Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Report of the division directo...
 Technical assistance
 Office of systematic botany
 Bureau of apiary inspection
 Bureau of citrus budwood regis...
 Bureau of entomology
 Bureau of methods development
 Bureau of nematology
 Bureau of pest eradication and...
 Bureau of plant inspection
 Bureau of plant inspection
 Bureau of plant pathology
 Back Cover

Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00014
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1984-1986
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 39th (July 1, 1990-June 30, 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01242950
alephbibnum - 001511744
lccn - sn 86001883
lccn - sn 86001883
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    Report of the division director
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Technical assistance
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Office of systematic botany
        Page 10
    Bureau of apiary inspection
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Bureau of citrus budwood registration
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Bureau of entomology
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Bureau of methods development
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Bureau of nematology
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Bureau of pest eradication and control
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Bureau of plant inspection
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Bureau of plant inspection
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Bureau of plant pathology
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Back Cover
        Page 99
Full Text





JUL 1-

50 0 0 0E




Division of Plant Industry


July 1, 1984-June 30, 1986

Doyle Conner, Commissioner

S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Director
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32602



Plant Industry Technical Council

Roy Vandergrift, Jr., Chairman (Vegetable).................. Canal Point
Joseph Welker, Vice-Chairman (Horticulture)................Jacksonville
Mike Swanson (Turfgrass) .................. ..............St. Petersburg
Bill Shearman (Apiary).......................................... Wimauma
Joann Smith (Citizen-at-Large)................................ Micanopy
John W. Hornbuckle (Citrus)...............................Belleair Beach
Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower).......................... Punta Gorda
Lewis E. Wadsworth, Jr. (Forestry)...............................Bunnell
Richard Mims (Citrus)............................................Waverly
Jim Vosters (Foliage)..............................................Miami
N. P. Brooks (Tropical Fruit)..................................Homestead

Administrative Staff

S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Director ................................Gainesville
R. D. Gaskalla, Assistant Director ..........................Gainesville
R. E. Brown, Chief of Methods Development...................Gainesville
H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology.......................... Gainesville
L. Cutts, Chief of Apiary Inspection........................ Gainesville
C. Riherd, Chief of Plant Inspection ........................Gainesville
R. Griffith, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control..........Winter Haven
C. L. Schoulties, Chief of Plant Pathology...................Gainesville
J. H. O'Bannon, Chief of Nematology..........................Gainesville
C. O. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration...............Winter Haven


REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR................................. 1
Fiscal ......................................... ............ ......................... 4
Library................................. ........................................... 7
Technical Assistance.................................................... 8
Office of Systematic Botany ....................................... 10
BUREAU OF APIARY INSPECTION........................ ......... 11
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY............................................. 21
BUREAU OF METHODS DEVELOPMENT............................ 45
BUREAU OF NEMATOLOGY............................................ 50
BUREAU OF PLANT INSPECTION........................ ......... 77
BUREAU OF PLANT PATHOLOGY................................... 88

ISSN PI88G-02 0071-5948

This public document was promulgated at a cost of $6939.04, or a cost
of $8.67 per copy, to inform the general public, Legislature, and
other interested parties on the programs and investigative efforts of
the Division of Plant Industry.

Gainesville, Florida

Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
The Capital
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0810

Dear Commissioner:

I am pleased to present herewith the 1984-86 Biennial Report
for the Division of Plant Industry.


Dr. S. A. Alfieri, Jf), Dire
Division of Plant In ustry

Division of Plant Industry


S. A. Alfieri, Jr.

Created to safeguard Florida's agricultural interests, the Division
of Plant Industry (DPI) is responsible for detecting, intercepting,
identifying and controlling plant pests which could pose serious threats
to agricultural and horticultural interests within the state. To
fulfill this responsibility, the DPI administers biometric surveys and
other regulatory programs including inspections and certification of
nurseries and stock dealers, special certifications, and control and
eradication programs.
During the 1984-86 biennium, retirement of several key personnel
brought about important changes in the division's leadership.
Dr. John H. O'Bannon was appointed chief of the Nematology Bureau
in July 1984. He came to the DPI from the USDA/ARS in Prosser,
Washington, where he was a research plant pathologist supervisor. He
also worked four years with the USDA on spreading decline of citrus in
Central Florida.
Laurence P. Cutts, a third-generation beekeeper from Chipley,
Florida, become the new chief of the Apiary Bureau in June 1985. He was
a member of the Florida State Beekeepers Association Legislative
Committee, a seven-term president of the Tupelo Beekeepers Association
and held offices in the American Bee Breeders Association, the Southern
Beekeepers Federation and the Florida Honey Packers Association.
In December 1985, Charles Poucher retired as bureau chief of Pest
Eradication and Control, headquartered in Winter Haven. Robert
Griffith, who was administrator for Plant Inspection's Region II, was
appointed as the new bureau chief, as well as director of the Citrus
Canker Project. Mr. Griffith began with the division 31 years ago as a
plant inspector.
Earl Graham retired as chief of the Plant Inspection Bureau in
February 1986. The new bureau chief, Constance C. Riherd, who started
with the division in 1977 as a lab technician, is a magna cum laude
graduate of the University of Florida with a degree in agriculture. In
nine years with the division, she has served as on agricultural products
specialist, an agriculture products supervisor, and administrator for
Plant Inspection's Region I.
Region III administrator R. E. Burns transferred into the Region I
administrator position vacated by Mrs. Riherd. W. P. Henderson,
agricultural products supervisor, became the Region II administrator
when Robert Griffith became Pest Eradication and Control bureau chief.
George Gwin, Interim Regional Administrator for Region III, assumed that
responsibility permanently in June, 1986.
Because of the tremendous growth in the state's population and the
increase in foreign travel, plant pest and disease problems have
increased. As a consequence, emergency programs have developed into a
substantial portion of the division's workload.
The nursery type of citrus canker, Xanthomonos compestris p.v.
citri, was discovered in a large Polk County citrus nursery on August
27, 1984. By the end of 1984, this bacterial disease had been found in
a total of nine nurseries; there were eleven finds in 1985 and no new
finds prior to June 30, 1986.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

On June 27, 1986, the presence of citrus canker type A was
confirmed in samples of citrus material taken from one residential
property in Holmes Beach on Anna Maria Island and one residential
property in St. Petersburg, on Florida's west coast.
Suspicious symptoms of the more aggressive type A were discovered
on several varieties of citrus trees, including naval orange, tangerine,
grapefruit and Key lime, some of which had reached the stages of
premature fruit drop and defoliation. Leaf, stem and fruit lesions were
evident and well-established, mature citrus trees were affected.
DPI personnel immediately began a door-to-door residential survey
in both areas to determine the extent and location of infected trees;
citrus canker A type was suspected, but not yet confirmed, in a 360-
acre producing grove in Manatee County.
Introductions of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitus capitato,
continued to be a problem during this biennium. A single fly was
trapped on February 25, 1985 in North Miami. Following this find, fruit
fly detection activities were intensified in an 81-square-mile area
surrounding the location of the find. On April 9, 1985, two male
Mediterranean fruit flies were trapped approximately two and one-fourth
miles southwest of the first find. The new find generated a second
epicenter from which intensified trapping radiated. As a result of the
second find, an infestation was declared, and control and regulatory
measures were initiated.
Control measures included four aerial treatments with malathion and
protein bait. For the first time in Florida, a sterile Mediterranean
fruit fly release program was initiated, allowing the reduction of
chemical treatments by 50%. Eradication was announced August 27, 1985.
A single, unmated female Mediterranean fruit fly was found in a
dooryard calamondin tree at Indian Rocks Beach in Pinellas County on
March 21, 1986. DPI, in conjunction with the USDA, immediately placed
more than 1,000 additional fruit fly traps in a 45-square-mile zone
surrounding the find. Host fruit randomly selected from within the
four-block radius around the find was cut and examined for larvae; none
was found. Intensive surveying continued for about 90 days, a period
approximating three life cycles of the Medfly. No other Medflies were
detected, and trapping was reduced to normal levels on June 13, 1986.
The first established infestation of Parlatoria ziziphi (black
Parlatoria scale) in the continental United States was detected
infesting a dooryard citrus tree in Miami on October 7, 1985. Survey
results revealed that the infestation was limited to a 12.2-square-mile
area of North Dade County. A containment program was initiated to halt
spread of the scale while suitable control or eradication methods were
investigated. In conjunction with this program, all commercial citrus
fruit shipments entering the state from areas known to be infested with
black Parlatoria scale were monitored; any infested shipments were
The program to control American foulbrood continued as did survey
and sampling activities for the honeybee tracheal mite, Acoropis woodi.
Although state and federal quarantines for this pest were lifted during
the spring of 1984, and many states have deregulated concerning the
tracheal mite, research for control methods continued. The Bureaus of
Apiary Inspection and Methods Development have been involved in a
cooperative effort with the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
on the Honeybee Tracheal Mite Project. Investigations include chemical
control, honey production and mortality comparisons between infested and

Division of Plant Industry

noninfested colonies, as well as percent infestation of colonies and
queen infestation.
Detection and identification programs were being formulated for the
Africanized honeybee, a pest which represents a serious potential threat
to the beekeeping industry, as well as to the state's urban areas.
Commissioner of Agriculture Doyle Conner appointed a Special Task Force
on Africanized Bees, comprised of representatives from the scientific
community, state and federal regulatory agencies and the apiary
The task force recommended that: baseline samples be collected for
future reference; bait hives be placed in port areas; a fact sheet be
prepared to inform the public and the industry; feral swarms be
destroyed; state laws be strengthened regarding this potential pest; and
better, more rapid identification methods be developed. Bait hives were
placed in 11 Florida ports, the Apiary Bureau assisted IFAS in preparing
a fact sheet, baseline samples were being collected, and Chapter 586 of
the Florida Statutes was rewritten to better equip the Apiary Bureau to
deal with all pests of honeybees, including the Africanized bee. The
feral swarm problem remained under study, and equipment was being sought
to assist in identification.
The division has been responsible for the development of a mass
rearing facility to produce sterile fruit flies for use in developing
new fruit fly control programs. Construction of the physical plant,
located next to the Doyle Conner Building in Gainesville, began in April
1986. Completion of the laboratory is scheduled for December 1986, and
fruit fly production is scheduled to begin during the spring of 1987.
As was anticipated at the close of the 1982-84 biennium, emergency
situations have occurred with a frequency that approaches a regular
basis. This situation mandates that the division develop and/or examine
existing methods and programs for: increasing public awareness of
potential introductions of harmful plant pests and diseases; biocontrol
methods of such pests and diseases; and more efficient use of limited
personnel and resources to deal with emergency situations. Increased
attention to these priorities may provide us with a better means of
handling emergency programs without compromising our routine duties in
safeguarding Florida's agricultural interests.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report


Charles E. Taylor, Fiscal Officer

Tables 1, 2, and 3, respectively, depict the actual budget expenditures
for FY 1985-86, estimated budget expenditures for FY 1986-87 and the
requested legislative appropriations for FY 1987-88.

Table 1: Expenditures 1985/86

Administrative Services,
Technical Assistance-Training
Total Administrative
Services, General
Plant Industry Products and
Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspections
Citrus Tree Survey
Total Plant Industry
Products and Protection
Plant and Animal Pest
and Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology
Bio-Control Laboratory
Bureau of Plant Pathology
Bureau of Nematology
Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Bureau of Citrus Budwood
Bureau of Pest Eradication
and Control
Spreading Decline Program
Fruitfly Protocol
Methods Development
Imported Fire Ant
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities
Citrus Blackfly
Emergency Medfly II
Emergency Medfly III
Emergency Citrus Canker Eradication
Emergency Citrus Canker Indemnities
Total Plant and Animal
Pest and Disease Control
Division Total by Fund:
General Revenue Fund
Imported Fire Ant Trust Fund
Florida Citrus Canker Trust Fund
Plant Industry Trust Fund

Total Expenditures











Division of Plont Industry

Table 2: Estimated Expenditures 1986/87

Bureau/Activity Total Expenditures
Administrative Services,
Technical Assistance-Training 1,317,082
Total Administrative
Services, General 1,317,082

Plant Industry Products and
Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection 2,983,617
Citrus Tree Survey 199,600
Total Plant Industry
Products and Protection
Inspections 3,183,217

Plant and Animal Pest
and Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 660,206
Bio-Control Laboratory 52,397
Bureau of Plant Pathology 519,195
Bureau of Nematology 355,552
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 345,968
Bureau of Citrus Budwood
Registration 372,126
Bureau of Pest Eradication
and Control 309,427
Spreading Decline Program 304,737
Fruitfly Protocol 265,460
Methods Development 267,137
Imported Fire Ant 1,072,722
Sterile Fly Laboratory 87,219

Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities 72,000
Citrus Blackfly 150,000
Emergency Blackfly II -0-
Emergency Blackfly III -0-
Emergency Citrus Canker Eradication 6,396,940
Emergency Citrus Canker Indemnities 1,300,000
Total Plant and Animal
Pest and Disease Control 12,531,086

Division Total by Fund:
General Revenue Fund 12,723,893
Imported Fire Ant Trust Fund 1,072,722
Florida Citrus Canker Trust Fund 2,565,646
Plant Industry Trust Fund 669,124



Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 3: Requested 1987/88

Bureau/Activity Total Expenditures
Administrative Services,
Technical Assistance-Training 1,976,598
Total Administrative
Services, General 1,976,598

Plant Industry Products and
Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection 4,354,995
Citrus Tree Survey 400,589
Total Plant Industry
Products and Protection
Inspections 4,755,384

Plant and Animal Pest
and Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 1,041,349
Bio-Control Laboratory 144,285
Bureau of Plant Pathology 700,706
Bureau of Nematology 616,961
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 495,206
Bureau of Citrus Budwood
Registration 503,512
Bureau of Pest Eradication
and Control 374,090
Spreading Decline Program 441,404
Fruitfly Protocol 1,038,507
Methods Development 450,796
Imported Fire Ant 1,136,769
Sterile Fly Laboratory 830,275

Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities 72,000
Citrus Blackfly 226,217
Emergency Medfly II -0-
Emergency Medfly III -0-
Emergency Citrus Canker Eradication 6,758,256
Emergency Citrus Canker Indemnitites -0-
Total Plant and Animal
Pest and Disease Control 14,830,333

Division Total by Fund:
General Revenue Fund 17,576,812
Imported Fire Ant Trust Fund 1,136,769
Florida Citrus Canker Trust Fund 2,132,315
Plant Industry Trust Fund 716,421


Division of Plant Industry


June B. Jacobson, Librarian

The Division Library continues to provide research assistance to
its technical bureaus by providing an excellent collection of 12,295
books in the areas of botany, entomology, nematology, plant pathology,
apiculture, and insect control.
During this biennial period the Library acquired an IBM microcom-
puter which has enabled the Division to check on the holdings of the
University of Florida, and eventually all the state universities. The
microcomputer provides us with a more efficient way with which to do the
usual library chores and saves considerably on the number of trips to
campus libraries. The ability to view their enormous card catalog
without leaving the office is an outstanding achievement for the State
of Florida and the Division.
Cooperation with the University of Florida continues in this new
mode. The University asked the Division to join our unique serial
holdings to their data base for the benefit of researchers state-wide.
By comparing the list titled Serials compiled by June Jacobson and
Alice Sanders (unpublished) to the University of Florida's holdings, the
library staff was able to find 188 unique titles which were added to the
University's data base. This cooperative arrangement adds to the
excellence of both institutions. Plans to add our book holdings are
Interlibrary loans placed for our personnel, including Research
Associates, numbered 244. We processed 157 items for other libraries
during 1984-86.
During this 2-year period our binding needs were filled by National
Library Bindery of Roswell, Georgia and Dobbs of St. Augustine, Florida.
Three hundred ninety-nine serial volumes were hard-bound.
Five hundred sixty-one books were added to the Division Library for
this biennium. Gifts were received from Dr. R.P. Esser, Mr. H.A.
Denmark, Dr. G.B. Fairchild, Dr. H.V. Weems, Jr., Drs. C. and L.
O'Brien, Dr. F. Young, Mr. H.L. Dozier, Jr., Dr. E. Nickerson, Dr. R.
Arnett, Dr. E. DuCharme, Mr. H. Burnett, Mrs. G. Norman, and Dr. G.H.
Looking back over the 1984-86 biennium shows a time of continuity,
growth and service. We look forward to more of the same.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report


Phyllis P. Habeck, Information Specialist

During the biennium, the Technical Assistance Office (TAO) staff
worked together to inform the public about Division of Plant Industry
(DPI) programs and activities. Information was disseminated through
news releases to and interviews with newspapers, magazines, radio and
television; feature articles in various agricultural magazines and
regional newspapers; a quarterly news bulletin; leaflets and brochures;
audio-visual presentations and exhibits. Staff members assisted the
technical bureaus in the preparation and printing of technical and
scientific publications. TAO personnel responded to 3,098 requests from
the public for publications.
Staff information specialists were at the scene of several
emergency programs to provide the news media and the public with the
latest information concerning eradication efforts. TAO personnel spent
a considerable amount of time in Winter Haven and Palmetto assisting the
Citrus Canker Project, particularly during the summer and fall of both
1984 and 1986; they also worked on-site on three Mediterranean fruit fly
programs: North Miami, 1984; Miami, 1985; and Tampa, 1986. News
releases, chronologies, reports and speeches were written, photographs
were taken of major events, and news conferences were arranged. The
artist created posters, maps and other artwork needed for these
The TAO staff comprised two information specialists, a technical
illustrator, a technical photographer and a photographer's assistant
(OPS), a secretary specialist, and a clerk typist II. Information
Specialist III Phyllis P. Habeck is chief of the TAO. Maeve McConnell
joined the staff in Sept. 1985 as an information specialist II and

Publications and Printing

The TAO published three issues of the Plant Industry News with a
controlled circulation of approximately 12,000, six issues of the
Reporter, the division newsletter, and a citrus canker brochure. An
average of more than 100 news releases yearly were prepared during this
The technical bureaus compiled 24 issues of the TRI-OLOGY Technical
Report, a monthly summary of the most important insects, plant
pathogens, nematodes and plants found in the state, and 72 monthly
circulars dealing with current plant pests. The TAO furnished
photographs and illustrations, did the camera-ready layouts and
coordinated the printing of these publications.
Other publications produced by DPI included: Arthropods of Florida,
Vol 11; the 35th Biennial Report, 1982-84; and Florida's Certified
Nursery Directory, 1985, 1986. TAO processed numerous contributions to
professional journals by DPI scientists, and the TAO handled
approximately 350 requests to the department print shop and commercial
printers for business forms and other printing needs.

Division of Plant Industry

Art and Photography

The photography section completed 643 job requests from DPI
personnel. These included field and studio photographs for all regular
DPI publications. Photographs of laboratory specimens were taken for
use in technical and scientific publications. Slides and photographs
were prepared for use in employee training programs and manuals.
Identification photographs were taken of all new employees. Several
slide presentations about division programs and activities were put
together by the staff to be used at governmental and scientific meetings
and public gatherings.
The photography section was also responsible for maintaining,
repairing, operating and supervising the use of all audio-visual
equipment for the DPI.
The staff artist completed approximately 30 job requests per month
from DPI personnel for maps, charts, graphs, signs, cover designs and
other visual aids and graphics. There were numerous requests for
detailed, scientifically accurate illustrations of plants and plant
pests. The artist was responsible for the layout of all regular
division publications, brochures, training manuals, business forms and
other printed matter. The artist designed and coordinated the
construction of several exhibits for display at agricultural fairs,
trade shows and professional meetings.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report


K. R. Langdon, Botanist

The Office of Systematic Botany is a service support unit primarily
aiding and assisting the other bureaus of the Division of Plant Industry
by providing plant identifications and related services. Also, to a
lesser extent, services are provided for other local, state, and federal
governmental agencies and personnel and to individuals upon request.
The Office of Systematic Botany includes the Division of Plant
Industry Herbarium. Dr. K. R. Langdon serves as head of the office and
as curator of the herbarium. Mr. C. R. Artaud assists him.
The Division of Plant Industry Herbarium now houses over 6,100
sheets of pressed, dried, mounted, identified plant specimens, including
447 sheets added this biennium. The seed collection contains 1,386
vials of seed specimens with 50 added this biennium. The herbarium also
houses approximately 600 packets of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts).
There were 2,636 plant specimens submitted for identification during the
Other work handled by the Office of Systematic Botany includes many
hours spent reviewing host lists and checking plant names to verify or
correct plant names for spelling, validity, synonomy, describers, etc.;
reviewing manuscripts as a member of the Publications Committee; and
reviewing and making recommendations on applications to the Aquatic
Plant Council and the Plant Pathogen Introduction Committee.
Translations of scientific literature from Spanish, Portuguese, and
Latin to English were provided for various division personnel. Dr.
Langdon has recently been appointed chairman of the Publications

National Botanical Meetings Attended

August 4-10, 1984. Joint meeting of the American Society of Plant
Taxonomists and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Ft.
Collins, CO.
August 11-15, 1985. Joint meeting of the American Society of Plant
Taxonomists and the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Gainesville, FL.


Langdon, K. R. 1984. Branched broomrape, Orobonche ramosa, an
economically important parasitic weed not currently known in
Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Services, Div. Plant Ind.,
Bot. Circ. 22. 2 pp.
S1986. A native terrestrial orchid, Platonthera blephariglottis,
the white fringed orchid. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Services,
Div. Plant Ind., Bot. Circ. 23. 2 pp.

Division of Plant Industry


Administer the activities of
the Bureau.

Leroy Putnal*
Ralph Brown**
Laurence Cutts

Apiary Inspector Supervisor

James Hall

Agricultural Inspectors

Stephen Beaty
Warren R. Johnson
William I. Langston
Thomas B. Dowda, III
James R. Hall***
M. Cecil Morgan
John P. Ballard
Richard L. Dunaway
Jimmy Zuhlke
Donald F. Howard
John L. Bastianelli
Lee Del Signore

Assists in administering the
activities of the Bureau, de-
tection and eradication of
diseased hives infested with
American foulbrood.

Detection and eradication of
diseased hives found infested
with American foulbrood.


Panama City
High Springs
New Smyrna Beach
Myakka City
Haines City


The discovery of tracheal mites Acorapis voodi in Florida in October
of 1984 brought many changes to the Apiary Bureau and to the Florida
beekeeping industry. Quarantines disrupted normal activities of the
Bureau and the industry. Although a pest long known in Europe,
information on the effect of this mite was sketchy. This caused
confusion, controversy and chaos. Detection was difficult, time
consuming and expensive. It involved collecting a sample of 10 or more
bees from each hive, cutting a thin slice from the thorax and examining
the trachea in this slice under a microscope.

*Putnal deceased December 9, 1984
**Brown interim Chief
***Hall Supervisor

Chief Apiarist

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

A delimiting survey soon revealed wide spread infestations. A
committee from industry, scientific and regulatory agencies was
appointed by Commissioner Conner to advise the Department during this
crisis. After gathering as much information as possible the committee
decided that eradication was not feasible; damage caused by the mite
was not as bad as had been reported, and that no practical control
measures were available. A recommendation was made that Florida remove
all quarantines and regulations regarding the tracheal mite and that
studies be undertaken to find some means of control. This was done on
December 20, 1984. A Federal quarantine was immediately placed against
Florida stopping all movement of bees out of the state and virtually
eliminating the queen and package industry. The Federal quarantine was
lifted on April 17, 1985, at which time most other states placed their
own quarantine against Florida bees.

A research project was begun in July of 1985 with the Florida State
Beekeepers Association, Apiary Bureau, Bureau of Methods Development,
and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences cooperating. Five
chemicals were tested in the fall of 1985 with one showing promise.
Test continued in the spring of 1986 with the addition of another
chemical and different methods of application. The project continues
with a goal of obtaining a national label for a chemical control of this
pest. Although our research indicates there is no damage from this pest,
regulations continue to be a severe problem.

The beekeeping industry has suffered extensive damage in recent
years from the freezes that reduced or eliminated the early spring
crops of orange, titi, and tupelo honey, and the droughts that reduced
or eliminated the late spring crops of gallberry and palmetto honey.
Quarantines against Florida bees by other states because of the tracheal
mite have prevented movement to many northern states for summer honey
production or pollination. This coupled with import competition in the
market place has caused many beekeepers to go out of business.

