Report of the division directo...
 Information and education
 Methods development
 Information and education
 Bureau of apiary inspection
 Methods development
 Brown garden snail
 Spreading decline
 Spreading decline policy
 Buffer program
 Clay pits
 Caribbian fruit fly
 Fruit fly detection
 Gypsy moth
 Personnel training
 Sugarcane rootstalk borer...
 Bureau of citrus budwood regis...
 Bureau of plant inspection
 Grove inspection and citrus...
 Imported fire ant
 Turf grass certification
 Plant products entering peninsular...
 Soybean cyst nematode
 Grades and standards
 Plants imported by Florida...
 Premium quality citrus tree
 Bureau of entomology
 Bureau of nematology
 Bureau of plant pathology

Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00007
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1970-1972
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 39th (July 1, 1990-June 30, 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01242950
alephbibnum - 001511744
lccn - sn 86001883
lccn - sn 86001883
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page 1
    Report of the division director
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Information and education
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Methods development
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Information and education
        Page 12
    Bureau of apiary inspection
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Methods development
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Brown garden snail
        Page 19
    Spreading decline
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Spreading decline policy
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Buffer program
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Clay pits
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Caribbian fruit fly
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Fruit fly detection
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Gypsy moth
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Personnel training
        Page 43
    Sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Bureau of citrus budwood registration
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Bureau of plant inspection
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Grove inspection and citrus survey
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Imported fire ant
        Page 60
    Turf grass certification
        Page 61
    Plant products entering peninsular Florida
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Soybean cyst nematode
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Grades and standards
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Plants imported by Florida growers
        Page 76
    Premium quality citrus tree
        Page 77
    Bureau of entomology
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Bureau of nematology
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Bureau of plant pathology
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
Full Text


jo 0-12,

.. .


Division of Plant Industry


Biennial Report

July 1, 1970 June 30, 1972


Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Halwin L. Jones, Director

Single copies free to Florida residents on request to:
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32602



Plant Industry Technical Council

Vernon Conner, Chairman (Citrus) ............................. ...... ............... Mount Dora

Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Vice Chairman (Vegetable) ..................................... Canal Point

Colin English, Sr. (Citizen-at-Large) ......................................... ................. Tallahassee

Lawrence W Clements (Citrus) ................................ .................................... Bartow

Joseph Welker (Ornamental Horticulture) ................................ ...... ...... Jacksonville

Fred J. Wesemeyer (Commercial Flower) .................... .................... Ft. Myers

Foster Shi Sm ith (Forestry) ............................................................ ...................... Starke

Felix H. Uzzell (Apiary) ....................................................................................... Sebring

Halwin L. Jones, Secretary ........................................... .................. Gainesville

Administrative Staff

H alwin L. Jones, D director .......................................................... ..................... G ainesville

S. A. Alfieri, Jr., Assistant Director ................................... .............. .. Gainesville

G. D. Bridges, Chief, Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration .................. Winter Haven

J. K. Condo, Chief, Bureau of Plant Inspection ....................... ................ Gainesville

H. A. Denmark, Chief, Bureau of Entomology ....................................... Gainesville

G. G. Norman, Coordinator, Methods Development .......................................... Gainesville

P. M. Packard, Chief, Bureau of Apiary Inspection .................................... Gainesville

C. Poucher, Chief, Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control .................... Winter Haven

C. P. Seymour, Chief, Bureau of Plant Pathology ................................... Gainesville

A. L. Taylor, Chief, Bureau of Nematology .................... ....................... Gainesville


REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR ........................... 2
Fiscal ................................................... 4
Information and Education .................................... 8
Library ........................................... 9
Methods Development ........................... ........... 10
BUREAU OF APIARY INSPECTION ............................ 13
Brown Garden Snail ............................. ............ 19
Spreading Decline ....................................... 20
Spreading Decline Policy ..................................... 22
Buffer Program ............................... ............ 24
Clay Pits .......... ......................... ........ 26
Caribbian Fruit Fly .......................................... 32
Fruit Fly Detection ........................................ 38
Gypsy M oth .................................. .. ........ 41
Giant African Snail ............................ ............ 41
Personnel Training .............................. ........... 43
Sugarcane Rootstalk Borer W eevil ............................ 44
BUREAU OF PLANT INSPECTION ............................... 55
Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey ............................ 57
Imported Fire Ant ......................................... 60
Turf Grass Certification ...................................... 61
Plant Products Entering Peninsular Florida .................. .. 62
Soybean Cyst Nematode ................................... 69
Nursery Site Selection ............................. ......... 69
Grades and Standards ......................... .. .......... 74
Plants Imported By Florida Growers ........................... 76
Premium Quality Citrus Tree .......................... ... 77
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY ......................... .......... 78
BUREAU OF NEMATOLOGY ................... ............ 136
BUREAU OF PLANT PATHOLOGY .............................. 157

This public document was promulgated at a cost of $4,080.62
or $2.72 per copy, to inform the general public, Legislature,
and other interested parties on the programs and investigative
efforts of the Division of Plant Industry.

Gainesville, Florida

Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
Tallahassee. Florida

Sir: I have the honor to present herewith my report for the biennium
ending June 30, 1972.


Division of Plant Industry


Incidents of major importance during the 1970-72 biennium include the
eradication of the brown garden snail, Helix aspersa, from a large Broward
County nursery after two years of intensive treatment, and the apparent eradi-
cation of the red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, and the gypsy moth.
Porthetria dispar, a new pest to Florida.
The amount of nursery stock in the state at the end of the 1970-72 biennium
totaled 361.263,159 plants, in comparison to 332,858,995 plants at the end of
the la.t biennium, an increase of about 28,500,000 plants. Though the 4,199
nurseries under inspection this biennium reflects 159 nurseries less than the
4.358 reported under inspection at the end of the 1968-70 biennium, the amount
of nursery stock increased. Nurseries throughout the state were inspected on an
average of 3.07 times during the biennium.
The Division of Plant Industry has continued its intensive eradication pro-
gram against the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. Even with the constant
threat of this snail being introduced into the United States due to the burgeoning
number of airline flights from infested areas to the continental United States.
eradication still looks most promising.
The sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, still poses
a serious threat to the Florida citrus industry. For the first time since the
quarantine was initiated in 1968. inspectors found adult weevils outside the
regulated area of Apopka and Plymouth during September and October 1971.
State and federal boundaries have been extended to include the new infestation.
and surve\s have been increased to check any further movement of the pest.
The gypsy moth was first discovered in a mobile home community in Pen-
sacola in May 1971. Gypsy moth adult traps were set up in a 10-mile radius
around the infestation after spray operations against the pest. All surveys con-
ducted since then have proven negative, and it appears that the infestation
has been eradicated.
During this biennium imported fire ant. Solenopsis invicta, eradication
attempts were abandoned due to an Environmental Protection Agency ruling
which prohibits the use of mirex bait in aquatic areas and coastal counties.
Pre-entlv. the Imported Fire Ant Program is a control program based solely on
farmer-" requests for treatment and regulatory activities.
A tourist-oriented attraction has been constructed near the Budwood Founda-
tion Grove at 1-4 and U.S. 27. which might eventually adversely affect its use-
fulness. The Division could possibly be faced with seeking new space for the
Foundation Grove sometime in the near future.
Twenty new buffers have been installed in four counties in an attempt to
further control spreading decline. caused by the burrowing nematode.
Radopholus similis.
A new policy was also put into effect which will relieve the state of the

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 3

expense of buffer maintenance by 1976. Twenty percent of the buffer expense
in 1972 was financed by the grower, showing an increase in grower contribution
by approximately $16,000 for the year.
The Nematology Bureau processed and diagnosed a record setting 18.458
samples during this hiennium.
The sugar beet nematode. Heterodera schachtii. continued to spread in Semi-
nole County. and other surveys are being carried out regularly to determine if
it has extended to other area-. Efforts are presently being made to reduce the
spread as much as possible.
Division apiary inspectors examined 352,761 colonies in 9,986 apiaries,
finding 3,775 colonies in 861 apiaries infected with American foulbrood. Florida
ranked first as the largest honey-producing state in the nation during this
The Bureau of Entomology added two major additions to the Florida State
Collection of Athropods. These private insect collections were purchased jointly
by the Division and the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences.
Activities of the Bureau of Plant Pathology included the processing of 13,012
specimens during the biennium and the use of the helicopter as a survey tool
in the fight against lethal yellowing of coconut palms in South Florida.
Lethal yellowing was first detected in the Coral Gables area of Miami in
September 1971. So far. the disease has spread in all directions, extending to
Star Island. Key Biscayne. and Miami Beach to the east. The Division is cur-
rently combating the problem by continuing ground and helicopter surveys to
locate newly infected trees, reducing inoculum through the cutting and removal
of diseased trees; and encouraging the replanting of coconuts with resistant
MIalavan dwarf varieties.

Division of Plant Industry

V. W. Villeneuve, Accountant
A complete summary of allotments and expenditures covering the Divi-
sion's activities for 1970-71 and 1971-72 are listed in Tables 1 and 2. Table 3
contains the budgeted and estimated expenditures for 1972-73, and Table 4
represents the Division's total legislative budget requests for 1973-74. All tables
are listed by program components, based on Florida's Planning & Budgeting
System and are subject to approval and adjustments by the Commissioner of
Agriculture and the State Legislature.
Table 1

1970-71 Allotments and Expenditures
General Trust
Revenue Funds Total

Administrative Direction & Support

Director-Fiscal-I & E-Library-Methods

Bureau of Plant Inspection
Truck fumigation-citrus tree survey

Property Protection and Preservation
Bureau of Entomology
Bureau of Plant Pathology
Bureau of Nematology
Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Regulation
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control
Fire Ant Control
Spreading Decline
Fruit Fly Survey & Control
Snail Eradication
Weevil Eradication
Total General Activities 2
Fixed Capital Outlay-Construction

Blue Ribbon Greenhouse-Gainesville
Orlyt Greenhouses (6)-Gainesville
Warehouse and Shop-Gainesville

Total Fixed Capital Outlay


331,503 7,148 338,651

883,217 68,953 952,170





5,284 111,058
1,538 27,132
82,923 2,604,630



82,923 2,684,206


Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Table 2

1971-72 Allotments and Expenditures

General Trust
Revenue Funds Total


Administrative Direction & Support

Director-Fiscal-I & E-Library-Methods

Consumer Protection-Maintenance of
Business Standards

Bureau of Plant Inspection
Truck Fumigation-Citrus Tree Survey

Property Protection & Preservation

Bureau of Entomology
Bureau of Plant Pathology
Bureau of Nematology
Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Regulation
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control

Fire Ant Control
Spreading Decline
Fruit Fly Survey & Control
Snail Eradication
Weevil Eradication
Total General Activities

Fixed Capital Outlay-Construction

1. Security Fence-Gainesville
2. Fumigation Chamber (2 unit)-Gainesville
3. Mebal Screenhouse-Winter Haven

Total Fixed Capital Outlay


329,789 28,985 358,774

908,569 91,362 999,931







5,265 228,792
933 193,086
2,306 107,300

116,177 143,309
77,023 254,701
19,831 22,402
12,829 67,451
354,711 2,772,005

57,500 57,500

57,500 73,000

112,211 2,845,005

Division of Plant Industry

Table 3

1972-73 Allotments and Expenditures
General Trust
Revenue Funds Total


Administrative Direction & Support

Director-Fiscal-I & E-Library-Methods

Consumer Protection-Maintenance of
Business Standards

Bureau of Plant Inspection
Truck Fumigation-Citrus Tree Survey

Property Protection & Preservation

Bureau of Entomology
Bureau of Plant Pathology
Bureau of Nematology
Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Regulation
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control

Fire Ant Control
Spreading Decline
Fruit Fly Survey & Control
Snail Eradication
Weevil Eradication
Lethal Yellowing

Total General Activities

Fixed Capital Outlay-Construction

1. Warehouse Joists-Gainesville
2. Quarantine Greenhouse-Gainesville
3. Bio. Control Unit-Gainesville
4. Air Cond. Orlyt Greenhouse (Gainesville)
Total Fixed Capital Outlay


338,386 36,411 374,797

985,097 99,215 1,084,312



2,696,214 ;



6,500 126,232

80,026 150,100
91,000 298,326
24,604 35,069
9,555 52,239
190,000 190,000

537,311 3,233,525

58,950 65,422
52,600 327,000
111,550 414,778

648,861 3,648,303

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Table 4

1973-74 Allotments and Expenditures
General Trust
Revenue Funds Total


Administrative Direction & Support

Director-Fiscal-I & E-Library-Methods
Consumer Protection-Maintenance of
Business Standards

Bureau of Plant Inspection
Truck Fumigation-Citrus Tree Survey

Property Protection & Preservation

Bureau of Entomology
Bureau of Plant Pathology
Bureau of Nematology
Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Regulation
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control

Fire Ant Control
Spreading Decline
Fruit Fly Survey & Control
Snail Eradication
Weevil Eradication
Lethal Yellowing

Total General Activities

444,670 64,325 508,995

1,268,205 129,611 1,397,816




Fixed Capital Outlay-Construction

1. Insecticide Warehouse-Gainesville
2. Entomology Wing Extension-Gainesville 425,297
3. Citrus Budwood Greenhouse
(3) Winter Haven 31,723
4. Citrus Budwood Screenhouse, Winter Haven 19,465
5. Fumigation Chamber (2 units) Gainesville

Total Fixed Capital Outlay 476,485


10,500 145,226

65,000 321,603
175,682 395,471
24,807 107,221
10,122 73,622

480,047 4,233,835

35,000 35,000

88,200 88,200

123,200 599,685

503,247 4,833,520

Division of Plant Industry

Jerry Roberts, Information Specialist

Information and Education personnel are responsible for publications, press
releases and feature articles, a quarterly magazine, photography, training aids,
audio visual materials, exhibits, and coordinating general printing.
Publications released by the Division of Plant Industry during the biennium
included: "Guardians of Florida Agriculture" pamphlet; a giant African snail
leaflet; and Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, Vol. 5 and
Vol. 6.

The "Reporter," a house organ newspaper dealing with the professional and
private activities of the staff, was distributed bi-monthly.

News Bulletin
The "News Bulletin," a quarterly magazine which publicizes Division pro-
grams, was issued to registered nurserymen, stock dealers and agents, represen-
tatives of the citrus and vegetable industries, libraries throughout the world,
state and federal agencies, and a large number of citizens who requested they
be placed on the mailing list. The publication serves as the official outlet for
regulations and information concerning the movement of plants and plant pests
in Florida.

Field and Studio Photography

Field and studio still photography in color and black and white was provided
for the various bureaus for publication in technical circulars, leaflets and other
publications, and for distribution to statewide communications media.
The photo lab handled 310 work orders in black and white and color.
Photography was furnished for all Division publications, and assistance was
rendered to other state and federal agencies.

Art and Exhibits
Charts, graphs, and other illustrations were prepared as requested by the
various bureaus of the Division.
Exhibits were constructed and placed in fairs and trade shows upon specific
requests of various program coordinators and field specialists.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Andrew Kolesar, Librarian
Gifts of library materials were received from the following persons: C.
Wehlburg, H. A. Denmark, P. E. Frierson, G. J. Stout, R. E. Woodruff, S. A.
Alfieri, G. Saunders, H. V. Weems, June S. Cowperthwaite, J. N. Knull, R. P.
Esser, H. L. Jones, D. Fuqua, F. Mead. G. W. Dekle, D. E. Stokes.

Gifts: (approximately) 2,112
Exchanges 60
Gifts, regularly received, (including state
and government publications) 139
Subscriptions (Paid) 169

The Collection
Size (Volumes as of June 30, 1972) 7,955
Purchases 1,377
Bindings 682
Microfiche units 122
Reels of microfilm 21

Job Related Activities
(1) Membership Chairman, Florida Chapter of the Special Libraries As-
sociation, 1971-72.
(2) Treasurer, Florida Chapter of the Special Libraries Association, 1972.
(3) Assistant Librarian (courtesy appointment), University of Florida.
The library collection as of June 30, 1972, was 7,955 volumes. Increased
acquisitions of books and periodicals has resulted in the acquiring of new shelv-
ing in both the Reading and Periodical Rooms. A SE-LIN labeler was acquired
in March of 1972 to facilitate the labeling of books.
In June of 1972 the library added approximately 122 units or 265 titles
of microfiche to the collection and a DASA microfiche reader. Implementation
of microfiche to the library system will help to conserve space in the library.
A study unit consisting of a desk and chair and a Xerox machine have also
been added in the library to improve services.
A museum and archives has been permanently established in the Library
and is officially known as the Division of Plant Industry Historical Museum
and Archives. Many museum and archival materials are housed within this unit
to portray and maintain the historical work and services the Division has given
since its founding.

10 Division of Plant Industry

Memorabilia of the late George B. Merrill and Robert E. Foster have been
placed in the library as a testimonial to both men. In addition portions of the
library have been designated as "The George B. Merrill Entomological Library
and The Robert E. Foster Beekeeping Library" in recognition of their many
Meetings Attended

Sept. 30 Oct. 2, 1970 Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Annual Conference, Tallahassee.
Dec. 4, 1970 Florida Chapter of the Special Libraries Association Meeting,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Jan. 12, 1971 Work Conference for Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville.
March 13, 1971 Florida Chapter of the Special Libraries Association Meet-
ing, University of Florida, Gainesville.
June 5-11, 1971 62nd Special Libraries Association Conference, San Fran-
cisco, California.
June 28, 1971 Personnel Workshop, Tallahassee.
Sept. 8-10 Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services Annual
Conference, Tallahassee.
Oct. 9-10, 1971 Florida Chapter of the Special Libraries Association Meet-
ing, Nova University, Fort Lauderdale.
Nov. 6-12, 1971 34th American Association of Information Sciences Meeting,
Denver, Colorado.
Dec. 4, 1971 Institute on Managing the Special Library, Florida Techno-
logical University, Orlando.
March 17-18, 1972 Seminar on Microforms Sponsored By The Florida
Chapter Of The Special Libraries Association, Clearwater.
April 27-30, 1972 Florida Library Association And The Florida Chapter
Of The Special Libraries Association Joint Meeting, Miami Beach.

