81
105.89
104.50
97.30
65.54
72.83


1. Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1931-32.
2. The ten-year average net cash return per unit is $72.25.
3. 1931-32 figures from Naval Stores Review 42 (2): 9, April 9, 1932.


Season


1931-323
1930-31
1929-30
1928-29
1927-28
1926-27
1925-26
1924-25
1923-24
1922-23







FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 45


TABLE IV

,SUMMARY OF PRODUCING COST PER CROP IN 1929 ON AN AVER-
AGE 10-CROP OPERATION IN WASHINGTON COUNTY FOR 30, 35,
AND 40-UNIT YIELDS, WITH SALE VALUES AND PROFITS.


Costs-Independent of Yield-
Hanging cups and tins @ $9.75 per M=$ 97.50
Raising cups and tins @ $7.10 per M= 71.00

$168.50
Prorated over 4 years
Supervision-Salaries, car and horse main-
tenance ----....
Depreciation-All property
Maintenance-Buildings, still, tools, etc --__.
Fire protection, raking plus a small amount
of fire line construction
Taxes and Insurance
Chipping @ $1.125 per M, 10M-32 streaks
Interest 8 per cent on average investment1..--
Costs-Dependent on Yield-
Dipping gum @ $.90 per bbl.-4 bbls. per unit
Scraping @ $1.00 per bbl.-1.33 bbl. per unit
Hauling @ $.50 per bbl.-5.33 bbls. per unit
Still operation $8.27 per unit (includes labor,
barrels, material)

Total Producing Cost at Still2
Selling Cost @ $7.00 per Unit

Total Cost (Exclusive of Timber lease) at Port
Gross Sale Value 1929 at Port-$67.82 per UnitS

Realization Value for Timber and Profit...----
Actual Lease Payment for Timber (with int.)4

Average Profit

Total Cost of Production at Still (Excl.
Lease)
Selling Cost
Actual Average Lease Paid (Plus Interest)

Total Cost at Port
Sale Value at Port


Costs per Crop
30 Units 35 Units 40 Units






$ 42.12 $ 42.12 $ 42.12


216.16
169.70
31.00

41.63
6.68
360.00
67.26

108.00
39.90
79.95

248.10

$1,410.50
210.00

$1,620.50
2,034.60

$ 414.10
243.00


216.16
169.70
31.00

41.63
6.68
360.00
67.26

126.00
46.55
93.10

'89.45

$1,489.65
245.00

$1,734.65
2,373.70

$ 639.05
324.00


216.16
169.70
31.00

41.63
6.68
360.00
67.26

144.00
53.20
106.60

330.80

$1,569.15
280.00

$1,849.15
2,712.80

$ 863.65
405.00


$ 171.10 $ 315.05 $ 458.65
COSTS PER UNIT


$ 47.02 $ 42.56
7.00 7.00
8.10 9.25

$ 62.12 $ 58.81
67.82 67.82


$ 39.23
7.00
10.13

$ 56.36
67.82


Average Profit per Unit $ 5.70 $ 9.01 $ 11.46
1. Timber leases interest excluded.
2. Lease and lease interest excluded.
3. Average gross returns for Naval Stores handled by Carson Naval Stores
Co.. Savannah, Ga.
4. Average for county. These payments when made in advance are for 30,
35, and 40-unit production, respectively.










46 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


To finance a 10-crop place an operator needs, roughly, $25,000.
Of this amount he must usually count on furnishing half, the rest
to be obtained from his factorage house. The factor takes the
place of the banker in the turpentine industry. He may protect
his own interests at times by taking a part in the handling of an
operation which is suffering from poor management. The factor
is more than a financial agent, however. Not only does he furnish
money for starting the work in turpentining, paying for leases,
and so forth, but also he is a wholesale dealer in naval stores sup-
plies, tools, groceries, dry goods, and other articles needed in a
commissary for the help in the woods and around the still. Be-
sides these functions, he acts as commission merchant, handling
the sale of all turpentine and rosin made on the operation, and he
frequently acts as a financial or business adviser to the turpentine
man.