Commissioner Conner appointed an Africanized Bee Task Force in
August of 1985 to advise the department regarding this pest and "to make
recommendations on the proper course of action to prevent the
introduction of this menace and effectively deal with it should it be
introduced into the state of Florida". At the recommendation of this
committee the Apiary Bureau has placed bait hives in Florida's ports,
helped in the development of an IFAS fact sheet on the Africanized Bee
and begun the collection of base line samples for future reference.
These duties coupled with the extra duties associated with the tracheal
mite have greatly increased the work load of the Apiary Bureau.

Honey Certification Program

During the biennium, apiary inspectors collected 149 composite
honey samples. The Department's Food Laboratory in Tallahassee
analyzed and certified the honey samples for flavor, color, soluble
solids, moisture, and pollen count.

Seventy composite samples were certified as tupelo honey. Seventy-
nine composite samples failed to certify as tupelo honey.

Division of Plant Industry


The 1986 Legislature, in regular session in Tallahassee, passed a
new bee law for the State of Florida. It gives the Department of
Agriculture more authority to deal with unwanted races of bees (such as
the Africanized bee) as well as with Varroa mites or other pest of bees.

Apiary Inspection Activities

During the biennium, apiary inspectors examined 412,163 colonies in
7,967 apiaries and found 2,925 colonies infected with American

The sum of $72,000 was
beekeepers in compensation for
American foulbrood.

Apiaries inspected
Colonies inspected
Colonies infected with AFB
AFB colonies destroyed
Florida permits issued
Certificates issued for exit
Point-to-Point permits issued
Certificates issued for sale
Special entry permits issued

paid during the biennium to Florida
bees and equipment destroyed because of


1 592


Road Guard Report

Monthly report from the Road Guard Stations during the biennium
indicated 248,973 colonies and 298,320 supers moved into Florida from
other states. Road guard reports are no longer required for records
going from Florida to the north and west.

Personnel of the Bureau of Apiary Inspection examined and certified
13,365 colonies for queen and package bee producers.

A total of 154,792 colonies were certified for shipment from other
states to Florida:



New York
North Dakota
South Dakota


Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Yearly Summary, Bureau of Apiary Inspection

American Foulbrood
Apiaries Colonies Apiaries Colonies
Year Ending Inspected Inspected Infected Infected

June 30, 1938 3,451 64,668 38 173
1939 3,371 70,655 56 416
1940 3,414 76,851 61 234
1941 3,711 81,950 80 371
1942 3,671 83,354 106 698
1943 3,347 80,823 100 524
1944 2,646 73,649 106 456
1945 2,371 69,262 105 379
1946 2,265 71,161 138 959
1947 2,464 87,674 104 683
1948 3,266 98,147 100 391
1949 3,710 105,678 130 406
1950 3,082 105,296 175 369
1951 2,872 95,405 237 772
1952 2,836 88,206 232 578
1953 3,259 92,267 449 1,366
1954 5,102 135,168 683 2,158
1955 5,885 157,388 524 1,421
1956 6,168 176,616 460 1,180
1957 5,813 162,885 490 1,121
1958 4,932 159,692 457 1,623
1959 5,123 153,677 454 1,329
1960 5,056 149,227 438 1,422
1961 4,991 152,288 319 1,271
1962 5,693 173,538 341 1,053
1963 5,497 169,411 416 1,546
1964 5,230 166,641 481 1,614
1965 5,680 179,861 500 1,709
1966 5,833 189,802 485 1,340
1967 6,337 197,833 561 1,768
1968 6,519 218,493 504 1,712
1969 5,912 192,651 509 1,707
1970 5,788 185,752 443 1,317
1971 5,273 176,608 431 2,092
1972 4,713 176,153 433 1,683
1973 5,353 193,382 420 1,702
1974 4,802 191,102 293 1,148
1975 5,050 204,929 365 1,229
1976 4,750 212,945 302 1,271
1977 4,277 217,403 360 1,068
1978 5,872 260,152 163 1,989
1979 5,878 283,346 329 1,406
1980 5,589 303,567 338 1,532
1981 5,529 325,038 260 903
1982 6,423 320,729 441 1,613
1983 6,420 334,586 333 1,315
1984 6,030 340,165 296 1,118
1985 3,817 208,862 234 1,333
1986 4,150 203,301 260 1,592

Division of Plant Industry


Charles O. Youtsey, Chief

The Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration serves the Florida citrus
industry through a program designed to select citrus cultivars that are
productive, and true-to-type for the variety. These selections are
tested for certain virus or virus-like agents that are detrimental to
tree performance. Subsequently, tested propagation material is made
available to Florida growers following procedures designed to preserve
the integrity of each selection throughout the propagation process. The
Bureau maintains a citrus arboretum and a foundation planting of
superior, virus-tested trees that serve as a resource bank of valuable
propagation material for distribution to the industry and to serve as
germ plasm for research and education.

Citrus Budwood Foundation Grove

Once again, as reported in the 35th Biennial Report, cold weather
had a considerable impact on the bureau's activities. On January 20 and
21, 1985, temperatures plunged to the low 20's for extremely long
durations, requiring protective measures in the foundation groves and
nurseries. Heaters and wind machines were put into operation early and
run late into the morning hours. Many trees in the foundation grove
that had been injured in previous freezes were damaged so severely that
it was necessary to remove them.
In addition to cold injury many of the trees on certain rootstocks
were declining due to citrus blight, a disease of unknown cause. Table
one records the percent of trees affected by blight in surveys conducted
in 1983 and again in 1986. Trees are identified by variety and
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) continues to be a serious problem to
Florida growers, especially where sweet oranges are being grown on sour
orange rootstock. Many of the budwood foundation grove trees have
become infected with strong strains of CTV from commercial groves in the
surrounding areas. This is of special concern because of the need to
distribute propagation material budwoodd) to commercial nurserymen so
that they may establish registered scion grove plantings. As outlined
in previous reports, the testing of each foundation tree is necessary to
determine if the tree has a mild strain or a strain strong enough to
cause detrimental effects on progeny trees. This process is very time
consuming and labor intensive requiring large numbers of test plants and
subject to some degree of visual interpretation.
During this biennium, CTV-strain tests were conducted on 1,762
foundation grove trees. Approximately 35% have been judged to have a
mild strain suitable for distribution. In cooperation with Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) and United States Department of
Agriculture research teams, the Bureau has propagated and planted 312
trees in an experiment to investigate the performance of 14 strains of
CTV thought to be mild enough for commercial use on sour orange
rootstock. Measurements of tree growth and horticultural performance
will be collected and published periodically.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 1. Comparison of Percent Blight for 1983/1986 in 6
Varieties on 12 Rootstocks at the Citrus Budwood Foundation Grove,
Dundee, Florida.

Scion Varieties

Rootstocks Hamlin Brown Jaffa Pineapple Queen Valencia

Milam 0/8 13/38 O/y* 0/13 0/0 2/8
Carrizo citrange 0/58 0/50 33/y 6/31 0/6 3/25
Rangpur lime 8/42 25/50 33/y 6/75 0/33 4/54
Rough lemon** 50/91 63/88 75/y 83/y 67/y 6/31
Volkamer lemon 33/67 75/88 100/y 67/y 100/y 17/24
Swingle citrumelo 0/0 0/0 O/y 0/0 0/0 0/3
Sweet lime 0/8 0/0 25/y 0/33 0/0 6/8
Smooth Flat Seville 0/0 0/0 O/y 0/0 0/0 0/0
Cleopatra mandarin 0/0 0/0 O/y 0/0 0/0 0/0
Rangpur x Troyer** 0/17 0/0 50/y 0/6 0/6 0/9
Citrumelo F-80-3 0/0 0/0 25/y 0/0 0/0 8/19
Citrumelo F-80-8 0/0 0/0 25/y 0/0 0/0 0/0

*y Removed May 1985.
**Planted February 1976, all others March 1975.

Replacement trees have been propagated for 412 trees that were
removed from the foundation grove due to freeze damage and decline
caused by blight. There were over 200 trees planted in the foundation
grove during this report period replacing trees that were no longer in
demand for budwood distribution.
Land has been made available at the Agricultural Research and
Education Center in Immokalee for the establishment of a new citrus
foundation grove of approximately 20 acres. Development of this
planting will be a cooperative venture between South Florida growers,
IFAS, and the Division of Plant Industry. Planting is scheduled for the
Spring of 1988.

Program Activity

There were 11 scion groves involving 3,614 trees destroyed by the
Citrus Canker Project that were located in close proximity to nursery
sites found infested with citrus canker.
Table two summarizes participant activity in the Citrus Budwood
Registration Program for the biennium.

Division of Plant Industry

Table 2. Summary of Budwood Activity 1984-86

Number of New Participants. . . . 79
Number of Active Participants .. .. . . . . . 178
Number of New Scion Groves .... . . . . 15
Number of New Scion Trees Planted . . .. . . . 6,887
Number of New Scion Trees Registered. . . . . . 3,942
Total Buds Witnessed. .. . . . . . . . . .12,911,521
Number of Registered Citrus Nursery Trees Produced. .. . 8,030,053

Citrus Seed Treatment

Hot water seed treatment services provided to growers as protection
against root rot disease caused by Phytophthoro parasitica
Dast. had been discontinued for the fruit season of 1985-86,
because most growers had access to private treatment facilities. With
the discovery of citrus canker, treatment was required as part of the
regulations. The treatment service was reinstituted to meet grower
requirements. The Bureau contracted with the Division of Animal
Industry shop in Sebring, to build a new tank replacing the wornout
original that was modified from the Burrowing Nematode Program.
Over 28,000 quarts of seed were treated during the biennium.
Sixty-eight percent of this total was sour orange, 16% Carrizo citrange,
9% was Cleopatra mandarin, and Swingle citrumelo accounted for less than
half of one percent.

New Variety Release

The testing of Ray Ruby grapefruit introduced from Texas in 1977,
was completed by the Bureau of Plant Pathology this biennium. Plant
material was multiplied by the Budwood Bureau and distribution was begun
on June 30, 1986. Nearly 700 budeyes were distributed on that date.
Requests were heavy for this Texas variety that developed a dark-reddish
flesh color superior to the standard Ruby Red currently in use.
Thousands of budeyes are anticipated for release in the early part of
the 1986-87 bienniel period.

Virus Indexing

The testing for citrus exocortis viroid in the foundation grove and
in participants' scion groves consumes the major portion of testing by
the Bureau. This viroid, when present in the tree, reduces tree vigor
and production and may cause decline on certain rootstocks, including
Carrizo citrange, the second most popular rootstock used in Florida.
The second virus of major concern is citrus tristeza virus. This
virus causes decline of old trees and stunting of young trees growing on
sour orange rootstock that are infected with strong viral strains.
Table 3 shows the number of all tests conducted for this reporting

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 3. Summary of Virus Testing 1984-86

Psorosis Virus:
Tests in Progress. . . ...... .. .. .. ... 476
Tests Completed. .... . . . . . . . 177
Xyloporosis Viroid:
Tests in Progress. .. . . . . .. . .. . 539
Tests Completed . . . . . . .. . 110
Citrus Exocortis Viroid:
Tests in Progress. .... ........ .. .. . 3,783
Tests Completed . . . .. .. .. . . 3,571
Citrus Tristeza virus:
Tests by Elisa . . . .. . . . . . . 2,345
Bioassay for Strains Determination.. ... . ... . 1,762

The discovery of citrus canker in August of 1984, and the
subsequent regulatory restrictions on movement of budwood and citrus
nursery stock has reduced the amount of testing of participants scion
grove trees during this report period. Budwood for testing is carefully
inspected and disinfested prior to bringing to the greenhouse or test

Florida Citrus Arboretum

This planting located on the grounds of the Cowperthwaite Building
Complex in Winter Haven has been closed to large groups of visitors
since the discovery of citrus canker in August 1984. Scientists
interested in fruit analysis, plant identification, and citrus
breeding, have used many arboretum trees as resource material for their
work, and occasionally single visitors have been permitted under close
sanitary supervision.
A number of trees have been repropagated and others designated for
moving in anticipation of new building construction that will provide
office space for this Bureau and a laboratory for the Division of
Dairy. These changes will be completed in early 1987.

Personnel Changes

Mr. Harry Burnett, Plant Pathologist in charge of the Winter Haven
Pathology Laboratory, retired August 1985. This position was
transferred to Gainesville and the Winter Haven laboratory was closed.
The four remaining positions and the workload of virus testing were
transferred to the Budwood Bureau. Space previously occupied by the lab
was modified for office space to accommodate the Citrus Canker Project.
Additional space was made available in the Budwood wing for the
laboratory equipment.
Agricultural Products Supervisor, Leon H. Hebb, was transferred to
the Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control in December 1984. Michael C.
Kesinger was promoted to fill this supervisory position.

Division of Plant Industry

Educational and Training Programs

During the biennum, personnel from the Bureau of Citrus Budwood
Registration participated in numerous educational activities for
students from high school and college, Division of Plant Industry
personnel, citrus nurserymen, commercial budders and horticulturists.
Lectures and/or slide talks on citrus virus diseases and techniques
of virus indexing and variety identification were given to students from
the University of Florida Fruit Crops Department citrus classes on 4
occasions. (C. O. Youtsey)
Lectures and field training in citrus budwood registration
procedures, virus disease recognition, citrus variety identification,
and horticultural evaluation were given to 29 new Plant Industry
Products Specialists, in a total of 5 training sessions. (C. O.
Youtsey, M. C. Kesinger)
Due to citrus canker, only one guided tour of the Florida Citrus
Arboretum was conducted for students from Plant City High School. The
students inspected fruit and leaves of various varieties to practice
identifying specimens at the annual State FFA Identification Contest at
the Citrus Showcase. In addition, training seminars were given to
citrus growers, productions managers and supervisors, caretakers, and
others interested in selection of rootstocks and varieties, nursery site
inspection and certification, and the Citrus Budwood Registration
Program, in Seffner. Arcadia and Wauchula. (C. O. Youtsey, M. C.

Conferences, Meetings and Trips

August 28-30, 1984. Annual Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services Business Conference, Tallahassee, Florida. (C. O. Youtsey,
C. A. Thornhill)
October 22, 1984. Citrus Clonal Respository Review and Planning
Meeting, Atlanta. (L. H. Hebb)
March 20, 1985. Cold Tolerant Scion-Rootstock Varieties Meeting, USDA,
Orlando. (C. 0. Youtsey)
April 10, 1985. Rootstock Planting Field Day, Indiantown. (C. O.
August 27-29, 1985. Annual Deportment of Agriculture and Consumer
Services Business Conference, N. Miami Beach. (C. O. Youtsey, C. A.
Thornhill, H. M. Floyd and J. J. Yates)
November 6, 1985. Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, Tampa.
(C. 0. Youtsey, M. Kesinger, F. Gebhard, V. Madden)
November 13, 14, 1985. Tour of experimental rootstock plantings located
at St. Cloud, Babson Park, LaBelle, Indiantown and Ft. Pierce. (C.
O. Youtsey, M. C. Kesinger)
April 1, 2, 1986. Field trip to rootstock plantings, Ft. Pierce and
Indiantown. (C. 0. Youtsey)
June 24, 1986. Citrus Tristeza Virus Meeting, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Ft. Pierce. (C. O. Youtsey)

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report


September 11, 1984. Florida Citrus Growers Institute, Lakeland. A talk
on citrus variety performance at the Division of Plant Industry
Foundation Grove.
May 21, 28, 1985. Talks on "Seed Planting", "Production and Validation"
and "Quality Control. The Budwood Registration Program", for the
short course in citrus propagation and nursery management at the
Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. (C. O. Youtsey)
September 24, 1985. Florida Citrus Growers Institute, Lakeland. A talk
entitled "A New Beginning with Horticulturally-Sound Planting
Stock". (C. O. Youtsey)
January 8, 1986. Florida Citrus Production Managers Association, Citrus
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. A talk on strain
identification of citrus tristeza virus and its implications. (C.
O. Youtsey)
February 4, 1986. A presentation to a group of production managers from
the Ridge area was given on citrus tristeza virus strains,
selections of seed source trees and scions, and yields of early
oranges. (C. O. Youtsey)
May 1, 1986. A talk was given on the Citrus Budwood Registration
Program to the Lake Wales Kiwanis Club. (C. O. Youtsey)
June 9, 1986. A talk on citrus tristeza virus to Ft. Pierce citrus
growers (C. 0. Youtsey)


C. O. Youtsey coauthored a paper presented at the 97 Florida State
Horticultural Society Meeting, Miami Beach, "Comparison of Aerial
Color Infrared Video and 70 mm Color Infrared Photography of Citrus
Trees", by G. S. Edwards, C. H. Blazquez, K. O. Cuillinn, J. C. Mc-
Kinnon, C. O. Youtsey and L. Blesius.

Division of Plant Industry


H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology


The Bureau of Entomology provides arthropod identification
services, conducts limited investigations of certain economic problems,
assists in instructing Agricultural Products Specialists, continues to
build a general arthropod reference and research collection, conducts
taxonomic investigations, supervises the security of the Biological
Control Laboratory, and collects the taxonomic and biological control
literature to support these areas of responsibility.
During the biennium there were 57,894 lots received from the Agri-
cultural Products Specialists (a lot may represent 1 to many specimens).
From these lots there were 219,678 specimens identified, 8,483 report
forms added to the host and species files, 50,269 specimens discarded,
1,172 specimens pinned, 4 specimens placed in envelopes, 6,260 slide
mounts prepared, and 15,763 specimens in vials of alcohol added to the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA). The number of lots
received and identified by the Entomology Bureau that did not require
typed report forms was 39,119. From these specimens there were 117,259
discarded, 15,740 pinned, 150 slides made, and 5,694 preserved in vials.
There were 5,008 specimens identified by collaborating specialists out-
side of the Entomology Bureau. Of this number there were 2,505 dis-
carded, 188 pinned, 86 slides prepared, and 2,229 preserved in alcohol.
There were 40 new host records, 74 new county records, 8 new state
records, and 5 new U.S. records established during the biennium.

IDENTIFICATIONS: Identifications of the various arthropod groups
are made by 9 staff entomologists. The entomologists and the groups for
which they are responsible are as follows:

H. A. Denmark: Aphids, mites, thrips, and ticks.

G. B. Edwards: All non-insect arthropods except Acarina.
Routine screening of fruit flies (Tephritidae:

A. B. Hamon: Homoptera: Coccoidea; scale insects; and
Aleyrodidae; whiteflies.

J. B. Heppner: Immature insects; Adult Lepidoptera.

F. W. Mead Diptera: suborder Nematocera; Homoptera:
(Auchenorrhyncha); plus Psyllidae; Hemiptera

L. A. Strange: Hymenoptera (except Formicidae); gall-forming
insects, Neuroptera, and snails and slugs.

H. V. Weems, Jr.: Diptera: suborder Brachycera and miscellaneous
smaller arthropod groups.

Coleoptera and Orthoptera.

R. E. Woodruff:

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Biological Control Laboratory

Lionel A. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist

The Florida Biological Control Laboratory (FBCL) is a cooperative
facility of the Division of Plant Industry, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA-ARS) and the University of Florida (IFAS). During the
biennium the cooperating agenices exported 30 shipments of 18 species,
and imported 68 shipments into quarantine, consisting of 23 insect
species. [See Tables 1 and 2]

Research projects being conducted in the Laboratory were principal-
ly those which deal with insect biological control of aquatic weeds,
biological control of mole crickets, mosquito rearing techniques, para-
sites of citrus root weevils, and scale insects. The USDA-ARS personnel
were experimenting with two major aquatic weed insect herbivores from
India-- Bagous affinis (weevil) and Hydrellia pakistanae (Ephydridae).
IFAS personnel also were involved with insect biological control of
aquatic weeds using the weevil Neohydronomus pulchellus, imported from
Argentina, to control water lettuce. The major IFAS project during the
biennium was biological control of mole crickets. Larra spp. and two
carabid beetle predators, Stenoptinus jessoensis from Japan and Pherop-
sophus sp. from Uruguay, were studied. DPI personnel maintained
colonies of Diaprepes obbreviatus and imported egg parasites from the
Dominican Republic, especially Tetrastichus haitiensis.

Table 1. Insects Exported From Quarantine Laboratory

No. of
Insects Shipped Target Organism Destination Shipments Agency

Aphytis spp. scale insects Homestead, FL 2 IFAS
Aceratoneuromyia indica corib fly Homestead, FL 1 IFAS
Euphasiopteryx sp. mole crickets Gainesville, FL 2 IFAS
Cardiochiles sp. pickleworms Homestead, FL 1 IFAS
Encarsia berlesii whiteflies Samoa 3 IFAS
Nosonia vitripennis house flies Gainesville, FL 1 USDA-ARS
Spolangia cameroni house flies Gainesville, FL 1 USDA-ARS
Spalongia endius house flies Gainesville, FL 4 USDA-ARS
Stenaptinus jessoensis mole crickets Brasil 1 IFAS
Telenomus alsophilae Oxydia olivata Homestead, FL 1 IFAS
Tytthus mundulus sugarcane delphocid Florida 6 DPI

Division of Plant Industry

Table 2. Insects Imported Into Quarantine Facility

Parasite or Predator Host Origin Agency

Bagous spp.
Hydrellia pakistanae
Neohydronomus pulchellus

Euphasiophteryx depleto
Megacephala fulgida
Stenaptinus jessoensis
Pheropsophus sp.
Larra spp.

Aphytis sp.
Aphytis sp.
Aphytis sp.
Encarsia sp.

Telenomus olsophiloe
Teneomus sp.
Polycyrtus sp.

Tetrastichus haitiensis
Horismenus sp.

Spalongia endius
Spalongia cameroni

Solenopsis sp.
Tytthus mundulus

Aquatic Weeds
Hydrilla verticillata
Hydrillo verticillata
Pistia stratiotes

Mole Crickets
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.

Scales and Whiteflies
Aonidiella ourantii
Pseudaulocaspis cockerelli
Parlatoria pergandii
Dialeurodes citrifolii

Oxydia olivata
Epimiecis sp.
Diaphania sp.

Citrus Root Weevils
Diaprepes abbreviatus
Diaprepes abbreviatus

Domestic Flies
Stomoxys calcitrans
Musco domestic

Perkinsiella saccharicida



Hong Kong






Dominican Rep. DPI
Dominican Rep. DPI

Australia USDA-ARS



Job Related Activities

H. A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology

(1) Chairman, Arthropod Introduction Committee.
(2) Adjunct Professor (courtesy appointment), Department of
Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida.
(3) Courtesy Associate Professor, Area of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

(4) Chairman, Plant Pest Introduction and Evaluation Committee in
(5) Member, Supervisory Committee to review fruit fly trapping.
(6) Member, Advisory Council, Department of Entomology and
Structural Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(7) Member of a committee to discuss quarantine facilities and what
is needed in the Gainesville area.
(8) Member of a pesticide recommendation committee for the Division
of Plant Industry.
(9) Rotating chairman for Center for Arthropod Systematics
representing the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
(10) Serving on a Ph.D. Committee for student of Acarology.
(11) Serving on Technical Council for honey bee tracheal mite.
(12) Member of Ad hoc Committee for Florida Entomological Society to
write job descriptions for officers in this society.

G. B. EDWARDS, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Chief editor of Peckhamia and membership secretary of the
Peckham Society.
(2) Division of Plant Industry Publications Committee.
(3) Division of Plant Industry Safety Committee.
(4) I answered calls from the public concerning spider bites,
spider problems, scorpion problems, etc.
(5) I led or participated in tours of the FSCA by classes from
various schools in the area.
(6) I assisted Ms. Nancy Caire with the Florida Natural Areas
Inventory of endemic Florida arachnids.
(7) Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals

AVAS B. HAMON, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Quarantine Laboratory Equipment Coordinator.
(2) Assistant Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida member of Graduate Research
(3) Doyle Conner Building Blood Group Chairman.
(4) Associate Professor, Adjunct, Florida A & M University,
Department of Entomology and Structural Pest Control,
Tallahassee, Florida.

J. B. HEPPNER, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Adjunct Assistant Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Nema-
tology, University of Florida.
(2) Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
(3) Editor, Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera.
(4) Editor, Lepidoptera of Taiwan.
(5) Editor, Lepidopterorum Catalogues.
(6) Associate Editor (Taxonomy), "Florida Entomologist".
(7) Associate Editor, "Insecta Mundi".
(8) Proposal evaluator, National Science Foundation, Washington.

Division of Plant Industry

F. W. MEAD, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Chairman, Directory Update Committee, Florida Entomological
(2) Completed 3-year term as member of the Examining Board for
"Systematics and/or Morphology", Chairman 1985, American
Registry of Professional Entomologists.
(3) Historian, Florida Entomological Society.
(4) Adjunct Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Nema-
tology, University of Florida.
(5) Courtesy Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology, Florida A &
M University, Tallahassee.
(6) I continued to prepare the entomology portion of each Triology
Technical Report.