Gerald G. Norman, Coordinator

Due to military requirements for rapid interpretation of aerial recon-
naissance, the infrared color film used by this unit in plant disease detection
was modified by the manufacturer during the period of this report. After this
initial modification proved unsatisfactory, production of this film was com-
pletely suspended for several months. The remodified version has recently
become available but has not proven wholly satisfactory for our purposes.
As a consequence, a relatively small amount of aerial photography has been
flown for the Division during this period.
However, because of their urgent need, this Division has flown one or more
aerial photo missions for each of the following:
1) Florida Peach Growers To establish incidence and severity of peach
tree root rot.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

2) Dr. Larry White Forest Ecologist, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. A survey of flora and fauna
in Paynes Prairie near Gainesville.
3) Colonel Roger Bachman Chief Waterways Branch. Florida Department
of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. A survey in depth of the O klawaha
River Basin.
4) Colonel Giles Evans Canal Authority of the State of Florida. Forest
survey along Florida Barge Canal from Eureka Lock to Rodman Dam.
5) Dr. David Tucker Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univer-
sity of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center. Lake Alfred. To
establish detectability and spread of Milk Weed Vine in citrus groves in
Lake and Orange Counties.
6) Dr. S. M. Garnsey- Citrus Investigations Research, Department of Agri-
culture, Agricultural Research Service, Orlando. To detect the degree of
protection afforded citrus trees by deliberate inoculation with mild strain
isolates of common citrus viruses.
7) Professor George Edwards Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. The incidence, dis-
tribution, and previsual detection of Young Tree Decline in citrus in Palm
Beach County.
Even with current film emulsions, all of the above were adequate for
their intended purposes. However, in one very important application, that of
detection of Lethal Yellowing Disease of coconut palms, infracolor photography
was a complete failure.
Since the Applied Physics Branch, Photo-Optical Sciences, of the Manned
Spacecraft Center, NASA, had just published a report of a new technique in
which virus diseases of St. Augustine grass (SAD) were revealed by photog-
raphy, they were asked to see if they could successfully apply this method
to detection of coconut Lethal Yellowing in Florida, and refine our own work
with Young Tree Decline of citrus. After leaves from both diseased and
healthy coconuts and citrus had been sent to Houston for laboratory analysis,
it was considered that their method might indeed have possible application
in these areas.
On March 13, 1972, a group comprising Dr. Andrew E. Potter, chief,
Applied Physics Branch NASA, and Mr. Edwin H. Krauss, Supervisor, of Lock-
heed Electronics Corporation, a prime contractor to NASA, and five of Mr.
Krauss' associates arrived in Miami to begin measuring the spectral reflect-
ance and temperature of diseased as opposed to healthy coconut palms and
citrus as they would be recorded on living plant tissues in the field. Instruments
used were (1) EG & G Spectroradio-meter, (2) a Barnes PRT-5 Infrared
Scanner, and (3) a 4-camera array using narrow band-pass filters and polarizers.
Readings were made from wavelengths of 380 to 800 nanometers from ground
level, from cherry pickers and from helicopter flights. To date, the results are

Division of Plant Industry

In addition, this section has acted as liaison and coordinating representative
for the Division's fixed capital outlay construction projects during this period.


1971- Fall Meeting, American Society of Photogrammetry, Denver, Colorado.
1971--Annual Meeting, Florida State Horticultural Society, Miami, Florida.
1971--Annual Meeting, American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington,
D. C.
1972--National Workshop, "Operational Remote Sensing," Houston, Texas.
1972 Third Biennial Workshop, "Aerial Color Photography in the Plant
Sciences," Gainesville, Florida.
1972-Annual Meeting, Florida State Horticultural Society, Miami, Florida.


Dec. 5, 1971 "Can We Determine Soil Types from Analysis of Leaf
Reflectance?" American Congress of Surveying and Mapping, Clearwater,
Feb. 18, 1972 "Aerial Color Photography in Agriculture," Florida Society
of Photogrammetry, Orlando, Florida.
Mar. 21, 1972 "Color Signatures in IR Photo Interpretations," National
Inter-Society Color Council, New York City.
Oct. 12, 1971 "Some Applications of IR Aerial Color Photography in Citrus
Pests and Diseases," Florida Citrus Production Managers Association, Lake
Alfred, Florida.
Sep. 16, 1970 "The Use of Aerial Photography for Disease Detection in
Field Crops," Florida Tomato Growers, Ft. Pierce, Florida.


Program Coordinator, Florida State Horticultural Society, 1971.
Sec.-Treas. Hughes Memorial Foundation Citrus Scholarship Fund.
Chairman, Third Biennial Workshop, Aerial Color Photography in the Plant
Deputy Chairman, Color Photography Division, American Society of Photo-


Nov. 11, 1971 Certificate of Recognition for Advancement of Florida
Horticulture, Florida State Horticulture Society, Miami, Florida.
Mar. 10, 1971 Presidential Citation for Meritorious Service, American Society
of Photogrammetry, Washington, D. C.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Philip M. Packard, Chief

The Apiary Bureau's activities center around the control of honeybee
diseases. Honeybees are subject to a serious disease in larval form known as
American foulbrood, which is caused by the spore forming bacterium known
as Bacillus larvae. While completely harmless to humans, it is highly contagious
to honeybee colonies. Because bees fly over wide areas and will rob other colonies,
this disease can spread like wild fire from a few sources of infection. The apiary
inspectors' continuous program of honeybee brood examination plus the elimina-
tion of diseased colonies by burning has kept sources of infection to a bare
Brood disease of honeybees can be spread in many ways. The most promi-
nent is the infected colony weakened by disease unable to defend its stores
being robbed by strong colonies in the nearby vicinity. Consequently, apiaries
within the flight range of this infected source can be lost unless diseased col-
onies are discovered and destroyed. Misinformed beekeepers may unwittingly
spread this disease by moving combs from one colony to another. Even more
likely is the purchase of uninspected and infected colonies being transported
beyond the normal flight range of the honeybee. Many times the purchase of
infected colonies and equipment lead to large losses even though they were
bought at bargain prices.
Florida's honeybee colonies cross-pollinate watermelons, cucumbers, squash,
cantaloupes, and certain varieties of citrus. To reseed themselves, various types
of clover used in cattle pastures must be visited by bees each year. The total
value of pollination services of bees in Florida is estimated at about 20 times
the value of honey produced. Each year hundreds of honeybee colonies are
sold and transported by boat to Andros Island where vegetable growers use them
for pollination.
The primary sources of honey in Florida are citrus, tupelo, gallberry, and
saw palmetto. These honies are packed and sold to grocery stores and fruit and
gift stands by some twenty independent honey packers and one nation-wide
honey marketing organization. Florida's off-grade varieties of honey are col-
lected and blended together to form a uniform product and shipped to bakeries
all over the eastern United States.
Florida's unique tupelo honey produced in the river valleys of northwest
Florida generally finds its way to health stores because of its unusual levulose-
dextrose sugar ratio. Because of its composition, tupelo honey seldom crystallizes.
Part of the demand for tupelo honey was built up through a quality certifica-
tion program operated by the Florida Department of Agriculture which checks
color, moisture content, flavor, soluble solids, and pollen count. This certification
program assures the buyer that the honey will be true to characteristic form
and nature. Experience has indicated that buyers are willing to pay higher
prices if they can be assured of guaranteed quality.

Division of Plant Industry

Honey Certification Program

During the biennium, the apiary inspectors in Districts 1 and 2 collected
93 composite samples of honey from 361 barrels of Tupelo honey. Eighty-one
(81) composite samples from 317 barrels were certified as Tupelo honey. These
samples were examined for flavor, color, soluble solids, moisture, and pollen
count. Moisture content of samples averaged 17.3%.

Diseased Larval Examination

The Chief of Apiary Inspection made 111 microscopic examinations of
decomposed honeybee larvae. The smears were sent in by apiary inspectors and
beekeepers to determine the pathogen that caused the death of the larvae.
Forty-one adult honeybee samples were sent to the Department's Pesticide
Residue Laboratory to identify the pesticide that killed the honeybees contained
in these samples.

Resume of Bureau of Apiary Inspection Activities
1970-1971 1971-1972
Apiaries inspected 5,273 4,713
Colonies inspected 176,608 176,153
Counties inspected 57 59
Apiaries infected with AFB 431 433
Colonies infected with AFB 2,092 1,683
AFB Colonies destroyed 2,092 1,683
Apiaries with new infections of AFB 301 272
Florida Permits issued 713 742
Special Entry Permits issued 107 180
Point-To-Point Permits issued 88 98
Certificates issued 74 84

During the biennium, apiary inspectors examined 352,761 colonies in 9,986
apiaries; 3,775 colonies in 864 apiaries were found to be infected with American
foulbrood; 287 permits for 91,454 colonies of out-of-state bees to move into
Florida and 186 special moving permits for moving from point to point within
the State were issued; 1,455 moving permits and 158 certificates of inspection
were issued to Florida beekeepers. The sum of $21,629.00 was paid to Florida
beekeepers in compensation for bees and equipment destroyed because of
American foulbrood. The operating cost of the Bureau was $187,464.96, or
approximately 53c per colony inspection.
During the biennium, seven beekeepers reported 306 honeybee colonies and
386 supers stolen. Memorandums were sent to all apiary inspectors giving the
description of this stolen equipment in an attempt to locate the missing items.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Road Guard Report

Monthly reports from the Road Guard Stations during the biennium indicated
the following movement of honeybees and used beekeeping equipment through
the stations: Colonies going out 109,608; Supers going out 180,536;
Colonies coming in 106,251; Supers coming in 178,648.

Road guard reports showed 63,420 colonies and 100,013 supers moved into
Florida from other states. 58,123 colonies and 85,065 supers left Florida for
destinations across the nation.
Reports showed 42,831 colonies and 88,635 supers from North Florida moved
through the inspection stations bound for the citrus groves. Two months later
51,485 colonies and 95,471 supers moved out of the citrus area and passed
through the inspection stations bound for titi, tupelo, and gallberry locations
in North Florida.
Personnel of the Bureau of Apiary Inspection examined and certified 21,408
colonies for queen and package bee producers. Apiary reports indicated 57,682
colonies were inspected and certified for shipment to the following states:
Colorado 286; Connecticut 300; Georgia 10,414; Illinois 31; Iowa
- 400; Kansas 724; Maine 250; Maryland 898; Massachusetts 522;
Minnesota 5,964; New Jersey 350; New York 8,142; North Carolina -
29; North Dakota 7,346; Ohio 1,217; Pennsylvania 3,741; South
Dakota 8,178; Tennessee 10; Vermont 164; Virginia 463; West
Virginia 6; Wisconsin 8,247.



O. C. Albritton
D. W. Helle
J. C. Herndon
W. R. Johnson
L. E. Killebrew
W. M. Langston
M. C. Morgan
P. M. Packard
L. Putnal
H. W. Russell
J. B. Young

Apiaries Inspected
1970-71 1971-72

849 670
900 436
513 584
406 520
445 127
748 715
143 171
612 663
657 581

5,273 4,713

30,716 30,307
21,537 10,967
25,736 30,059
16,432 21,187
15,678 5,033
22,609 23,631
5,924 7,443
24,312 28,474
13,664 13,323

176,608 176,153

Colonies Inspected
1970-71 1971-72 Biennium



Division of Plant Industry


Inspectors 1

O. C. Albritton
D. W. Helle
J. C. Herndon
W. R. Johnson
L. E. Killebrew
M. C. Morgan
P. M. Packard
L. Putnal
H. W. Russell
J. B. Young

Colonies Destroyed
970-71 1971-72

1,945 1,665

1 Compensation
1970-71 1971-72 Biennium

$ 1,608.00 $ 248.00 $ 1,856.00
936.00 936.00 1,872.00
1,074.00 930.00 2,004.00
4,986.00 3,264.00 8,250.00
330.00 90.00 420.00
450.00 1,770.00 2,220.00
66.00 346.00 412.00
952.00 1,195.00 2,147.00
1,242.00 1,038.00 2,280.00
168.00 168.00

$11,644.00 $9,985.00 $21,629.00

Capital Outlay
7 Dodge Pickup Trucks
1 Plymouth Sedan

Administrative and Field

Office supplies
Gas & Oil
Tires & Batteries
Field & Maintenance supplies
Tags & Licenses
Personnel Board
Vouchers Other than Travel



1970-71 1971-72 Biennium
$10,582.60 $ 10,582.60
$ 2,467.00 2,467.00
$10,582.60 $ 2,467.00 $ 13,049.60

$67,481.72 $73,928.42 $141,410.14




$ 19,823.35
$ 33,005.22

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

The following meetings were attended by the Chief of Apiary Inspection:
August 20, 1970 Road Guard Meeting, Hart Springs, Florida. Gave talk.
October 12, 1970 Central Florida Beekeepers Association, Apopka, Florida.
Gave speech.
October 21, 1970 Greater Jacksonville Fair. Judged honey exhibits.
November 6 and 7, 1970 Florida State Beekeepers Association Convention.
Gave apiary report.
January 12 to 15, 1971 Apiary Inspectors of America. Las Vegas, Nevada.
Elected to Board of Directors.
February 2, 1971 Nosema Conference, Tifton, Georgia.
February 22, 1971 Central Florida Fair, Orlando. Judged community
honey exhibits.
April 4, 1971 Central Florida Beekeepers Association, Umatilla, Florida.
April 23, 1971 Big Bend Beekeepers Association, Perry. Florida. Gave
slide talk.
July 8, 1971 Polk County Beekeepers Association, Bartow, Florida. Gave
October 11, 1971-Central Florida Beekeepers Association, Apopka, Florida.
October 14 and 15, 1971 Georgia Beekeepers Convention, Waycross,
Georgia. Gave speech.
October 20, 1971 Greater Jacksonville Fair. Judged honey exhibits.
November 17, 1971 American Bee Breeders Convention, Gainesville,
November 18 to 20, 1971 Southern Beekeepers Federation and Florida
State Beekeepers Association Convention, Gainesville, Florida.
January 4, 1972 Sub Tropical Beekeepers, Homestead, Florida. Gave
slide talk.
January 13, 1972 Polk County Beekeepers Association, Bartow, Florida.
Gave speech.
January 24 and 25, 1972 Apiary Inspectors of America Convention, Or-
lando, Florida. Served as program chairman.
January 26 to 28, 1972 American Beekeepers Federation Convention,
Orlando, Florida. Served on arrangement committee.
February 23, 1972 Central Florida Fair, Orlando. Judged community
honey exhibits.

Division of Plant Industry


Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Apiaries Colonies American American
Year Ending Inspected Inspected Foulbrood Foulbrood

June 30, 1934 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938 3,451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 3,371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940 3,414 76,851 61 234
June 30, 1941 3,711 81,950 80 371
June 30, 1942 3,671 83,354 106 698
June 30, 1943 3,347 80,823 100 524
June 30, 1944 2,646 73,649 106 456
June 30, 1945 2,371 69,262 105 379
June 30, 1946 2,265 71,161 138 959
June 30, 1947 2,464 87,674 104 683
June 30, 1948 3,266 98,147 100 391
June 30, 1949 3,710 105,678 130 406
June 30, 1950 3,082 105,296 175 369
June 30, 1951 2,872 95,405 237 772
June 30, 1952 2,836 88,206 232 578
June 30, 1953 3,259 92,267 449 1,366
June 30, 1954 5,102 135,168 683 2,158
June 30, 1955 5,885 157,388 524 1,421
June 30, 1956 6,168 176,616 460 1,180
June 30, 1957 5,813 162,885 490 1,121
June 30, 1958 4,932 159,692 457 1,623
June 30, 1959 5,123 153,677 454 1,329
June 30, 1960 5,056 149,227 438 1,422
June 30, 1961 4,991 152,288 319 1,271
June 30, 1962 5,693 173,538 341 1,053
June 30, 1963 5,497 169,411 416 1,546
June 30, 1964 5,230 166,641 481 1,614
June 30, 1965 5,680 179,861 500 1,709
June 30, 1966 5,833 189,802 485 1,340
June 30, 1967 6,337 197,833 561 1,768
June 30, 1968 6,519 218,493 504 1,712
June 30, 1969 5,912 192,651 509 1,707
June 30, 1970 5,788 185,752 443 1,317
June 30, 1971 5,273 176,608 431 2,092
June 30, 1972 4,713 176,153 433 1,683

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 19

Charles Poucher, Chief


The European brown garden snail. Helix aspersa. has been eradicated
from a large Broward County nursery after two years of intensive treatment
and survey.
The snail, believed to have been introduced on nursery stock from Cali-
fornia, was first found infesting some 10 acres of the nursery in March 1969.
Treatment of the nursery with metaldehyde and calcium arsenate began
immediately and the last live snail was found in July 1969.
Due to the prolific nature of the brown garden snail, treatment was
continued and survey was maintained through December 1970. Following 18
months of negative survey, the snail was declared eradicatedfrom the area.
The brown garden snail had been eradicated from a Broward County
residential property in 1966. That infestation, too, is believed to have been
started from nursery stock received from California.
Helix aspersa is considered a serious pest of citrus and avocado trees, in
addition to vegetable and flower plants.
The pest has been widely disseminated throughout the world and in some
instances is valued as an article of food. It is believed to have been in Cali-
fornia since the mid-19th Century. There is currently no known infestation in

Date Material Amount Used

4/3/69 metaldehyde dust 660 pounds
4/15/69 sevin dust 400 pounds
4/30/69 metaldehyde dust 700 pounds
5/29/69 sevin dust 900 pounds
6/12/69 metaldehyde dust 590 pounds
6/27/69 metaldehyde bran 620 pounds
7/18/69 metaldehyde bran 800 pounds
7/29/69 metaldehyde bran 700 pounds
8/12/69 metaldehyde bran 800 pounds
8/26/69 metaldehyde bran 700 pounds
10/7/69 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
11/13/69 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
12/1/69 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
1/6/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
2/3/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
3/3/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
4/7/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
5/5/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
6/2/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
7/9/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds

Division of Plant Industry

8/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
9/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
10/6/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
11/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds
12/70 metaldehyde & calcium arsenate 800 pounds

Total 18,870 pounds

The 15 per cent metaldehyde dust was applied at the rate of 30 to 45
pounds per acre. The 5 per cent sevin was applied at the rate of 20 to 30
pounds per acre. Considerable difficulty was encountered in applying this
material. Starting with the July 18 application, all materials were applied by
fixed wing aircraft, giving a much more uniform coverage.
The 5 per cent calcium arsenate and 3.25 per cent metaldehyde granular
was applied at the rate of 50 pounds per acre. Between the treatments of
April 3 and July 29, spot treatments by hand were applied to approximately
one acre of the heaviest infestation.