USES

Turpentine is used primarily for paint and varnish thinners,7
more than 80 per cent of the total output going into these prod-
ucts. Eleven per cent is used for shoe polish and leather dressing;
4 per cent goes into automobile and wagon industries; and 3 per
cent is used in making oils and greases. Smaller proportions are
used in pharmaceutical and chemical supplies, sealing wax, and
insulators.

Thirty-one per cent of the rosin produced is used in paper
and paper-size manufacturing; 28 per cent is used by the soap
industry; 23 per cent in paint and varnish making; 7 per cent
in manufacturing rosin oil, greases, and printing ink; 4 per cent
in sealing wax and insulation; and nearly the same amount for
making linoleum, oil cloth, and roofing. Other purposes for which
rosin is used are the making of steel and iron, chemicals, and
matches.
OUTPUT

Most of the rosin and turpentine produced in Florida goes to
the storage yards in Jacksonville and Pensacola. For several

7. Gamble's Naval Stores Yearbook for 1928-29.





FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9. 47


A
1
1 l Q


Fig. 23. Face chipped with French tools. This method of working is not
in commercial use in Florida.









48 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


years Jacksonville was the largest receiving point for naval stores
in the country, but Savannah, Georgia, has lately taken the lead.
From April 1, 1931, to March 31, 1932, Jacksonville received 134,-
658 barrels of turpentine and 467,533 round barrels of rosin. Pensa-
cola handled 38,593 barrels of turpentine and 128,238 barrels of
rosin.8

OUTLOOK FOR THE INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA

Florida, with its millions of acres of young timber, offers
great possibilities for the development of the naval stores industry.
By careful working of turpentined trees in accordance with im-
proved practices that have been developed through research,
damage to timber from naval stores operations may be reduced
to a very low figure and high yields obtained over a considerable
period of years. Timber losses attributable to turpentining in sec-
ond growth stands have been kept close to one-half of one per
cent per year for 5 or more years of operation.

The prospects are good for an increase in the naval stores
industry of the State; but this increase can be attained only by
combining good turpentining practices with fire protection, thin-
ning, and other forest management methods.

ADVICE AND ASSISTANCE

Those who wish help or advice in conducting their operations
may call on three government agencies for assistance.

Fire Protection and Reforestation

Fire protection, reforestation, and general timberland man-
agement assistance can be obtained from the State Forester's
office in Tallahassee or from the District offices in Panama City,
Gainesville, Green Cove Springs, and Plant City.

8. Naval Stores Review. 42(2):18 Apr. 9, 1932.








FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9


Woods Practices

Details of woods work, hanging cups, chipping, et cetera, can
be obtained from the Lake City office of the Southern Forest
Experiment Station. Any unusual.woods problem may be taken
up with the trained foresters at that station.

Equipment and Still Practices

Information on cup, gutter, and apron materials, design of
turpentine stills, proper stilling methods, gluing barrels, and other
points of manufacture is available at the Lake City office of the
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
or at the new Naval Stores Station near Olustee.

Cooperative Agent

By a joint agreement between the Bureau of Chemistry and
Soils and the Florida Forest Service, a naval stores technologist
with offices at Lake City was appointed in August, 1932, to carry
to the operators and timber owners in Florida improved naval
stores practice in the woods and at the still. For the first year
activities are confined to eleven eastern counties, but visits to
other sections are made on request.









50 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


NAVAL STORES LEASE

THIS NAVAL STORES LEASE, made and entered into this the
day of ,A. D., 19 ...----,
between
of County hereinafter
called the Owner, and
of County hereinafter
called the Producer.
WITNESSETH, That the Owner, for and in consideration of the rents
and royalties hereinafter mentioned, does hereby grant, bargain, lease, let
and convey unto the Producer the exclusive right to work, for naval stores
and turpentine purposes, by the cup system only, in accordance with the
restrictions and provisions hereinafter enumerated, the longleaf and slash
pine timber, hereinafter described, now standing and growing upon the lands
of the Owner, in Count Florida, and
more particularly described as follows, to-wit:






Excepting, however, from this lease, all trees upon the above described
lands, as have been reserved and designated by the Owner, and all trees as
are unfit for turpentining, because of defects, abnormality or inaccessibility.
That the Owner hereby fully warrants the title to said timber and will
defend the same against the claims of all persons whomsoever.
That the Owner warrants that there are no mortgages, liens, tax liens
or other encumberances upon the above described lands, except as follows,
to-wit:






That for and in consideration of the rights and privileges herein granted,
the Producer agrees to pay unto the Owner the following sums at the times
and in the manner following, to-wit:
(Cross out the two methods of payment not used)









FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9 51


FORM I.