L. A. STANGE, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Adjunct Associate Professor (courtesy appointment), Dept. of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville,
and member of the Graduate Research Faculty.
(2) Courtesy Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology and
Structural Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(3) Research Associate, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural
(4) Field Associate, Division of Malacology, Florida State Museum,
Gainesville, Florida.
(5) Member of the DPI publications review committee.
(6) Member of Florida Africanized Bee Task Force.

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Editor, Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas and
Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of
(2) Associate Editor, the Florida Entomologist.
(3) Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS,
University of Florida, and member of the Doctoral Research
(4) Courtesy Associate Professor, Area of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(5) Member, Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and
Animals (FCREPA).
(6) Florida Entomological Society: member of the following commit-
tees: Ad Hoc Committee for the revision of the Handbook of
Florida Entomologists, Newsletter Committee, FES Officer and
Committee Chairperson Job Description Committee (Ad Hoc), Cari-
bbean Conference Evaluation Committee (Ad Hoc).
(7) In charge of planning and executing a reception at the Doyle
Conner Building on May 10, 1985, honoring Drs. Ross H. Arnett,
Jr., Avas B. Hamon, and Michael L. Williams.
(8) Member, Constitution Committee of Gamma Sigma Delta, University
of Florida Chapter, 1985-86.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

R. E. WOODRUFF, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida.
(2) Adjunct Curator, Dept. of Natural Sciences, Florida State
Museum, Gainesville.
(3) Courtesy Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology and
Structural Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(4) Committee Member, "Library Committee", DPI.
(5) Alachua County Schools Volunteer Program; talk to elementary
classes on insects and geology.
(6) Instructor, special problem on "Insect Illustration" for U.F.
student working on degree in scientific illustration.
(7) Judge, Science Fair, Gainesville Mall.

Special Surveys

H. A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology

April 11, 1985: Apopka, FL. Surveyed several greenhouses and environs
for the banana thrips, Choetonophothrips signipennis (Bagnall). It
has been introduced on plants from Central America.
June 24, 1985: Melbourne, FL. Surveyed for an orchid thrips, Dichromo-
thrips corbetti (Priesner) in greenhouses with Frank Smith. Control
problems were corrected by spraying all greenhouses every 5-7 days.

A. B. HAMON, Taxonomic Entomologist

July 1-7, 1984: Miami, FL for the 1984 Medfly eradication campaign.
March 1-5, 1985: Miami, FL for the 1985 Medfly Trapping Program.
July 21 Augst 2, 1985: Miami, FL for the Medfly Eradication Program.
October 14-26, 1985: Miami, FL for Black Parlatoria Scale Survey.
March 17-21, 1986: Miami, FL for Black Parlatoria Scale Survey.
March 22-24, 1986: Largo, FL for Medfly survey.

J. B. HEPPNER, Taxonomic Entomologist

April 1985: Miami, FL Medfly eradication work.
January 8-14, 1986: Peru survey (Tambopata Res.); annual leave.
March 17-21, 1986: Welaka, Putnam Co. FL. Survey for immatures and
March 23-27, 1986: Largo, FL. Medfly eradication work.
May 19-23, 1986: Leon Co.,FL. Survey for immatures and Lepidoptera.
June 9-14, 1986: Northeast Florida. Survey for immatures and Lepidop-

L. A. STANGE, Taxonomic Entomologist

June 10-25, 1985: Miami, FL for Medfly Eradication Program.

H. V. WEEMS, Jr., Taxonomic Entomologist

May 20-23, 1985: Miami, FL for the Medfly Eradication Program.

Division of Plant Industry

R. E. WOODRUFF, Taxonomic Entomologist

July 5-6, 1984: Ft. Pierce, FL. Survey new infestation of Dioprepes
November 4-8, 1984: Homestead, FL. Survey for new U.S. weevil,
Metamasius sericeus, on cassava.
March 18 April 1, 1985: Dominican Republic. Amber insect fossils and
citrus root weevil parasite survey.
May 17-31, 1985: Dominican Republic. Search for citrus root weevil egg
September 21 October 8, 1985: Dominican Republic. Biological control
of citrus weevils.
January 6-8, 1986: Pompano Beach and Miami, FL. Survey for scarab beetle
new to Florida, Protaetia fusco.
June 5-20, 1986: Dominican Republic. Biological control studies for
Dioprepes abbreviatus.

Special Projects

H. A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology

(1) Revision of the genus Amblyseius.
(2) Revision of the genus Paraomblyseius.
(3) Catalog of Acari in the Hawaiian Islands by Jo Ann M. Tenorio,
H. A. Denmark, and S. F. Swift. (Completed)
(4) Catalog of the Phytoseiidae of the World by G. J. de Moraes, J.
A. McMurtry, and H. A. Denmark (completed).
(5) Committee member for the construction of the fruit fly labora-
(6) Committee member for an addition to the Biological Control
(7) Compiling data for Aphids of Florida.
(8) Formosan Termite Coordinating Council was formed by instruc-
tions from the legislature, through Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services. Commissioner Conner appointed
Mr. Chuck Aller, Dr. John Mulrennan, Jr., Dr. Dwynal Petten-
gill, Mr. Norman Goldenberg, Dr. D. L. Shankland, and H. A.
Denmark, Chairman. The purpose of the committee was to deter-
mine the impact this pest would have on Florida residences;
consider research needed to develop a survey method to detect
the termite's presence, develop a control, disposition of in-
fested lumber, and recommend the agencies for the development
of this information. The Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology, University of Florida was recommended for the research
and the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services was
recommended to regulate infested lumber.

G. B. EDWARDS, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Revision of the genus Phidippus (Araneae:Salticidae).
(2) Spiders of Florida (Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land
Area), with a checklist of Florida species.
(3) Salticidae of Florida (Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring
Land Areas).

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

A. B. HAMON, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Aleyrodidae of Florida This is a long term project.
(2) Taxonomy and morphology of Rhizoecus males (Pseudococcidae).
Partially completed.
(3) Whiteflies on citrus in Florida This is a joint effort with
Drs. Nguyen and Sailer. Partially completed.
(4) Black Parlatoria Scale Technical Committee.

J. B. HEPPNER, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Larvae of fruit flies of economic importance: continuing
project of circulars on pest fruit fly species for the
identification of their larvae. Circulars completed in 1985 and
(2) Lepidoptera of Florida: a revised Florida checklist, with data
on Florida range and dates information for each species, plus
host plant data (partial revision of a checklist by Kimball,
1965). Additional future parts will describe each species in
(3) Lepidoptera pests of Florida: a continuing project listing all
known Florida pest species, for development into an illustrated
(4) Lepidoptera pests of the world: cataloging of all known world
Lepidoptera pests, particularly for pantropical species that
could become established in Florida.
(5) Florida surveys for immature insects and Lepidoptera: continued
periodic surveys of the Florida fauna (including nearby areas
bordering Florida), to develop data on occurrences and
distributions; curation of survey collections.
(6) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera: a long-term project on the
Lepidoptera of the Neotropics, with 40 authors in publication
series; serve as editor and director (E. J.. Brill, Publishers).
Part 1 of checklist published in 1984; other parts in prepara-
(7) Lepidoptera of Taiwan: a long-term project (NSF grant INT-
8119539) to survey and record the Lepidoptera fauna of Taiwan;
30 authors involved. Most field work is already completed;
currently the species checklist is in preparation, to be
followed by detailed species accounts; serve as editor and
project director (Taiwan Museum, Taipei, is publisher);
curation of survey collections.
(8) Lepidopterorum Catalogus: a long-term cataloging project for
world lepidoptera species, with a multitude of contributing
authors; serve as editor and project director. Introduction and
Fasc. 118, Noctuidae, in preparation, along with some smaller
families (E. J. Brill, publisher).
(9) Revision of the genus Episimus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). (In
(10) New species of Florida Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). (In
(11) Description of the larva of Rhodinia verecunda (Lepidoptera:
Saturniidae) from Taiwan. (Completed).

Division of Plant Industry

(12) Revisions of various genera in Lepidoptera families
Choreutidae, Glyphpterigidae, Brachodidae, and Immidae. (In
(13) Revision of North American Choreutidae (Lepidoptera). (In
(14) Checklist of Puerto Rico Lepidoptera. (In preparation).
(15) Lepidoptera Taxonomic File: continued building of FSCA holdings
of color photographs of Lepidoptera species (currently at ca.
4,400 species); further additions to be made from holotypes and
identified species at the Smithsonian Institution (Washington)
and The British Museum (London), plus other institutions.
(16) Immature Insect Taxonomic File: continued work on a
comprehensive system of notebooks on holometabolous insect
families and their immatures, including larval descriptions and
identification keys, particularly for pest species.
(17) Collection exchanges with other institutions to enhance the
FSCA Lepidoptera collection and the immatures collection,
particularly for genera and higher categories lacking in the
FSCA. (Current programs: exchanges with the Antipa Museum of
Natural History, Bucharest, Romania).
(18) Lepidoptera of Sulawesi (Natl. Geographic Soc. grant, 1985):
Survey of northern Sulawesi (Dumoga-Bone Natl. Park) for
Lepidoptera (Oct. 1985); curation of survey collections,
particularly for pantropical pest species of importance to
Florida agriculture.
(19) Lepidoptera of Tambopata Nature Reserve, Peru (Natl. Geographic
Soc. grant, 1979): continued curation and documentation of the
faunal survey of 1979 for this nature reserve, plus subsequent
surveys (1986); for publication of a guide to the fauna.

F. W. MEAD, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Taxonomic studies on Nearctic and Neotropical Oliarus spp.
(2) Taxonomic portion of cooperative research project with IFAS
(Belle Glade) on rice leafhoppers in the Belle Glade area.
(3) Series of short papers on life stages of predatory stink bugs
in Florida; junior author with Dave Richman.
(4) Year-round daily operation of blacklight trap as a survey-
detection tool in agricultural area, southwest Gainesville.
(5) Taxonomy and distribution of Micrutolis treehoppers in Florida,
1 species of which is a vector of pseudo-curly top virus of
(6) Rotating editor of Tri-ology Technical Report (a monthly
(7) Study of Jodera plant bugs in Florida.
(8) Identification of economic leafhoppers submitted from Ecuador.
(9) Develop a checklist of Auchenorrhynchous Homoptera in Florida.

L. A. STANGE, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Mole cricket parasite investigation. Collecting possible
parasites (Lorro) in the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, and

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

(2) Fig insects of Florida. A joint project with Dr. Robert Knight,
USDA-Miami. Pollinators and symbionts of exotic fig species
have been discovered in south Florida. Of special interest is
the pollinator Parapristina verticillota (Waterson), pollinator
of Ficus microcarpa, a potential weed pest for Florida. Also
the banyan tree, Ficus benghalensis, is now being pollinated by
an Asian fig wasp, Eupristina masoni.
(3) Africanized honeybee identification. Morphometric identifica-
tion techniques were studied in California, Louisiana, and
Venezuela. Samples are now being identified from Florida, espe-
cially from bait traps at ports.
(4) Citrus root weevil parasite studies. Three field trips to the
Dominican Republic have been made to locate and study
parasites. Identification of the parasites (Eulophidae,
Trichogrammatidae, and Platygastridae) are being made in
conjunction with other taxonomists.
(5) Studies and surveys of Florida snails and slugs to evaluate the
economic significance of these animals. Circulars on the white
garden snail and predaceous snails were produced.
(6) Economic snails and slugs of the world. Gathering a synoptic
collection of terrestrial mollusks of the world of possible
economic importance to Florida. About 500 specimens were added
to the collection, especially from Mexico, Dominican Republic,
and Venezuela.
(7) Identified specimens (parasitic Hymenoptera) received in
Quarantine Facility for various State and Federal research
(8) Studied value of predatory Neuroptera species in controlling
such pests as caterpillars, aphids, and ants.
(9) Continued antlion larval studies of species occurring in
Mexico, Venezuela, Arizona, and Florida; worked on
identification and keys of several species; and added 50
species to collection. Prepared a taxonomic study of antlions
of the tribe Acanthaclisini.
(10) Continued studies on potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). One
African species (Delta rendalli) and one South American species
(Zeta artillaceum) were newly reported for the Florida fauna.
Taxonomic studies of the genus Zethus were made.
(11) Worked on revision of Anthidiini genera (Hymenoptera: Megochi-
lidae) of the Western Hemisphere. Special attention was given
to the genera Anthidiellum and Hypanthidioides.
(12) Continued studies and surveys of the Hymenoptera of the Florida
(13) Neuroptera of Florida. Collecting and identifying the families
Coniopterygidae, Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae, Myrmeleontidae,
Ascalaphidae, Sisyridae, and Mantispidae. Distribution
patterns, biology, and variation are being studied.
(14) Continued acquisition of specialized library on Hymenoptera,
Neuroptera, and Gastropoda.
(15) Conducted exchanges of reference material to improve the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Exchanges have been
made with Griswold (bees), Romania (Symphyta), Pulawski
(wasps), and Simony (Myrmeleontidae).
(16) Studies of gall-forming insects of Florida. Specimens were
added of a new pest, oriental chestnut gall wasp.

Division of Plant Industry

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) Compile a comprehensive report on private collections of
arthropods which have been submitted for ultimate deposition in
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods by Research
Associates and Student Associates and those already donated but
which are currently in the possession of the donors for
curating and continuing development and study.
(2) Complete an inventory of the primary and secondary type
specimens in the FSCA and in private collections of arthropods
which are committed for ultimate deposition in the FSCA, and,
when this had been accomplished, prepare a manuscript for a
bulletin listing these types to be published by the Division of
Plant Industry.
(3) Prepare an illustrated bulletin on the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods and the Research Associate Program which supports
its continuing development and generates publications on
(4) Continue to coordinate the development of the arthropod
collections of the FSCA located at the University of Florida
and the Division of Plant Industry, FDACS, in Gainesville, and
Florida A & M University in Tallahassee. This involves
meetings of the involved curators approximately twice each year
to discuss mutual problems and procedures.
(5) Review and update the biographical information records for all
Research Associates and Student Associates of the FSCA and try
to obtain a personal photograph of all associates.
(6) Help to develop plans for establishment of a non-profit, tax-
exempt corporation designed to support the total program of the
(7) Continue experimenting with designs for more effective insect
flight traps and field testing of these traps.
(8) Continue to coordinate operation of insect flight traps by
collaborators in several locations in Florida, several other
parts of the United States, and in several other countries of
the New World, and the processing and identification of the
collections from these traps. The trapping program is a vital
part of a faunal survey of Florida and other areas, provides
a means of monitoring fluctuating insect populations, and
produces considerable reference and study material for the
(9) Conduct further exchanges of reference material to make the
Florida collection more complete. A special continuing effort
is being made to obtain representatives of the principal
arthropod pests occurring in other parts of the world, notably
Tephritidae (fruit flies), which constitute a potential threat
to Florida agriculture. This will materially aid staff
specialists in making more rapid, accurate and complete
identifications. It also provides additional material for
taxonomic research, display and teaching purposes.
(10) Make occasional field trips, both in-state and out-of-state, to
conduct special arthropod surveys, to collect material for
taxonomic study in special interest groups, notably Syrphidae,
and/or make general collections for the FSCA.

Division of Plant Industry

(11) Visit other institutions in North, Central, and South America
which maintain substantial arthropod collections in order to
observe curatorial techniques, arrange exchanges of specimens,
and study collection in specific areas of taxonomic interest
and responsibility.
(12) Develop a series of carefully planned field trips to various
parts of Florida at different times of the year to search for
specific arthropods known to occur in those areas but which are
yet unrepresented in the official state collection and to
discover other species not known to occur in Florida.
Eventually this could become a part of a formal, long-range
survey of the arthropods of Florida which might involve several
specialists trained to process the material collected in the
course of such a survey. This, in turn, could be coordinated
with a proposed regional arthropod insect detection laboratory
and a proposed regional arthropod identification and taxonomic
research center (for which the FSCA and the Division of Plant
Industry library would be basic resources).
(15) Continue a special effort to develop complete sets of the ento-
mological publications of some of the most important and most
prolific dipterists: efforts are being made to develop
extensive reprint files for the various other groups of
(14) Continue studies of the Diptera family Syrphidae, including
preparation of a bulletin on the Syrphidae of the southeastern
United States.

R. E. WOODRUFF, Taxonomic Entomologist

(1) The scarab beetles of Florida, Part II. The May beetles
(Phyllophaga spp.). All Florida specimens of this genus (over
80,000) have been examined, recorded, and the data recorded on
the word processor. These data are being analyzed and portions
of the text have been written. Other priorities have precluded
spending the anticipated time to complete the volume, which now
is anticipated in the next fiscal year.
(2) Citrus weevils of the West Indies and their parasites. In order
to provide information on biological control of Dioprepes ab-
breviatus this project was revitalized in the past 2 years. A
conference on citrus weevils was held at Lake Alfred on Decem-
ber 5, 1984 with several participants from Jamaica and Puerto
Rico. Recommendations from that conference were made to estab-
lish priorities, of which the taxonomy of weevils and parasites
was number one. A grant proposal was submitted to the Caribbean
Basin Advisory Group. Two field trips to the Dominican Republic
were made with Dr. L. A. Stange to pursue this project. A paper
presented at Lake Alfred, entitled "Citrus weevils of Florida
and the West Indies: preliminary report on systematics, bio-
logy, and distribution (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)", is to be
published soon in the Florida Entomologist.
(3) Blister beetle poisoning in horses. During the past few years
several extremely valuable thoroughbred and quarter horses have
been killed by eating alfalfa hay, imported from western states,
contaminated with blister beetles. Dr. R. B. Selander, Research

Division of Plant Industry

Associate of FSCA, from the University of Illinois, has pro-
vided expertise for this problem. He prepared an Entomology
circular on the "Blister beetles of Florida" which will provide
base data for regulatory actions. He has also donated part (74
drawers) of his private collection and has committed the re-
mainder for future deposition in FSCA. He is considering re-
tirement to Gainesville, where he hopes to continue his taxono-
mic and behavioral studies.
(4) Insects of Tall Timbers Research Station (Leon Co.). Twenty
years of concerned collecting and surveys, in relation to fire
ecology and habitat management have produced hundreds of
thousands of specimens. These are vouchers stored at FSCA.
Three employees of Tall Timbers are currently processing these
samples at DPI and computerizing much of the data. A grant
proposal was submitted by Tall Timbers to assist in this work.
All specimens will eventually be incorporated into the
reference collections.
(5) Serving on Adjunct Faculty. I currently serve on 3 graduate
student committees and am chairman of one. I also supervised 2
undergraduate students. In exchange, we have obtained labor for
curating. During this period this amounted to approximately 14
hours per week. In addition I was appointed as Adjunct
Professor in Latin American Studies to permit working with
prospective entomology students from the Dominican Republic.


H. A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology

July 23, 1985: Regulatory entomology to freshman class of entomology,
University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
Gainesville, Florida.
August 7, 1985: Talked to Florida Entomological Society Biological
Control of Plant feeding mites in Central America and the West
Indies utilizing phytoseiid mites (Acari:Phytoseiidae).
December 4, 1985: Channel 13, Honey bee tracheal mite in Florida and
its importance to Florida beekeepers.
February 11, 1986: Gave an entomology seminar on the honey bee tracheal
mite in Gainesville, Florida in DPI auditorium.

G. B. EDWARDS, Taxonomic Entomologist

October 12-13, 1984: Statesboro, Georgia, gave talk on taxonomy,
ecology, and ethology of Phidippus in the eastern U.S. to graduate
seminar of biology department of Georgia Southern College. Host: Dr.
L. S. Vincent
February 20-22, 1985: Tallahassee, Florida, led laboratory on miscel-
laneous arthropods, along with Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., taught to pest
control operators, a course sponsored by Florida A & M University.
June 25, 1986: Florida State Museum, participated in special public
program on mimicry; set up revolving slide display and talked about
spider mimics.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

F. W. MEAD, Taxonomic Entomologist

September 30, 1985: Gainesville, Florida, Systematics Entomology "Brown
Bag" luncheon. Gave talk on mosquito habitats in Ohio and Florida
and number of mosquito species in each state.
December 9, 1985: Hollywood, Florida, at Annual Conference, Entomo-
logical Society of America: "Systematic Update of Florida's Au-
chenorrhynchous Homoptera". This was a 15-minute presentation as
part of a symposium honoring the late Prof. Z. P. Metcalf.
January 8, 1986: Lecture to Training Class 55. Slides depicting types
of damage to nursery plants and fruit crops done by various kinds of
leafhoppers, true bugs, and lower Diptera were used.
May 8, 1986: Lecture to Training Class 56. (Same as TC 55).

L. A. STANGE, Taxonomic Entomologist

December 4, 1984: Gave talk (with Dr. Brooks) on citrus root weevil
parasites at IFAS research workshop at Lake Alfred.
November 13, 1985: "Snails and Slugs of Economic Importance", Region
III Workshop, Ft. Lauderdale.
November 19, 1985: Lectured on Neuroptera to Professor Dale Habeck's
University of Florida course on immature insects.
December 4, 1985: Lectured to Spathyphyllum Growers' workshop on "Eco-
nomic Snails and Slugs of South Florida".
May 5, 1986: "Education of an Antlion Chaser". Talk given at Systema-
tics Luncheon Seminar, Center for Arthropod Systematics, DPI.
June 24, 1986: "Africanized Honeybee Identification". Talk given at
Apiary training class.

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Taxonomic Entomologist

July 10, 1984: Gave a 2-hour program at the Florida State Museum on
arthropods, involving a display of literature, cabinet drawers of
pinned specimens, bottles of arthropods other than insects, and a
color photo display of "Careers in entomology" developed by the
Florida Entomological Society.
July 27, 1984: Gave slide-illustrated talk titled "Some domestic and
foreign fruit flies of economic importance" at the 67th annual
meeting of the Florida Entomological Society, held in Orlando, FL.
October 30, 1984: Gave short talk on services rendered by the Division
of Plant Industry and the Bureau of Entomology and then conducted a
tour of the FSCA.
November 6, 1984: Gave 15-minute slide-illustrated talk on "Tropical
fruit flies: biology, ecology, and world distribution" at the Sec-
tional Workshop for Handling and Processing and Citrus Sections of
Tropical Fruit Flies and Quarantine Treatment Methods at the 97th
annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
November 15, 1984: My wife, Camilla, and I gave a 1-hour illustrated
talk on Lepidoptera, to the Gloriosa Circle of the Gainesville
Garden Club.
January 18, 1985: Gave a 2-hour talk, including a guided tour of the
Bureau of Entomology.
January 24, 1985: My wife, Camilla, and I gave a 1-hour illustrated
program on Lepidoptera, to the Hibiscus Circle of the Gainesville
Garden Club.