Date No. of Live Snails Type of Survey

3/20-25/69 81 Can by can
4/1/69 20 Spot
4/15/69 3 Spot
4/30/69 5 Spot
5/29/69 21 Spot
6/24-27/69 18 Can by can
7/2/69 1 Spot
9/2-3/69 0 Can by can
12/2-3/69 0 (9 dead) Can by can
3/24-25/70 0 (1 dead) Can by can
6/24-25/70 0 Can by can
9/70 0 Can by can
12/70 0 Can by can


Spreading decline is a disease which erodes the productive capacity of
citrus. It is caused by the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis. Without
control measures, burrowing nematodes spread from grove to grove feeding on
the protoplasm found in citrus roots and causing loss of vigor and declining
fruit production. Intensive care will retard the drop in production; but this is
a questionable practice since it means increasing unit cost while production
and quality are declining. Eventually, groves infested with burrowing nematodes

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

become economic liabilities.
The only satisfactory control which has been developed requires pushing
and burning diseased trees, fumigating the soil. and waiting two years before
replanting with certified citrus nursery stock produced at site-approved nurseries.
An area which has been pushed and treated must remain free of vegetation
during the first six months. The two-year period before replanting will be
waived, however, when resistant rootstock such as Milam or Ridge Pineapple
are used. These varieties may be replanted after six months because of their
natural resistance to the burrowing nematode.
Some burrowing nematode infested groves have been abandoned and others
are being utilized for residential or industrial areas. This is especially true
in the Disney World impact area where even burrowing nematode groves that
formerly had chemical buffers through them have been abandoned in lieu of
their high-income potential from sources other than fruit production.
The Division of Plant Industry (in cooperation with the USDA). recogniz-
ing a potent threat to the entire citrus industry, adopted a compulsory push
and treat program in 1954; but subsequent legal action initiated by growers,
who were unwilling to cooperate, forced a halt. In a compromise move, the
State agreed to push and treat, or maintain a buffer zone around any known
infestation to protect uninfested groves. The buffer would allow the grower to
work the declining portion of his groves until production decreased sufficiently
to warrant pushing and treating. The ultimate aim and purpo-e was to bring
the program to a successful conclusion by eradicating the burrowing nematode
from commercial grove areas.
Initially, the entire expense was borne by the State and USDA. Since
August, 1967, the cost of land preparation, material and application, has been
at the expense of the grower for buffers where the healthy grove or treated
property is adjacent to dooryards, subdivisions, etc.. which present a perpetual
threat; or where an infested area is not a threat to other properties and will
not be a threat for five years. An addition to this policy was made January 16.
1968, that also stated buffers would be at owner's expense when he knowingly
planted back adjacent to a known infestation on other than resistant root-
stock. The tremendous expense of maintaining these buffers ($1,641 per mile)
has prompted the legislature in requesting that the growers assume more of
this expense.
On August 25, 1971, the Industry Spreading Decline Committee met at
Florida Citrus Mutual in Lakeland. They approved a change in policy which
stated that in addition to cost of application, fumigant and herbicide, the
entire cost of buffer maintenance, including survey, will be at grower's expense
where he is being protected from his own burrowing nematode infestation.
Also, they requested that the Technical Research Sub-Committee meet to con-
sider alternative proposals which would stimulate growers to push and treat
or plant biological barriers. The Technical Research Sub-Committee met on
September 16, 1971, and a proposal was developed which would relieve the
State of the expense of buffer maintenance by 1976. The proposal, as approved

Division of Plant Industry

on September 24, 1971, will require those growers who are now being protected
from an adjacent infested property at State expense, to pay part of the expense,
as outlined in the Spreading Decline Policy.
The primary goal of the new policy is to encourage nurserymen and grove
caretakers to purchase the necessary equipment to provide push and treat
service to the citrus industry. Most have been reluctant, since they would be
competing with services rendered by a state agency.
Statewide eradication of the burrowing nematode is both improbable and
impractical because of the large number of host plants; but area eradication
has been effectively demonstrated in the citrus push and treat program. These
new policies are expected to encourage growers to take advantage of the push
and treat system to rid their groves of the burrowing nematode.
The Spreading Decline Budget Request for 1972-73 which was approved
by the Industry Spreading Decline Committee reflects the change in policy by
showing an increase in grower contribution by approximately $16,240 per year.
The budget for the biennium 1970-72 was $419,939 from general revenue,
$155,000 from fees paid by the growers for a total of $575,939. The 1971-72
total budget was $281,253.
Following is full text of the most recent Spreading Decline Policy dated
November 6, 1971.


I. Conditions where "Push and Treat" may be performed at State and Federal
(a) Upon request, the Division of Plant Industry will push and treat
burrowing nematode infested areas which will be a threat to other
non-infested groves within five years (rather than install or maintain
buffers) when such treatment is deemed to be in the best interest of
the State.
(b) Clean-up measures will be continued along infested margins and areas
replanted with other than Milam rootstock prior to January 1, 1968,
or Carrizo prior to January 1, 1971, at State expense; provided the
reinfestation or the original infestation was a threat to a non-infested
grove within five years and the grower requests such assistance within
a reasonable time (nine months) after receiving written notice of an
existing infestation.
(c) Cost of survey and delimiting under above conditions will be at State
and Federal expense.
II. Conditions where "Push and Treat" will be performed at owner's expense:
(This includes preparation of soil, fumigant and application cost).
(a) When the infested area will not be a threat within five years; when
the threat is from a perpetual source dooryardss, industrial properties,

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

etc.) or where the grove was planted adjacent to a known burrowing
nematode infestation, unless it is deemed to be in the best interest
of the State.
(b) If a property which has been pushed and treated is replanted with
other than resistant rootstock after January 1, 1968, subsequent cost
of margin surveys and pushing and treating along infested margins
shall be at grower's expense, except where Carrizo was used prior to
January 1, 1971.
(c) Sampling and delimiting will be at State and Federal expense (ex-
ception 2b above), if clean-up measures are implemented within nine
months after notification of existing infestation.
(d) The Division of Plant Industry will provide technical assistance to
those growers who wish to push and treat at their own expense.
III. Fumigation procedures:
(a) Soil fumigants DD (60 gallons to an acre), Telone (48 gallons to
an acre), EDB (25 gallons to an acre) or equivalent, will be used.
Injections spaced no farther than 18 inches apart and at a depth of
10 to 12 inches.
(b) Soil will be packed with soil packer immediately after fumigation.
(c) Soil fumigation will be accomplished only when adequate soil moisture
is present.

IV. Growers responsibility:
Failure to carry out the provisions listed below will result in the
necessity for the Division of Plant Industry, at the time of subsequent sale
of the property, to advise the parties concerned that recommended cul-
tural procedures were not followed by the grower in the maintenance of
the pushed and treated area which may have reduced the possibility of
eradication of nematodes.
(a) The grower must maintain clean cultivation following the application
of soil fumigant for minimum of six months.
(b) Replanting must be done only with resistant rootstocks.
(1) The burrowing nematode has not survived more than nine months
in the presence of the Milam or Ridge Pineapple rootstock. Re-
planting with these rootstocks may take place immediately fol-
lowing the six-month period of clean cultivation.
(c) Extreme care should be exercised in movement of grove equipment
from a decline area to another grove. Specifically, this equipment
should be thoroughly cleaned with water under high pressure.
V. Copper toxicity and liming:
In old groves when copper has accumulated in excessive amounts in
the top six inches of soil, the deep plowing will mix this copper in the
top 15 inches and this can result in poor root growth on resets. The
present recommendation is to lime the area to be plowed at rates in excess

Division of Plant Industry

of 1 ton per acre so that lime can be incorporated into the top 15 inches
of soil, thereby reducing the adverse effects of excess copper.

A buffer zone is an area established, treated and maintained for the
purpose of preventing the spread of the burrowing nematode from one area
to another. The width shall be sufficient to permit efficient operation of fumi-
gation equipment, and placed so as to offer the maximum protection to the
non-infested property. Available land space, topographical situation, and co-
operation of growers involved will determine the final design and location of
the buffer.

I. Establishment of buffers and maintenance of existing buffers at State and
Federal expense until July 1, 1972:
(A) Upon request protection will be provided through the use of buffers
to the owner of a non-infested commercial grove reasonably threat-
ened by a nearby infestation of the burrowing nematode (see excep-
tions listed under 3 a, 1, 2 and 3, page 4). Priority will be given to
those growers who will cooperate on an area basis. The grower must
prepare the land; the Division of Plant Industry will establish and
maintain the buffer and the USDA will carry out the necessary
(B) A property owner with a negative block requesting a buffer for
protection should first protect his neighbor from any infestation he
may have or reimburse the State for any cost involved.
(C) A buffer may be established on an infested property where a portion
of the property is not infested when it is deemed to be in the best
interest of the State.

II. Establishment of buffers and maintenance of existing buffers at Federal,
State and Grower's expense starting July 1, 1972:
(A) Upon request, protection will he provided through the use of buffers
to the owner of a non-infested commercial grove threatened by a
nearby infestation of the burrowing nematode (see exceptions listed
under 3 a, 1, 2 and 3, page 4). The grower must prepare the land
and pay an increasing cost as outlined below. After June 30, 1976,
entire cost will be borne by the growers.
(B) A property owner with a negative block requesting a buffer for
protection should first protect his neighbor from any infestation he
may have or reimburse the State for any cost involved.
(C) A buffer may be established on an infested property where a portion
of the property is not infested when it is deemed to be in the best
interest of the State.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 25


As of
July 1st Root Cutting
Each Year Buffer Costs Biological Buffers Buffer* Root Sampling

1972 ...................... 20% ...................... 0% ...................... 0% ...................... 0%
1973 ...................... 40% ...................... 25 r ...................... 0% ................... 0%
1974 ...................... 60% ...................... 50% ......................100% .....................100%
1975 ...................... 80% ..................... 757% ......................100% .....................100%
1976 ...... ...............100% .....................100% ......................100% .....................100%
Root-cutting Buffer used in connection with biological buffers

III. Establishment of buffer at grower's expense.
(A) A buffer can be established by the State or by private industry (with
or without State supervision), under the following conditions:
At the request of the grower and on his property at his expense which
would include the cost of land preparation, material, application and the
costs of all survey and samplings after the initial sampling. mapping
and delimiting.
(1) When a healthy grove or treated property is adjacent to dooryards,
subdivisions, residences. industrial properties or any property which
presents a perpetual threat of burrowing nematode infestation.
(2) Where a property has been pushed and treated and the grower
knowingly planted back adjacent to a known infestation on other
than resistant rootstock.
(3) Where infested property or properties will not be a threat to any
non-infested grove within five years.

IV. Buffer location, size and treatment.
(A) The buffer will be placed six rows (150 ft.) in advance of the visible
symptoms or four rows (100 ft.) beyond the last positive sample,
whichever is the greater distance.
(B) Size and method of treatment.
(1) Buffers 16 ft. to 25 ft. wide will be fumigated across the entire
buffer every six months.
(2) Buffers where one row of trees has been removed or which are
at least 32 ft. wide will have an 8 ft. strip fumigated on each
side every six months.
(3) Where two rows of trees have been removed, or where the buffer
is a minimum of 50 ft. wide, an 8 ft. strip will be treated on
each side once a year.
(C) All buffers will be kept free of weeds and grass by the use of herbi-
cide. No cultivation shall take place in or across the buffer zones.
(D) Biological buffer consists of 100 ft. of pushed and treated soil between

26 Division of Plant Industry

infested and non-infested trees which has been planted with burrowing
nematode resistant rootstock trees. It is recommended that an occa-
sional root pruning chemical barrier be implemented between the
resistant and infested trees. The frequency would depend on the
width but no more than once a year. A root pruning chemical barrier
between the resistant and the non-resistant rootstock should be
applied occasionally, probably no more than once every five years,
to keep non-resistant roots from coming in close proximity to infested
roots. This would eliminate possibility of burrowing nematode work-
ing across buffer on vegetation and hold down spread due to

IV. Fumigant.
Buffers are fumigated with Ethylene dibromide (W-85) at the rate
of 50 gallons per acre during the initial application and 25 gallons per
acre every six months thereafter.


When claypits are established either by the county or by private individuals
on the property that has been infested or exposed to an infestation of burrow-
ing nematode, the following regulations shall apply:
1. All citrus trees or other plants located on the infested property must
be burned on the property.
2. The land must be cleared of all debris and prepared in the manner
prescribed for push and treat procedures.
3. The area to be utilized as a soil source must be treated with EDB or
its equivalent at the rate of 50 gallons per acre.
4. The treated area must remain undisturbed except for maintenance of
clean cultivation for a period of six (6) months following treatment.
5. After the area is operational, the overburden should be arranged in
such a manner so as to form a natural soil barrier to prevent "runoff"
or flooding from adjacent properties.
6. If adjacent properties are burrowing nematode infested and present a
hazard then buffer zones must be established as protection to the soil
7. All conditions outlined herein are conditional and will be permitted
only if the Division considers the risks involved are minimal.
8. All of the above expense shall be borne by the owner of the claypit
and shall be performed under the technical guidance of the Division
of Plant Industry.
9. If the soil is to be moved in less than six months, the area must be
treated with EDB or its equivalent at the rate of 100 gallons per acre.
Under no conditions can any soil be moved in less than 30 days after

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

10. Claypits cannot be used as a trash dump.

More improvements have been made in techniques of survey by utilizing
the auger almost entirely on survey. Heretofore, the shovel was used on scattered
samples as it took too long to clean auger between samples by sweeping.
Now there is a 50 gallon water tank with a hydraulic pump, spray hose and
nozzle mounted on the vehicle carrying the auger that can be quickly activated
to wash the auger, preparing it for movement from one area to another. This
saves much time and labor in securing samples, making this part of survey
procedures more efficient.
It was decided a survey should be made to determine the incidence of
undetected burrowing nematode infestations. A 100 percent inspection of the
grove properties in the State would not only be impossible but very impractical
from a cost standpoint. Therefore, the only alternative is a sampling system.
To satisfy this need, a biometric survey was undertaken on the burrowing
nematode project under direction of Dr. Dan Embody, biometrician, for the
U.S.D.A. In the science of biometrics, a branch of applied mathematics. an
investigation has been made in which sampling difficulties encountered in
field surveys has resulted in development of a sizable body of subject matter
and principles to assist in constructing sampling plans which yield unbiased
results. It is an improved representative randomized sampling. During this
survey in a four-county area (Lake, Orange, Highlands and Polk), there were
865 points which were root sampled and out of this, 20 new positive properties
were detected. The greatest incidence of positive property detection was along
the sandy ridge of Lake, Polk and Highlands Counties, and would indicate
that this type survey would have merit in locating new infestations.
Since 1955, a total of 2,504,791 root samples have been collected. Samples
collected during this biennium totaled 262,040, as indicated in Table No. 1.
The data in Table No. 1 indicates the peak of survey activities was reached
in 1966-1967. During the past 12 months, the number of samples collected
declined 28 percent from the preceding year.
From 1959, until February 14, 1972, a fee of $50 for 50 acres or less,
plus $1 per acre for each additional acre over 50 had been charged by the
Division of Plant Industry for burrowing nematode inspection of groves for
sale or where a burrowing nematode inspection is requested for loan purposes.
The Division of Plant Industry inspects the grove and collects feeder roots
for examination. The U.S.D.A. makes a microscopic examination of the roots
in order to detect the presence or absence of the burrowing nematode. The
fee previously charged did not cover the full cost of this inspection and
examination of the roots.
The Division of Plant Industry has been requested by the legislators to
charge a fee that will cover the complete cost of this type inspection; there-

Division of Plant Industry

fore, effective Felruary 11. 1972. a minimum fee of $100 for 50 acres or less.
plus $2 per acre for each additional acre over 50. met this requirement.
During this period 163 real estate requests were made encompassing 8.133
acres. Ten groves were found infested with burrowing nematode. Fee; totaling
$13.705 were collected to cover the cost of making inspections.