The sum of ------------- cents per face for the full term of
this lease, the amount to be determined by actual count when
cups are installed. Said payment to be made in the following
manner, to-wit:
$' on or before the ---- day of ,19 .
$ on or before the 1st day of June, 19---.--
$ on or before the 1st day of June, 19------

FORM II.

The following sums per face, payable on or before the
day of each year during
the term of this lease, the number of faces to be determined by
actual count when the cups are installed, to-wit:
cents per face for the first year.
cents per face for the second year.
cents per face for the third year.
cents per face for the fourth year,
and each year thereafter.
The above enumerated sums per face to be effective during
said years, provided the average unit price of turpentine and
rosin does not exceed dollars per unit, but
should the unit price of turpentine and rosin exceed the afore-
said average unit price during any or all of said years then
and in that event, the Producer shall pay to the Owner an
additional cents per face for each
dollars advance in price over and above the aforesaid average
unit price, such additional sum to be payable on the --.....- day
of the following year. It is hereby agreed
that a unit of turpentine and rosin consists of fifty gallons of
spirits of turpentine and three and one-third round barrels of
rosin of approximately five hundred pounds gross weight each.
It is further agreed that the price per unit shall be determined
by taking the average daily strong and firm Savannah markets
of all grades of rosin and turpentine for the twelve-month period
ending on the ---------- day of of each year.

FORM III.
That the Producer, at the time of sale, shall pay to the
Owner per centum of the net returns received
from the sale of all products. Said net returns to be determin-
ed by deducting all freight, loading, handling, grading, inspec-
tion, storage and commission charges from the gross returns









52 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


for the sale of the products. Should the average net returns
per unit per year exceed dollars per unit, here-
inafter called the basic price, then an additional
per centum of the net returns shall be paid unto the Owner for
each dollars advance in price per unit over and
above the basic price, said additional amount to be due and pay-
able on the ....- ----- day of the following
year after sale.
That the unit price per year shall be determined by tak-
ing the average net returns from all turpentine and rosin sold
hereunder during that year, expressed in terms of unit value,
that is, a unit of turpentine and rosin to consist of fifty gal-
lons of turpentine and three and one-third round barrels of rosin
of approximately five hundred pounds gross weight each.

All products shall be sold and/or contracted for to the best
advantage of the Owner and the Producer, but should they fail
to agree as to the advisability of selling and/or contracting
such products, either party may at his option, take over his pro-
portionate share of such products.
The Producer shall insure and be held liable to the Owner
for the Owner's interest in all products in the process of distil-
lation or held or stored at the still or in the yard, excepting
such products as have been taken over by the Owner.
All rosin and spirits of turpentine shall be inspected by a
Federal or authorized State Inspector before sale.
The Producer shall make arrangements with his factor or
purchaser to furnish the Owner with a full statement, at the
time of sale, showing in detail the amount of products sold, the
amount received from the sale thereof and the items of ex-
pense deducted from the gross returns.
In order to obtain the best yield and grades and to eliminate
waste the Producer agrees as far as practical to:
Cup and streak all trees on or before the 1st day of Feb-
ruary, A. D. 19 -... ; use rustless or rust-free cups and tins; use
chip paddles which will cover cups and tins; place at least
thirty-two streaks per year on all faces at one week or longer
intervals; dip all gum at least every four streaks; raise cups at
the end of each of the first four working seasons; distill the
crude gum according to the methods of the United States Bureau
of Chemistry and Soils as contained in "Directions for Running
a Turpentine Still," dated April 1, 1927, "How to Charge and
How to Discharge a Turpentine Still," dated March 5, 1924, and










FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9 53


April, 1924, respectively; insure the still from fire; cover the
separator barrel and spirit tub; glue the spirit barrels by meth-
od contained in Bureau of Chemistry and Soils' leaflet "Gluing
Turpentine Barrels," dated July 15,1931, or ship the spirits of
turpentine in tank cars or drums in such a way as to eliminate
waste and discoloration; and strain rosin properly.