Division of Plant Industry

February 4, 1985: Gave a 1-hour lecture to Mr. John Piersol and his
class from Lake City Junior College, on basic responsibilities of
the FDACS Division of Plant Industry, the Bureau of Entomology, the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, and the Research Associate
February 21, 1985: Dr. G. B. Edwards and I conducted 4 1 1/2-hour labs
on Crustacea: Amphipoda & Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Arachnida,
and several orders of insects pertinent to pest control for Florida
A & M University's 3-day Annual Entomology Field Day and Workshop,
held at Tallahassee-Leon County Civic Center.
February 28, 1985: My wife, Camilla, and I gave a 1-hour illustrated
talk on Lepidoptera, to the Lotus Circle of the Gainesville Garden
May 17, 1985: 1 1/2-hour talk on program of the DPI Bureau of Entomo-
logy and the FSCA and a tour of the collections for Dr. Michael L.
Williams and 4 of his students from Auburn University.
May 24, 1985: Gave 1/2-hour talk on the program of the DPI Bureau of
Entomology and the FSCA and a tour of the museum collections for Mr.
Peter Bryan and his class of 28 students from P. K. Yonge High
School of Gainesville.
June 1, 1985: Gave a 15-minute talk on fruit flies, both exotic and
domestic Tephritidae, to visiting scientists from Indonesia.
June 7, 1985: Gave a 1-hour lecture on the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, the Research Associate Program which supports it, and
services provided by the Bureau of Entomology of the Division of
Plant Industry. This was done while taking the group on a tour of
the Bureau of Entomology.
June 10, 1985: Gave a 1 1/2-hour lecture on "Fruit flies and leofminers"
for class of 6 Plant Products Specialist trainees of the DPI.
July 1, 1985: Gave a 2-hour program on arthropods, involving display of
literature, cabinet drawres of pinned specimens, bottles of arthro-
pods other than insects, and a color photo display "Careers in Ento-
mology" developed by the Florida Entomological Society, Florida
State Museum, Gainesville, Florida.
July 15, 1985: Gave a 45-minute talk on "Arthropod collection appraisal"
for FSCA Insect Systematics Luncheon Seminar, Doyle Connor Building,
Gainesville, Florida.
August 7, 1985: Gave a 12-minute slide-illustrated talk on major fruit
flies of the world, their economic importance, distribution, life
histories, ecology, and host plants, with emphasis on New World
September 26, 1985: My wife, Camilla, and I gave a 1-hour talk on
butterflies for the Daylily Circle of the Gainesville Garden Club.
October 9, 1985: Gave a 1 1/2-hour lecture on "Fruit flies and leaf
miners" to DPI training class #54 (6 trainees), Gainesville, FL.
October 10, 1985: Gave a 1-hour lecture on "Florida State Collection of
Arthropods and the Research Associate Program which supports it", semi-
nar of University of Florida Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology, Gainesville,FL.
December 9, 1985: Gave a talk on "Detection, quarantine, and eradication
of fruit flies invading Florida", Richard A. Clark and Howard V.
Weems, Jr., slide-illustrated paper presented at the Conference on
Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, ESA meeting in Hollywood, FL.
January 8, 1986: Taught 1 1/2-hour class on "Fruit flies and leaf-

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

miners" for class of 6 DPI Plant Products Specialist trainees.
January 23, 1986: With wife, Camilla, gave a 1-hour program on Lepi-
doptera for the Geranium Circle of the Gainesville Garden Club.
February 3, 1986: Gave a 2-hour talk and guided tour of the museum
for Professor John Piersol and class of 16 senior landscape students
from Lake City Community College.
February 18, 1986: Gave a 2-hour talk and guided tour of the museum
for Professor Don Hall and introductory entomology class of 18 stu-
dents from Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of
February 23, 1986: (Actual broadcast date) Taped interview of a half-
hour program for Gainesville radio station WYGC-101 with hostess
Toni Mitchell: questions and responses mainly concerned with our
Center for Arthropod Systematics, the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, and the American Entomological Institute and the
functions they serve, with special emphasis on use of parasitic
Hymenoptera to control insect pests.
April 23, 1986: Gave 1-hour program for Professor George Sellers and
10 science research class students from Santa Fe Community College.

R. E. WOODRUFF, Taxonomic Entomologist

December 4-5, 1984: "Citrus weevils of Florida and the West Indies" at
Citrus Root Weevil Conference, Lake Alfred, Florida. IFAS, AREC.
January 21, 1985: "DPI parasite studies on citrus root weevils". USDA
Lab, Gainesville.
January 21, 1985: "Jamaica", Entomology Systematics Luncheon. DPI,
January 9, 1986: Florida Dept. Agr., Div. Plant Ind., Training Class:
"Leaf feeding beetles in Florida".
March 10, 1986: Systematic Entomology Seminar: "Amber and the Dominican
March 20, 1986: Lake Forest Elementary School: "Fossil insects in

Trips and Meetings

H. A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology

August 20, 1984: Gainesville, FL, Formosan termite coordinating council
September 7, 1984: Tallahassee, FL, second Formosan termite coordina-
ting council meeting.
September 17, 1984: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, third Formosan termite coordina-
ting council meeting.
October 24, 1984: Technical Council had first meeting for honey bee
tracheal mite.
November 16, 1984: The Technical Council for the honey bee tracheal mite
met with Florida beekeepers to report and make recommendations for
a plan of action.
November 27, 1984: Formosan Termite Coordinating Council met for its
final meeting in Gainesville, FL.
December 3, 1984: Gypsy moth meeting in Gainesville, FL.
December 10, 1984: Honey bee tracheal mite council meeting.
January 8, 1985: Honey bee tracheal mite meeting with state beekeepers,

Division of Plant Industry

followed by second meeting with USDA.
January 11, 1985: Medfly program meeting in Orlando, FL.
January 28-31, 1985: Southeastern Branch meeting of Entomological
Society of American, Greenville, SC.
February 4, 1985: Meeting with Commissioner Conner to give him the
Formosan Termite Coordinating Council report, Tallahassee, FL.
February 20-22, 1985: Eighth Annual Field Day and Workshop at Florida A
& M, Tallahassee, FL.
May 10, 1985: Meeting with Commissioner Conner, President Marshall
Criser, and other University of Florida personnel to discuss the
forming of a non-profit organization to handle grants.
May 30, 1985: Florida A & M Workshop Meeting at DPI in Gainesville, FL.
August 5-8, 1985: Florida Entomological Society Meeting held in Ocho
Rios, Jamaica.
August 9, 1985: Division staff meeting of Chiefs and Supervisors at
DPI auditorium, Gainesville.
October 2, 1985: Florida A & M Advisory Council Meeting in Gainesville,
DPI auditorium.
October 16, 1985: Meeting with Director and Chief of Plant Inspection to
discuss a program and forming of a black parlatoria scale advisory
committee in Gainesville, FL.
November 5, 1985: Planning Committee met to discuss caribfly rearing
facility in Gainesville, DPI conference room.
November 21, 1985: Master Contract and Fair Labor Standards Training
Session, met at Sunland Training Center, Gainesville, FL
December 11, 1985: Five year information Technology Resource Planning
meeting in DPI conference room, Gainesville, FL.
December 17, 1985: Meeting of Center for Arthropod Systematics to dis-
cuss a non-profit organization, DPI, Gainesville, FL
February 19-21, 1986: Florida A & M Annual Field Day, Tallahassee, FL.
April 3, 1986: Florida A & M Advisory Council meeting to plan 1987 Field
Day, Gainesville, DPI.
May 29, 1986: Staff meeting of Bureau Chiefs and Supervisors for DPI in
conference room, Gainesville, FL.
June 12, 1986: The first Bureau Chiefs' meeting was held to exchange
information and report progress, Gainesville, FL.
June 28, 1986: Meeting of Center for Arthropod Systematics in McCarty
Hall, UF campus, Gainesville, FL.

G. B. EDWARDS, Taxonomic Entomologist

October 12-13, 1984: Gave talk on taxonomy, ecology and ethology of
Phidippus in the eastern U.S. to graduate seminar of biology
department at Georgia Southern College, Statesboro, GA.
February 20-22, 1985: Tallahassee, FL, along with Dr. H. V. Weems,
Jr., led laboratory on miscellaneous arthropods taught to pest
control operators a course sponsored by Florida A & M University.
May 10-18, 1985: Collecting trip to Tinalandia, Ecuador with Dr. Tom
Emmel's group.
July 18 August 8, 1985: Jamaica collecting trip with Dr. H. V.
Weems, Jr.; also attended Florida Entomological Society Annual
Meeting, August 5-8.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

A. B. HAMON, Taxonomic Entomologist

August 15-16, 1984: Hyattsville, MD participated in the formulation
and review of an emergency action plan for arrowhead scale, Unaspis
August 28-29, 1984: Orlando for participation in a cooperative extension
service workshop.
December 8-13, 1984: San Antonio, TX attended the Entomological Socie-
ty of America National Meeting. I moderated a symposium on Homop-
tera, attended a symposium on Africanized honey bees.
January 21-25, 1985: Gainesville, FL Instructor Training Course an
intensive course of instruction on becoming a better instructor.
July 9-10, 1985: Winter Haven, FL Training Class #52.
September 10-11, 1985: Winter Haven, FL Training Class #53.
November 3-4, 1985: Winter Haven, FL Training Class #54.
December 8-12, 1985: Hollywood, FL Entomological Society of America
National Meeting.
February 11-12, 1986: Winter Haven, FL Training Class #55.
February 19, 1986: Gainesville, FL Black Parlatoria Scale meeting.
May 28, 1986: Gainesville, FL Civitan Awards Luncheon as Chairman,
Doyle Conner Building and Annexes Blood Group.

J. B. HEPPNER, Taxonomic Entomologist

October 1 November 12, 1984: Taiwan survey trip (stop in Japan to
consult with project authors); on NSF grant INT-8119539 funding.
May 23 June 7, 1985: London trip to British Museum for specimen study;
stop in Paris (part of Taiwan trip route) as delegate to
commemoration of Prince A. Caradja of Romania and his lepidoptera
work on the 100th anniversary of his birth.
June 8 July 10, 1985: Taiwan survey trip (stop in Japan to consult
with project authors); on NSF grant INT-8119539 funding.
October 1 November 17, 1985: Indonesia survey trip (Sulawesi and
northern Sumatra), for lepidoptera and pest insects; consult with
Bogor Museum and Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Java (stop in
Japan and Taiwan to consult with Taiwan project authors); funded by
National Geographic Society grant.

F. W. MEAD, Taxonomic Entomologist

August 26-31, 1984: Fifth International Auchenorrhyncha Meeting in
Davoas, Switzerland.
January 28-31, 1985: SE branch meeting of Entomological Society of
America, Greenville, SC.
August 5-11, 1985: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting held in
Ocho Rios, Jamaica.
August 12, 1985: Attended plenary session of American Institute
Biological Sciences annual meeting at University of Florida.
August 27-30, 1985: Bal-Harbour, FL to attend Annual Conference of the
December 8-12, 1985: Hollywood, FL to attend National Conference of the
Entomological Society of America.
June 16, 1986: Largo, FL participate in a Region II, Area III Work-

Division of Plant Industry

L. A. STANGE, Taxonomic Entomologist

August 9-10, 1984: Orlando, FL, visit USDA Laboratory on citrus root
August 28-31, 1984: Tallahassee, FL, attended Annual Dept. of Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services Business Conference.
October 15-19, 1984: Lake Placid and Homestead, FL, to study citrus root
weevil parasites.
December 4-5, 1984: Lake Alfred, FL, to attend IFAS research workshop on
citrus root weevils.
April 2-4, 1985: Jacksonville, FL to conduct survey for snails and
August 11-12, 1985: Training for identification of Africanized honeybees
in Bakersfield, Sacramento, and Berkeley, California, and Baton
Rouge, Louisiana.
September 21-October 6, 1985: Dominican Republic. Search for parasites
of citrus root weevils.
October 20-24, 1985: Bradenton, FL to attend Chalcid leafminer parasite
November 12-16, 1985: Ft. Lauderdale, FL attend Region III Workshop;
study wasp problem at Kennedy Space Center.
December 4, 1986: Homestead, FL, economic snail talk at Spathyphyllum
growers workshop.
December 8-12, 1985: Hollywood, FL to attend Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting.
January 31-February 19, 1986: Venezuela. Field work with Africanized
April 20-27, 1986: Bradenton, FL to attend leafminer parasite workshop,
also insect and snail survey at Torreya State Park.
June 5-20, 1986: Dominican Republic. Search for parasites of citrus root

H. V. WEEMS, Jr., Taxonomic Entomologist

July 24-27, 1984: Orlando, FL, attended 67th annual meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society.
August 29-31, 1984: Tallahassee, FL, attended Annual Business Conference
of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
November 4-7, 1984: Miami Beach, FL attended 97th annual meeting of the
Florida State Horticultural Society.
February 20-23, 1985: Tallahassee, FL to attend Florida A & M University
8th Annual Entomology Field Day and Workshop.
March 19-21, 1985: Kissimmee, FL with Mr. P. J. Eliazarto to inventory
and evaluate the Lepidoptera collection of Dr. Frank W. Hedges.
April 17-19, 1985: Tampa, FL to meet with FSCA Research Associate, Dr.
Larry N. Brown of the University of South Florida.
August 5-8, 1985: Ocho Rios, Jamaica to attend the annual meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society.
August 12, 1985: Attended annual meeting of the American Institute of
Biological Sciences, held on the University of Florida campus.
August 27-29, 1985: North Miami Beach, FL attended FDACS Annual Business
September 1, 1985: Torreya State Park, attended the annual business
meeting of the Southern Lepidopterists Society.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

November 3-6, 1985: Tampa, FL attended 98th Annual Meeting of the
Florida State Horticultural Society.
December 8-12, 1985: Hollywood, FL to attend the annual meeting of the
Entomological Society of America and the annual meeting of the
Dipterists Conference.
February 19-22, 1986: Tallahassee, FL to attend 9th Annual Field Day and
Workshop at Florida A & M University.
April 10-12, 1986: Attended 50th annual meeting of the Florida Academy
of Sciences held this year at the University of Florida, and the
annual meeting of the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered
Plants and Animals.
June 11-13, 1986: Attended the annual Biting Fly Workshop held at the
University of Tennessee.

R. E. WOODRUFF, Taxonomic Entomologist

July 16, 1984: Non-game wildlife conference, Florida State Museum,
August 7, 1984: Biological control vouchers. USDA, DPI, Gainesville.
August 9-10, 1984: Apopka, FL. Conference with USDA on Dioprepes.
August 28-31, 1984: Tallahassee, FL. FDACS Annual Business Conference.
September 18, 1984: Ph.D. Qualifying exam for M.C. Thomas, DPI,
September 21, 1984: External review of Florida State Museum; DPI,
December 4-5, 1984: Lake Alfred, FL. Citrus root weevil conference.
January 21, 1985: Biological Control Programs in Florida. USDA, ARS,
Insects Affecting Man & Animals Lab., Gainesville.
February 14, 1985: Performance evaluation training. DPI, Gainesville.
March 4, 1985: Imported fire ant conference. Gainesville.
April 5, 1985: Deposition re cigarette beetles in pepper. Gainesville.
April 18, 1985: Cooperative library development. DPI-UF, campus,
April 23, 1985: "Peer Review", Sigma Xi lecture. Gainesville.
May 10, 1985: Center for Arthropod Systematics with President Criser and
Commissioner Conner. Gainesville.
May 10, 1985: Author's reception for R. H. Arnett, Jr. and A. B. Hamon.
DPI, Gainesville.
July 9-22, 1985: Miami, FL. Medfly sterile release program.
August 27-29, 1985: Miami, FL. Florida Dept. of Agriculture Annual
Business Conference.
September 11, 1985: Gainesville, FL. Right to Know Meeting.
November 5, 1985: Tallahassee, FL. Tall Timbers Research Station
December 6, 1985: Tallahassee, FL. FDA Agency Function Plan Meeting.
December 8-12, 1985: Hollywood, FL. Entomology Society of America
national meeting.
December 17, 1985: Gainesville, FL. Center for Arthropod Systematics
January 14, 1986: Tallahassee, FL. Agency functional plan meeting.
January 16-17, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Caribbean Basin Agricultural Group
review of Tropical Agriculture programs.
March 13, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Center for Arthropod Systematics

Division of Plant Industry

April 2, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Meeting with Bert Klein re World
Wildlife Fund project on dung beetles in Amazon forest.
April 7, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Meeting with Dr. James Trager re beetles
associated with fire ants of the genus Solenopsis.
April 17, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Meeting with Jose Ottenwalder re study
of insect food of the rare Hispaniolan rodent, Solenodon.
April 23-May 20, 1986: Paraguay. Boll weevil project for FAO-UN.
June 4, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Meeting with Dr. Ron Cherry (Belle Glade)
re white grubs in sugarcane.
June 27, 1986: Gainesville, FL. Meeting of Center for Arthropod


Denmark, H. A., and C. F. Smith (senior author). 1984. Life history and
synonymy of Grylloprociphilus imbricator (Fitch) (Homoptera :
Aphididae). Fla. Ent. 67(3):430-434.
and H. L. Cromroy. 1984. The honey bee tracheal mite, Acoropis
woodi (Rennie). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 267:1-2.
and A. Q. Rather. 1985. Revision of the genus Typhloctonus Muma
1961 (Acarina:Mesostigmata). Internal. J. Acarol. 10(3):163-177.
and P. S. Callahan (senior author), and T. C. Carlysle. 1985.
Mechanism of attraction of the lovebug, Plecio nearctico to
southern highways; further evidence for the IR-dielectric wave
guide theory of insect olfaction. Applied Optics Vol. 24, No.
1985. The greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidolis Bouche
in Florida (Thysanoptera:Thripidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 64:1-2 revised.
and L. S. Osborne. 1985. Choetonophothrips signipennis (Bagnall)
in Florida. (Thysanoptera:Thripidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 274:1-2.
and M.A.S.K. Ranasinghe (senior author), and R. C. Wilkinson.
1985. Immature stages of Gnophlothrips fuscus and methods for
distinguishing its adults from those of Leptothrips pini
(Thysanoptera:Phlaeothripidae). Florida Ent. 68(4):594-608.
1985. Eriophyid mites found on Florida camellias
(Eriophyidae:Acarina). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No 36:1-2. Revised.
J. M. Tenorio, J. M. and S. F. Swift. 1985. Catalog of Acari in
the Hawaiian Islands I. Mesostigmata (or Gamasida) (Acari). Int. J.
Entomol. 27(4):297-309.
and K. Sakimura (senior author), L. M. Nakahara. 1986. A thrips,
Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera:Thripidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 280:1-4.
Edwards, G. B. 1984. Large Florida orb weavers of the genus Neoscono
(Araneae:Araneidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 266:1-2, 3 fig.
Sand F. W. Howard (senior author). 1984. Web-building spiders on
coconut palms and their prey (Arochnida:Araneae). Folia Ent.
Mexicana 62:81-87.
S1984. Mimicry of velvet ants (Hymenoptera:Mutillidae) by jumping
spiders (Araneae:Salticidae). Peckhamia 2(4):46-49.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

and S. H. Roach (senior author). 1984. An annotated list of South
Carolina Salticidae (Araneae). Peckhamia 2(4):49-57.
1985. The common house spider, Achaeoronea tepidariorum (C. L.
Koch) (Araneae:Thridiidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 279:1-2, 2 fig.
1986. Instinct and conditioned learning as factors in the prey-
capture behavior of naive Phidippus spiderlings (Araneae:
Salticidae). Peckhamia 2(5): (In press).
Hamon, A. B. 1985. Oceanaspidiotus aroucariae (Adachi and Fullaway)
(Homoptera:Coccoidea:Diaspididae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 276:1-2.
1986. The Genus Philephedra Cockerell, in Florida (Homoptera:
Coccoidea: Coccidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 281:1-2.
1986. Orchid Pests. Handbook on Orchid Pests and Diseases. Ameri-
can Orchid Society, West Palm Beach, FL. 50-63.
Heppner, J. B. 1984. Revision of the Oriental and Nearctic genus
Ellabella (Lepidoptera: Copromorphidae). J. Res. Lepid., 23(1):50-
1984. Pseudocossinae: a new subfamily of Cossidae (Lepidoptera).
Ent. News, 95(3):99-100.
1984. Checklist: Part 1. Micropterigoidea Immoidea. In, J.B.
Heppner (ed.), Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Vol. 2. The Hague:
W. Junk. 112 pp.
1984. Book review: Catalogo Sistematico de los Lepidopteros
Iberica. (I). Macrolepidoptera, by Gomez-Bustillo and Arroyo-
Varela. J. Lepid. Soc., 38(1):68.
1984. Fabiola quinqueferella: an obscure California moth formerly
in Glyphipterigidae (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). Pan-Pac. Ent.,
1985. West Indies Brenthia (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae). Insecta
Mundi (Gainesville), 1:13-37.
1985. The sedge moths of North America (Lepidoptera:
Glyphipterigidae). Gainesville: Flora and Fauna Publ. 254 pp.
(Handbook 1).
1985. Review of the North American genus Aroeolepia (Lepidoptera:
Plutellidae). Pan-Pac. Ent., 61(2):110-117.
1985. Biological research, survey, and collection of microlepi-
doptera. In, National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1977,
S1985. Larvae of fruit flies. II. Cerotitis capitate (Mediter-
ranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No 273:1-2.
1985. Telosphrontis aethiopico Meyrick transferred to Choreutidae
(Lepidoptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 87(4):859-863.
S1986. Biological and ecological studies of Atychia moths in the
Balkans. National Geographic Society Research Reports, 21:221-223.
S1986. Larvae of fruit flies. III. Toxotrypano curvicaudo (papaya
fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 282:1-2.
Mead, F. W., D. L. Harris, R. Nguyen, and 0. Sosa, Jr. 1985. The
sugarcane delphacid, Perkinsiella saccharicida (Homoptera:
Delphacidae) in North America. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen
Entomologischen Gesellschaft 57(4):432-433.

Division of Plant Industry

S 1985. Jodera scentless plant bugs in Florida (Hemiptera:
Rhopalidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent. Circ. No. 277:1-2.
1986. Editor, Directory of Florida Entomologists, The Florida
Entomological Society. 62 p.
D. B. Jones and R. H. Cherry (senior author). 1986. Leafhoppers
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
in southern Florida rice fields. Florida Ent. 69(1):180-184.
Stange., L. A. 1984. Field studies of the insect order Neuroptera in
South America. Nat. Geographic Research Reports 17:51-76.
and J. E. Deisler. 1985. The white garden snail, Theba pisona
(Muller). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent. Circ. No. 2 (Revision): 1-4.
and R. B. Miller. 1985. Description of the antlion larva
Navasoleon boliviana Banks with biological notes. Neuroptera
International 3:119-126.
and R. B. Miller. 1985. A generic review of the Acanthaclisine
antlions based on larvae. Insecta Mundi 1:29-42.
and K. Auffenberg. 1986. Snail-eating snails of Florida. Fla.
Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No.
Weems, Jr., H. V. 1984. Foreword in A. B. Hamon's and M. L. Williams
December 1984 bulletin, "The Soft Scale Insects of Florida
(Homoptera:Coccoidea:Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and
Neighboring Land Areas 11:i-x, 1-194, 102 text fig., 4 color pl.
1984. Foreword (p. vii) in M. C. Thomas' December 1984 bulletin,
"A Revision of the New World Species of Placonotus Macleay
(Coleoptera:Cucujidae:Laemophloeinae). Occasional Papers of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods 3:i-vii, 1-28, 63 fig.
S 1985. Obituary: Harold LaVerne King. June 1985. Florida
Entomologist (An International Journal for the Americas) 68(2):361.
1985. Obituary: Harold LaVerne King. June 1985. News of the
Lepidopterists' Society No. 3:44.
1985. Center for Arthropod Systematics: Florida State Collection
of Arthropods, Florida State Museum, University of Florida.
December 1985. 6 p. leaflet.
S1986. In Memoriam: Gerd H. Heinrich. March 1986. Florida
Entomologists (An International Journal for the Americas) 69(1):
281-282, 1 photo.
1986. A new laboratory for Gainesville. April 1986. Association
of Systematics Collections Newsletter 14(2):15, 1 photo.
Woodruff, R. E. 1985. Citrus weevils in Florida and the West Indies:
preliminary report on systematics, biology, and distribution
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Ent. 68(3):370-379.
and R. L. Crocker. 1985. Temporal homogeneity and species
composition of June beetle flights over a large metropolitan area.
Jour. Econ. Ent. (In press).
and R. M. Baranowski. 1985. Metamosius hemipterus (Linnaeus)
recently established in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 272:1-4; 2 fig.
S1985. Citrus weevils in Florida and the West Indies: preliminary
report on systematics, biology and distribution (Coleoptera: Curcu-
lionidae). Florida Ent. 68(3):370-379.

44 Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Sand M. C. Thomas. 1985. Description of the larvae of two species
of Hemipeplus Latreille. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Insecta Mundi.
(In press).
and C. W. O'Brien (senior author). 1986. First records in the
United States and South America of the African oil palm weevils,
Eloeidobius subvittatus (Faust) and E. komerunicus (Faust)
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No 284:1-2; 6 fig.

Division of Plant Industry 40


Ralph E. Brown, Chief

The Bureau of Methods Development is responsible under Chapter 570
of the Florida Statutes to develop, investigate, and make operative, new
ideas, techniques, and methods for the detection, control, and
eradication of plant pests and pests of honeybees. This responsibility
involves bureau personnel in development of Division building programs,
facilities, biological control activities, development of chemical
controls, adapting research of other agencies to Division needs, and
modifying equipment to meet the needs of the Division activities. To
meet their needs requires considerable expertise by bureau personnel in
pesticides, biology, and mechanics.