Table No. 1

(July 1 June 30)

1955-1958 ............
1958-1959 ............
1959-1960 .............
1960-1961 ............
1961-1962 ..........
1962-1963 ............
1963-1964 ...........
1964-1965 ...........
1965-1966 ...........
1966-1967 ...........
1967-1968 .....
1968-1969 .........
1969-1970 ........
1970-1971 ...........
1971-1972 ...........

No. of Samples

.. .... -.... -.-.-.... -.-... -. ........... -- .......... ------------- 477,022
.- ....-...-.-.- ....- ....- ..- ...... ...- ..- ........ --------------- 88,001
S................................................. 82,169
.......................................................---...................... ............. 111,276
.. .............................. --............. ........................... 124,775
-....-.....-- .-.-.--.-.......- ....- ........................ .. ...- ........ 108,110
.................. ... ............. - --------...... 118,589
.......... ................................. .......................... 144,206
.............................. --..... .. .................... ........ .. 249 ,856
............................... .................. ........................ 283,679
........... ... .............................................. ....... 180,289
............. ................ ........ ....---.......... .......... ...... 145,29 1
................ ...................... .. ....... ..... ................. 129,488
.--... -.. -.-.-.-............. .... ... ..... ..... --- -- ---- .. 152,157
S............................................... ............. 109,883

Total 2,504,791

Host Plant Rootstock Information

During this biennium research discovered that carrizo citrange was no
longer to be considered resistant to burrowing nematode and should be classed
as tolerant. Some very recent data which hasn't been published as yet, indicates
that carrizo, when exposed to several generations of burrowing nematode is
susceptible, and may even support heavy populations of burrowing nematode.
It is recommended that carrizo no longer be considered tolerant and should
be ranked with other susceptible rootstocks, such as rough lemon, sour orange
and cleo.
One weed, caltrops (Kallstroemia maxima), which appears resistant to the
herbicide used was determined to be a good host plant. Another weed, toadflax
(Linaria vulgaris), also resistant to the herbicide, was found to be a non-host.
Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora) should be added to the host list.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

The data in Table 3 l-hows the number of trees found positive along the
margin of properties pushed and treated. Research and control officials are
constantly seeking method- to improve survey techniques.

Table 2. New Burrowing Nematode Inspections



Insp. Pos.




2 -



146 17

Total since July 1955 13.546 2,345


This part of the program involves pushing out the visibly infested trees
plus four adjacent rows and treating the soil with a soil fumigant EDB (W-85)
at the rate of 25 gallons per acre. At this rate, 25 gallons of EDH is equal
to 100 gallons per acre of DD, giving the growers more active material per
acre at a reduction in cost of approximately $18 per acre in material.

Indian River
St. Lucie


Division of Plant Industry

Table 3. Margin Survey Based on Tree Count

Trees Trees
Inspected Positive Percentage

1957-1959 22,286 680 3.1
1959-1960 2,494 138 5.1
1960-1961 1,353 111 8.2
1961-1962 1,337 30 2.2
1962-1963 2,526 72 2.8
1963-1964 2,943 54 1.8
1964-1965 2,581 27 1.1
1965-1966 3,073 56 1.8
1966-1967 7,366 170 2.3
1967-1968 6,605 133 2.0
1968-1969 7,874 88 1.1
1969-1970 5,703 159 2.8
1970-1971 5,056 117 2.1
1971-1972 3,131 104 3.3

In Table 4, marginal acres are acres pushed and treated where the bur-
rowing nematode was left along the margin of a property that was previously
pushed and treated.
Since the beginning of the program 17 years ago, 13,546 groves have been
inspected, 2,345 commercial grove properties have been found infested; of
these, 1,598 have been pushed and treated (11,885 acres). During this biennium,
80 initial infested properties (525 acres) and 187 reinfested properties (241
acres) were pushed and treated. Total infestations pushed and treated were
267 properties (769 acres).

Table 4. Push and Treat Data

Initial Initial Marginal Total
County Properties Acres Acres Acres

Polk 51 303 152 455
Lake 6 34 12 46
Orange 1 8 6 14
Highlands 22 169 69 238
Hillsborough 1 11 4 15
Osceola 1 1

Total 81 525 244 769

Since July 1955 1,598 9,959 1,926 11,885

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

The push and treat phase of the program -till remains the only method
of eliminating the burrowing nematode from a grove property. The number
of trees pushed this biennium has decreased due primarily to higher fruit
returns which caused the grower to rely more on the suffer program. Also. a
large number of the areas pushed and treated were .mall areas in connection
with initial infestations. margin of previously pushed and treated areas and
on negative side of existing buffers. Pushing these small areas has increased
the cost per acre of the push and treat pha-c of ftle program.
Buffer Phase

The buffers are treated with EDB (\V-85) at the rate of 50 gallons per
acre for the initial application and 25 gallon. per acre for each application
thereafter. The buffers are kept free of all vegetation with a herbicide (20
percent granular Diuron) at the rate of 200 pound- per acre for the initial
application. Retreatment is made at the rate of 100 pounds per acre as often
as necessary, usually about 15 months after the initial application.
At present, the State is maintaining 819.111 linear feet of buffers. There
are 872 infested commercial groves inside of the buffers. There are 80 infested
properties that either need to be buffered or pushed and treated in order t(I
protect adjacent non-infested groves.
Table 5. Summary of New Buffers Installed by County this Biennium

Acres of
Neg. Prop. Pos. Prop. Pos. Groves
County Buffers Lin. Feet Protected Buffered Encircled

Highlands 2 14,399 1 6 23
Hillsborough 875
Lake 2 9,270 4 8 41
Polk 16 42,250 27 38 255

Total 20 66,794

32 52 319

Since July 1, 1961 303 849,114 1,073 822 7,374

In Table 5, the figures in the column. 'Since July 1. 1961", are present
data. Many buffers have been pushed and treated. The peak wa- reached in
January 1966. At that time, the Division of Plant Industry was maintaining
1,185,000 lineal feet of buffers. As of June 30, 1972. the Division was main-
taining some 849,114 lineal feet, a figure down by 28 percent.
It was anticipated that with the State increasing the costs of buffer main-
tenance to the grower, more of this operation could he phased over to private
industry. However, most growers are accepting the increase and want the State
to continue the maintenance.

Division of Plant Industry

Table 6. Biological Buffers Installed

County Lineal Feet

Highlands .................... ....... .................................. 2,940
H illsborough ....- ........... .-......- ..............-... ...... ... ....--............. 2,825
Indian R iver ........................................................ .................. 1,600
Lake .......................................--. ....- .--.- .. ................. 2,580
O range .................... ................... ...................... ..... 2,360
P olk ......................... ... ... .... ................... .... . ............... 19,280

Total ....................... .... .......... ... 31,585

Caribbean Fruit Fly
The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, has been in Florida since
April 1965. Severe losses have occurred in dooryard planting of many tropical
and subtropical fruit. By 1972, the fly had spread to at least 31 counties and
is known to attack 34 different kinds of fruit. The fly is found from the south-
ern-most tip of Florida (Key West), to Jacksonville on the east coast and to
Brooksville on the west coast.
A sterile release experiment, utilizing Key West and its four nearest islands,
was conducted during the period July 1970 June 1972. The object was to
learn the techniques necessary to carry out a large scale population suppres-
sion program and to demonstrate the feasibility of the sterile insect technique
as a method of suppression and eradicating low population of the flies.
The flies were reared on a sugarcane bagasse citrus pulp substrate, later
replaced by ground rice hulls. Nutrients in this larval medium were supplied
by sucrose, torula yeast and wheat germ.
Flies were released usually from 7:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M., from a small
twin engine plane, flying 150-200 feet high at 150 miles per hour in lines about
0.1 mile apart over the islands. The land area totaled 7 square miles.
Releases started January 7, 1971. Aerial releases were terminated on
February 28, 1972, but ground releases continued until April 20, 1972.
At the beginning of this program, it was estimated that one million sterile
flies released over Key West each week would overcome the native fly popu-
lation. This was not the case, as the native population was underestimated and
considerable difficulties were encountered in producing the required number of
sterile flies.
Altogether, 115 million pupae were supplied, 71.6 million flies emerged
and 61 million flies were alive when the shipments departed Miami for Key
West. The number of live flies available per week gradually increased from
less than 0.5 million per week during the first six months to about 1.5 million
per week in March 1972, as improvements in rearing and handling reduced
pupae and adult mortality. Estimated living flies released by air approxi-

Table 7. Burrowing Nematode Control Data


Pushed and Treated Buffered Total A and B Infestations Remaining
with no control
Initial & Reinfested Initial & Reinfested Initial & Reinfested

Properties Acres Properties Acres Properties Acres Properties Acres

Highlands ............................. ................- 510 2,641 134 1,180 644 3,821 21 107

Hillsborough ..................... ........ 32 238 9 117 41 355 1 7

Lake ....................................... ............. 214 809 104 461 318 1,270 16 100

Orange ......................................................... 85 439 34 439 119 878 5 35

Polk ................................. ................. 1,720 7,493 534 5,099 2,254 12,591 31 161

All Others ............................ 41 265 7 78 48 343 6 38

Total -............ ................... 2,602 11,885 822 7,374 3,424 19,258 80 448

Division of Plant Industry

mated 38 million and by ground, 23 million.
In August 1971, a decision was reached to increase the production of
sterile flies to two million flies each week and to apply four aerial applica-
tions of one ounce of malathion per acre. These applications were applied
on August 19 and 25 and September 1 and 8. By the end of the fourth appli-
cation, the ratio of sterile to native flies showed considerable improvement.
During the first part of October 1971, a considerable number of sterile
flies died before reaching maturity. Researchers now think this was brought
about by overcrowding in the cages while increasing the production from one
million to two million flies per week without the necessary additional laboratory
Estimates of the relative fly population density, sex and sterile native
ratios, and ultimate effects of the program were obtained from 208 glass
invaginated traps (McPhail) rebaited each week with 3 percent torula yeast
hydrolysate and 4 percent borax.
Weekly fruit sampling was initiated in August 1970 and continued until
the program ended. The fruit was counted, weighed, then held over sand and
the pupae or larvae screened from the sand weekly. About 38 different potential
hosts were collected in the treated area but only 20 produced larvae. Progress
in suppression was measured in the nine hosts that were most readily available
and produced more than 95 percent of the local population. They were Barbados
cherry, calamondin, Governor's plum, guava, kumquat, loquat, sapodilla, Suri-
nam cherry, and tropical almond.
By April 1970 and continuing through July, sterile/native fly ratios
averaged ca. 5:1. This, and a declining fruit infestation indicated that the
sustained 5:1 ratio was beginning to suppress the population. By September
1970, the ratio had reached 59:1. Following a temporary increase in number
of native flies caught in December 1971, there was enough overflooding by
sterile flies to cause a steady decline in the native fly population. The week
ending June 3, 1972 was the first in 101 weeks of trapping without any native
fly catch.
Tropical almond was the most abundant and productive fruit fly host on
Key West. Persistence of the infestation in this host indicates it is preferred
by the fly under Key West conditions. The common guava was the most
heavily infested host with mean monthly infestations reaching 180 larvae per
pound of fruit. Tropical almond infestations reached their high point of
103/lbs. in January 1971, but after a year of releases, they still produced
20/lb. By May 1972 they had declined to 1.2/lb. Guava, with its high of
180/lb. in May 1971, produced no larvae after February 1972.


Encouraging knowledge has been gained from this program relative to
the rearing and release of sterile flies and in the objective to reach desired
ratio of sterile to native flies, which ultimately dictates the success of such a

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 35

Table 1. Number of Steiner and McPhail traps tended in each county

County Steiner Traps McPhail Traps

Alachua 5 0
Brevard 303 6
Broward 1,026 25
Charlotte 66 0
Clay 0 0
Citrus 52 0
Collier 68 0
Dade 3,025 103
DeSoto 77 5
Duval 120 15
Flagler 24 0
Glades 28 0
Hardee 149 0
Hendry 28 3
Hernando 92 0
Highlands 171 10
Hillsborough 1,128 46
Indian River 206 5
Lake 410 6
Lee 230 18
Levy 0 0
Manatee 451 8
Marion 103 4
Martin 82 0
Nassau 0 0
Monroe 46 0
Okeechobee 25 0
Orange 900 35
Osceola 61 0
Palm Beach 806 25
Pasco 421 6
Pinellas 538 14
Polk 763 15
Putnam 17 0
Sarasota 426 5
Seminole 153 5
St. Johns 16 0
St. Lucie 231 5
Sumter 61 0
Volusia 230 10



Division of Plant Industry

Table 2. Native fruit flies trapped, with the exception of Anastrepha
suspense, between July 1, 1970 and June 30, 1972

Native Fruit Fly Date Trapped Location

Myoleja limbata (Coquillett)
St. Lucie County
Sarasota County
Pinellas County
Sarasota County
Pinellas County
Palm Beach County
Hardee County

Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)


Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerst.
Manatee County
Broward County

Broward County
St. Lucie County
Dade County
Dade County
Dade County
Broward County
Broward County
Broward County
Broward County
Broward County
Indian River County
Dade County
Sarasota County
Dade County
Sarasota County
Sarasota County

Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Volusia County
Lake County
Hardee County
Dade County


11/ 8/71
11/ 1/71
10/ 6/71

4/17/72 *7
3/22/72 10

2/ 7/72
2/ 7/72
2/ 1/72

10/ 6/71

Ft. Pierce
High Point
Tarpon Springs
West Palm Beach

Broward County
trap #13
Ft. Lauderdale
Ft. Pierce
Vero Beach

Opa Locka

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Due to the tremendous cost of eradicating the Carib-fly from Florida by
either the sterile or pesticide method, and since it has attacked major crops
to a limited extent in only isolated areas, it appears that Florida will have to
live with this fruit fly until, such time as research may develop new or better
tools to control or eradicate the pest.

Table 3. Counties in which Anastrepha suspense have been trapped,
and the number of flies trapped during the month of
May 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, and 1972

County 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972

Indian River
Palm Beach
St. Johns
St. Lucie








Total 32,878 89,527 33,833 41,235 43,004 25,455 26,968

*Found infested for the first time on 5/1/12

38 Division of Plant Industry

Since 1958, the Division of Plant Industry and the USDA have maintained
an intensive fruit fly trapping program in an effort to detect early infestations
of major fruit flies.
Two types of traps are used. The combination (Steiner) trap is baited
with three lures: cue-lure, methyl eugenol and trimedlure. The cue-lure attracts
the melon and Queensland fruit fly; the methyl eugenol attracts the Oriental
fruit fly; and trimedlure attracts the Mediterranean and Natal fruit flies.
Thirty percent dibrom is added to the trimedlure to insure kill of any flies
attracted to the lure, and to discourage insect predators. Prior to the spring
of 1972, 1 percent dibrom was added to the cue-lure, methyl eugenol. Lindane-
chlordane wettable powder was added to the inside of the traps every two to
three weeks. Research data proved that 30 percent dibrom by volume added
to the trimedlure wick would be superior.
The wet (McPhail) trap is baited primarily to attract the Mexican fruit
fly. It will also attract other species of Anastrepha. The McPhail trap was
baited with cottonseed protein pellets until spring of 1972, when the supply
was exhausted. Cottonseed protein is no longer manufactured. Researchers, after
testing torula yeast for several years, found the lure to be four to six times
more effective than cottonseed protein against Caribbean fruit fly and equal
to or slightly superior against Mexican fruit fly. All McPhail traps are now
baited with torula yeast. During each month since the switch in lure was made,
the total catches of Caribbean fruit flies have increased. (See Table 2)
There is a real need for more and better attractants to increase the
efficiency of detection and control operations. The need is greater because
increased international trade and traffic have increased the chances of intro-
ducing a foreign insect species. A foreign pest in a new environment, free of
natural enemies, could multiply explosively.
On January 6, 1972, two larvae specimens from Hallandale, Florida, were
submitted for identification. The taxonomists were unable to definitely identify
the species concerned; and as a result of this indecision, trapping was intensi-
fied in the Hallandale area to confirm whether or not a new species was
An additional 935 Steiner traps, baited with trimedlure and 30 percent
dibrom, were placed in the field in the vicinity of Hallandale. (Thirty McPhail
traps, baited with three different types of food lure were installed. Also, three
Steiner traps were baited with oil of angelica and 17 sticky board traps baited
with casein hydrolysate, ten sticky board traps baited with trimedlure and ten
Steiner traps baited with trimedlure and lindane-chlordane.) The only species
of fruit fly collected were Caribbean fruit fly.
The following report was prepared by Mr. Bob McFarlin, Plant Specialist
and Supervisor in charge of Mexican fruit fly survey activities at Sarasota:
On February 23, 1972, one adult female, Anastrepha ludens (Loew),
was trapped by Mr. S. V. Hiatt, the USDA trapper for Sarasota County.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