That the timber, embraced by this lease, shall be worked in accordance
with the following restrictions and provisions, to-wit:
1. This Naval Stores Lease shall be for the full term of
working seasons, beginning as soon as this agreement is executed and
delivered, and ending at.midnight, on the 31st day of December, A. D. 19-..
2. All cups shall be installed not later than the 31st day of March,
next after the date hereof.
3. All round trees nine inches in diameter and above shall be cupped
with one face, provided however, that with the written consent of the
Owner, trees measuring fifteen inches or more in diameter may be cupped
with two faces. No trees measuring less than nine irichs in diameter may
be worked. All diameter measurements shall be taken four feet six inches
above the ground.
4. One cup shall be installed on all trees previously worked that meas-
ure twelve inches or more in diameter four feet six inches above the
ground, provided that no trees previously worked with more than one face
or that measure less than twelve inches in diameter, as aforesaid, may be
worked.
5. When two faces are placed upon any tree, they shall be located so
that the width of one of the bark bars is not greater than eight inches.
6. Bark bars not less than four inches wide shall be left between
faces.
7. The faces shall be chipped for the first year not to exceed sixteen
inches in height from the shoulder of the first streak to the shoulder of
the last streak of the season. The faces chipped or pulled yearly thereafter
shall not exceed fourteen inches in height for each season.
8. Measured in the deepest place, the depth of the streak shall not
exceed five-eights inch in the wood of slash pine or three-fourths inch in
the wood of longleaf pine.
9. The width of the face shall not exceed one-third of the circumfer-
ence of the tree, and in no case shall the width of the face exceed twelve
inches, measure from shoulder to shoulder.
10. No wood shall be exposed below the gutters or aprons at the, time
the cups are installed, however, it is permissable to chop into burls and










54 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


swellings to properly set the cups. All cups shall be installed as close
to the ground as practicable and the first streak shall be cut as close to the
gutters or aprons as possible
11. Incisions in the wood for installing tins or raising in jump peaks
shall not exceed one-half inch in radial depth. No incision or streak in the
face for the purpose of raising tins shall exceed one-fourth inch in radial
depth. Whenever tins or cups are raised, removed or abandoned, all tins,
tacks and nails above a stump height, of fourteen inches from the ground,
shall forthwith be pulled and removed, but not chopped out, by the Pro-
ducer.
12. Should the Producer cup or fail to cup any tree or trees in violation
of the above sections three and four, he shall pay unto the Owner, as and
for full liquidated damages caused by said violation cents per
face cupped or that should have been cupped, provided, however, he shall
have been notified in writing by the Owner, within sixty days from and
after the date of the said violation or from and after the 31st day of March,
A. D. 19-...--.- whichever is the later date. That upon being notified as
aforesaid the Producer shall forthwith remove all cups installed in viola-
tion of sections three, and four hereof, and his failure to so remove said
cups shall constitute a breach of this contract, and the Owner shall have the
right to remove said cups at the expense, of the Producer.
13. Should the Producer violate any of the restrictions and provisions
herein contained, the Owner shall notify him in writing, within sixty days
after such violation has occurred, and if said violation is not ceased and any
defectve work corrected within twenty days from and after receipt of such
notice, the Producer shall pay the Owner, as and for liquidated damages,
as follows:
(a) For all faces that exceed the heights specified in section seven of
this contract, _.------ of a cent for each inch in excess of the specified
heights.
(b) For trees split or windthrown during the life of this agreement
in violation of the above section eleven, dollars per thousand
feet board measure full scale computed by Doyle rule.
(c) For violation of all restrictions and provisions, other than those
mentioned in sections eleven, twelve, thirteen a, and thirteen b, hereof
cents for each face worked in violation of these restrictions
and provisions.