The bureau consists of: (1) Chief, (1) Secretary Specialist, (2)
Biological Scientists III, (2) Biological Scientists II, (1) Agricul-
tural Technician I, (4) Agricultural Technicians II, (1) Computer
Operator (OPS), (1) Laboratory Technician II, (OPS) for a total of 13

Public concern over exposure to chemicals in the air, the water,
the food, and in general environmental concerns, have greatly emphasized
the need for biological control methods of pest control. The Citrus
Blackfly Parasite Program, the Citrus Whitefly Parasite Program, the
Citrus Snow Scale Parasite Program, and others, have proven the
advantage of the use of natural enemies, where applicable, to control
plant pests. The Division of Plant Industry, and particularly the
Bureau of Methods Development, recognizes the need to move with this
change, but at the same time to integrate chemical measures of pest
control with the biological measures where feasible. The bureau
staffing has moved toward these goals by selection of personnel in
technical positions who have expertise in survey, biological control,
and chemical control. The following are highlights of bureau activities
during this biennium.

Citrus Blackfly Parasite Rearing & Releases

The citrus blackfly parasite rearing facility in Broward County was
closed in June, 1982. A portion of the colony was transported to
Gainesville during June 1982 and has been maintained at the Doyle Conner
Building property. This colony consists of the blackfly host and two
species of parasites, Encorsia opulent and Amitus hesperidum, and is
maintained to provide the necessary parasites to introduce to any new
unparasitized infestation of citrus blackfly, or to infestations of this
plant pest that are not properly infested with parasites. During this
biennium, releases of parasites were made in Hillsborough County to
enhance the parasite populations in infested areas of this county.

Sugarcane Delphacid

The Sugarcane Delphacid, Perkinsiella saccharicido, populations
were monitored through 1987 by United States Department of Agriculture,
ARS, and Division personnel. No economic impact due to this insect in
sugarcane is apparent. Population monitoring has been discontinued and

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

it is believed that unless the Fiji disease is discovered for which P.
saccharicida is the vector, the sugarcane industry will not suffer any
serious loss as a result of its presence here.

Red Wax Scale

The red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens, was found infesting areas of
Dade County in 1983. Subsequently, it has been found to be widespread
in Dade County and also has been found in Lee, Brevard, and Palm Beach
Counties. As reported in previous years, the populations of this
potentially serious pest have remained very low. It is believed that
the parasite, Microterys flavus and an undescribed Hymenoptera wasp of
the family Aphelinidae are controlling the population of C. rubens.
Populations of C. rubens have been monitored each month beginning in
June, 1983 to date.

Citrus Whitefly

The citrus whitefly has infested Florida for many years. In 1977,
a parasite of this plant pest, Encarsia lahorensis, was released in
Gainesville. In the summer of 1979, releases of E. lahorensis were made
by bureau personnel throughout the state. This parasite has been
established throughout Florida.

Encarsia lahorensis has been very successful in supressing the
populations of citrus whitefly in areas south of Gainesville. North of
Gainesville, results have ranged from good to poor.

Host Studies of Caribbean Fruit Fly

The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, was found to infest
an area of Dade County in 1965 and soon spread to infest portions of all
counties south of and including Citrus, Marion, Putnam, Sumter, and
Duval counties. This plant pest has been damaging to many tropical,
subtropical, and deciduous fruit crops. It is of particular economic
importance in that its presence in Florida has triggered regulatory
restrictions by other states and countries, thus limiting our market and
requiring treatment of Florida fruit. Dr. Ru Nguyen in cooperation with
personnel from the Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control has conducted
studies of A. suspense populations in selected areas. These studies
have resulted in a fly free area concept upon which regulatory
agreements with California and Japan have been based.

Philephedra tuberculosa, a soft scale

This soft scale insect has been found in a number of locations
in Dade County since its discovery in 1982. The Bureau of Methods
Development began monitoring populations in 1983. Three unidentified
parasites, and a number of predators have been associated with this
potentially serious plant pest. In spite of the natural enemies present
in Florida, populations of this scale insect have become severe and of
serious economic importance on several ornamental hosts and papayas.

Division of Plant Industry

Formosan Termites

The Formosan Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) was reported in
Gulf Breeze, Florida in August, 1984. Methods Development personnel
made 5 trips to Gulf Breeze between August 22, 1984 and May 2, 1985 to
survey and monitor this termite. The original report of the termite in
Gulf Breeze was based on a sighting and collection of winged termites at
light at night. Subsequent investigations have included use of a
trained termite detection dog, wooden stake "traps" in the ground,
blacklight traps, an electronic stethoscope to detect termite feeding
sounds, and extensive inspection of property in the area. In May 1985,
winged formosan termite "swarms" were caught in blacklight traps in the
area. All other methods, including the use of the dog and ground
stakes, have proven negative. To date, no infestation or damages have
been found. Methods Development personnel will continue to survey the
area to locate possible active infestations.

Emergency Programs

Involvement in emergency programs has proven to be an important
area of contribution to Division activities during this biennium for
Methods Development personnel. Methods Development personnel aided the
Citrus Canker emergency program by developing methods of burning citrus
seedlings in field nurseries, by cooperating in developing methods of
pulling seedlings, and in providing expert assistance in critical

In the honeybee trachael mite program, bureau personnel were
involved in field collection of bee samples and in cutting and examining
bees for the tracheal mite, Acaropis woodi Rennie. Bureau personnel have
continued to provide aid for certification efforts. During the 1985
Medfly program, bureau personnel were involved in all phases of the
radiation effort and contributed to planning and conducting the sterile
Mediterranean fruit fly release phase of the program. Bureau personnel
contributed to the program critique and assumed a major role in
developing and modifying the USDA Emergency Protocol for future Medfly

Fumigation of Fruit

Due to the discovery of Citrus Canker in Florida, shipments of
citrus fruit to Arizona, California, Hawaii and Texas have been
discontinued. Fumigation of citrus fruits with Methyl Bromide is
approved for Anastrepha suspense however, no Florida fruit has been
available for fumigation. During this biennium shipments of citrus
which originated in the Bahamas were fumigated in Gainesville with
67,100 (4/5 boxes) in 1984-85 and 92,400 (4/5) boxes in 1895-86.

Hazardous Materials & the Right-To-Know Law

The bureau has continued to monitor the use of chemicals by the
division. In addition, bureau personnel have instructed division
employees on safe use of pesticides and employees have been tested to
meet EPA requirements under FIFRA regarding restricted pesticides
certification. The Florida Right-To-Know Law added a considerable

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

workload to bureau employees. Meeting the requirements of this
important law and record-keeping involved is very time consuming.

Imported Fire Ant Program

Responsibility for the Imported Fire Ant Control Program was
transferred from the Bureau of Methods Development to the Bureau of Pest
Eradication and Control in July 1984. The United States Department of
Agriculture completely withdrew any support of this program during the

Endangered Plant Advisory Council

The Endangered Plant Advisory Council met on March 4, 1985, May
7, 1985, May 29, 1985, and October 2-9, 1985, during the biennium. Dr.
Daniel Ward served as chairperson during the Fiscal Year 1984-85 and Ms.
Eve Hannahs become chairperson in 1986.

The 1986 Legislature revised Florida Statues 581.185 and
581.186. The Endangered Plant List was increased to include 129 species
of native plants, a new category entitled Commercially Exploited Plants
was added which includes 9 species of native plants and the statute was
extended to adhere to the Federal Endangered Species Act.

The Lettuce Mosaic Committee

The Lettuce Mosaic Committee met on the following dates:
December 12, 1984, May 28, 1985, and June 13, 1985. The efforts of the
committee and strong support of the industry continued to produce very
favorable results in reducing crop losses to Florida's lettuce industry
due to lettuce mosaic. One planting of lettuce was threatened and some
loss in the immediate area due to the planting of an experimental lot of
seeds that had not been tested at 0 in 30,000 for lettuce mosaic.

Mr. Ray Roth who had been a leader with the lettuce mosaic rule and
chairman of the committee since its inception, has since passed away.

The Bureau of Plant Pathology conducted Elisa seed test for the
committee during the biennial. The committee was billed $50.00 per lot
for the cost of this testing.

Published Papers

During the biennium, the following papers were published by
personnel in the Methods Development Bureau:

Harris, D. L., R.C. Hemenway, Jr., and W.H. Whitcomb. 1985. Colleida
decora (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Entomol. Circ. No.
Mead, F.W., D.L. Harris, R. Nguyen, and 0. Sosa. 1984. The sugarcane
delphacid, Perkinsiella saccharicida (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in
North America. Bull. de la Societe Entomologique Suisse. 57(4):

Division of Plant Industry 49

Nguyen, Ru, and A. Hamon. 1985. Cloudy-winged white fly, Dialeurodes
citrifolli (Morgan) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
Entomol. Circ. 275.
Nickerson, J.C. and D. L. Harris. 1985. The Florida Carpenter Ant,
Camponotus abdominalis floridanus (Buckly) (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Division of Plant Industry. Entomol. Circ. No.269.
Shoultes, C. L., R.E. Brown, C.O. Youtsey, and J.J. McRitchie. 1986.
Plant Pest Regulations. In W. F. Wardowski, S. Nagy, and W.
Grierson (eds.) Fresh citrus fruits. Avi Publishing Co.,Inc. 571 p.
Sosa, 0., R. H. Cherry, and Ru Nguyen. 1986. Seasonal abundance and
temperature sensitivity of sugarcane delphacid (Homoptera:
Delphacidae). Environ. Entomol. 15:1100-1103.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report


J. H. O'Bannon, Chief

The objectives of this Bureau are to maintain a diagnostic program
for analyses of soil and plant samples for identification of
phytoparasitic nematodes involved in regulatory programs, pest detection
surveys, and phytoparasitic nematode plant problems. The principal part
of the sample workload is mandated by regulatory rules applicable to
nematode pests. These samples originate from in-state programs, out-of-
state and out-of-country plant shipments originating in Florida, and
samples intercepted in Florida from areas outside of the United States.
In addition, since the last biennium and the initiation of the Citrus
Canker program, in August 1984, the burrowing nematode (BN) sample
workload has been transferred from Winter Haven to Gainesville. Other
programs in response to the agricultural needs of the State are surveys
to detect exotic nematode pests that might prove harmful to Florida
agriculture, preparation, maintenance of data retrieval systems,
sanitation, control investigations, host testing of regulatory pests,
taxonomic descriptions and nematode repository entries.
During this biennium a total of 43,232 samples were diagnosed for
nematodes and other invertebrates (Table 1). This was a 64% increase in
samples processed over the previous biennium. This increase is due, in
part, to assuming the BN workload. Regulatory programs, including BN,
comprised 91% while nematode surveys and investigations comprise only 9%
of the program this biennium.
Two nematology grant-in-aid projects were initiated by the Bureau.
The first program funded by Lykes Pasco Packing Company is a three year
project, to determine if Citrus, Poncirus or their hybrids are hosts of
a grass race of Tylenchulus semipenetrans and to compare the grass race
and citrus race by morphometric studies. This study was begun September
30, 1985. The second program funded by Bedding Plants, Incorporated, is
to determine nematode survival and reproduction in rockwool and its
potential to serve as a carrier for nematode contaminants. This study
was begun in July 1985. Information about both studies are presented
elsewhere in this report.
To conduct the first study, the Division of Plant Industry
contracted with Dr. R. N. Inserra for service for the duration of the
terms of the agreement. The second study is being conducted by Dr. P.
S. Lehman, and will be continued for one year.

Regulatory Summary

Of the 43,232 samples examined 637 (0.015%) failed to meet
certification requirements (Table 2). This low number of failures is
due in part to the Florida growers awareness of nematodes in the
regulatory system and to the effectiveness of the DPI nematode-
sanitation control program.

Chemical Safety Data

During this biennium, as mandated by the legislature, the entire
stock of chemicals in the laboratories of the Bureau were inventoried
and those materials no longer needed were discarded, using appropriate
disposal methods. The remainder of those chemicals in the laboratories

Division of Plant Industry

that were included in the Florida Substance List were listed and
Material Safety Data Sheets obtained and compiled for each material.

Table 1. Nematology Work Project Categories and Productivity Figures.

Master Sub Total % Category % Grand
Category Category Units Total Total

Burrowing Nematode
California Export
White Tag Certification
Site Approval
Arizona Export
Soil Pit Approval
European Economic Community
Miscellaneous Export


Cabbage Cyst
Citrus Ectoparasitic
Meloidogyne cruciani survey
Citrus Nematode Survey in
non-cultivated areas
Pinewood Nematode
Golden Nematode
Citrus Survey










Investigations Plant Problem


646 .91
36 5.0
28 4.0


Grand Total 43,232






Table 2. Samples that

Regulatory Program

Burrowing Nematode

White tag certification

Site Approval Program

California Export

Soil Pit Program

Green Tag Certificatio

Premovement Program

Grand Total Failed San

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Failed Regulatory Requirements During the Biennium.

Phytoparasitic Nematode Failure Frequency
that caused failure occurrences

Radopholus similis 188
Total 188

in Radopholus similis 50
Rotylenchulus reniformis 2
Total 52

Tylenchulus semipenetrans 202
Radopholus similis 2
Pratylenchus sp. 1
Total 205

Rotylenchulus reniformis 30
Radopholus similis 9
Heterodera sp. 7
Belonolaimus sp. 6
Dolichodorus sp. 3
Total 55

Tylenchulus semipenetrans 33
Radopholus similis 3
Total 36

>n Rotylenchulus reniformis 27
Belonoloimus sp. and
Dolichodorus sp. 5
Total 32

Tylenchulus semipenetrans 17

nples: 637

Division of Plant Industry

Citrus Nursery Ectoparasitic Survey

R. P. Esser and W. M. Keen

The objective of the citrus nursery ectoparasitic survey was
primarily to evaluate a survey area neglected in earlier burrowing
nematode surveys. Secondary objectives included: evaluation of citrus
nursery sites in the site approval program, detection of new
infestations of nematodes, detection of fungi or insect pests that
might have become established in citrus nurseries, and finally to assess
the phytoparasitic nematodes present in the uncultivated environs of
citrus nurseries.

RESULTS: The integrity of the site approval program was validated by the
survey since no regulated phytoparasitic nematodes were detected from
the citrus plantings or in the uncultivated environ samples. A total of
312 citrus seedling samples mostly from field plantings were examined
from 14 citrus nurseries (Table 3). Sixty-nine per cent of the field
and greenhouse sample sites were free of phytoparasitic nematodes. In
one nursery where 57 sites were sampled, 83% of the sites were free of
phytoparasitic nematodes. The frequency of occurrence and per cent
occurrence of ectoparasitic phytoparasitic nematodes in citrus nurseries
was very low (Table 3). A total of 96.4% of the uncultivated environ
sites were infested with phytoparasitic nematodes (Table 4).
No previously unreported nematode pests of citrus were detected in
this survey.
At each survey site insects and plant parts showing symptoms of
plant disease were collected and sent to the proper bureau for
The survey was prematurely terminated due to the appearance of
citrus canker in citrus nurseries in 1984.

Table 3. Phytoparasitic Nematodes Detected in 312 Citrus Nursery
Ectoparasitic Survey Samples.

Frequency of occurrence % occurrence
Nematode Soil Root Total

Aphelenchoides sp. 3 1 4 1.3
Belonoloimus longicoudatus 7 1 8 2.6
Criconemoides sp. 10 0 10 3.2
Criconemoides citri 2 0 2 .6
Criconemoides curvatum 10 0 10 3.2
Helicotylenchus sp. 3 0 3 1.0
Hemicycliophora thienemanni 1 0 1 .3
Hoplolaimus sp. 2 0 2 .6
Meloidogyne sp. 2 0 2 .6
Peltamigratus sp. 1 0 1 .3
Protylenchus sp. 2 0 2 .6
Protylenchus brachyurus 2 0 2 .6
Scutellonema sp. 3 0 3 1.0
Tylenchorhynchus sp. 1 0 1 .3
Xiphinema sp. 5 0 5 1.6
Xiphinemo americanum 5 0 5 1.6
Totals 59 2 61

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 4. Nematodes Detected in the 71 Uncultivated Environ Samples.

Frequency of occurrence % occurrence
Nematode Soil Root Total

Aphelenchoides sp. 3 0 3 4.2
Belonolaimus longicaudotus 9 0 9 12.7
Criconemoides sp. 8 0 8 11.3
Criconemoides citri 7 0 7 9.9
Criconemoides curvatum 5 0 5 7.4
Ditylenchus sp. 1 0 1 1.4
Helicotylenchus sp. 1 0 1 1.4
Hemicriconemoides sp. 2 0 2 2.8
Hemicycliophora sp. 1 0 1 1.4
Hoplolaimus sp. 2 0 2 2.8
Meloidodera sp. 1 0 1 1.4
Meloidogyne sp. 6 0 6 8.5
Peltamigratus christiei 3 0 3 4.2
Protylenchus sp. 6 2 8 11.3
Protylenchus brachyurus 5 3 8 11.3
Protylenchus zeae 3 1 4 5.6
Scutellonema sp. 2 0 2 2.8
Trichodorus sp. 3 0 3 4.2
Trichodorus christiei 2 1 3 4.2
Trichodorus proximus 1 0 1 1.4
Tylenchorhynchus sp. 2 0 2 2 .8
Xiphinema sp. 8 0 8 11.3
Xiphinema americanum 4 0 4 5.6
Totals 85 7 92

Nematode Taxonomic Retrieval System

R. P. Esser, Nematologist

To facilitate correct identification of plant parasitic nematodes
involved in regulatory programs and to ensure recognition of new
nematode pests that may enter Florida, a comprehensive taxonomic filing
system is maintained. During the biennium, 13 descriptions of genera
and 844 species of plant parasitic nematodes were incorporated into the
system, bringing the total to 189 genera and 4,247 species.

Meloidogyne cruciani Survey

R. P. Esser, A. L. Taylor, K. Gerber, and J. H. O'Bannon, Nematologists

In March 1986 Meloidogyne cruciani was detected infecting tomato
plants from a greenhouse at Live Oak, Florida. Since this nematode,
originally described from tomato plants in St. Croix, Virgin Islands,
had not been previously detected in Florida, an immediate intensive
survey was instituted to determine the extent of the infestation.
A total of 364 soil and root samples were examined during the
biennium (Table 5). Almost all roots collected in the survey possessed
root-knot galls. A total of 59 root samples in the survey were infected
with M. cruciani. The pest was detected in greenhouses in Alachua,

Division of Plant Industry 55

Orange, and Suwannee counties. During the survey period, root-knot
infested samples from counties outside the infested counties were
examined with negative results. The pest was detected in field
plantings in Alachua and Suwannee counties.
Regulatory Action: Greenhouses, growth rooms, and field areas that
might have been exposed to the pest were put under quarantine until a
survey was implemented and expedited. Plants in greenhouses and growth
rooms found infested were destroyed and soil in the site was treated
with steam or methyl bromide to eradicate the pest. Benches and other
artifacts in the site were scrubbed down with NaOC1. After intensive
clean up and inspection, the sites were removed from quarantine. The
survey and disinfection was conducted by Hubert Collins, Jr.
(supervisor) and Anne Newitt, Wayne Smith, and J. R. Thomas.
Host Range: Original hosts for this pest included: cabbage, corn,
pepper, sweet potato, tobacco, and tomato. Five new hosts of M.
crucioni were detected in the survey, in addition to 31 new host
parasite associations (Table 5).

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 5. Nematodes Detected in
Associated plant
Nematodes detected
Aeschynomene americana
*Meloidogyne acrita
**Meloidoygne cruciani
*Meloidogyne incognito
*Meloidogyne javanica
Arachis sp.
Belonolaimus sp.
Criconemoides sp.
Helicotylenchus sp.
Meloidogyne arenaria
Pratylenchus sp.
Xiphinema sp.
Basella alba
Meloidogyne incognita
Beta vulgaris
*Criconemoides citri
*Meloidogyne acrita
*Meloidogyne incognita
Trichodorus sp.
Cajanus cajan
*Meloidogyne incognita
*Meloidogyne javanica
Cirsium sp.
*Meloidogyne acrita
*Meloidogyne incognito
*Meloidoygne javanico
Cucumis sativus
Desmodium intortum
Criconemoides sp.
*Meloidogyne acrita
**Meloidogyne cruciani
*Meloidogyne incognita
*Meloidogyne javanica

*New host parasite association
**New host for M. cruciani

the Meloidogyne cruciani Survey.

Lycopersicon esculentum
Aphelenchoides sp.
*Criconemoides citri
*Criconemoides curvatum
Helicotylenchus sp.
Meloidogyne acrito
Meloidogyne arenaria
Meloidogyne cruciani
Meloidogyne hapla
Meloidogyne incognita
Meloidogyne javanica
*Meloidogyne thamsii
*Scutellonema bradys
*Trichodorus christiei
Nicotiana tabacum
Meloidogyne acrita
Meloidogyne cruciani
Meloidogyne incognita
Meloidogyne javanica
Richardia scabra
Meloidogyne sp.
Sepium sebiferum
*Meloidogyne incognita
Trifolium sp.
*Aphelenchoides sp.
*Meloidogyne acrita
Trifolium pretense
*Meloidogyne sp.
Trifolium subteranium
**Meloidogyne cruciani
*Meloidogyne incognita
*Meloidogyne javanica
Vicia villosa
*Criconemoides sp.
*Meloidogyne arenaria
**Meloidogyne cruciana
*Meloidogyne incognito
*Meloidogyne javanica

Status: The survey will be continued into the next biennium. Efforts
will be made to restrict the distribution of this pest from the original
infested area.

Division of Plant Industry

Diagnoses and Control of Plant Problems Caused by

P. S. Lehman, Nematologist

A total of 646 plant problem samples were processed during the
biennium. These samples originated from a broad spectrum of consumer
interests including nurserymen, growers, grove owners, and homeowners.
Many problems are diagnosed cooperatively with other technical bureaus
in the Division of Plant Industry, and subsequent control
recommendations are made cooperatively, whenever possible. When
necessary, visits are made to areas where growers are having important
economic problems.

Improving Efficiency of Soybean Cyst Nematode
Race Tests

P. S. Lehman, Nematologist

Determination of Nematode races is necessary for control
recommendations and regulatory considerations. In cooperation with Dr.
Robert Dunn, IFAS Extension nematologist, investigations were conducted
to evaluate how race tests might be improved. Our observations and
greenhouse tests indicate that 8-inch long plastic tubes, commercially
known as Conetainers (Ray Leach Conetainer Nursery, Canby, OR) are
superior to clay pots for SCN race tests. Reproduction was highest on
Lee soybeans grown in infested soil in Conetainers. The mean number of
cysts per plant in Conetainers was 145, compared to 51 in 3 inch clay
pots, and 41 in 4 inch clay pots (Table 6). For routine SCN race tests,
Conetainers require less infested soil, and this is an advantage to
growers when submitting soil, and for laboratory personnel when tests
are processed. The shape of Conetainers allows for very good tap root
development, yet the roots are more concentrated in the medium than in
clay pots with larger volumes, and this is an advantage if limited
amounts of SCN inoculum are available for experimental tests. In the
greenhouse, Conetainers require less space, and under the conditions in
which they were tested it was easier to maintain uniform moisture in
Conetainers than in the clay pots.

Table 6. Reproduction of Two Populations of the Soybean Cyst Nematode,
Heterodera glycines,on Lee Soybean Grown in Conetainers and Cloy Pots.1

Mean number of cysts/plant
Population Conetainer 4-in clay pot 3-in clay pot
A 128 58 30
B 162 24 71
Mean 145 41 51

1Initial inoculum density of populations A and B was 17 and 10 cysts
per 100 cc soil, respectively.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Techniques for Extraction of Nematodes from Rockwool
and Other New Synthetic Growing Media

P. S. Lehman, Nematologist

The Nematology Bureau is receiving an increasing number of samples
from plants grown in new types of artificial media. A project has been
initiated to develop efficient methods of extraction of nematodes from
those media when processing samples for regulatory purposes. During the
biennium the Nematology Bureau received a research grant to evaluate
nematode movement, reproduction, and survival in rockwool, an inert
fibrous material that is produced primarily from volcanic rock, and used
for insulation in the U.S. building industry. Rockwool has only been
introduced to the American horticultural products market during the past
few years, but its use as a plant growing medium has expanded rapidly
during the past 15 years in Western Europe, where approximately 50% of
all greenhouse grown vegetables are grown in rockwool, and its use is
now expanding rapidly in the ornamental industry. We are now faced with
requests from European growers to import plants in rockwool under
Quarantine 37 regulations. Unfortunately, research data on the survival
and reproduction of pathogens and pests in rockwool are not available.
Furthermore, the fibrous nature of this medium will require the
development of new techniques for nematode extraction. Therefore, these
investigations will provide new information and develop new methodology
that is essential for sound regulatory decisions.