This fly was found along with 18 Anastrepha suspense (Loew). from one
McPhail trap that Mr. Hiatt had placed in a grapefruit tree at 1848 Loma
Linda Street. Sarasota, on February 16th, in answer to a complaint of ex-
cessive fruit droppage. The trap was removed after servicing on the 23rd
of February. As a result of this find, an intensive Mexican Fruit Fly Trap-
ping Program was initiated February 29, 1972.
Using the location of this fly find as a center point, trap areas were
set up in all directions. McPhail traps were placed in preferred hosts at
the rate of one trap per city block, using five torula yeast borax pellets to
one pint of water as a lure. Approximately ten percent of the traps were
baited with brown sugar and water, which were later replaced with cot-
tonseed protein pellets.
Traps installed on February 29th, and March 1st. were first serviced
on Friday, March 3rd. Those installed March 3rd, were serviced Monday,
March 6th, and thereafter, all traps were serviced weekly. The old lure
was re-used originally after straining it for flies, but later this was dis-
continued, and fresh lure was used each tending.
By March 2nd, an office was established in a USDA house trailer
west of the Sarasota County Fair Grounds. With the closing of the County
Fair, the trailer office was moved onto the Fair Grounds, and was joined
by a second trailer and used by Mr. W. H. Pierce, for rearing adult flie;
from larvae infested fruit collected near the original fly find.
While concentrating on placing traps in an ever-widening circle up to
approximately five miles from the original fly find; areas such as the Sara-
sota-Bradenton Airport, a citrus processing plant, Tropicana, Inc., and Port
Manatee, in Manatee County, were also surrounded by traps early in the
On March 10th, a meeting at the USDA office trailer in Sarasota was
held by Messrs. Poucher, Haley, Lopez, Burnett, Dr. Weems, and McFarlin.
It was decided to increase the trap intensity within the 1/2 mile radius area
of the fly find from one trap to five per city block. On the advice of Mr.
Lopez, broad leaf shade trees were used for hanging traps where host fruit
trees were unavailable. This area of concentrated traps also included Bird
Key, Coon Key, St. Armonds Key, Lido Key, and City Island.
By March 27th, the USDA had hired six temporary men to service
traps, while the remaining trap lines were handled by regular State
Another meeting was held in Sarasota, April 4, 1972, and attended by
Messrs. Poucher, Haley, Hill, Burnett, Pierce, McFarlin and Dr. Woodruff.
A decision was reached to reduce traps by 200 in eastern Sarasota County,
and add 350 traps in Pinellas County, 700 in Hillsborough, 400 in Manatee
County, 50 in South Sarasota County to the Venice Airport area, 50 in
the core area of Sarasota, and 50 in Lee County. Later, Charlotte County
received some of the traps that had been designated for Lee County. It
was further determined that State personnel would work the traps in

Division of Plant Industry

Pinellas and Manatee Counties. To obtain maximum coverage from those
new traps outside of Sarasota County, relocation every two weeks was

Number of Mexican Fruit Fly Survey Traps (McPhail)
Tended Weekly by Counties Through June, 1972
County Number of Traps
Sarasota 2,638
Manatee 485
Hillsborough 678
Pinellas 324
Lee 15
Charlotte 38

Total 4,178

A total of 109 traps was installed during the first several weeks of
the program using brown sugar-yeast and pyridine. This lure proved to
be inferior to torula yeast.
During the fruit fly rearing activities, a total of 103 samples was col-
lected as follows: 51 grapefruit, 20 orange, 11 tangerine, 3 loquat, 7 cala-
mondin, 6 guava, 3 Barbados cherry, and 2 Surinam cherry. Larvae and
pupae recovered totaled 5,155. All emerged were Anastrepha suspense.
There was no Anastrepha ludens emergence.

Torula Yeast Bait Strength Test

This test contained 20 McPhail traps (10 with 5 torula yeast pellets
and 10 with 2 torula yeast pellets). One trap with 5 pellets and one with
2 pellets were placed on opposite sides of 10 different grapefruit trees.
At each weekly tending, the position of each trap in each tree was reversed.

Flies Captured

Date 5 pellets 2 pellets
March 23 74 30
March 30 127 63
April 6 119 70
April 14 196 227
April 21 946 487

TOTAL 1,462 877

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


The gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar, a serious pest of trees in the north-
eastern United States, continues to threaten the nation's hardwood forests. A
native of Europe, the gypsy moth was accidentally introduced into America in
1869, when imported specimens escaped from the laboratory of a Medford,
Mass., naturalist. Without natural enemies to contain it, the moth spread rapidly
and now inhabits most of New England, eastern New York, New Jersey, and
eastern Pennsylvania.
The moth develops in four stages egg, larva, pupa, and moth. Only the
larva (caterpillar) is destructive. The caterpillars feed on the leaves of
forest, shade and fruit trees, as well as on many ornamentals. A single defolia-
tion can kill white pine, spruce and hemlock. Two defoliations can kill hard-
The insects pass the winter as velvety, buff-colored egg masses attached to
trees, leaves, stone walls, rocks, trailers, tents, and other shaded objects. Cater-
pillars hatch in late April or early May. They soon devour all the leaves in the
vicinity and move on to new trees. The brownish, hairy, caterpillar is easy to
identify by the pairs of red and blue dots on its back.
This pest, new to Florida, was detected in "Cloud 9"' Trailer Park, a mobile
home site east of the intersection of Palafor Street and immediately south of
Olive Street, near Pensacola, Florida, on May 4, 1971. A total of 11 larvae
were recovered during a two-week period. The first larvae was found near a
trailer, heavily infested with gypsy moth egg masses, which had been moved to
Pensacola from the northeast during the fall of 1971.
Gypsy moth adult traps were set in a grid pattern in a 10-mile radius
around the infested trailer. Four inspections of the traps were made, the final
inspection in August, 1971; results were negative.
Approximately 1/2 acre around the infested trailer was treated by ground
equipment on May 8 and 10, using 50 pounds of 25 percent wettable Sevin.
A second treatment was applied on May 18, 1971, using emulsifiable DDT.
Approximately 20 acres, including the trailer park and the immediately ad-
jacent area, were treated by plane with Sevin-4 oil at the rate of 2 pounds of
actual material per acre. Treatment was applied on May 10, 11, 13 and 19, 1971.
Two treatments were applied by plane on a 160-acre area on May 13 and 19,
1971, using Sevin-4 oil.
Gypsy moth egg parasites, Ooencyrtus kuwanai, were released around the
infested area on September 28, 1971.
During April 1972, 25 larvae traps were placed in and around the "Cloud
9" Trailer Park, in Pensacola.
All surveys conducted between March 1 and June 30, 1972 were negative.
It now appears that this infestation has been eradicated.


Since September 15, 1969, the Division of Plant Industry has been con-

Division of Plant Industry

ducting a very intensive eradication program to eradicate the giant African
snail, Achatina fulica, from Florida. This snail is considered to be the most
serious land snail plaguing man today.
From its homeland, the coastal area of East Africa, the snail migrated to
Madagascar before 1800, India (1847), Ceylon (1900), Malaya (1911), China
(1931), Formosa (1932), Mariannas (1938), New Guinea (1943), Hawaii
(1936), and Florida (1969).
The possibility of the snail being inadvertently introduced into the United
States has greatly increased with direct airline flights from infested areas to
the continental United States, international travel by an affluent society, and
the tremendous increase in air cargo traffic. Volume of traffic, constant efforts
by the airlines to eliminate or reduce baggage inspection to move people faster,
and many other factors, have crippled our defenses against the importation of
plant pests.
A combination of factors; lush tropical growth, an abundance of calcium
carbonate, lack of natural predators, and mild winters was instrumental in
the establishment of the giant African snail.
The Florida infestation generated international publicity. Dr. Albert Mead,
a noted world authority on giant African snail, visited Florida on several oc-
casions to review the eradication program with Federal and State officials.
Prior to his arrival, he was not overly enthusiastic about the possibility of
eradicating the pest. He reappraised the eradication effort after he saw first-
hand what was being accomplished; and stated that eradication is both possible
and feasible, notwithstanding the fact that it has never been accomplished
where the snail has been thoroughly established.
Dr. Mead's formal filed report cited his reasons for being optimistic about
the eradication program: (1) the methodical and businesslike manner in which
the program is being carried out; (2) the interest and cooperation developed
in the infestation by residents of the area; and (3) all personnel interviewed
reflected a seriousness and dedication that produces the thoroughness required
in an eradication program.
The last snail find in the original infested area was made on July 7, 1971.
The outlook for eradication appears promising.
On August 18, 1971, a new infestation of the giant African snail was de-
tected at 89 Terrace and 18th Avenue in Dade County. This area is approxi-
mately 3 miles southwest of the original Miami infestation found in 1969. The
latest find was made when a home owner reported suspicious snails on her
property. Within 48 hours, the infestation was delimited and treated. The last
live snail found in this area was on January 28, 1972.
On May 23, 1972, another new infestation was reported by a home owner
located at 146th Street and 13th Avenue North in Dade County. This area is
approximately 3 miles northwest of the original infestation and approximately
1 mile northeast of the Opa Locka infestation. Live snails were found on
seven properties in one city block.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


A biometric survey system is used on all the infested areas. With this plan,
both infested and non-infested properties are selected at random and one-third
of the properties are surveyed every two weeks. By this system, a 100 percent
staggered survey of all properties is obtained every six weeks.
The following survey procedures are now being followed:
1. All infested properties and those properties immediately adjacent thereto
are surveyed once every six weeks for two years after termination of
treatment, and quarterly thereafter, until a contiguous area is con-
sidered eradicated.
2. Properties not found infested (does not include adjacent to infested
properties) but included in the original treatment zone are surveyed
every six weeks for one year after termination of the treatment, and
once a quarter until a contiguous area is considered eradicated.
3. A contiguous area should be considered eradicated when it has been
found negative for two consecutive years.


The bait used consists of 3.25 percent metaldehyde, 5 percent tricalcium
arsenate and 91.5 percent cornmeal (formulated into pellets). The bait is ap-
plied on a weekly schedule (30 to 40 pounds per acre) until the population
of the snail is reduced to a very low level (usually six weeks), then biweekly
for another six weeks, then once every four weeks for one year after the last
snail is found.
Since the snail infestations were discovered, some properties have had as
many as 70 bait treatments.
In addition to the bait treatment, a drench treatment is now being applied
to all properties where live snails have been found within the past 12 months.
The treatment consists of two pesticides being applied alternately using 99
percent metaldehyde at the rate of 4.1 pounds to 50 gallons of water, and 31/2
pounds of 80 percent wettable Sevin to 200 gallons of water.
As a supplement to the bait and drench treatment, all infested properties
are cleaned up. This consists of removal of all trash, debris, weeds, and other
items from snail habitats which provide shelter and concealment for snails.
All properties are now being bait-treated for one year after the last live
snail find.


In 1958, the DPI initiated a system of formal schooling for new employees
which is recognized by other state and federal agricultural agencies as very
comprehensive and outstanding.
The school, with headquarters in Winter Haven, offers a complete curri-
culum that covers every facet of the Division's responsibility.

Division of Plant Industry

Since 1958, 24 classes composed mainly of new employees have successfully
completed the DPI training school. Four classes were conducted during this
Class XXI, G. R. Beauchamp, R. B. Weaver, and G. H. Gwin, started train-
ing on July 6, 1970, and completed it October 7, 1971. Since completing train-
ing, two of the three new employees resigned to accept higher paying jobs.
Class XXII, Paul Gibson, and Gaylord Williams, started training on No-
vember 2, 1970, and completed it January 29, 1971. Since completing training,
one of the two inspectors resigned to accept higher paying employment.
Class XXIII, T. L. Fedelem, W. A. Padgett, P. R. Pullara, C. A. Gipson,
H. Levens, and G. T. Smith, started training on June 21, 1971, and completed
training on September 6, 1971. Since completing training, one of the inspectors
has resigned.
Class XXIV, W. B. Wykle, R. Daliessio, and R. D. Williams, started train-
ing on January 4, 1972, and completed training on March 24, 1972. Since com-
pleting training, one of thethreeinspectors has resigned.


The citrus industry, ranking uppermost in primary importance among the
varied industries of Florida agriculture, is justifiably concerned over a relatively
new and serious problem affecting citrus production.
The sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, was first dis-
covered in the Apopka area in 1964, when a single adult was found. Repeated
surveys failed to turn up any additional specimens until September 16, 1968.
when larvae were found among the roots of citrus nursery trees by a nursery-
man near Apopka.
The weevil is reported to be a native to the West Indies, and is a serious
pest of sugarcane there. In Florida, citrus appears to be the preferred host.
Young nursery trees seem to be more seriously affected than mature trees. The
adult weevil feeds on foliage, and has a preference for tender new growth.
The larva is of greater destructive consequence than any injury to leaves caused
by the adult.
The female lays eggs between leaves stuck together with an adhesive which
she produces. The eggs, which are very tiny, white and oblong, vary from 30 to
264 per cluster. A single female can lay 5,000 eggs during her life span, a
period of several months. The eggs usually hatch in seven days, with the result-
ing larvae falling to the soil surface; wherein they burrow within a few days.
The larvae are white and legless, and about 1/2 inch long. They remain in the soil
from two months to possibly two years, feeding voraciously on the roots of
For the first time since the quarantine was imposed in 1968, inspectors dis-
covered adult weevils outside the regulated area of Apopka and Plymouth.
During September and October 1971, adults were found on the leaves of sweet
orange trees in several groves between the infested sites and north of the Ply-

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

mouth infestation.
Boundaries of the federal and state quarantine were extended to include
the new infestation, and surveys beyond the zone were intensified to check
further migration of the weevil.


Prior to the 1971-72 citrus harvesting season, movement of fruit was per-
mitted, based upon a negative survey within seven days of fruit harvesting. The
grower was required to treat with an insecticide, any areas where weevils were
found to eliminate adult weevils. The effective control program reduced weevil
population to where a hazardous population no longer existed and, therefore,
no regulatory requirements were imposed on the movement of citrus fruit start-
ing November, 1971.
Since September, 1968. the DPI and the USDA have been conducting a
program to suppress, and if possible, eradicate the sugarcane root weevil; but
restrictions on the use of persistent pesticides have severely hampered control
measures. Aerial sprays applied at seven to ten day intervals hold down the
adult population and limit the spread: but research personnel connected with
the program, say ultimate control of the sugarcane weevil will require the ap-
plication of enough persistent pesticide to the soil to kill newly hatched larvae.


For control of the adult weevil, aerial applications of Sevin using 21/2
pounds of 80 percent wettable powder, plus 4 ounces of sticker in 2 gallons of
water per acre, were applied weekly. Starting April. 1972, Sevin-4 oil and 412
oil mixture were applied at the rate of 77 ounces per acre. resulting in 2 pounds
A.I. of Sevin being applied per acre. Treatments were applied on a 14-day
schedule to 49,390 aggregate acres.
Ground applications of chlordane (5 pounds per acre) was applied to 1,031
acres in 1971 and 1,389 acres (10 pounds per acre) in 1972. Application was by
ground equipment and was coordinated with normal grove cultivation so that it
could be disked into the soil as soon as possible after application. Application
was made in two directions to assure good coverage.


Present methods of surveying to detect infestations consist of visual inspec-
tion for evidence of adult feeding damage. If feeding signs are found, a search
is then made for adults. Larvae surveys are made by digging around the root
systems of selected trees. These methods are expensive and tedious, and though
heavy infestations of adults may be detected, light infestations can be easily
The first priority was given to surveying commercial groves within the
regulated areas, aimed at detecting an adult weevil infestation before the pop-

Division of Plant Industry

ulation reached a high level. Groves in this category were surveyed on a ten-
day schedule or less, depending on the amount of new flush, suspicious feeding
signs on foliage, and whether the grove had been found infested in past years.
Added attention was given to those groves located in residential areas, many of
which were surveyed weekly. Dooryards within and adjoining these groves were
also surveyed.
As groves were found infested with adult weevils, the infested grove plus
bordering groves were included in the spray program. Also any dooryard within
or adjoining the infested grove was sprayed. No further surveys were made in
these groves, except for an occasional spot-survey to evaluate the effects of the
spray. However, groves being sprayed in the residential areas of Apopka were
surveyed more frequently, with special emphasis being placed on dooryards
within a two-block area surrounding each grove. Dooryards in this two-block
area were spot-surveyed approximately monthly, and during the peak emergence
periods, all dooryards were surveyed.
In addition to the regular surveys carried out by weevil personnel, plant
specialists and fruit fly trappers were on the lookout for infestations or sus-
picious feeding signs, while on their routine work throughout Orange and Lake
The second survey priority was given to groves located between the two
regulated areas and a one-mile perimeter around each. This area was surveyed
approximately each six weeks.
The third priority the original plan was to survey groves and dooryards
that had been planted with citrus nursery trees originating from two citrus
nurseries found infested. During April and May, 1971, there were 26 properties
located and inspected that had bought trees from the two nurseries. All pro-
perties were found negative for adult weevils.
Next priority was the highway survey. The purpose of this survey was to
make a close inspection of citrus trees bordering each side of main highways
leading from regulated areas to citrus processing plants which had received
fruit from regulated areas. After reaching the processing plant, a survey was
conducted at the plant as well as 1/4 mile outward. This survey also included
main highways leading to fruit harvesting labor camps or housing areas, harvest-
ing equipment sheds, caretaking equipment sheds, etc.
A total of 47,746 aggregate acres were surveyed.
Three small plots in one heavily infested grove, consisting of 25 trees each
are surveyed very intensively on a weekly basis. Table No. 1 gives the data of
this survey and number of live and dead weevils found.
The peak emergence period is August, September and October. Since the
control program started, there has been a decline in total number of weevils
found until April 1972, when the population began to increase (see Table 1).
The reason for this is not fully understood, as this was the year most officials
had hoped the population would show a sharp decrease.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Table 1. Summary of Diaprepes abbreviatus (alive and dead)
Weevil Survey (Winn Grove)

No. of Weevils No. of Weevils
Date (alive & dead) Date (alive & dead)



6, 1971
13, 1971
20, 1971
27, 1971
3, 1971
10, 1971
17, 1971
24, 1971
31, 1971
7, 1971
14, 1971
21, 1971
29, 1971
6, 1971
12, 1971
20, 1971
26, 1971
2, 1971
10, 1971
16, 1971
24, 1971
1, 1971
7, 1971
14, 1971
21, 1971
28, 1971
4, 1972
11, 1972
18, 1972
25, 1972
3, 1972
8, 1972
15, 1972
23, 1972
29, 1972
3, 1972
14, 1972
23, 1972
29, 1972
4, 1972
11, 1972
18, 1972
25, 1972

Division of Plant Industry



The following plants have been found to be hosts under Florida conditions:
1. Kudzu Vine Pucraria thumbergiana
2. Citrus Citrus spp.
3. Maypop Passiflora incarnata
4. Peach Prunus persica
5. Wild Cherry Prunus sp.