14. Should the Producer fail or refuse to pay unto the Owner the liqui-
dated damages herein provided for, within ten days from and after the same
becomes due and payable, the Owner shall have a lien upon the equipment
of the Producer used upon the lands above described, therefore, and may at










FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9


his option prohibit further work, under this lease, until such damages are
paid in full.

That it is hereby further agreed by and between the parties hereto,
that:
(a) The Owner reserves unto himself the right to list any or all of
the lands embraced in this lease with the Florida Board of Forestry, for
forest fire control. In case the said lands or any part thereof be so listed,
the Producer hereby consents to such listing and agrees to cooperate with
the Owner and the said Board in said control; to plow, rake and burn such
fire lines as may be designated by the said Board or its agents for proper
fire control; to aid and assist the said Board in preventing and suppressing
forest fires on said lands; to require his servants, agents, employees, and
all other parties under his control to cooperate in said forest fire control,
and to aid and assist in preventing and suppressing fires.
(b) That in case the Owner lists the lands with the Florida Board of
Forestry as aforesaid, and thereafter fails to carry out the terms of said
protection agreement, then the Producer may carry out the terms of said
agreement, in behalf of the Owner, and thereafter deduct the amount of
the cost and expenses of so carrying out said agreement from any and all
sums then due or to become due from himself to the said Owner, under the
terms of this lease, and should there be no sums due or to become due as
aforesaid, then said amount of costs and expenses shall be a lien upon the
lands embraced in said protective agreement.
(c) That the Producer, his heirs and assigns, shall have, the free and
unrestricted right to enter upon, occupy, use and enjoy said lands for the
purpose herein granted during the continuance of this lease. It is further
agreed that the Producer shall have a period of sixty days from and after
the expiration of this lease', within which to remove and take away, or
otherwise dispose of, all cups, gutter irons, and other equipment belonging
to him, provided he has carried out the terms of this agreement.
(d) That the Producer shall be allowed to use dead and down timber
from the aforesaid lands as fuel wood for his still and fire wood for
his hands and laborers but not for removal or sale.
(e) That the Producer shall have such free and unrestricted right of
ingress, egress, and regress, upon the lands of the Owner as may be neces-
sary for the purpose of working the timber, hereinabove described, for
turpentine and naval stores purposes.

(f) That the Owner shall have access, to the lands above described,
for any and all purposes not inconsistent with the terms and provisions of
this lease, provided, however, that such use by the Owner does not interfere
with the operations of the Producer. In the event of any such interference,
the Owner shall be liable to the Producer for all injury and damage to his










56 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


cups, tins, cupped trees and products, caused by the Owner's operations on
said lands.

(g) Should the timber embraced by the terms of this lease be dam-
aged by fire, insects, drought, act of God or vis major so that, in the judg-
ment of either party, further work would be impractical, impossible or in-
jurious to the timber, the parties hereto shall mutually agree as to what
modification or suspension of work is necessary for the proper protection
of the timber and the interests of the parties hereto, provided, however,
that if said parties are unable to effect mutual agreement then such ques-
ion shall be submitted to a committee of three arbitrators, one to be chosen
by the Owner, one by the Producer, and the third by the two so chosen, and
the decision of said board of arbitrators shall be binding and final upon the
parties hereto as to all questions arbitrated.
(h) That the Owner shall pay the taxes upon the lands embraced in
this lease before the same become delinquent and should the Owner allow
the lands to become delinquent then, and in that event, the Producer, in
order to protect himself from having his operations stopped, on account of
the non-payment of taxes, shall have the right to pay such taxes and to de-
duct the amount of such payments from any payments due or to become
due from said Producer to the Owner under the terms of this agreement,
and in case there be no payments due from the Producer to the Owner
aforesaid, the Producer is hereby given a lien upon the lands of the Owner
to the extent of the taxes so paid.
(i) Neither party hereto shall be held liable, if prevented from the
performance of his covenants and obligations hereunder by an Act of God
or major contingencies beyond his or their control.