Contamination by Adherence of Nematodes to
Plastic Containers

P. S. Lehman, Nematologist

Tests were conducted to evaluate the percentage of nematodes
adhering to polystyrene containers and other plastics routinely
substituted for glassware in nematology laboratories. The results have
implications for quality control in the Bureau's nematology laboratory.
Nematodes were observed adhering to new polystyrene petri dishes,
polypropylene beakers, and polycarbonate centrifuge tubes, after routine
rinsing with deionized water from a wash bottle. After one rinse, 85%
of Meloidogyne incognito juveniles, 64% of Tylenchulus semipenetrans
juveniles, and 18% of Radopholus similis juveniles and adults adhered to
the surface of 60 x 15 mm polystyrene petri dishes. After 5 successive
rinses, 30, 28, and 6% of M. incognita, T. semipenetrans, and R. similis
remained, respectively. In additional tests with R. similis, after 4
rinses 261 and 46 of 2000 nematodes adhered to the surface of 250 ml
polypropylene beakers and polycarbonate conical centrifuge tubes,
respectively. Some nematodes adhered to the surface of these plastic
containers oven after spraying with moderate water pressure at a
laboratory sink. In all tests, no nematodes adhered to the surface
after one rinse, when glass containers were used.
The results from these investigations indicate there is potential
for contamination through adherence of nematodes to new plastic
containers, and this information is especially significant for
regulatory laboratories. The results also indicate that errors may

Division of Plant Industry

occur when research or assay laboratories use plastic dishes for
nematode counts, or when plastic containers are used in extracting
nematodes for biochemical studies or maintaining greenhouse cultures.

Quarantine 37 Activities

P. S. Lehman, Nematologist

Florida's warm, humid climate and diversity of crops makes it
uniquely vulnerable to the establishment of pathogens and pests that are
adapted to ornamental plants. For this reason, the Division of Plant
Industry has actively tried to assess the biological impact of relaxing
federal Quarantine 37 regulations. In January of 1985, Paul Lehman was
invited to speak at the Q-37 forum in Chicago on nematological
implications of the proposed modifications of 0-37 regulations relating
to plant importation. He also was asked to represent the Division of
Plant Industry at the forum in Chicago. Drs. Robert Woodruff, DPI
Entomologist, and Calvin Schoulties, Chief of the Bureau of Plant
Pathology, assisted in updating pest data pertaining to Q-37
regulations. These data were used by forum members in Chicago to assess
biological risks to United States agriculture that could result from
modifying Q-37 regulations. The American Farm Bureau has requested to
use a part of the document prepared for the Chicago Forum. This is an
illustrated brochure centering around 5 principal areas of concern and
is entitled: "37 Questions on Amending Quarantine 37--Is Scientific
Risk Assessment Possible Without More Answers?"
In September 1985, a visit was made to the Miami APHIS headquarters
to discuss inspection procedures that are used to detect nematodes that
may enter Florida and the United States with plants imported in Miami.

China Exchange Visits

P. S. Lehman, Nematologist

During the biennium DPI personnel participated in an agricultural
scientific exchange sponsored by the Sichuan Bureau of Higher Education
of the People's Republic of China and the Chinese Educational Exchange
Agency located in the United States and Canada. During the past
several years three groups of professors from Sichuan Agricultural
College were hosted by the Division of Plant Industry and the University
of Florida. Dr. D. E. Harder, a Canadian plant pathologist, and Dr.
Paul Lehman, DPI nematologist, were invited by these exchange agencies
to visit 12 agricultural institutions in China during the fall of 1984.
The focus of their exchange visit, however, was primarily at Sichuan
Agricultural University located at Yaan in Sichuan Province. During
their visit, Drs. Harder and Lehman gave a series of lectures relating
to their respective disciplines. The exchange visits have provided
opportunity for in-depth discussions to plant protection and
quarantines. A list of insect pests, diseases, and nematodes that occur
in Sichuan Province and Florida has been prepared through the
cooperative efforts of scientist at DPI and Sichuan Agricultural
Sichuan Province is an important agricultural region in southwest
China that shares similar latitude, climate, and crops with Florida.
This province, with 100 million people, is one of the oldest intensively

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

cultivated agricultural regions in the world. Scientific exchange, that
has been initiated in recent years, has generally been with scientists
in institutions in Eastern China, in large cities such as Beijing.
Agricultural exchange between scientists in southwest China and North
American scientists has been very limited. The National Citrus Research
Center of China is located in Sichuan Province. In addition, there is
unique potential to obtain effective biological control agents in this
region of China. For these reasons the agricultural exchange which
occurred during the biennium was especially significant.

New Method for Nematode Storage

J. B. MacGowan, Nematologist

A new method for nematode storage has been developed. Part of the
Florida Collection of Nematodes consists of over 2,000 screw cap vials
containing preserved nematodes. Because of the variability of
tolerances in the manufacturing process, fluid is lost from evaporation
at rates varying from relatively slow to relatively fast. Regular
monitoring and refilling is necessary in order to prevent total
dehydration and subsequent loss of valuable specimens.
A technique has been developed whereby specimens are hermetically
sealed in glass ampoules in order to eliminate the problems of slow
evaporation. The process can be easily employed with a hand held
propane torch and standard laboratory glass tubing.

Nematode Longevity

J. B. MacGowan, Nemotologist

Soil from 2 cabbage fields in St. Johns County and 1 cabbage field
in Putnam County was stored under refrigeration for 2 years at 10-15
degrees C. After 2 years, 48 samples were processed by centrifugal
sugar flotation for recovery of plant parasitic nemtodes. Live
nematodes of 8 different genera were recovered. The nematodes were
considered to be alive only if they were observed to be moving. The
total numbers of live nematodes which survived 2 years storage are
listed below in descending order of abundance.

Nematodes Number Found
Helicotylenchus sp. 195
Hemicycliophora sp. 31
Criconemoides sp. 15
Tylenchorhynchus sp. 9
Dolichodorus sp. 5
Belonolaimus sp. 4
Trichodorus sp. 2
Hoplolaimus sp. 1

Florida State Collection of Nematodes

J. B. MacGowan, Nemotologist

The Bureau of Nematology houses a growing collection of nematode
specimens preserved on microscope slides, in small vials and large screw

Division of Plant Industry

cap jars. Although the collection consists mostly of plant parasitic
nematodes, it also contains nematodes parasitic to animals and humans,
and a smaller number of other helminths and invertebrates.
The collection receives contributions from workers within the State
of Florida and the United States. It serves the Bureau as a source of
reference and comparison for nematode identifications as well as a
repository for voucher specimens.

The status of the collection inventory at present is as follows:

Microscope slides 5800
Bottled specimens 2200
Total units, slides & bottles 8000

In order to more efficiently manage the growing mass of
documentation for specimens in the collection, reference data of all
specimens are being catalogued into a specially prepared data base for
computer storage and processing. The PC File III Version 4 applications
software provides the data base structure which is easy to learn and
operate by personnel unfamiliar with computer operations.
Labels for bottles and slides have been prepared from stock which
was especially selected for the collection only after a series of
comparative studies to assess its suitability. Only papers having a
high rag content were considered. Twenty-five different types of gummed
paper stock were tested for acid content in both the paper and the gum.
Additional tests were implemented to compare surface compatibility for
writing with hard and soft lead pencil, ball point pens with oil based
ink, fine tip drafting pen with drafting ink, and fine felt tip pens
with water based ink. Additionally, the paper was tested with
typewritten characters from both carbon film ribbon and inked fabric
ribbon. Papers which had low or no acid content and which had
satisfactory writing surfaces were immersed in water, isopropyl alcohol,
microscope immersion oil, lactophenol and glycerine to determine how
well the fiber mat of the paper retained inks which could be bled or
faded by these compounds. The paper which was selected was that which
was judged to be the most satisfactory following the tests.

Cabbage Cyst Nematode Survey

J. B. MacGowan, Nemotologist

Within the State of Florida, the cabbage cyst nematode (sugarbeet
cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii) is known to infest cabbage in
Seminole and Volusia counties. This survey was on attempt to find out
if the nematode had spread to cabbage fields in St. Johns, Putnam and
Clay counties, and to determine the distribution if an infestation was
Cabbage (Brossica oleraceoe) was the target host for the survey.
Fields were visually examined for obvious disease symptoms or lack of
vitality. Fields showing disease symptoms or lack of vitality were
given first priority for sampling. If no symptoms were observed and the
crop in the field appeared healthy, the field was considered to be
conditionally negative for the nematode. Conditionally negative fields
were given second priority for sampling.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

The results of the survey are as follows:
Samples collected
Samples processed and read during
the 1984-86 biennium
Counties surveyed
Sites sampled
Nematode species recovered

The following nematode species were
Belonolaimus longicoudatus
Belonolaimus sp.
Criconema cobbi
Criconema sp.
Criconemella curvata
Criconemella sp.
Criconemoides citri
Criconemoides curvatum
Criconemoides sp.
Dolichodorus sp.
Helicotylenchus dihystero
Helicotylenchus sp.
Hemicriconemoides wessoni
Hemicriconemoides squamosum
Hemicriconemoides sp.
Hemicycliophora sp.
Hemicycliophora n. sp.

Heterodera cyperi
Heterodera sp.
Hoplolaimus tylenchiformis
Hoploloimus goleatus
Hoplolaimus sp.
Meloidogyne sp.
Protylenchus zeoe
Pratylenchus sp.
Scutellonema bradys
Scutellonema sp.
Trichodorus christiei
Trichodorus pachydermus
Trichodorus minor
Trichodorus sp.
Tylenchorhynchus martini
Tylenchorhynchus sp.

Improved Nematode Recovery Technique

J. B. MacGowon, Nematologist

This laboratory processes a wide variety of soils and substrates to
recover plant parasitic nematodes for identification and evaluation of
their regulatory significance. Although samples are carefully processed
by competent and well trained personnel, significant amounts of debris
from certain types of soil and growing media do not always respond to
our standard separation techniques. As a result, some samples are so
occluded with organic debris that nematode recognition and
identification can be very difficult and time consuming. Since
effective regulatory nematology is contingent on maximum visibility of
all recovered nematodes from any given sample, a secondary processing
technique, to further separate nematodes from sample debris, has been
A 2-ply piece of facial tissue 2 1/2 inches square is placed across
the meniscus of a tapered glass tube which has been filled to within 1
inch of the rim with water. The tissue is positioned as a concave
filter directly in contact with the water. It acts as a miniature
Baermann funnel. After a debris laden sample has received its normal
and routine examination for nematodes, the same material is transferred
to the tissue in the tapered tube. Nematodes which migrated through the
tissue were examined after 5 hours and/or 18 hours. These results were
compared with the baseline results of the original examination of each
By the end of the 1984-86 biennium, 130 samples had received
secondary processing and the results were compared with the results of



Division of PLant Industry

their original examinations. The results of the second readings of all
samples tested are as follows:
1. More species of nematodes or greater population numbers of the
same species were observed in and recorded from 43 samples
2. The same species and the same population numbers were observed
in and recorded from 85 samples (65.4%)
3. Fewer species or population numbers of species were observed
in and recorded from only 2 samples (1.5%).
In conclusion, it appears that an effective secondary processing
technique for some samples may help to raise the efficiency and accuracy
of diagnostic services. Investigations of secondary processing
techniques will continue during the 1986-88 biennium.

Coverslip Sealing Compounds

J. B. MacGowan, Nemotologist

Six years after preparation, 110 microscope slides were examined.
The slides were prepared by mounting nematodes in 5 different types of
media under coverslips sealed with combinations of 11 different adhesive
compounds. This was part of a continuing effort to discover a coverslip
sealing compound which can be satisfactorily substituted for Bennett's
zut. The slides were graded as follows:
1. Substance compatability
a) bonding and sealing stability.
b) integrity of substance cohesion at interface of
sealing compound and mountant.
c) degree of physical and chemical interaction of sealing
compound with mountant.
2. Specimen quality
a) the degree to which substance interactions affect the
long term quality of preservation and taxonomic worth of
a specimen.
Although it is premature to make any recommendations, 5 compounds
have shown, in selected circumstances, enough potential to warrant
further testing. They are:
1. Permount mounting medium
2. Pro-Texx mounting medium
3. Flo-Texx liquid coverslip
4. Revlon 61 clear nail polish
5. Varnish (tung oil based)
A complete evaluation of these and the other substances requires
further testing and is beyond the scope of this report. These
investigations will continue during the 1986-88 biennium.

Studies on Tylenchulus semipenetrans physiological
races attacking noncultivated plants in Florida

Renato N. Inserra, Nematologist

Several physiological races of the citrus nematode Tylenchulus
semipenetrans have been reported worldwide. These have been
differentiated on the basis of the host-range of the nematode
populations among rutaceous and nonrutaceous plants. In 1966 Stokes and

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Langdon reported a new T. semipenetrans race called the grass race
because it attacks the grass Schizachyrium rhizomatum, but not citrus,
in Florida.
The recent freezes that have irreparably damaged citrus groves in
the north-central citrus belt of Florida have resulted in movement of
many citrus nurseries to the southern part of Florida, in noncultivated
land. This land is often infested with the grass race of the citrus
nematode and, in accordance with the regulations of the State of
Florida, fails to obtain certification for site approval.
A project on the geographical distribution, host-range, biology,
taxonomic status and host-parasite relations of the grass race of T.
semipenetrons was initiated in 1985-1986. The purpose of this project,
which is funded by a grant-in-aid from Lykes Pasco Packing Co., Citrus
Management Division, is to detect morpho-biological or physiological
differences between the grass race of T. semipenetrans and the other
races that attack citrus. V. G. Brown, L. J. Chambliss, E. R. Fatic, S.
A. Fuller, W. M. Keen, C. E. Nelson, W. W. Smith, and J. R. Thomas of
the Bureau of Plant Inspection, J. H. O'Bannon, R. P. Esser, and R. N
Inserra of the Bureau of Nematology and K. R. Langdon of the Office of
Systematic Botany are involved in this investigation. N. Vovlas of the
Istituto Nematologia Agraria of Bari, Italy is collaborating on the
histopathological and taxonomical aspects of the project. In 1985-1986
two hundred eighteen samples were collected from non-cultivated land of
the north, central and south parts of Florida. Nematological analysis
of over 2,000 subsamples has revealed that two physiological races of
the citrus nematode are present in non-cultivated soils in Florida.
One race, which corresponds to the grass race reported by Stokes and
Langdon, attacks monocots; the other race, which has been indicated as
the bush race, attacks non-rutaceous dicots.
Host range and geographical distribution. The grass race has
presently been detected only on monocots and in particular broomsedge
(Andropogon virginicus). It was also found infecting centipede grass
(Eremochloa ophiuroides). Broomsedge is widespread in Florida and the
grass race appears to be widespread on broomsedge (Fig. 1). The
nematode genera and species associated with broomsedge in Florida are
reported in Table 7.
The bush race has been found only on pop ash (Froxinus
caroliniana) and salt bush (Baccharis halimifolia) so far. This race
was observed only in Dixie and Taylor counties but is probably more
widespread. The nematode genera and species detected with T.
semipenetrans bush race in pop ash roots are reported in Table 8.
Morphology. Juveniles and males of the grass and bush races are
indistinguishable from those of T. semipenetrans citrus races. However,
mature adult females of all three races each differ in body and
postvulval section shapes. Mature adult females of the citrus race have
50-60% of the posterior body portion swollen and a digitate postvulval
section with a round, smooth terminus and absence of an anus. The
mature adult females of the bush race have 50-60% of their posterior
body swollen similar to females from citrus, but a conoid postvulval
section. The grass race adult females have 70-75% of their posterior
body swollen and a digitate postvulval section with a pointed or
mucronate terminus and presence of anus and rectum. We consider the
grass and bush races two different species than the citrus race and
their description is in progress.

Division of Plant Industry

Histopathology. The histological examination of broomsedge and
salt bush roots infected with grass and bush race females, respectively,
has indicated these two races induce anatomical changes in the roots
similar to those reported for citrus roots infected with citrus race
females. Both grass and bush race females are cortical feeders and form
specialized cells called nurse cells in the cortex. The nurse cells are
the same size as healthy cortical cells, but have dense cytoplasm and
hypertrophied nuclei and prominent nucleoli. The nurse cells surround
an empty cortical cell where the nematode head is located.
In native forests of northern Florida pop ash roots are infected
concomitantly by T. semipenetrans bush race and the root-knot nematode
Meloidogyne incognita. These concomitantly infected pop ash roots show
root-knot galls induced by M. incognita and mature T. semipenetrans bush
race females protruding from their surface. Histological observations
of cross sections through these galls indicate that the two nematodes
exploit two different niches of the root tissues without interfering in
either feeding activity. T. semipenetrans bush race forms nurse cells
in the cortex; M. incognito induces formation of giant cells in the
Biology. Biological data on T. semipenetrans bush race on pop ash
were obtained in November 1985 when pop ash roots and soil were under
water and in June 1986 at the end of the low rainfall season. At both
sampling dates the bush race density were less than 2 nematodes/cm3 of
soil and the sex ratios (males/females) were less than 0.10. These
values were smaller than those for T. semipenetrans citrus race that
usually ranges from 30 to 150 nematodes/cm3 of soil with sex ratio
values ranging from 0.22 to 0.50. The adult females of the bush race
were also less prolific than those of the citrus race. The low number
of males present in the bush race populations is a major biological
characteristic that distinguishes this race from the citrus race.

Table 7. Frequency of Nematode Genera and Species Associated with
Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) from 31 Localities of Florida.

Nematode Frequency (%)
Belonolaimus sp. 19
Cocopourus sp. 25
Criconemoides sp. 64
Helicotylenchus sp. 83
Hemicriconemoides sp. 9
Hemicycliophora sp. 35
Longidorus sp. 3
Meloidodera floridensis 12
Meloidogyne sp. 12
Peltomigratus christiei 6
Parotylenchus sp. 3
Protylenchus sp. 32
Trophotylenchulus floridensis 3
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (grass race) 70
Tylenchorhynchus sp. 12
Xiphinema sp. 29

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 8. Frequency of Nematode Genera and Species Detected in Pop Ash
(Fraxinus caroliniona) Roots from Eight Sites in Dixie and Taylor

Nematode Frequency (%)
Helicotylenchus sp. 25
Meloidogyne incognita 50
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (bush race) 50
Verutus volvingentis 50

Staff Publications

Esser, R. P., A. L. Taylor, and Q. L. Holdeman. 1984. Characterization
of burrowing nematode Rodopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949
for regulatory purposes. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Cir. No. 113.
S. E. Simpson, and R. R. Snell. 1984. Sting nematode, a
potentially severe pest in citrus nurseries. Citrus Ind., Oct.
1984, pp. 16-18, 58.
S. E. Simpson (senior author), and A. L. Taylor. 1984.
Improvements in a disposal system for nematology laboratory waste.
Proc. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 43:197-200
,_ J. M. Ferris, V. Ferris, and S. L. Chang. 1985. Nematological
Examination in Standard methods for the examination of water and
wastewater. 16th ed., American Public Health Association, pp. 995-
C. C. Riherd, and K. J. Harkcom. 1986. Pathogenicity of
Scutellonemo brochyurum to Aloe vera. Proc. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc.
1985. Characterization of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus
reniformis Linford & Oliviera, 1940 (Tylenchidae) for regulatory
purposes. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 120
1985. Characterization of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus
destructor Thorne, 1945 (Tylenchidae) for regulatory purposes.
,_ G. R. Buckingham, C. A. Bennett, and K. J. Harkcom. 1985. A
survey of phytoparasitic and free living nematodes associated with
aquatic macrophytes in Florida. Proc. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
J. H. O'Bannon, and W. W. Smith. 1986. Ghost citrus groves.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ.
No. 126.
1986. A water agar en face technique. Proc. Helminthol. Soc.
Wash. 53(2):254-255.
Inserra, R. N., J. H. O'Bannon, N. Vovlas, and G. D. Griffin. 1985.
Development of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on wheat. J. Nematol. 17:322-
J. H. O'Bannon, N. Vovlas, R. P. Esser, and K. R. Langdon. 1986.
Noncultivated hosts of Tylenchulus semipenetrans grass race. J.
Nematol. 18:614 (Abstr.).
Sand N. Vovlas. 1986. Cystoid nematodes and their economic
importance. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 128. 4 pp.

Division of Plant Industry of

SN. Vovlas (senior author), and I. Moreno. 1986. Histopathology
of root gall induced in tomato by Globodera pallida. J. Nematol.
G. D. Griffin (senior author), N. Vovlas, and D. V. Sisson.
1986. Differential reaction of alfalfa cultivars to Meloidogyne
hapla and N. chitwoodi populations. J. Nematol. 18:347-352.
Lehman, P. S. 1984. Nematodes which cause decline of gardenia. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No.
111. 2 pp.
S 1985. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Ardisia in
Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 115. 2 pp.
1985. Nacobbus, the false root-knot nematode. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nematology Circ. No. 119.
4 pp.
S 1985. Galls on the aboveground plant parts caused by root-knot
nematodes. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 125. 2 pp.
1986. Contamination by adherence of nematodes to new plastic
containers. J. Nematol. 18:618 (Abstr.)
and J. B. MacGowan. 1986. Inflorescence and leaf galls on
Palisota barteri caused by Meloidogyne javanica. J. Nematol.
1986. Tylenchocriconema alleni, a pathogen of the bromeliad,
Tillandsia flabellate. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 129. 2 pp.
MacGowan, J. B. 1984. Hemicriconemoides mangiferae Siddiqi 1961. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No.
110. 2 pp.
S 1986. A new, efficient technique for permanent nematode
storage. J. Nematol. 18:419-420.
O'Bannon, J. H., and G. S. Santo. 1984. Effect of soil temperature on
reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla alone and in
combination on potato and M. chitwoodi on rotation plants. J.
Nematol. 16:309-312.
J. M. Charchar (senior author), and G. S. Santo. 1984. Life
cycle of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla on potato in controlled
temperature tanks and microplots. Proc. First Int. Cong. Nematol.,
August 5-10, 1984, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, p. 40.
and D. T. Kaplan (senior author). 1984. Identification of
burrowing nematode (Radopholus citrophilus) races and variability
in rootstock compatibility and tolerance to nematodes. Proc. First
Int. Cong. Nematol., August 5-10, 1984, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, p.
W. L. Boge, and G. S. Santo. 1984. The influence of four
storage temperatures on Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. haplo egg
development, survival and reproduction. Proc. First Int. Cong.
Nematol., August 5-10, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, p. 63.
1984. The influence of two races of the burrowing nematode
Radopholus Similis on peanut (Arochis hypogaea). Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 112, 2 pp
and D. T. Kaplan (senior author). 1985. Occurrence of biotypes
in Radopholus citrophilus. J. Nematol. 17:158-162.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

__ W. L. Boge, and R. N. Peaden. 1985. A comparison of NaOCl or
water extraction on development and survival of Meloidogyne
chitwoodi and M. haplo eggs at four temperatures. J. Nematol.
17:508 (Abstr.).
__ and R. P. Esser. 1985. Citrus declines caused by nematodes in
Florida. I. Soil factors. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 114. 4 pp.
and R. P. Esser. 1985. Citrus declines caused by nematodes in
Florida. II. Physiological races. Fla. Dept. Agric & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 116. 4 pp.

and A. C. Tarjan. 1985. Citrus declines caused by nematodes in
Florida. III. Citrus slump. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 117. 4 pp.
and R. P. Esser. 1985. Citrus declines caused by nematodes in
Florida. IV. Management decisions. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 118. 4 pp.
M. Ivezic (senior author), and D. Samota. 1985. Plant parasitic
nematodes of vineyards with special attention on genus Xiphinema.
Zastita Bilja 36(3) No. 173:255-261.

Bureau of Nematology Publications
by Contributing Nematologists

Dickson, D. W. 1985. Nematode diseases of peanut. Fla. Dept. Agric. &
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 121.
Gerber, Karin. 1986. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with the
aquatic plants Ceratophyllum demersum and Hydrillo verticillata.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ.
No. 130.
Overman, A. J. 1985. Root-knot nematodes in gladiolus corms. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No.
Rich, J. R., and R. A. Dunn. 1985. Root-knot disease in Florida
tobacco. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 122.
Taylor, A. L. 1986. Identification of Meloidogyne acrita Chitwood,
1949 the cotton root-knot nematode. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 127.