2, 1972
8, 1972
16, 1972
23, 1972
30, 1972
6, 1972
13, 1972
20, 1972
27, 1972

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

G. D. Bridges, Chief

Tourists, traffic and high-rise apartments may do what the century's
worst freeze could not, viz. destroy the usefulness of the Division's Budwood
Foundation Grove. A 700-acre circus-oriented attraction, announced in January
1972, will soon enclose the grove on the south and east. Six million visitors
annually are expected. Negotiations are presently under way which could deter-
mine the grove's future.
As the biennium closed, a fiscally strong citrus industry faced major dis-
ease problems. The combined loss potential of Young Tree Decline (YTD)
and tristeza presents a frightening aspect for Florida's citrus industry; their
importance justifies additional comment.
YTD most frequently affects oranges budded on Rough lemon rootstock.
Apparently healthy trees over five years of age may suddenly wilt, lose foliage

Cutting 8 years old Illustrating Stem Pitting of Trunk

Fig. 1. Milam

50 Division of Plant Industry

and begin to decline rapidly. All attempts to rejuvenate such trees fail. More
than five years' work by research personnel has not disclosed the cause of the
condition, but certain facts are apparent. Bureau personnel established thai
the occurrence of YTD does not correlate with infection by any virus or com-
bination of viruses now known in Florida. Registered nursery stock records
provided the basis for determining that YTD does not follow a particular bud-
line. Thousands of trees are being lost throughout the State with more and more
trees in decline each year. Production men report up to 85% tree loss in indi-
vidual 10-year old groves.
Increasingly, growers turn to sour orange as they search for a rootstock
not affected by YTD: in fiscal 71-72 more than 40% of the nursery stock
budded was on this rootstock. More than six million of these tristeza-susceptible
sour root trees have been grown since 1963. Much of the nursery stock being
sold is tristeza infected before leaving the nursery as the State's citrus nursery
industry and bud source groves are concentrated in areas where tristeza is
practically pandemic. The spreading blanket of tristeza infection is made clearly
evident by the following examples which represent random tests of healthy-
appearing trees.
State-wide testing 1953-59 1950 trees 7% tristeza infected
Lake-Orange County line at Ilwy. 50 1961 40 trees 100% tristeza infected
5 mi. south of Clermont 1963 40 Irees 100% tristeza infected
Plymouth-Apopka 1969 47 trees 50% tristeza infected
Groveland 1969 31 trees 38% Iristeza infected
North Polk County US27 & I-4 1971 1224 trees 82%* tristeza infected
Southwest Hardee County 1971 32 trees 87.5% tristeza infected
excluding grapefruit.

Visible tristeza losses in groves around the State appear to exceed any pre-
viously experienced, and the situation may well continue to deteriorate.
On June 15, 1972 Bureau personnel discovered stem pitting and trunk
distortion on Milam (Fig. 1) and several other citrus varieties. At one location
a definite pattern of natural spread was evident. Comprehensive indexing was
quickly initiated to test for a possible relationship with the stem pitting con-
dition associated with tristeza in South Africa and South America.
Useful horticultural information continues to be derived from the Bud-
wood Foundation Grove, both for rootstocks and scion varieties. A rootstock
screening project initiated jointly with the USDA during the 1966-68 biennium
has progressed well and buds are now available from standard rootstock types
known to possess better than average disease resistance. One of the Division's
unnamed citrumelos being tested as a rootstock has been found highly resistant
to both Phytophthora parasitica, Dastur, the cause of footrot in Florida, and
Tylenchulus semipenatrans, Cobb, the citrus nematode.
Recent research indicates that the amount and quality of extractable citrus
peel oil varies with the bud-source. Particularly with lemons and limes, peel
oil contributed very substantially to the total financial return from fruit. Bureau

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

personnel were trained by chemists at the Agricultural Research and Educa-
tion Center, Lake Alfred, in the laboratory techniques used for determining peel
oil values. With the acquisition of simple laboratory equipment this additional
factor has been included among the qualifications considered when candidate
trees are selected.
In February 1968 a 2-acre grove was established at an isolated area of the
Range Cattle Station near Ona. The primary purpose of the planting was to
maintain potentially important nucellar clones free of tristeza. This has proven
to be impracticable. Although no citrus trees are growing within 3% mile of
the Ona grove location, tristeza infection occurs frequently.
The Premium Quality Nursery Stock project continues to make good pro-
gress, but not without problems. In 1970 seedbeds set on fumigated ground
gave erratic and often very poor plant growth. Earlier research relates this
phenomenon to the inability of cirtus seedlings to utilize phosphorus normally
under a condition of partially sterilized soil. Researchers at the Agricultural
Research and Education Centers demonstrated that normal growth can be
achieved by incorporating very high rates of phosphorus in the soil. Another
problem area involves pathogenic fungal organisms. Much useful information
relating to these fungi has been obtained from fumigation experiments con-
ducted jointly with Dr. Gordon Grimm. USDA, at our Foundation Grove. Meth-
ods for protecting fumigated areas against the re-establishment of harmful
fungi are being investigated.
Production of registered nursery trees, which increased sharply in the
1966-68 biennium, has gone higher but now appears to be leveling off. Slightly
over 1.6 million registered trees were grown each year of the current report


The opening of the Walt Disney World Attraction in 1971 triggered ex-
plosive growth in the area of US-27 and I-4 that has jeopardized the future
usefulness of the Division's Foundation Grove in this location. Certainly major
obstacles will interfere with efficient grove operation; possible advantages of
relocating the planting must be weighed against the loss of time and valuable
information. The major portion of this planting is 12 years old, and cumulative
records of tree growth, characteristics, fruit yields, and rootstock-scion com-
parisons become more meaningful each year.
As yields increase, the task of recording individual tree production be-
comes more difficult. At present, fruit is harvested tree-by-tree into individual
containers by commercial harvesters and yields tabulated by Bureau personnel.
This method is not well suited to present harvesting practices and is objection-
able to pickers regardless of additional inducement. Equipment is being evalu-
ated which would facilitate rapid, efficient handling of 10-box bins, thereby
eliminating the need for double handling manually.
Critical information on the size distribution of fruit varieties normally

52 Division of Plant Industry

used in the fresh fruit market may be provided in the future by utilizing a
statistical sampling procedure suggested by the Florida Crop & Livestock Re-
porting Service. Fruit measurements converted to size percentages should add
significantly to the value of yield records obtained with various rootstock for
varieties such as tangerines, navels, tangelos and grapefruit.
At the Budwood Foundation Grove, yields for the crop year 1969-70 totaled
3,000 boxes, returning $4,063. The winter of 1970-71 brought disastrous freezes
to the State. Thousands of trees in colder locations were killed, substantially
reducing the marketable fruit crop. Although Foundation Grove trees were pro-
tected and received little damage, the prices realized for Foundation Grove
fruit reflected economic conditions. Returns for 1970-71 were $5,450 for 3,300
boxes of fruit. The winter of 1971-72 was exceptionally mild, requiring pro-
tection on only one occasion. The fruit yield in this crop year was 5,540 boxes,
a 68% increase. Returns should approximate $11,200 when final payments are
received. Full utilization of the Foundation Grove seed source fruit by the
citrus nursery industry has provided additional grove income of $2,746 for the
biennium. This source of rootstock material and the direct progeny trees estab-
lished by cooperators comprises a large portion of the available supply of seed
qualifying for Premium Quality Nursery Stock and is rapidly replacing hap-
hazard seed selection methods of the past.
Treatment of citrus seed in a hot water bath as protection against disease,
and to qualify for premium quality nursery stock propagations has continued at
a steadily increasing pace, reflecting the current demand for citrus nursery
stock. Total quarts treated in 1971-72 were 5,330 compared with 1,098 quarts
in 1966-67 when the service was initiated. Income from this service amounted
to $725 in 1971-72.
Tristeza virus infection, spread naturally by aphid vectors, continues to
increase rapidly. Of 1,388 Foundation Grove trees supplying budwood at the
close of this biennium, 61% are now infected since tree removal was halted
in 1968. The natural infection rate among grapefruit remains very low; only
3% infection in the 12-year period of testing. Among orange, lemon, lime and
mandarin types 73% are now infected since 1968. Decline due to tristeza in-
fection has not been noted among these trees even though 20% are on sour
orange rootstock, an intolerant combination. A survey to measure tristeza
infection potential in the area of the isolated grove site at Ona turned up 87.5%
infection in 32 samples taken. This increasing rate of spread in the area seri-
ously reduces chances of maintaining a tristeza-free environment for important
bud sources without permanent insect screening facilities.
Symptoms of the condition known as Young Tree Decline have shown up
in the Foundation Grove during this report period. One tree, a nucellar Va-
lencia on rough lemon rootstock, has declined rapidly since August 1971. This
tree has been girdled and banked with soil to induce self-rooting as suggested
by research workers investigating this problem. In addition to the one declining
tree, others of the same variety began to show initial leaf symptoms in the
spring of 1972.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


Virus indexing was begun on 53 parent candidates accepted into the pro-
gram during this biennium. Complete re-testing was begun on 16 selected prog-
eny trees from commercial plantings showing "Young Tree Decline" symptoms
to verify the original indexing after 10 years exposure to possible virus spread
by natural vectors.
Indexing for exocortis virus, as described in previous reports, continues to
make up a large portion of the indexing work load. There were 639 tests in
various stages of completion during this biennium involving some 6,390 test
plants. Detailed inspection and accurate recording of observations must be
made three to five times during the 12-month testing period.
Indexing of cooperating growers' bud source trees on a participation basis,
as was first attempted, has not proven successful and the Bureau has had to
assume the entire work load. Indexing completed thus far indicates accidental
contamination in less than 10% of the scion trees tested. Periodic retesting and
testing of additional new plantings to meet the increasing demand for material
to propagate on exocortis susceptible rootstocks will make exocortis indexing a
major continuing part of the Bureau's function in the years ahead. Natural
spread of tristeza in the outdoor test nursery and in the scion trees being
indexed has caused a growth inhibition of the test plants, and tends to mask
exocortis symptom expression in the citron indicator. To avoid this problem
testing must be conducted in a screened facility, using modified inoculation
techniques. Requests have been made to provide greenhouse space for these
tests and others requiring insect-free conditions.
In conjunction with exocortis indexing of scion groves, tristeza indexing
is being conducted in a survey designed to further establish the distribution
of this virus in areas previously having a low incidence of infection. A total
of 2,200 tristeza tests were initiated by the Budwood Bureau for indexing in
Pathology Bureau facilities this biennium.


Nurseries following outlined procedures for raising Premium Quality Nur-
sery Stock have, on several occasions, been confronted with extremely poor
growth in citrus seed beds after fumigation with methyl bromide. To overcome
this problem and preserve methyl bromide as a preferred soil fumigant, a co-
operative effort was undertaken with Dr. Gordon Grimm, USDA, Orlando to
determine (1) correct rates of application, and (2) effective control of P. para-
sitica, a soil-borne disease organism responsible for major losses in nursery
stock as well as older grove trees.
It was determined that methyl bromide at the rate of 1 pound per 100
square feet will effectively control P. parasitica in sandy soil beyond a depth
of four feet when sealed with an air-tight cover for 48 hours.

54 Division of Plant Industry

In other work, Dr. D. P. H. Tucker, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred, has been able to overcome the poor growth in seed beds
with heavy applications of phosphates. With these data available, nurserymen
are able to use this fumigant to great advantage over weeds, soil fungi, and
nematodes, thus qualifying trees for the Premium Quality Blue Tag.
Additional co-operative work is being conducted with Dr. Tucker and Dr.
N. Schenk of University of Florida, Gainesville, into the role played by mycor-
rhizal fungi in the utilization of nutrient elements by citrus seedlings.

Training classes XXI, XXII, XXIII and XXIV were instructed in citrus
virus diseases and budwood registration procedures by G. D. Bridges, C. O.
Youtsey and L. H. Hebb.
A two-day course of instruction on virus diseases and budwood registra-
tion activities was conducted for graduate students from the University of Flor-
ida majoring in citrus, and advanced citrus students from Florida Southern
College, Lakeland.
Twenty visitors from seven foreign countries were conducted on field trips
to virus test plots and the Foundation Grove.
All Bureau field personnel attended evening classes on meteorology of-
fered by the Polk County Extension Service at Bartow.

G. D. Bridges and C. O. Youtsey participated in a trip to California, Ari-
zona and Texas organized by the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association.
The itinerary included informal contacts with research personnel, visits to ex-
perimental plots and commercial growing areas.
G. D. Bridges and C. O. Youtsey helped Florida Citrus Nurserymen's
Association organize and conduct a two day tour of research facilities, root-
stock trials and commercial groves in Central Florida and East Coast growing
areas. Approximately 50 persons attended each day.
Other conferences and meetings attended by Budwood personnel include
Florida State Horticultural Society annual meetings, Budwood Technical Com-
mittee, Florida Citrus Production Managers, Florida Citrus Nurserymen's As-
sociation, Citrus Institute, and annual field days at the A. H. Whitmore Founda-
tion Farm (USDA). G. D. Bridges participated in the program at the Indian
River Citrus Seminar, Fort Pierce; Florida Citrus Production Managers' meet-
ing, Tavares; and was guest speaker for three other local production groups.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

J. K. Condo, Chief Plant Inspector

The number of nurseries under inspection this biennium has been fairly
stable with a slight up-trend last year. However, the 4,199 nurseries reported
under inspection as of June 30, 1972 falls 159 nurseries short of the 4,358
reported under inspection at the end of the 1968-70 biennum.
Citrus nursery acreage continued to show a decline as more of the decreas-
ing number of citrus nurserymen use modern high density plant populations on
smaller areas that have been site selected and chemically treated for nema-
todes and other soil-borne pests. According to all available records since 1922
the 995.29 acres of citrus nursery stock is the lowest ever recorded. This could
be misleading, however, since for a number of years the grove acreage that was
inspected for budwood selection was included with the nursery acreage.
The amount of citrus nursery stock available for commercial grove use is
about 2 million trees more this biennium than the last, even though the sta-
tistics may not indicate this. The reason for statistical differences is that dur-
ing this biennium commercial citrus nursery stock was for the first time re-
ported separately from dooryard and miniature citrus found mostly in orna-
mental type nurseries and used for ornamentation and landscape rather than
commercial grove trees.
Non-citrus plants show an increase this biennium over the 1968-70 period,
while non-citrus acreage shows a very sharp reduction. This increase in plants
and decrease in acreage shows the trend that has been predicted by those ob-
serving the ornamental business. Due to the rapid growth of the State and the
brisk demand for plants brought on by this growth and the awareness of the
public to the part plants play in the ecology of our environment, nurserymen
are propagating and moving plants at a faster pace than at any time in our
recent past. At the same time, more ornamental nurserymen are growing stock
in containers because labor can be utilized more efficiently, and the plants are
more convenient to handle in containers. Another reason this report shows a
decrease in ornamental acreage is that the Bureau has devised a more accurate
method of determining acreages than has been employed in previous years.
The acreage reported this biennium is the most accurate that has ever been
reported. The Bureau has also revised the classification of plants in an effort
to reduce the time involved in inventorying nurseries and at the same time
providing adequate information for the industry. The categories of broadleafed
evergreens, conifers, flowering shrubs, and roses have been re-classified as
shrubs while miniature and dooryard citrus has been reported as ornamentals
rather than commercial citrus.
The amount of nursery stock in the state at the end of the 1968-70 period
totaled 332,858,995 plants in comparison to 361,263,459 plants at the end of
this biennium. The increase is reflected primarily due to increased propagation,
and imports from other states and foreign countries.
The miscellaneous category (Table IV) total plants inventoried at 2,806,-

Division of Plant Industry

763,835 in comparison to 3,132,905,444 reported last biennium. Total acreage
also showed a corresponding decrease from 22,542 in 1968-70 to 16,650.04 this
During this period the Bureau maintained a 3.07 average on the number
of inspections per nursery in comparison to a 2.56 average for the last biennium.
A total of 27,425,223 plants were quarantined during the biennium in an
effort to protect the industry from dangerous plant pests.
The Bureau inspection activities during the biennium can best be sum-
marized in the following tables and charts.