(j) The terms "Owner" and "Producer" when used herein shall be
taken as extending to and embracing the heirs, personal representatives,
successors and assigns of the parties hereto.
(k) The rights and privileges, under the terms of this lease, accruing
to the parties hereto shall be assignable and transferable and when assigned
or transferred the rights and obligations hereunder shall devolve upon the
assignee or transferee.
If any of the sums, herein referred to as compensation for this lease,
be not promptly and fully paid within .--...- days next after they become,
severally, due and payable, the aggregate sum of unpaid compensation for
this lease shall, at the option of the Owner, become due and payable forth-
with, and if not fully paid within ten days, after notice by the Owner that
he has elected to exercise his aforesaid option, this lease shall become termi-
nated in toto and the Owner shall have the right of reentry.










FOREST FOREST SERVICE, BULLETIN NO. 9 57


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, The parties hereto have hereunto set their
hands and seals the day and year first above written.

(SEAL)
(SEAL)

Signed, Sealed and Delivered
in the presence of:




ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOR PERSONS
OTHER THAN MARRIED WOMEN

STATE OF
COUNTY OF
On this day, before me, a notary public, personally appeared-----
to me well known and known to be one of the
persons who executed the above and foregoing Turpentine Lease, who
acknowledged before me that he executed the same freely and voluntarily
for the uses and purposes therein expressed.

Witness my hand and official seal this the .-------- day of
A. D. 19 _----.--


Notary Public.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOR
HUSBAND AND WIFE

STATE OF
COUNTY OF

On this day, before me, a notary public, personally appeared.---
and
his wife, to me well known and known to be the persons described in and
who executed the above and foregoing Turpentine Lease, who acknowledged
before me that they executed the said instrument freely and voluntarily for
the uses and purposes therein expressed, and,

The said wife of the said
upon an examination taken before me and by me, separate and apart from
her said husband, further acknowledged that she executed the said Turpen-
tine Lease freely and voluntarily and without any compulsion, constraint,
apprehension or fear of or from her husband.











58 FLORIDA NAVAL STORES


Witness my hand and official seal this the ----_... day of
A. D. 19 ---


Notary Public.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
BY CORPORATION

STATE OF
COUNTY OF

-On this day, before me, a notary public, personally appeared..-------.. -
and
to me well known and known to be the persons who executed the above and
foregoing Turpentine Lease as President and Secretary, respectively, of
a corporation, who acknowledged
before me that they are the President and Secretary, respectively, of the
aforesaid corporation; that they executed the said Turpentine Lease, in be-
half of the said corporation, freely and voluntarily for the uses and pur-
poses therein expressed; that they caused the common seal of the said
corporation to be affixed to the said instrument; that the seal affixed to
the said instrument is the common and corporate seal of the said corporation.
Witness my hand and official seal this the ------- day of
A. D. 19..---.


Notary Public.





/-6
/^3^0~













FLORIDA FOREST SERVICE


B3ard of Forestry

S. BRYAN JENNINGS, President, Jacksonville
JOHN B. GLEN, Vice-President, Chipley
STANLEY S. SHEIP, Secretary, Apalachicola.
MRS. LINWOOD JEFFREYS, Jacksonville.
HAROLD S. FOLEY, Foley.

Office of State Forestry
Tallahassee, Florida.

HARRY LEE BAKER, State Forester.
ROSA STANALAND, Secretary.
JANE ALLEN, Chief Clerk.
Fire Control-
J. J. GOULDEN, Assistant State Forester.
Information and Education-
A. D. FOLWEILER, Assistant State Foreter.
Applied Forestry-
R. R. WHITTINGTON, Assistant State Forester.

C. H. COULTER, Naval Stores Technologist,
Lake City, Florida.

District Organization

District 1-N. R. HARDING, District Forester, Panama City.
District 2-FLORDA FOREST SERVICE, Tallahassee.
District 3-L. T. NIELAND, District Forester, Gaineville.
District 4-H. J. MALSBERGER, District Forester, Green Cove Springs.
District 5-C. H. SCHAEFFER, District Forester, Plant City.

Fire Control Units

11 Rangers in charge of 10 groups and 166 three-year demonstration units
23 Observation towers manned part time by cooperators
and the Forest Service.

State Nursery
State Farm, Raiford.
D. J. WEDDELL, Nurseryman.
Forest tree seedlings are sold at cost for reforestation purposes.




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