Division of Plant Industry



Robert J. Griffith, Chief

The Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control is responsible for
programs which direct the eradication and control of specific, serious
pests affecting the agriculture industry. During this biennium, the
Bureau is involved in five programs aimed at control and/or
eradication, those being: citrus canker, Caribbean fruit fly,
spreading decline, Mediterranean fruit fly, and imported fire ant.
Citrus canker, a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas
compestris pv. citri, had not been seen in Florida in over fifty
years. In August 1984, citrus canker was confirmed in a large Polk
County nursery. During this biennium, canker has been confirmed in 18
nurseries and 2 groves.
After the August 1984 canker find, officials took swift action by
immediately destroying infested and exposed trees. Quarantines were
imposed on all citrus movement, and the United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) declared an extraordinary emergency in the state.
Survey and control crews throughout the state began inspecting
nurseries, groves, and dooryards to delimit the extent of the disease
and to eradicate it. The manpower required for this project has been
provided by this Bureau and other Department employees, the USDA, and
an average of 400 temporary employees. By 30 June 1986, nearly 20
million trees had been destroyed in the state.
Surveys still continue on a regular basis. The first statewide
grove and dooryard survey was completed in the spring of 1986.
Nurseries are inspected more frequently; field-grown crops on a 30-day
schedule, and greenhouse crops on a 14-day schedule.
Quarantines were replaced by restrictions on citrus movement under
limited permits and compliance agreements. Some restrictions have
since been eased, but many remain in place to prevent disease spread
and illegal shipment of citrus material to citrus producing states.
In March 1986, as a result of the Gramm Rudman Act, the USDA
reduced its staff, leaving a skeleton staff to participate in the
cooperative project on a limited basis. Some of the regulatory duties
previously held by USDA personnel in the packinghouses were assumed by
Division of Fruit and Vegetable inspectors, as well as Citrus Canker
Project personnel.
With the banning of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation as a post-
harvest fruit treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly,
the Bureau is involved in developing a protocol for the "fly-free
area" concept. The success of this protocol will allow continuous
sale of fruit to important citrus markets such as California, Texas,
Arizona, and Japan.
Bureau personnel continue to maintain 2,000 McPhail traps, conduct
control programs, and collect population and infestation data. Since 1
July 1984, only one Caribbean fruit fly has been trapped in two
years. Data from spray programs in an urban area indicate a potential
reduction in fly population of up to 95%. This would prevent
migration of fruit flies to commercial groves. Test plots in a
commercial grapefruit grove were treated with aerial bait sprays.
Subsequent inspection of approximately 130,000 fruit from treated and
non-treated plots revealed no fly larvae.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

This data was incorporated into a proposed protocol for review by
the Japanese Department of Agriculture. If the Japanese accept the
protocol, fruit from approximately 50,000 acres of grove area may
qualify for shipment to Japan under the fly-free area concept. The
Spreading Decline Program continues, but at a reduced pace. Since the
ban on the use of EDB in 1983, soil fumigation of chemical buffers
around groves and nurseries was discontinued. Many Spreading Decline
personnel were diverted to the canker project.
Data from soil and root samples taken from old buffers continues
to show movement of the burrowing nematode across the buffers.
Requests for samples of suspicious areas still come in from grove and
real estate interests. The establishment of new citrus nurseries,
stemming from eradication activities on the canker project, has also
resulted in requests for sampling at new sites.
Public demand for Amdro in the Imported Fire Ant Program also
remains high. The pullout of the USDA from the program in 1985
resulted in an increase in the price of Amdro bait to the consumer.
Demand for 25-lb bags is decreasing, while homeowner demand for 1-lb
bags increases. The Imported Fire Ant Program is now self-supporting
with escrow accounts providing funds for the operation.

Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol

Leon H. Hebb, Assistant Chief

Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, has been in Florida
since April 1965. Early in the infestation, consideration for
eradication was given and urged by the Division of Plant Industry.
The eradication was not supported by the USDA because the prime host
list did not include any of Florida's commercial crops of economic
importance. Commercial citrus is considered a secondary host, usually
affected only late in the harvest season.
The Caribbean fruit fly has spread throughout Peninsular Florida
and has caused heavy losses in ornamental and dooryard fruit such as
calamondin, kumquat, peach, nectarine, sand pear, and to a larger
extent, in mature and introduced tropical fruits. The common wild
guava, the Cattley guava, the Surinam cherry and loquat are the
preferred hosts in which the fly population is maintained. Because
the Caribbean fruit fly is present in Florida, important citrus fruit
markets (Japan, California, Arizona, and Texas) require certification
of imported fruit regarding freedom from the pest. The most
economical means of accomplishing certification has been through post-
harvest fumigation using ethylene dibromide (EDB). Recent
developments in sampling technology, the increased concern for food
and environmental contamination, and worker exposure studies, have
made the continued use of EDB uncertain. Other fumigants, such as
methyl bromide (MB) may receive approval, but may also face similar
public scrutiny and criticism in the future. Cold treatment has been
accepted by Japan as an alternate means of certification. Cold
treatment is expensive, difficult to monitor, and has resulted in
damage to fruit shipped early in the season.
Since January 1984, the Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control has
been involved in the development of a fly-free-area concept in protocol
negotiation for the purpose of continuous marketing of citrus fruit to
California, Texas, Arizona and Japan after the withdrawal of EDB.

Division of Plant Industry

The Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control contributes to the
protocol efforts to establish certification based on the fly-free-zone
concept through studies of fly population dynamics, host relationship,
and bait spraying. In Indian River County since 1 July 1984, seven
personnel have tended 2,000 McPhail traps, conducted ground bait spray
in 6.2 square miles, collected fruit for detection of fly larvae, and
conducted tests involving ultra-low volume aerial bait spray of
commercial grapefruit. At Fellsmere Farms (consisting of
approximately 15,000 acres), only one Caribbean fruit fly has been
trapped in 2 years. The only potential reservoir for the fly
population to infest this area is Surinam cherry, loquat, Cattley
guava, kumquat and calamondin in the nearby town of Fellsmere. In 24
months, 47 applications, each consisting of less than 2 gallons of
dilute bait spray, was applied by hand at 8-to 10-day intervals in the
1.2 square-mile town area. These spray applications have effectively
reduced the Caribbean fruit fly population and protected this large
commercial grove area.
Ten 1 square-mile blocks that were reported with high numbers of
A. suspense in the previous studies were selected for ground spray
experiments. All preferred and alternate hosts bearing fruit in five 1
mile-square blocks were spot-sprayed every 2 weeks from October 1985 to
May 1986 with a mixture of malathion/Staley's sauce bait. The
other 5 blocks were maintained as controls. Ten McPhail traps were
evenly placed in each square mile and serviced every 10-15 days. Data
from the study in 1985-86 demonstrated that the spot bait-spray
application to the preferred hosts reduced the population of A.
suspense in urban areas up to 95%.
Aerial bait-spray tests were conducted in small commercial
grapefruit blocks. Five test plots, ranging in size from 135 to 150
acres, were used between January and May 1986 to test aerial bait
spraying with ultra-low levels of malathion and Staley's sauce bait.
One plot at a time was sprayed three times, at 10-day intervals, and
then the fruit was harvested and incubated for an additional 10 days. A
total of 1,350 field boxes (approximately 130,000 fruit) of
grapefruit was cut to determine the presence of Caribfly larvae. No
larvae were found in any of the cuttings.
A Japanese delegation intensively reviewed the project in Indian
River County during their visit in April 1986. If the Japanese
Department of Agriculture accepts the Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol,
fruit from approximately 50,000 acres of citrus grove in St. Lucie and
Indian River counties may qualify for shipment to Japan without post-
harvest treatment during the 1986-87 harvest season.
Studies of population dynamics, natural movement and host
relationships are providing insight and will furnish strong evidence
in the development of new Caribbean fruit fly certification protocols
and may prove invaluable if further control and/or eradication of this
pest is attempted in the future.

Citrus Canker Eradication Program

Robert J. Griffith, Chief

Citrus canker, Xanthomonas compestris pv. citri, was found in a
large Polk County nursery on 27 August 1984. Since that time the
control and eradication of this bacterial disease has been one of

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Florida's largest and most intensive agricultural programs. Citrus
canker had not been seen in Florida in more than fifty years. Canker
was first reported in 1914, and the disease was not considered
eradicated until the last trees were burned in Broward County in 1927.
In the weeks following the 1984 canker discoveries, state and
federal officials rushed to initiate emergency measures to prevent
further spread of the disease. A quarantine was imposed on the
movement of all citrus material, including fresh fruit. Quarantines
were lifted only after a biologically sound regulatory program was in
place to monitor citrus movement.
The Citrus Canker Project leadership was provided guidance
through the 1982 Action Plan established by experts and pathologists
from citrus producing areas of the world. While the Action Plan
outlined basic guidelines for the Project, it did not address specific
needs of the state. Commissioner Doyle Conner appointed a Citrus
Canker Technical Advisory Committee to provide technical advice and
make recommendations which would tailor the Action Plan as the program
progressed. The Advisory Committee consists of 17 members
representing the scientific community, the citrus industry, and state
and federal officials. Since the publishing of the 1982 Action Plan,
several revisions have resulted reflecting the many policy changes in
the program.
Due to the complex nature of the Citrus Canker Program, officials
determined that issues could not effectively be addressed at Advisory
Committee meetings; therefore, a Special Task Force was formed in
October 1985 to screen issues to be brought before the Advisory
Committee. The Task Force consists largely of plant pathologists who
study issues more intensively and then make recommendations to the
Advisory Committee. This procedure allows the Advisory Committee to
make decisions more efficiently.
To meet the immediate emergency needs of the Project, the Bureau
of Pest Eradication and Control initially supplemented its 20
employees with available personnel from other bureaus within the
Division, as well as personnel from other divisions within the
Department to staff the project. The Department of Corrections also
provided workers to aid in the removal and destruction of infested and
exposed trees. In addition, over 675 temporary employees were hired
to assist in statewide survey, control, and regulatory activities
required by the Project.
Once canker was confirmed, delimiting surveys of areas adjacent
to infected property were necessary to detect if further spread of the
disease had occurred. Nurseries and groves which had received
material from infected nurseries were also surveyed. When these
inspections were completed, routine surveys were initiated statewide
in groves, nurseries, and dooryards. By the end of June,1986, the
first grove and dooryard surveys were completed and work plans were
formulated for another survey to begin in early summer. Nurseries
continue to be inspected on a 30-day basis for field-grown crops, and a
14-day rotation for greenhouse grown crops. When citrus canker was
first discovered, there were approximately 300 citrus nursery stock
propagators and 1,800 non-propagators in the state. At the end of
June 1986, there were approximately 1,062 citrus nursery stock
propagators and 858 non-propagators.
From the first discovery of citrus canker in August 1984 until 30
June 1985, the disease was confirmed in ten nurseries. Through June

Division of Plant Industry

1985, 1,454,607 grove resets originating from infested or exposed
nurseries, were destroyed by grove owners and Citrus Canker Project
personnel. In 507 retail outlets, 66,915 citrus plants were
destroyed; in 6,508 dooryards, 11,728 trees were destroyed; and in 69
nurseries, Project personnel destroyed 7,999,264 citrus plants. The
total number of trees destroyed was 9,532,514 as of 30 June 1985.
Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986, 10,000,000 more citrus
plants were destroyed, primarily from eight more confirmed positive
nurseries, bringing the total trees destroyed to nearly 20 million for
this biennium.
Through the use of limited permits and compliance agreements, the
Citrus Canker Project was furnished the mechanisms to augment a paper
trail for an orderly movement of citrus materials, thus controls were
in place to allow packinghouses to move fruit interstate and
By December 1984, greenhouse seedlings and trees from nonexposed
nurseries were allowed to move under compliance agreements, but only
into commercial channels. Exposed nurseries remained under quarantine
until April 1985, when trees could move for commercial purposes.
Citrus nurserymen, as a result of citrus canker detections in two
additional nurseries, faced a second quarantine, this time between 6
September and 15 November 1985. When the quarantine was lifted,
citrus growers faced replanting restrictions. Those restrictions have
since been eased, but all growers still must complete plot maps prior
to tree purchase showing anticipated plantings and they most color-
code resets as to origin.
Present policy for exposed nurseries is a one-year quarantine to
include one full peak expression period (May 1 through December 31)
before sales are permitted.
Quarantine restrictions were lifted in January 1985, permitting
nurseries and retail outlets which had been under routine inspection,
to sell citrus trees to homeowners for dooryard plantings. However,
following the discovery on 12 April 1985 of citrus canker in a
wholesale nursery, which supplied more than ten thousand dooryard
citrus trees to retail outlets, a moratorium was imposed on the sale
of citrus for residential use. As of 30 June 1986, the moratorium was
still in effect, but was under review.
Another advancement in the program, which was approved by the
Commissioner and USDA, required that all persons who cut budwood or
bud citrus receive training in decontamination, canker symptomology,
and record keeping. This program was implemented in February 1986,
and thus far, 1,033 people have been certified under the Canker
Project Budder Certification Program.
Beginning in 1986, nurserymen no longer faced total destruction
of their operation if canker was discovered. Under a new risk-
assessment policy, the nurseryman may only lose the block in which
canker was discovered and 125 feet surrounding the block. Risk
assessment is based on several criteria including aggressiveness of
the pathogen, amount of inoculum present, distribution of infected
plants, and the decontamination and management practices within the
With the beginning of the 1985 fruit shipping season, intrastate
markets were permitted to sell individual pieces of fruit, providing
the fruit was waxed and stamped or decaled. The loose fruit would be
for in-state consumption only, while bags and boxes of fruit for

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

interstate transport still need federal limited permits. Protocol to
allow Florida citrus to move to citrus-producing states was negated
because of new canker finds in August 1985 when several central
Florida nurseries were confirmed positive, but fruit was permitted
entry into Louisiana north of Interstates 10 or 12, effective in
December 1985.
When the USDA declared the citrus canker in Florida an
extraordinary emergency (17 October 1984) it authorized financial
assistance by matching state funds to help compensate nurserymen and
grove owners for their tree losses that resulted from citrus canker
being confirmed on their property or receiving trees exposed to citrus
canker. The Florida legislature, in a special session, designated
$3.4 million in financial assistance and $3 million for eradication
efforts. During the regular session of the legislature in the spring
of 1985, the state allocated $12 million for financial assistance and
$4.8 million for eradication in the 1985-86 Fiscal Year. The federal
government appropriated an additional $1.6 million for financial
The legislature passed the $6.4 million Citrus Canker Project
budget for FY 1986-87. One-third of the budget will be paid by a per-
box tax levied on growers. The budget also included an additional
$1.3 million, used to pay the shortfall in indemnification from the
previous year. Beginning 1 February 1986, growers no longer received
reimbursement for trees destroyed, either from the state or USDA.
Prior to that, the USDA and state shared the cost.
On 31 March 1986, as a result of the Gramm Rudman Act which
drastically reduced all federal funds, the USDA withdrew from the
Citrus Canker Program, pulling out most of its personnel and
equipment, leaving only a skeleton staff to oversee the Project. Upon
the federal government's withdrawal, the state immediately implemented a
contingency plan to carry on the Citrus Canker Project to satisfy
federal protocol for interstate movement of fresh citrus fruit.

Imported Fire Ant

Robert J. Griffith, Chief

Donald R. Robbins, Agricultural Technician III

Following a legislative decision in 1981 authorizing the use of
$400,000 that remained in a trust fund, the Division of Plant Industry
was assigned the task of purchasing and offering to the public, Amdro
bait at a reduced cost for imported fire ant control.
With the inception of the new Imported Fire Ant Program, the
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant and Health
Inspection Services (USDA-APHIS) entered into a cooperative agreement
with Florida to support the program on a fifty-fifty cost basis.
However, in August 1983, the USDA withdrew considerable financial
support of the program; then in January 1985, the USDA withdrew all
financial support, thus resulting in an increase in the cost of Amdro
to the consumer.
Amdro, a bait-type pesticide which was developed especially for
imported fire ant control, was offered to the public early in the
program for $2.50 per 1-lb bag and $37.50 per 25-lb bag, but the

Division of Plant Industry

withdrawal of the USDA necessitated a price increase, i.e., $4.00 per
1-lb bag and $75.00 per 25-lb bag. During this biennium period, 1
July 1984 through 30 June 1986, the Bureau of Pest Eradication and
Control personnel held 182 preannounced sales throughout the state
at County Extension offices and shopping center parking lots. Amdro
was also made available in limited quantities at Division of Plant
Industry, Bureau of Plant Inspection regional offices.
For this reporting period, a total of 145,968 pounds of Amdro in
1-lb bags and 200,225 pounds in 25-lb bags was sold, generating over
one million dollars. This is a unique program as it is self-
supporting with escrow accounts supplying funds for full cost of its

Spreading Decline

Robert J. Griffith, Chief

Jack D. Toole, Agricultural Products Specialist

Spreading decline is a decline of citrus trees associated with
the root-attacking burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis, (Cobb.)
Thorne, which has a limited distribution in the state of Florida.
Burrowing nematode not only attacks citrus trees, but many of our
common native plants and cultivated ornamentals. Its spread, however,
has been primarily through man's movement of infested plants and
soil. Many commercial groves were initially infested by the
introduction of infested citrus reset trees or from ornamental plants
in adjacent properties prior to the establishment of the burrowing
nematode certification program in 1955. By the implementation of a
certification program for citrus nursery stock through the citrus
nursery site approval requirements and public awareness as to the
seriousness of this pest to the commercial citrus industry, the spread
of burrowing nematode infested citrus nursery stock was drastically
The purpose of the Spreading Decline Program has been to detect,
delimit, and to establish and maintain chemical buffers which restrict
natural spread through the roots and soil in commercial citrus groves.
As a result of the detection of ethylene dibromide (EDB) in water,
no fumigations have been applied through this program since August
1983. Many citrus growers attempted, without total success, to
abate the burrowing nematode hoping to slow their advancement across the
buffer zone by applying alternate chemicals such as Temik or
Nemacur. The majority of the buffers have been dropped; however, of
the 182 still .remaining, sampling results indicated that 44 of
these had failed, with nematodes advancing across the buffer.
Following the discovery of citrus canker in 1984, the processing
of citrus roots in the Winter Haven laboratory was suspended and the
two laboratory personnel were assigned citrus canker duties.
Even though EDB was restricted for buffer use, grower demand for
sampling still continues strong. During this biennium, a total of
13,027 root soil samples was dug from 457 properties which were all
processed by the Bureau of Nematology in Gainesville.
With the increase in the number of citrus nurseries, i.e.,
approximately 1,100 at the end of this period, pest eradication and
control personnel were assisting in the burrowing nematode site

76 Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

sampling as well as nurseries. The lack of chemical controls for
burrowing nematode makes the Citrus Nursery Site Approval
Certification Program even more important.
Present activities of the Spreading Decline Program are to
continue sampling citrus nurseries and commercial groves as requested
by the growers and to provide sampling and certification for real
estate transactions in the sale of citrus groves. Fees are levied for
all of these services.

Division of Plant Industry


Connie Riherd, Chief Plant Inspector

The Bureau of Plant Inspection is responsible for conducting surveys
for the early detection of plant pests which pose a serious threat to
Florida agriculture and for enforcing Florida Statutes and Departmental
rules pertaining to the movement of plants and plant products.

The Bureau was involved in several emergency programs during this
biennium, and was consequently behind schedule on several routine
activities. Prior to the declaration of the eradication of Ceratitis
capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) from Miami on November 2,
1984, citrus canker, Xanthamonos compestris p.v. citri, was discovered
in Ward's Citrus Nursery near Avon Park in August of that year. Many of
the Bureau's personnel were sent almost directly from the Medfly program
to combat Citrus canker. Compounding the Bureau's problems, on February
25, 1985 one unmated female Medfly was trapped in North Miami.
Immediately following this find, fruit fly detection activities were
intensified in an 81 square-mile area surrounding the location of the
find. On April 9, 1985, two male Medflies were trapped approximately 2-
1/4 miles southwest of the February 25 find. This new find created a
second epicenter from which intensified trapping would radiate. In
cooperation with the USDA, eradication measures were immediately
implemented. Eradication measures began with four aerial treatments
with malathion and protein bait, then a sterile Mediterranean fruit fly
release program was initiated.

Sterile Medfly release began on May 7, 1985, and continued through
July 16, 1985. Approximately 5.5 million sterile flies per day were
released, five days a week, over an 88 square mile area of North Dade
County utilizing aerial and ground releases. This biological control
technique enabled project officials to reduce the number of chemical
applications by 50 percent. Although the use of sterile fruit flies as
an eradication tool is not new, this attempt marks the first time
sterile Medflies were used in Florida. Eradication was declared on
August 27, 1985.

On the heels of the second Medfly eradication in this biennium, the
first established infestation of Porlotorio ziziphi, black Parlatoria
scale in the continental United States was detected on October 7, 1985
infesting a dooryard citrus tree in Miami. A delimiting survey was
initiated immediately to determine the extent of infestation, and survey
activities continue with 15 square-miles known to be infested as of June
27, 1986. Within this infested area, 160 properties are known to be
infested. In Florida, this scale has only been found on citrus.

Although chemical spray tests with various scalicides revealed that
100% control could not be achieved, the Bureau initiated a containment
program using 1% oil emulsion. This is being applied to infested
properties located outside the 1.4 square-mile core area. In
conjunction with the spray program, host material infested with the
scale is not permitted to move; and all commercial citrus fruit
shipments entering the state from areas known to be infested with black
Parlatoria scale are being monitored. A survey and containment program

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

will remain in effect until conclusive information on biological control
agents is gathered. Once this is accomplished, a decision will be
forthcoming on the disposition of black Parlatoria scale.

On March 26, 1986, a single, unmated Mediterranean fruit fly was
found in a dooryard calamondin tree at Indian Rocks Beach in Pinellas
County. The Bureau in conjunction with the USDA immediately placed more
than 1,000 traps in a 45 square-mile zone surrounding the find.
Intensive surveying continued for 90 days, three life cycles of the
Medfly. Having detected no other Medflies, trapping returned to normal
on June 13, 1986.

The number of nurseries under inspection this biennium decreased
from 7848 reported June 30, 1984 to 7667 reported June 30, 1986. This
figure does not include 1125 blocks of nurseries. Although the number
of nurseries in the state declined, the amount of nursery stock being
produced increased.The amount of nursery stock in the state at the end
of the 1984-86 biennium(including trees for reforestation) totaled
571,534,640 plants in comparison to 486,391,201 at the end of the 1982-
84 period.

Plant pest survey activity was greatly reduced due to various
emergency programs with only 1566 sites surveyed during the biennium.

Since 1956, the Division of Plant Industry and the USDA have
maintained fruit fly traps throughout the state, with special emphasis
directed to those areas most likely to become infested. Bureau of Plant
Inspection personnel inspected and serviced an average of 9688 Jackson
traps on a three week basis and 113 McPhail traps on a weekly basis
during the 1984-86 biennium. In addition to fruit fly traps, the Bureau
inspected and serviced an average of 713 gypsy moth traps each summer
and 35 exotic pest traps.

Brown garden snail, Helix aspersa, continues to be intercepted at an
alarming rate from California with 14 interceptions on certified
commercial shipments of cut plant material, two interceptions on
certified nursery stock, and four interceptions on uncertified nursery

Citrus Tree Survey

During fiscal year 1984-85, Citrus Tree Survey inspectors spent 90
percent of their time on the citrus canker eradication program after
citrus canker was detected in August 1984. July and August of 1984 were
spent on the Mediteranean Fruit Fly Eradication Program in Miami.
During 1985-86 Citrus Tree Survey personnel spent 30 percent of the time
participating in the citrus tree census. This program is a cooperative
effort between the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service and the
Bureau of Plant Inspection. Using aerial photography as a guide,
inspectors visited groves in critical areas to update statistical
information on citrus. The remaining 70 percent was spent assisting
with emergency programs. Once again, this group's value as a ready
trained mobile force in the event of new pest introductions was
exhibited by their contributions to these programs.

Division of Plant Industry

Other bureau activities for the biennium are summarized
following tables and charts.

Table 1. A Three-Year Comparison of Nursery Data
1983-84 1984-85

No. of plant inspection districts 71 73

No. of nurseries in state 7,848 7,881

Total no. of inspections of
nursery stock

Total acreage of nurseries
in state



in the





21,377.98* 21,676.57* 25,797.39*

Total amount of nursery stock
in state 486,391,201* 468,387,611*

*Includes seedling trees grown for reforestation.