1969-70 1970-71 1971-72
No. of plant inspection districts 40 41 42
No. of nurseries in state 4,358 4,144 4,199
Avg. no. of inspections per nursery 2.22 3.19 2.96
Total no. of inspections of nursery stock 15,89 18,758 19,290
Total acreage of nurseries in the state 18,521.90 21,115.34 14,358.30
Total amount of nursery stock in the state 332,858,995 281,120,467 361,263,459


Type 1970-71 1971-72

Citrus 301 191
Ornamental 2,514 3,066
Other Fruits and Nuts 49 35
Citrus and Ornamental 241 19
Citrus and Other Fruits and Nuts 19 5
Ornamental and Other Fruits and Nuts 350 849
Citrus, Ornamental and Other Fruits and Nuts 670 34

Total 4,144 4,199

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


1969-1970 1970-1971 1971-1972
Kind of Stock Acres Plants Acres Plants Acres Plants
Orange 3,125,349 3,049,750 2,717,409
Grapefruit 891,549 793,472 821,838
Mandarin Type 1,167,833 807,832 633,200
Lemons & Limes 248,087 283,188 182,374
Seedlings in Seed beds 6,967,278
Seedlings lined out 2,931,356
7,339,923 6,959,185
Miscellaneous Citrus 1,460,315 1,096,611 53,585
Citrus Seedlings 7,339,923 6,959,185

CITRUS 1,382.61 14,233,056 1,621.49 12,990,038 995.29 14,307,040

Ornamental 175,602,956 141,870,075 200,157,366
General 6,930,433 7,817,854 9,848,669

CITRUS 17,139.29 182,533,389 19,493.85 149,687,929 13,363.01 210,006,035

TOTAL 18,521.90 196,766,445 21,115.34 162,677,967 14,358.30 224,313,075

Trees for

Total Under

163.58 136,092,550 158.60 118,442,500 200.85. 136,950,384

18,685.48 332,858,995 21,273.94 281,120,467 14,559.15 361,263,459


Ralph E. Brown

The Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey continued as a joint program with
the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
The main purpose of the ten grove inspectors is to survey the citrus area
for early detection of serious citrus pests. They are a very mobile force of men
trained in survey techniques and are called on when any emergency survey is

58 Division of Plant Industry


(Not included as nursery stock)
July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1972

1970-71 1971-72
No. No. Plants No. No. Plants
Variety Growers Acres or Bulbs Growers Acres or Bulbs

Caladium 70 741.30 44,062,840 54 823.22 45,032,000
Chrysanthemum 18 270.40 18,173,500 38 688.94 40,527,000
Easter Lily 4 4 16.00 480,000
Fern (cut) 96 936.70 230,283,640 113 919.79 260,768,342
Gladiolus 10 3,416.00 179,035,000 17 3,067.00 128,775,000
Hemerocallis 26 11.14 225,035 *
Narcissus 1 .10 600,000 1 18.00 1,000,000
Misc. 'Other'
Bulbs and
Plants 246.96 16,828,136 9 134.28 28,489,008
Cabbage 6 164.80 79,100,000 8 100.92 45,742,200
Pepper 6 13 29.78 13,291,750
Tobacco 14 657.00 417,300,000 13 506.00 242,600,000
Tomato 30 738.09 149,331,040 42 848.78 207,477,500
Sod 5 6 2,192.85 -
Misc. Vegetable
Plants 12 94.97 46,742,844 13 27.12 11,519,000

TOTAL 297 7,277.36 1,781,082,035 331 9,372.68 1,025,681,800

Hemerocallis included in Ornamental this year.

This biennium they were called on several times to conduct emergency
fruit fly surveys; they were utilized in delimiting surveys for giant African
snail activities, the Sugarcane Rootstalk Borer Weevil Program, and conducted
a survey in Miami soon after the discovery of lethal yellowing of coconuts. In
addition to these and their routine systematic survey of grove areas, they have
assisted in other survey and control activities.
As in the past, the grove inspectors have been the work force which com-
piled the field information on varieties, size of trees, and many other necessary
statistics used by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service in comput-
ing the citrus estimate.



4000 -

3000 -

2000 -

1000 -

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


1962-63 to 1971-72

SH [nI F




1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965 66 1966 67 1967-68 1968-69 1969 70 1970 71 1971 72

50o --

450 -

400 -

350 -

300 -

I50 --


1962-63 to 1971-72

0 I I 1 I I II II II 1 1 I I 1 1
1962 63 1963 64 1964 65 1965 66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970 71 1971-72

* Includes 136,950,384 pine seedlings.

60 Division of Plant Industry

45 1962-63 to 1971-72 45

4.0 -- -- 4.0

3 5 -- 3.5

30 30

25 25

2 0 2.0

1 5 -- 1.5

10 -- 10

5 -- .5

0 0
1962.63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967 68 1968-69 1969 70 1970-71 1971-72

Solenopsis invicta (formerly Solenopsis saevissima)
Ralph E. Brown
During this biennium the Imported Fire Ant Program has been restricted
to regulatory and control activities. Due to the criticism of environmental groups
to the use of mirex bait. all eradication attempts have been abandoned.
The ruling of the Environmental Protection Agency in IMay 1972. manning
the broadcasting of mirex in aquatic areas and1 coastal counties makes an eradi-
cation program impossible.
During the fiscal year 1971-1972. the price for treatment to landowners
participating in the control program was raised from 15c to 20c per acre. In
the 1970-1971 period. 266,102 acres were treated in comparison to 310.155 acres
in 1971-72.
The reduction of actual mirex per acre from 1.7 grams to .45 grams was
possible in 1972 with the introduction of a new formula of mirex bait.
Continuing to spread by natural means, the fire ant in June 1972 was esti-
mated to infest in excess of 20 million acres within the state. It is now known
to infest all or a portion of all Florida counties except Dixie. Levy. Indian
River, Okeechobee, St. Lucie. Martin. Glades. Henry. Collier. Palm Beach,
Broward, Dade. and Monroe.
No new infestations have been traced to movement of regulated articles
since the discovery of a single infestation in Collier County in 1970. Formerly.
all nurseries in a regulated area were required to chemically treat all plants
that were moved. The present regulation requires treatment only if tihe nursery
stock is destined for movement from a regulated area to a non-regulated area.
This has greatly reduced the amount of heptaclor. dieldrin, and chlordane used
for treatment.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


C. S. Bush

A total of 7,876,957 square feet of grass was moved under blue tag cer-
tification this biennium in comparison to 12,573,585 square feet of the last
biennial period. This is a decrease of 4,696,628 square feet from the 1968-70
Floratine St. Augustine continued to be the most popular single variety ac-
counting for 53% of the total sales.
There were no new growers added to the certified list during this period.
Currently the program has three turf growers registered. A summary of the
program's activities is presented in the following tables.



1969-70 1970-71 7971-72

Number of active growers 9 3 3
Number of inspections made for active growers 32 23 8
Avg. number of inspections per active grower 3.5 7.75 2.66
Number of new growers 0 0
Number of growers marked out-of-business 1 1 0


Variety* 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72

Floratine St. Augustine 3,394,399 1,209,504 2,968,310
Ormond Bermuda 507,729 130,250 268,459
Emerald Zoysia 476,450 296,584 430,312
Meyer Zoysia 446,320 187,860 66,980
Tifgreen Bermuda 357,256 139,970 307,643
Tifway Bermuda 318,440 99,883 1,526,463
Tifdwarf Bermuda 233,300 77,490 135,140
Everglades Bermuda 34,850 6,700 14,009
Tiflawn Bermuda 14,510 11,400

Totals 5,783,254 2,159,641 5,717,316

* Pasture varieties not included.

Division of Plant Industry


Ralph E. Brown

In October 1970 a survey of plant products entering Florida through the
system of Road Guard Stations operated by the Division of Inspection was ini-
tiated. This survey has been very effective in the enforcement of certification
Tables 1 & 2 show the number of shipments reported and the number in
Table 3 shows the regulation which was violated.
This survey and the follow-up letters to violators resulted immediately in
the reduction of violations as shown on the graph table 4.
This survey has also provided the following information:
1. The source and destination of plant products indicating areas where
more information on certificate requirements is needed and areas in
Florida where survey for a given insect may be most effective.
2. The commodities being bought out of state which may offer Florida
farmers a market. Sweet potatoes, for example, are presently being con-
sidered by West Florida farmers as a potential market.
3. This survey has been very helpful in pointing out the weakness of our
system of certification of plant products and where check and enforce-
ment are needed.


October November
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 19 4 39 9
Hay 163 20 274 28
Sweet Potatoes 90 39 134 27
Sod 15 0 7 0
Corn 0 0 0 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 0 0 0 0
Sugar Cane 3 3 3 3
Misc. Vegetables 1 0 0 0
Totals 291 66 '457 67

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 63

December January
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 33 2 61 9
Hay 348 31 540 34
Sweet Potatoes 78 26 125 35
Sod 0 0 10 2
Corn 0 0 0 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 0 0 0 0
Sugar Cane 0 0 0 0
Misc. Vegetables 0 0 0 0
Totals 459 59 736 80
February March
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 61 8 115 9
Hay 559 28 560 19
Sweet Potatoes 138 31 127 12
Sod 2 0 2 0
Corn 0 0 0 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 0 0 0 0
Sugar Cane 1 1 0 0
Misc. Vegetables 0 0 0 0
Wheat 0 0
Totals 761 68 804 40

April May
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 57 10 43 5
Hay 367 16 331 49
Sweet Potatoes 79 5 34 1
Sod 5 1 1 1
Corn 0 0 0 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 0 0 7 0
Sugar Cane 0 0 0 0
Misc. Vegetables 0 0 0 0
Wheat 1 1 0 0
Totals 509 33 416 56

Division of Plant Industry

TABLE I Continued



Nursery Stock
Sweet Potatoes
Aquatic Plants
Citrus Fruit
Sugar Cane
Misc. Vegetables


July August
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 20 5 15 2
Hay 231 14 155 10
Sweet Potatoes 6 1 34 3
Sod 20 0 29 0
Corn 11 0 19 4
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 1 0 1 0
Sugar Cane 0 0 0 0
Misc. Vegetables 0 0 2 0
Christmas Trees 0 0 0 0
Totals 289 20 255 19




Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

September October
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 43 3 55 2
Hay 173 11 285 20
Sweet Potatoes 48 5 94 8
Sod 29 0 30 0
Corn 42 3 0 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 0 0 0 0
Sugar Cane 1 1 2 2
Misc. Vegetables 2 0 1 0
Christmas Trees 0 0 0 0
Totals 338 23 467 32
November December
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation

Nursery Stock 52 7
Hay 398 18
Sweet Potatoes 144 8
Sod 10 0
Corn 0 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0
Citrus Fruit 0 0
Sugar Cane 2 2
Misc. Vegetables 2 0
Christmas Trees 56 0
Totals 664 35
Number Number
Commodity of in
Shipments Violation

87 5
552 25
124 5
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
480 12
1.244 48
Number Number
of in
Shipments Violation

Nursery Stock
Sweet Potatoes
Aquatic Plants
Citrus Fruit
Sugar Cane
Misc. Vegetables
Christmas Trees

689 9

887 23

Division of Plant Industry

TABLE II Continued
March April
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 67 11 77 2
Hay 476 6 335 4
Sweet Potatoes 108 1 57 2
Sod 10 0 21 0
Corn 0 0 0 0
Aquatic Plants 1 1 1 1
Citrus Fruit 1 0 0 0
Sugar Cane 0 0 0 0
Misc. Vegetables 0 0 0 0
Totals 663 19 491 9

May June
Number Number Number Number
Commodity of in of in
Shipments Violation Shipments Violation
Nursery Stock 34 1 25 2
Hay 312 12 259 9
Sweet Potatoes 16 0 0 0
Sod 12 0 1 0
Corn 0 0 3 0
Aquatic Plants 0 0 0 0
Citrus Fruit 1 0 0 0
Sugar Cane 0 0 0 0
Misc. Vegetables 0 0 0 0
Totals 375 13 288 11

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report



Type of Violation July

White Fringe Beetle 10
Cereal Leaf Beetle 6
Nursery Certificate 5
Imported Fire Ant 2
Soybean Cyst Nema.
Sweet Potato Weevil 1



9 4
9 9
3 2
1 4
5 7

Oct. Nov. Dec.

9 5

Gypsy Moth 4
*Totals 24 20 27 29 39 47

Type of Violation Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June

White Fringe Beetle 10 6 12 4 4 3
Cereal Leaf Beetle 3 2
Nursery Certificate 8 1 9 0 2 1
Imported Fire Ant 1 1 2 3
Soybean Cyst Nema. 2
Sweet Potato Weevil 2 1 1 2
Gypsy Moth
*Totals 20 9 23 6 11 11

* The totals of the violations on this report will not correspond with the total number
of violations on the previous pages as some shipments may be in violation of more
than one regulation.


Ralph E. Brown

Number Percentage
of in
Shipments 10/70 11/70 12/70 1/71 3/71 2/71 4/71 5/71 6/71 7/71 8/71 9/71 10/71 11/71 12/71 1/72 2/72 3/72 4/72 5/72 6/72 Violation





N ~/ .

N -
- -

Number of Shipments

-------- Percentage in violation

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


Ralph E. Brown

In June of 1972 the Soybean Cyst Nematode was known to exist in
Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escambia counties. The regulatory efforts have not
appreciably restricted the spread of this pest.
The poor results in restricting movement of the Soybean Cyst Nematode
is due to the difficulty in detecting infested fields. This pest may be present
in a field for many years before it becomes apparent. If rotation of crops is
practiced, it may not become apparent but may be spread to other farms.
In 1971 and early 1972 several meetings were held with soybean growers
and representatives of agencies involved in this program. The soybean growers,
after much consideration, decided to recommend the regulatory efforts be
At the present time, the Division of Plant Industry is involved in a
parallel program with that of the United States Department of Agriculture
concerning Soybean Cyst Nematode.


Ralph L. King, Jr.

No nursery sites were found infested with burrowing nematode during
the two-year period. The total infested nursery sites since January 1, 1966,are
14. The number of citrus nursery sites now stands at 698. This is an overall
reduction of 73 sites for this period. Due to more efficient use of land and
improved cultural practices, this does not mean that there is a corresponding
drop in the number of citrus trees available. During the past two years 5,427
citrus nursery sites and soil pits were re-evaluated and 441 non-citrus sites
were re-evaluated. Cumulative totals of approved sites at the end of this
period are:
Citrus nursery sites 698 consisting of 4,954.39 acres.
Approved soil pits 392.
Non-citrus sites 177 consisting of 19,941.31 acres. A summary of the
program's activities during this period is presented in the following tables.

Division of Plant Industry



Sites & Pits Acres
Re-evaluated Sampled










5427 1,472.49

Sites Acreage Pits Sites
1 3.50 1 7
1 4
1 .10 5 17
10 46.50 29







1 2.00

4 29
1 7
1 6
1 44
21 30
1 104

7 7
1 53
6 103
1 2


70 630.60 52

243 Sites consisting of 1,229.07 acres and 50 pits (previously recorded)

deducted from approved

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


Cumulative Cumulative Nurs. Environs Nurs. Environs
Acreage Pits Sites Pits Sites Pits Positive Positive Positive Positive






1 8




19 13
24 7

9 57
4 9
1 101
3 64
1 6
2 166
1 4
2 15
1 70

4,954.39 392

258 53

4 5
1251 219 14 62 121 164

cumulative totals after losing certified status.

Division of Plant Industry




7-1-70 6-30-72
FROM 1-1-68

36.75 1 30.00 4

2 19.61
34 1,054.00

3 4,800.00
16 223.80

4 5,121.00

16 5.98
5 958.50
22 6.64
9 14.10





441 15,670.71

.01 4




7.05 14
195.00 4

.02 7
.01 2
.01 4
.20 3

4.77 20
4.70 21
.35 3
.05 4
3.05 6


.56 17

3.01 42 6,244.79

6,042.27 acres (previously recorded)

29 Nurseries consisting of

deducted from approved cumulati'

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


4 6,000.00
7 14.27

5 3

17 11


80 591.00
7.82 7 50.48














29 6,042.27

176 6,748.74

3 4 7

2 1 4
1 1
2 2
1 1 1
2 1

1 5 14
2 12 7
2 2
1 5



2 7 8

23 60 94

totals after losing certified status.







74 Division of Plant Industry


Reported in Bushels

VARIETY 1970-71 1971-72
Cucumber None 1,694
Summer Squash (Calabaza) None 155
Squash None 1,888
Sweet Potatoes (Boniatos) None 115
TOTALS -- 3,852

SHIPMENTS BY 1970-71 1971-72
Trucks None 9
Cars (Railway) None 0



Computed on basis of 4/5 bushel boxes

State or County Commodity 1970-71 1971-72
Arizona Limes 1,000 8,662
Grapefruit 844 4,200
Oranges 150 --
California Oranges 47,281 25,943
Murcotts 2,565 8,830
Grapefruit 340,690 635,485
Orange-Grapefruit Mix 476 --
Texas Oranges 1,423 4,110
Grapefruit 1,125 51,372
Murcotts 2,204 11,385
"Mixed Citrus -352
Oregon Grapefruit -- 1,020
Japan Grapefruit 3,575 50,435
TOTALS 401,333 791,889


Charles S. Bush

The Gold Seal label, which guarantees a Florida No. 1 or better grade for
a plant, is now being used by 66 of Florida's largest nurseries.
There were only two disputes involving large landscape construction where
it was necessary to have a regrading inspection. These involved one city in
Central Florida and a major city on the West Coast. Both disputes were settled

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Two classes of new employee trainees were indoctrinated to Ornamental
Grades and Standards.
Continuous survey and research have been made to increase additional
plants under grade. Promotion to educate the industry and the public is


The center spread for the booklet "Your Living Garden" entitled "The
Gold Seal" and "What to Look for in Buying Plants" was written this biennium.
The ten-page plant list used by Division Plant Specialists for inventory
purposes was reclassified and the layouts and photographs of plants for an
eight-page Ornamental Plant Grading Manual for Metropolitan Dade County
was also written.
"Native Trees and Plants for Florida Landscaping" was expanded with
the addition of new plants and colored photographs for the second printing.
The Department of Agriculture again said that this has been the most popular
publication ever printed by the FDACS.
"Grades and Standards Part 1I, Palms and Trees" was reprinted for the
second time with minor changes.
"Grades and Standards for Ornamental Plants" has been revised the second
time with various additional plant species and new specific standards. The third
printing will be made in the 1972-73 fiscal year.
"Flowers, Shrubs and Trees for Florida Homes" was reprinted for the
third time with some additional color plates.