Table 2. Number of Nurseries Under Inspection by Type

Type 1984-85




Citrus and ornamental

Citrus and other fruits and nuts

Citrus, ornamental and other fruits and nuts


Ornamental and other fruits and nuts

Other fruit and nuts

Native plants

Native plants and ornamental

Native plants, ornamental and citrus

Native plants, ornamental and other fruits & nuts

Aquatic plants

Aquatic plants and ornamental

Turfgrass and ornamental























Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 3. Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock, A Three

Year Comparison

Acres Plants

Acres Plants

Mandarin type
Lemons & limes
Seedlings, in seed beds
Seedlings, lined out
Miscellaneous citrus


Other fruits and nuts


(Citrus and Non Citrus)




1,193.54 29,289,687 1,234.77 34,944,363 1,374.30 38,064,306




20,184.44 270,041,243 20,148.79 262,532,044 24,051.83 295,489,975

21,377.98 299,330,930 21,383.56 297,476,407 25,458.38 333,554.281

Trees for Reforestation 290.01


293.01 170,911,204

345.01 237.980,375

(under inspection)

21,667.99 486,391,201 21,676.57 468,387,611 25,797.39 571,534,656

Table 4. Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected (Not Included as
Nursery Stock): July 1, 1984 to June 30, 1986

1984-85 1985-86
Plants Plants
Variety Growers Acres or Bulbs Growers Acres or Bulbs

Aquatic plants 13 14.02 592,525 5 8.02 430.450
Cabbage 6 53.93 31,897.944 4 52.94 44,126,930
Caladium bulbs 36 954.50 63,270,000 42 1,211.00 69,671,317
Cut fern 166 1,718.80 137,504,000 129 1,500.00 151.212,150
Misc. vegetables 12 119.15 70,808.235 9 73.58 72.242,831
Peppers 15 36.31 24,284,244 13 35.71 17,702,559
Tobacco 4 115.90 71.332,134 1 1.98 13,979,560
Tomato 19 107.08 98,507,062 13 55.87 44,542,307

Kind of Stock



Pl nts


Acres Plants

TOTALS 271 3,119.69

498,196,144 216 2,939.10

Division of Plant Industry

Table 5. Export Certification

Items Certified 1984-85 1985-86

Aquatic plants 1,259,428 1,052,834

Bulbs 8,221,086 2,719,724

Bromeliads & orchids 47,218 65,708

Chrysanthemums 22,011,263 32,424,615

Citrus & other fruit plants 968,491 315,092

Fruits & vegetables (bxs, lbs, qts,
& bags) 318,052 663,413

Miscellaneous commodities 12,874,177 22,605,725

Miscellaneous plants 14,847,286 19,818,220

Seeds (units, lbs., cartons, & bags) 5,046,528 496,178

Tropical foliage plants 7,120,420 7,669,553

TOTAL UNITS CERTIFIED 72,713,949 87,831,062




82 Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Total Number of Plants Under Inspection
A 10-Year Comparison
1975-1976 to 1985-86

MILLION 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

1985-86 571,534,656










MILLION 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550





Division of Plant Industry 83

Number of Nurseries Under Inspection
A 10-Year Comparison
1976-77 to 1985-86

5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500

1985-86 7,667
















5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500


Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Postentry Quarantine 1984 1986

Plants entering the United States must comply with U.S. Department
of Agriculture regulations. They fit into one of four categories;
refused entry, unconditional entry, departmental permit, or postentry
quarantine. During postentry quarantine the plants are placed on the
owner's property and inspected periodically for six months to 2 years
then released if pest-free. The purpose of postentry quarantine is to
detect any exotic pests which may manifest themselves during plant
growth. If any exotic pests are detected during the quarantine period
the plants are destroyed.

Plants Released from Postentry Quarantine 1984-85 1985-86

Inspections made to release plants 22 52
Plants released that were dead and destroyed 1654 7597
Plants released that were alive 631 281
Plants released 2285 7878

Plants Remaining Under Postentry Quarantine

Inspections of plants remaining under quarantine 56 50
Plants dead and destroyed 1349 246
Plants that remain under quarantine 888 3539

Total Inspections Performed 78 102

Total Number of Plants Under Quarantine
During the 1984-86 Biennium 4522 11663

Non-Citrus Nematode Certification :
Citrus Nursery Site And Soil Pit Selection

Burrowing nematode (BN), the cause of spreading decline in citrus,
was not detected in any citrus nursery during the 1984-86 biennium.
According to Bureau of Plant Inspection records, BN has not been
detected in a citrus nursery since 1969.

During the past 2 years, 373 re-evaluations were made on non-citrus
sites and 1,027 were made on citrus nursery sites and soil pits. BN-
approved sites at the end of this period are: 1,026 citrus nursery
sites, consisting of 5,057.14 acres, 727 non-citrus nursery sites,
consisting of 11,870.87 acres, and 270 BN-certified soil pits.

A summary of the program's activities during the 1984-86 biennium is
presented in the following tables:

Division of Plant Industry

Table 6. Burrowing Nematode Site Approval: Citrus and Pits 1984-86

Sites & Pits Acres Cumulative
COUNTY Re-evaluated Sampled Sites Acreage Pits Sites Acreage Pits

Sites Pits Sites Pits

LAKE 125
POLK 242







2 2.03 11 75.17 7
3 1.10 1 2 1.10 4
17 102.82 21 152.32 2
1 0.50 2
14 153.81 1 25 228.61 1
3 0.21 4 5 2.27 7
25 89.93 1 51 144.53 1
13 43.30 2 15 65.55 4
54 136.55 102 220.02 5
34 175.40 1 49 234.20 5
1 0.10 3 6.35
98 642.30 6 155 902.14 24
32 7.65 3 47 63.55 21
7 10.03 20 75.20 8
48 212.21 8 118 1203.15 60
5 2.19 1 7 4.49 2
3 4.20 8 26.20 5
1 5.00 1 9 26.25 1
1 9 68.35 1
9 20.08 12 30.07 4
20 33.97 2 40 277.75 16
8 14.04 17 39.54 3
6 3.01 6 3.01 2
17 31.50 1 54 174.93 2
1 0.10 1 0.10
80 150.44 5 184 779.33 56
1 0.01 6
7 30.61 2 32 208.11 3

3 0.31

1 1 5.00 2
9 12.45 7
10 26.59 14

14 9
2 2 14 6
7 1
4 5
1 1 11 5
1 28 13
89 1
1 15 10
1 87 10
4 35 3
35 10
2 123 29
1 1 183 151
98 51
17 294 32
66 69
1 27 38
2 49 3
2 10
2 158 18
44 5
20 3
6 109 14
8 8
9 1 300 77
6 11
154 16
1 20 32
2 26 3
4 1 6 4
2 90 8

1 0.30 1 1 0.30 2

FROM 7/1/84 1027 1459.76 513 1873.19 41 60 7
FROM 1/1/68 1026 5057.14 277 2149 646

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Table 7. Burrowing Nematode Certification: Non-Citrus 1984-86


Palm Beach
Santa Rosa
From 7/1/84
From 1/1/68
* SA = Site

Re-evalu- Acres Cummulative
ated Sampled No. Acreage No. Acreage
2 2.30

261.33 24 124.42 66
156.11 10 134.61 13
1067.04 112 541.85 206
2.00 1 2.00 4
66.00 2 60.00 7
212.00 2 16.00 5
100.50 9 100.50 28
34.10 1 0.05 60
0.15 3 8.05 10
121.51 4 7.80 25







6 170.23 8 1,930.11 31 2,327.94

373 3,075.18 265 3,313.89
727 11,870.87

TYPE III = Certification for California
TYPE I = Certification for Texas, Louisiana, & European Economic Community
TYPE II = Certification for Arizona

Division of Plant Industry

Table 7. Burrowing Nematode Certification Non-Citrus 1984-86 (continued)


No. Acreage No.
3 4.60 23
1 0.50 10
35 172.86 113
2 0.50 32
5 13.55 12

0.03 10
0.05 13
12 5.19 92
9 7.88 73
1 0.10 6





Types of
Certification Sod-
SA III I II Foliage Orn. Bulb Grass Other
2 1 1

3 25 29
2 2
3 8
3 75 102
1 8
1 6
1 24 3
7 53
1 8
7 3
16 9

1 37

14 44
102 98
1 2

2 3
1 5

3 1
9 16

2 5
19 19
63 34

1 3
3 1

40 2
6 2


2 1

13 16 1 3 6 8 6 8

70 205.26
764 23,748.74 14 273 359 73 222 288 35 132 42

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report


Calvin L. Schoulties, Chief Plant Pathologist

This bureau serves as a laboratory for diagnosis of diseases of
nursery crops, field crops, and fruit crops. Its functions also include
the indexing of introduced citrus varieties for exotic pathogens; tissue
culture to rid these introductions from pathogens; indexing of citrus
from the Bureau of Budwood Registration for viruses and virus-like
pathogens; surveying for new diseases in Florida; and initiating
investigations of diseases which may threaten Florida agriculture.

During this biennium, Harry Burnett, a plant pathologist with the
Department for 33 years retired. Mr. Burnett is an internationally
recognized authority on diseases of citrus, orchids, and bromeliads.
Mr. Burnett was headquartered in Winter Haven, and supervised the
activities of 4 support personnel in plant disease diagnosis and the
indexing of citrus viruses for the Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration
in Winter Haven. With Mr. Burnett's retirement and the advent of citrus
canker in central Florida in September 1984, the following changes in
the bureau occurred: the Winter Haven plant pathology laboratory was
consolidated into the Gainesville plant pathology laboratory; the plant
pathologist position in Winter Haven was transferred to Gainesville; the
4 support positions of the plant pathologist's position were transferred
to the Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration in Winter Haven. Also, in
Gainesville, the bureau's nursery supervisor's position was transferred
to administration. In summary at the biennium's beginning, the bureau
had 17 permanent positions in Gainesville and Winter Haven. At the
biennium's close, the bureau had 12 permanent positions and 2.5
temporary positions (i.e. devoted to citrus canker-related work) in
Gainesville. The Insect & Disease Section of the Division of Forestry's
Bureau of Forest Mangement is attached to the Plant Pathology Bureau.

The activities of the Bureau changed drastically with the discovery
of an unique form of citrus canker in August 1984. This form has been
designated as the nursery form and has occurred in 20 nurseries and on
immature citrus in two grove sites in this biennium. More recently in
June 1986, the Asiatic form of citrus canker was detected in numerous
residences and in one grove in central west Florida along the Gulf
Coast. An extensive eradication program has been mounted by the Florida
D A & C S and the USDA/APHIS (for details see this report Bureau of
Pest Eradication and Control).

During this biennium, the bureau processed 24,787 specimens with
17,592 for citrus canker diagnosis. In the previous biennium (1982-84),
the bureau processed 16,073 specimens. Other activities of the bureau
that involved citrus canker included:

demonstration of pathogenicity of the pathogen on fruit as well as

chemical decontamination of fruit;

testing of over 60 "canker cures";

Division of Plant Industry 89

methods of surface disinfesting of personnel and equipment;

research investigations on new techniques to detect the pathogen in
the field (i.e., leaf wash) and/or laboratory (i.e., serological

chemical and physical methods for the disinfestation of citrus

a survey and microbial analysis of weeds in citrus groves that may
be useful information about the pathogen's origin, spread, and

cooperation with field personnel in field survey;

incorporation of the fluorescent antibody technique into the
diagnostic protocol for citrus canker;

cooperation with University of Florida and USDA/ARS scientists on
various research projects involving citrus canker in the DPI
quarantine facility in Gainesville;

participation of the Bureau Chief in 5 committees that recommend or
interpret policy;

and participation by the Bureau Chief in numerous press interviews,
scientific presentations, and public meetings.

Other (and non-canker related) activities included:

2,637 tests citrus tristesa virus using ELISA, a serological
method, with 741 positive tests;

1,347 citrus trees were tested for exocortis virus by a host
bioassay system with 19 positive tests;

29 lots of lettuce seeds were tested for lettuce mosaic virus by
ELISA with no lots positive tests (This test is the basis of
certification of lettuce seeds.);

a new foliar disease of periwinkle caused by Phytophthora porasitica
was described;

two apparently undescribed Cylindrocladium species were detected on
Heliconia and are being described;

a new disease of the herb, basil, caused by the bacterium
Pseudomonas cichorii was described

citrus introductions of Ray Ruby grapefruit from Texas and the
Venezuela Red Navel from Venezula were released from quarantine
after shoot-tip grafting and indexing for virus diseases to the
Bureau of Citrus Budwood registration in Winter Haven for
propagation and horticultural testing;

90 Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

a clone of 'Clementine Monreale' from California was released to
the USDA/Agricultural Research Service Foundation Forum in
Leesburg after finding it to be virus free;

a budwood introduction of Rio Red grapefruit from Texas was
received into Gainesville, has been shoot-tip grafted, and is
being indexed for viruses;

and 65 requests for importation of plant pathogens into Florida
were evaluated for introduction and regulated research by
scientists by the Bureau Chief and a selected group of research
scientists from the state.

Some of the activities of the bureau were done solely by bureau
personnel and others were done in cooperation with scientists from other
state and federal agencies.

Other than the two forms of citrus canker, the following were new
diseases of note:

yellow spot of sugarcane caused by Mycorellosiello koepkii (Kruger)

sorghum downy mildew, which can drastically reduce sweet corn
yields, became problematic in central Florida;

Alternario euphorbiicola Simmons and Engelhard on Euphorbia
pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotsch was found causing Poinsettia

tomato spotted wilt virus was detected in two north Florida
counties and has an unusually broad host range and an unusual
vector thrips.

The following are also new Florida Plant Disease Records for 1984-86:

Alstromeria mosaic virus on Alstroemeria sp.

Alternorio dichondrae Gambogi, Vannacci & Triolo on Dichondra micrantha

Alternaria petroselini (Neergaard) Simmons on Petroselinum crispum
(Mill.) Nyman ex A. W. Hill.

Alternaria euphorbiicola Simmons and Engelhard on Euphorbia pulcherrimo
Willd. ex Klutsch.

Asterina sp. LeVeille on Rhexia mariana L.

Aureobasidium pullulans (DeBary) Arnaud on Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.)

Balladynopsis sp. Theiss. & H. Sydow on Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.) M.
C. Johnst.

Division of Plant Industry

Basidiophora entospora Roze & Cornu on Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.)
Britt. & Rusby.

Blakeslea monospora B. S. Mehrotra & Baijal on Zinnia elegans Jacq.

Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. on Plotanus occidentalis L.

Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on Acer rubrum L. and Astrantia major L.

Caliciopsis orientalis Funk on Pinus taeda L.

Cercospora sp. Fresenius on Flaveria linearis Lag., Odontoglossum pul
chellum Batem. ex Lindl., and Tetrastigma voinieranum (Baltet)
Pierre ex Gagnep.

Cercospora kabatiana Allescher on Lamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. &

Cercospora oxalidiphila (Spegazzini Ined.) Chupp & Muller on Oxalis
dillenii Jacq.

Cercospora panacis Thirumalachar & Chupp on Neopanax sp.

Clitocybe tobescens (Scop. ex Fr.) Bres. on Salix babylonica L.

Colletotrichum sp. Cda in Sturm on Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. and
Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Ait.

Colletotrichum violae-tricoloris R. E. Sm. on Viola pedunculata Torr. &
A. Gray

Corticium salmonicolor Berk. & Br. on Homalocladium platycladium (F. J.
Muell.) L. H. Bailey and Liquidambar styraciflua L.

Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt.) Wei on Lantana sp.

Cryphonectria gyrosa (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. on Eucalyptus robusta Sm.

Cylindrocladium avesiculatum Gill., Alf. & Sob. on Pittosporum tobira
(Thumb.) Ait. 'Wheeler's Dwarf'.

Cylindrocladium floridanum Sobers & Seymour on Calliandra sp.

Cylindrocladium sp. Morgan on Heliconia sp.

Dactylaria pyricularioides Matsushima on Calathea sp.

Discosia sp. Lib. on Molus sylvestris Mill.

Drechslera sp. Ito on Acer rubrum and Hoya multiflora Bl. Wendl.

Drechslera gigantea (Heald and Wolf) Ito on Pelargonium sp.

Drechslera incurvata (Ch. Bernard) M. B. Ellis on Chrysalidocarpus
lutescens H. Wendl.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Drechslera imperfect state of Cochliobolus corbonum Nelson on
Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.

Echidnodella sp. Theiss. & Syd. on Coccolobo diversifolia Jacq.

Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkh. et. al. on Anthurium sp.

Erysiphe polygoni DC. on Oxalis corniculata L.

Favolus brasiliensis (Fr.) Fr. on Ficus benjamin L.

Fusarium lateritium Nees on Torreya taxifolia Arn.

Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.) Arx & Oliv. var. avenae (E. M. Turner)
Dennis on Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) 0. Kuntze.

Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. on Calliandra sp. and Swietenia
mahagoni (L.)Jacq.

Guignardia sp. Viola & Ravaz on Acer rubrum L., Dracaena marginata Lam.,
Juniperus silicicola (Small) L. H. Bailey, Lagerstroemia indica L.,
Liriope sp., Persea americana Mill., Pinus elliottii Engelm., Pinus
sp., Rhapis excels (Thunb.) A. Henry, and Rosa sp.

Hypoxylon nummularium Buillard ex Fries on Persea borbonia (L.) K.

Macrophoma sp. (Sacc.) Berl. & Vogl. on Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L.,
Coccoloba diversifolia Jacq., and Erythrina herbacea L.

Morenoina sp. Theiss on Dasylirion sp.

Mycoleptodiscus indicus (Sahni) Sutton on Crinum sp.

Mycorellosiella koepkii (Kruger) Deighton on Saccharum officinarum L.

Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. on Streptocarpus sp. and Xanthosoma sp.

Oidium sp. Link on Dorstenia sp.

Phaeotrichoconis crotalariae on Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop
'Sprengeri' and Begonia sp.

Phoma sp. Sacc. on Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., Pelargonium sp., and
Tetrastigma voinieranum (Baltet) Pierre ex Gagnep.

Phomopsis sp. (Sacc.) Sacc. on Erythrina herbacea L., Euonymous sp.,
Ocimum sp., Tetrastigma voinieranum (Baltet) Pierre ex Gagnep.,
and Vanda sp.

Phyllachora sylvatica Sacc. and Speg. on Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.)
0. Kuntz.

Phyllactinia sp. Leveille on Passiflora suberoso L.

Division of Plant Industry

Phyllosticta gaultheriae Ellis & Everh. on Goultheria shallon Pursh

Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) Schroeter on Illicium anisatum L.

Phytophthora cinnamomi on Hedera helix L., Pistacia chinensis Bunge, and
Petunia X hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr.

Phytophthora parasitic on Lisianthus nigrescens Cham. & Schlechtend.,
Paradrymonia lacera Wiehler, and Pinus virginiana Mill.

Phytophthora sp. on Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A. DC., Lisionthus
nigrescens Cham. & Schlechtend. and Phormium colensoi Hook.f.

Pleospora sp. Rabenhorst on Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.

Pleurotus ostreatus Fr. on Ficus benjamin L.

Podosphaera sp. Kunze on Quercus laurifolia Michx.

Polyporus zonalis Berk. on Encephalartos horridus (Jacq.) Lehm.

Pseudomonas sp. Migula on Ficus lyrata Warb.

Pseudocercospora wedeliae (Kar & Mandal) Deighton on Wedelio sp.

Pseudomonas cichorii (Swing.) Stapp on Justicia sp. and Ruscus sp.

Pseudomonas syringae van Hall pv. syringae van Hall on Leea coccinea

Sirosporium mori (H. & P. Syd.) M. B. Ellis on Morus nigra L.

Stemphylium sp. Wallroth on Centaurea cyanus L. and Pelargonium X
hortorum L. H. Bailey.

Strigula sp. E. Fr. on Pistocia lentiscus L.

Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk. & Br.) Ferr on Crossandra sp.

Tomato spotted wilt virus on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

Xanthomonas campestris (Pamm.) Dows. on Pachystachys lutea Nees.

Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse) Dye on Citrus spp., hybrids of
Citrus spp., Ponicrus trifoliata, and P. trifoliata hybrids with
Citrus spp.

Xanthomonas sp. Dowson on Bougainvilleo sp., Dionthus sp., Photonia sp.,
and Strelitzio nicolai Regel & Korn.

During the biennium all record keeping of specimen reports of
citrus canker diagnosis were computerized and all other specimen
diagnostic reports were computerized beginning January 1985.

Thirty-Sixth Biennial Report

Major Presentations

September 1984: Citrus Institute, Lakeland, Citrus Canker Presentation,
1200 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

September 1984: Florida Gift Fruit Shippers, Marco Island, Citrus
Canker Presentation, 200 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

September 1984: Extension Meeting, Vero Beach Citrus Conker
Presentation, 400 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

February 1985: Southern Division American Phytopathological Society,
Biloxi, MS, Citrus Canker Presentation, 100 persons. (C. L.

March 1985: Citrus Seminar, Ft. Pierce, Citrus Canker Presentation, 300
persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

April 1985: Citrus Production Managers, Lake Alfred, Citrus Canker
Presentation, 100 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

April 1985: International Citrus Canker Symposium, Lake Alfred, Citrus
Canker Presentation, 400 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

May 1985: Citrus Nursery Workshop, Lake Alfred, Citrus Canker
Presentation, 350 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

July 1985: Citrus Production Managers, Vero Beach, Citrus Canker
Presentation, 100 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

September 1985: Florida Gulf Fruit Shippers, Ft. Lauderdale, Citrus
Canker Presentation, 150 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

September 1985: Citrus Institute, Lakeland, Citrus Canker Presentation,
300 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

September 1985: Packinghouse Day, Lake Alfred, Citrus Canker
Presentation, 250 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

September 1985: Citrus Packinghouse Day, Lake Alfred, Citrus Canker
Presentation (Fruit Disinfestation), 250 persons. (T. S. Schubert)

December 1985: Hillsborough County Extension, Sefner, Citrus Canker
Presentation, 40 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

March 1986: Citrus Seminar, Citrus Canker Presentation, 150 persons.
(C. L. Schoulties)

March 1986: Marion County Extension, Ocala Citrus Canker Presentation,
30 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

April 1986: Citrus Production Managers, Lake Alfred, Citrus Canker
Presentation, 100 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

Division of Plant Industry

April 1986: U.S./Spain Citrus Germplasm Exchange Project, Riverside,
California, Citrus Canker Presentation and Florida's Citrus
Introduction Program, 30 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)

June 1986: Plant Pathology Department Seminar, Corvallis, Oregon,
Citrus Canker Presentation, 40 persons. (C. L. Schoulties)


ALFIERI, S. A., JR., N. E. EL-GHOLL, and M. L. CAMPBELL. 1984.
Nectriello (Kutilakesa) pironii, a pathogen of fig plants. Proc.
Fla. State Hart. Soc. 97:325-327.

S 1985. Cercospora leaf spot of climbing fig. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Plant Pathol. Circ. No. 274.

SM. L. CAMPBELL, and N. E. EL-GHOLL. 1986. Nectriella
(Kutilokesa) pironii, a pathogen of fig plants. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Plant Pathol. Circ. No. 279.

Sand T. S. SCHUBERT. 1986. Cercospora leaf spot of petunia.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv. Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ.
No. 285. 2p.

BARNARD, E. L., and R. A. SCHROEDER. 1984. Anthracnose of Acacia in
Florida: Occurrence and fungicidal control. Proc. Fla. State
Hart. Soc. 97:325-327.

S 1984. Antracnose of Acacia spp. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 265. 2p.

S 1985. Sycamore leaf scorch. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 276. 2p.

1985. Pathogenic fungi associated with sand pine root disease in
Florida. Plant Dis. 69:196-199.

R. S. WEBB, S. P. GILLY, and W. D. LANTE. 1985. Phytophthoro
cinnamomi infection in sand pine seedlings in Florida nurseries and
effects on outplant survival. Pages 486-495 in: Proceedings of
the International Symposium on Nursery Management Practices for the
Southern Pines. D. B. South, ed. Alabama Agric. Exp. Stn., Auburn
Univ. & Internat. Union Forest Res. Org. 594 pp.

GILLY, S. P. (senior author) 1985. Field trials for control of
rhizoctonia blight of longleaf pine seedlings: Effects of seedbed
planting densities, fungicides, and mulches. Pages 476-485 in:
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nursery Management
Practices for the Southern Pines. D. B. South, ed. Alabama Agric.
Exp. Stn., Auburn Univ. & Internat. Union Forest Res. Org. 594 pp.

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