Exhibits of Graded Gold Seal plants and non-graded plants were designed
and set up at the County Fair in Bradenton, the County Agent's and Nursery-
men's Annual Barbecue, and Plant Auction at West Palm Beach, also at the
Florida Nurserymen's and Growers Association Trade Show in Daytona Beach.


My 24th TV guest appearance was made on Gil Whitton's "Growing
Things" program on Channel 10, St. Petersburg.


Talks were given at the Florida Associated Nurserymen Trade Show at
Miami, at the Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association Board meeting in
Tampa, and to Professor Carl Whitcom's nursery class at the University of
Talks on the Gold Seal were presented to the Florida Nurserymen and
Growers Association, Royal Palm Chapter at Naples, Manasota Chapter at
Sarasota, Central East Coast Chapter at Daytona Beach, Palm Beach Chapter

Division of Plant Industry

at Palm Beach, Broward Chapter at Ft. Lauderdale, Dade Chapter at Miami,
Pinellas Chapter at St. Petersburg, Northeast Chapter at Jacksonville, Lake
Region Chapter at Winter Haven, and at the Tampa Bay Chapter in Tampa.

I was made an Honorary Life Member of the Florida Nurserymen and
Growers Association at their annual convention in Miami on May 17, 1971.

Ralph E. Brown

There has been a considerable increase in the total number of plants im-
ported by Florida growers over the past four years. Foliage plants account for
the majority of the increase.
Several foliage nurseries initiated the importation of bare-rooted cuttings
and marcotts from foreign sources then establishing them in containers after
entering the state.
All imported plants are inspected by USDA Plant Quarantine inspectors at
the port of entry. As an extra precautionary measure, the plants are drenched
in solutions of insecticides and fungicides prior to entering the nursery. All
nurseries importing these plants are under regular inspection, as well as inspec-
tions made at 30-day intervals so that they meet Canadian Certification require-
The following chart shows the total number of plants imported by Florida
nurseries over a four-year period.
The country of origin is available on request.


1968-1969 1969-1970 1970-1971 1971-1972

100 or more
per shipment
Tropical Foliage 2,348,826 2,822,094 9,440,740 22,215,219
Orchids 119,371 127,027 99,528 109,118
Aquatic 644,323 864,104 811,119 613,284
Bromeliads 18,964 213,337 19,029 18,289
Misc. Ornamentals 44,728 22,652 21,000 16,497
Lbs. Misc. Seed 19,264 7,927 4,513 13,249
100# bags
Seed Potatoes 220,800 143,100 226,000 132,275
Boxes Bulbs 19,354 23,201 3,389 20
100 or more
per shipment
Cactus 4,545 375,008
3,435,630 4,223,442 10,629,863 23,492,959

Number of Shipments

1,240 1,347

1,051 1,359

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


Ralph L. King, Jr.

During the two-year period four nurseries entered the program bringing
the total number of participants to 18. One nursery is currently marketing
premium quality trees and several other growers have trees that will be avail-
able this fall.
A committee for the Premium Quality Program has been established. This
committee consists of two members from the Productions Managers' Association,
two members from research agencies, two from the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's
Association, one member from the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
and two members from the Division of Plant Industry. Mr. W. G. Adams is
chairman. This committee has held three meetings.

The committee made the following recommendations, based upon research,
for changes in the Premium Quality requirements:
1. To eliminate the difference between seed bed and nursery soil treat-
2. To delete the mixed Methyl Bromide %/ Chloropicrin 1/ treatment.
3. To delete the trade name, Brozone, from the requirements.
4. To delete the DD, Vidden-D, or Telone treatments from the require-
5. To continue the research and that the committee keep an open mind
regarding changes in the requirements.
6. To suggest not require a budeye height of three inches from the crown
These recommendations were approved by the Division Director and the
changes have been made in the requirements.
It was also recommended that more research be done on the effect Methyl
Bromide fumigation is having on Phytophthora in the soil. Procedures for this
study have been worked out for sampling prior to fumigation and after fumi-

Division of Plant Industry

H. A. Denmark, Chief

The Bureau of Entomology provides arthropod identification service, con-
ducts limited investigations of certain economic problems, assists in instructing
plant inspectors, continues to build a general reference collection, and conducts
taxonomic investigations.
There were 256,273 specimens identified from 29,801 samples received
during the biennium. (An identification may consist of one or many speci-
mens representing a single species.) The Florida State Collection of Arthropods
now contains approximately 492,170 pinned and labeled specimens, 89,299 slide
mounts, several thousand papered or envelope specimens (which include 27,341
Odonata), for a total of over 608,810 pinned and processed specimens.
The caribfly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), has continued to spread over
31 counties. It destroys a large number of tropical fruits and will infest over-
ripe citrus fruit in some cases.
The European garden snail, Helix aspersa (Muller), was intercepted at Dis-
ney World on plants from California on two different occasions. The nursery
area at Disney World was treated with metaldehyde on calcium arsenate and
all snails removed by hand. The area is still under surveillance.
The sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviata (L.), was found
outside the original finds infesting 130 acres.
Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), suspect larvae were
found in Hallandale, Broward County, in January 1972. An intensive trapping
program was conducted without finding adult specimens.
The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), was trapped in a Mc-
Phail trap in Sarasota in March 1972. Only one female was trapped during
the approximate 4 months of trapping.
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), was intercepted in
the larval stage at Winterhaven, California, on sweet corn from the Pompano
Beach area. Field surveys, black light trapping, and packinghouse surveillance
were conducted for about 16 days without finding any specimens. A continual
surveillance of the Pompano Beach area will continue through the summer and
A leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stal., was found in Hillsborough
County feeding on water cress. This species has been reported from Alabama and
Louisiana feeding on crucifers and water cress. A survey is to be made to
delimit the infestation and estimate its economic importance.
The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer), was found in-
festing citrus in the Zellwood area in the fall of 1971. In localized areas it
caused up to 50 per cent drop of early variety fruit. This weevil was reported
on or associated with fruit in the early 1930's, but causing no economic damage.
The larvae feed in the albedo, causing the fruit to drop. This problem will be

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

under close observation in late summer and early fall of 1972.
The puncturevine weevil, Microlarinus lypriformis Woll., was found at the
International Airport in Miami. This weevil was introduced into California to
control the puncturevine. Its arrival in Florida was accidental.
A sugarcane weevil, Nicentrus saccharinus Mshl., was also found associated
with the puncturevine weevil. The sugarcane weevil is reported to kill the buds
of sugarcane. Several specimens have been found in northern Dade and south-
ern Broward counties.
Gypsy moth, Porthetria despar (Linnaeus), egg masses were found under
a houstrailer in Pensacola, Escambia County, in May 1971. Several larvae were
trapped on oak trees in the vicinity of the trailer. All larvae were destroyed.

Two private insect collections were purchased jointly with the University
of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology during the bien-
nium, and a large amount of material was donated by various research associ-
ates. Out of the budgeted library funds, approximately $3,000 was spent to
purchase a number of journals on microfiche.
Funds were approved to build a biological control building adjacent to
the entomology wing of the Doyle Conner Building. Sufficient funds were not
approved for the completion of the building in the past biennium.
R. W. Swanson has continued working with parasites to control the carib-
fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), with Dr. R. M. Baranowski at the Univer-
sity of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center at Homestead.
T. L. Kipp transferred back to the Bureau of Plant Inspection and all the
biological control work on the sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes ab-
breviata (L.), is being conducted by the USDA, ARS under the direction of
Allen G. Selhime.
Dr. Charles C. Porter was employed to identify and curate the Hymenoptera,
except Formicidae. His position is to emphasize the chalcid, as they are im-
portant as an effective parasite in biological control. Dr. Porter terminated
his position with the DPI on March 31, 1972. It has been filled temporarily
by Gerd Heinrich to complete his studies on the Ichneumoninae of Florida and
the southeastern United States.
PUBLICATIONS: Two volumes in the series of Arthropods of Florida and
Neighboring Land Areas were published this biennium. Twenty-four circulars
and several papers in scientific journals were published.
IDENTIFICATIONS: Identifications of the various arthropod groups are
made by six entomologists. The entomologists and the groups for which they
are responsible are as follows:
G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs, and all immature stages.
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.
F. W. Mead: Adult Lepidoptera; Diptera, suborder Nematocera,
which includes midges and mosquitoes; Hemiptera;

Division of Plant Industry

Homoptera: Psyllidae, plus suborder Auchenorhyncha,
which includes leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittlebugs,
tree hoppers, and cicadas.
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult higher Diptera (suborder Brachycera), Hymenop-
tera (except Formicidae), Aleyrodidae, Arachnida (ex-
cept Acarina), and miscellaneous smaller arthropod
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthoptera.
C. C. Porter: Hymenoptera, except Formicidae.
Dr. L. A. Hetrick, University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology
and Nematology, continues to do routine identifications of termites. Dr. Dale
Habeck, University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology, identifies the Actiidae adults and immatures, and some other immature
Lepidoptera. Drs. Minter J. Westfall, Lewis Berner, and Fred C. Thompson, Uni-
versity of Florida Department of Zoology, identify the Odonata, Ephemerop-
tera, and Mollusca, respectively.
During the biennium 256,273 specimens were identified from 29,801 sam-
ples received. Identified specimens added to the collection include: 74,094
pinned and labeled, 11,534 slide mounts, and 5,717 envelopes (Odonata) for a
total of 91,345. In addition, 20,803 dried unmounted specimens, and alcohol
preserved material consisting of 27,636 vials and 1,299 bulk samples (olive
bottles, pints and quarts) containing many thousand specimens, were also added.
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods now totals approximately
492,170 pinned and labeled specimens, 89,299 slide mounts, several thousand
envelope specimens (which include 27,341 Odonata), for a total of over 608,810
pinned and processed specimens.
During the biennium three insect cabinets were purchased.
AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY: H. V. Weems, is the head curator and
is responsible for the overall development of the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods. He also coordinates the Research Associate Program and serves
as editor of the irregularly published bulletin series, Arthropods of Florida
and Neighboring Land Areas.
F. W. Mead is the survey entomologist for the state. The Cooperative
Economic Insect Report (CEIR) has been a joint effort of the USDA and the
DPI for the past 18 years. Weekly reports of insect activities are forwarded
to Washington, D.C. where all state reports are combined and published in
the CEIR. Monthly reports are combined with the other reports of the DPI
technical sections and published as the TRI-OLOGY Technical Report.
R. E. Woodruff is in charge of the library development program for the
entomology portion of the DPI. The DPI library is the primary repository for
the taxonomic and general zoogeographic literature, while the Hume Library
at the University of Florida will be the primary repository for all other subject
areas. Dr. Woodruff and Dr. Habeck coordinate the entomological library pur-
chases for the two organizations to eliminate costly and unnecessary duplication.
G. W. Dekle works closely with the University of Florida IFAS Depart-

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

ment of Entomology and Nematology on economic insect and mite problems.
C. C. Porter is developing and curating the Hymenoptera, particularly the
Chalcidoidea as related to biological control.
Each man is responsible for curating the groups of arthropods assigned to

R. E. WOODRUFF, Taxonomic Entomologist
All library activities are conducted as a part of the standing cooperative
agreement between the DPI and the University of Florida. Special efforts are
being made to increase the book and periodical resources of both institutions
with a minimum of duplication of effort and finances. The DPI library con-
tinues to be the primary repository for taxonomic and zoogeographic litera-
ture, whereas the University of Florida emphasizes the other aspects of en-
tomology. We firmly believe the joint holdings now constitute the finest such
research and reference library in the southeastern U.S.
In addition to the regular operating budget, Division Director H. L. Jones
allocated an additional $2000 for a special purchase of periodicals from Anti-
quariaat Junk in Holland. Also noteworthy was the purchase of over $2000
worth of microfiche of rare and obscure taxonomic literature. The latter enables
us to have access to these rare papers without such high costs, and they also
contribute to saving space in the library.
A special transfer (indefinite loan) took place in keeping with our gen-
eral agreement and areas of concentration. The nearly complete set (few exist
in this country) of the Philippine Journal of Science was moved from DPI to
Hume Library. The rare (in complete form) set of the taxonomically important
Genera Insectorum was transferred to the DPI Library from the University of
Florida Research Library.

Anastrepha suspense (Loew)

R. W. Swanson, Entomologist
Studies of the parasites of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense
(Loew), have been continued this biennium at the Agricultural Research and
Education Center in Homestead. During this time 13 releases of the parasite,
Parachasma cereum (Gahan), were made, bringing our release site total to 21.
In addition to previous sites in Homestead and Miami Springs, the new release
areas include Miami, South Miami, Coral Gables and Perrine. Monitoring of
selected release points indicates that the percent of parasitism remains high,
often well over 50 percent. Additional releases on a larger scale are now
being planned.
Studies were conducted with Opius longicaudatus Ashmead that indicated

Division of Plant Industry

this parasite might be equal to or more effective than P. cereum. The added
advantage of 0. longicaudatus is that it is being produced in our laboratory
in an artificial situation. By this method large numbers of parasites can be
gained in a short period of time. In conjunction with this, an A. suspense
trapping program has been initiated on Key Biscayne with the ultimate goal
of releasing 0. longicaudatus at this location.

CAMELLIA MINING SCALE, Pseudaonidia clavigera (Ckll.)
G. W. Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist
Container grown camellia plants were found infested with camellia mining
scale in a Polk County nursery by J. W. McLeod, Plant Specialist, DPI, in
August 1970 (Fig. 1). This was a new county record.

Fig. 1. Camellia mining scale injury.



Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

An investigation of the infested Polk County nursery by J. C. Denmark,
Region III Supervisor, revealed that the infested container camellia plants
were destroyed, and Polk County is not considered infested.
Regulated counties in Florida are: Citrus, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee,
Pasco, and Pinellas.

RED WAX SCALE, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell
G. W. Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist

Red wax scale was found in a West Palm Beach nursery that was pre-
viously infested and eradicated in 1966.
The May 1970 collection was on aglaonema plants in a ground stock bed
by Ray Long, Plant Specialist, DPI.
Dr. L. C. Kuitert and J. E. Brogdon, Entomologists, University of Florida
IFAS, Gainesville, made the following recommendations:
1. Remove lower leaves of infested plants prior to applying the spray.
2. Spray all host plants in the infested area with Cygon (dimethoate)
4E at 1 pint to 100 gallons of water. Repeat spray at intervals of 3
weeks until 6 applications have been made.
3. Examine the sprayed plants a few days after each spray application to
determine if any plant injury was caused by the Cygon 4E formulation.
4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the Cygon 4E formulation against this
Results: The Cygon 4E formulation at a dosage of 1 pint to 100 gallons of
water did not eradicate the red wax scale after repeated applications at 3 week
There was no evidence of plant injury to any of the aglaonema plants
Cygon gave good control when used as a spray, but is not an eradicant.
Fumigation with methyl bromide and destroying infested plants is now recom-
mended by the Bureau of Entomology, DPI. Plant injury is likely to occur
when aglaonema plants are fumigated with methyl bromide.


G. W. Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist
Dr. L. C. Kuitert, Entomologist, University of Florida IFAS, cooperates
with the Bureau of Entomology in conducting tests for chemical control of
insects on ornamental plants. The results for each group of plants are reported
HIBISCUS (Anderson's Double, Brilliant, Diamond Head, Florida Sunset,
Jim Hendry, Miami Lady, Miss Pretty, Penny's Sunset, Priscilla Reasoner, and
White Dainty):
Furadan 10G at 1 teaspoon per gallon container caused cupping and yel-

84 Division of Plant Industry
lowing of leaves of Anderson's Double, Brilliant, Miami Lady, Miss Pretty,
Priscilla Reasoner, and White Dainty (Fig. 2).



Untreated Check

Fig. 2. Furadan 10G injury to Hibiscus sp. Dosage: 1 teaspoon per gallon container.

CACTACEAE (Ancistrocactus scheeri (SD.) Br. & R.; Chamaecereus sil-
vestri (Speg.) Br. & R., hybrid; Echinocerus perbellus Br. & R.; Echinofossulo-
cactus sp. (as Stenocactus); Gymnocalycium burchii (Speg.) Hoss.; G. damsii
(K. Sch.) Br. & R.; G. mihanovichii (Fric & Gurke) Br. & R.; G. saglione (Cels)
Br. & R.; Hatiora salicornioides (Haw.) Br. & R.; Mammillaria bella Backbg.;
M. bombycina Quehl; M. compressa DC.; M. elongata DC.; M. geminispina
Haw.; M. hahniana Werd.; M. hemispherica Eng.; M. perbella Hildm.; M.
rhodantha Lk. & 0.; M. spinossissima Lem.; Melocactus intortus (Mill.) Urb.;
Notocactus (=Malacocarpus) leninghausii (Haage Jr.) Br. and R.; N. ottonis
(Lehm.) Berg.; N. scopa (Spreng.) Berg.; Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.) Pfeiff.;
Opuntia sp.; Parodia aureispins Backbg.; Schlumbergia gaertnerii (Regel) Br.
& R.; Thelocactus bicolor (Gal.) Br. & R.; and Zygocactus truncatus (Haw.)
K. Sch.):
No injury was observed on the above Cactaceae plants sprayed with Meta-
Systox-R 25% EC at the rate of 1 quart to 100 gallons of water. Plants re-
ceived 2 treatments at intervals of 3 months.
CAMELLIA (Debutante, Formal Rose, 'Rose Laanii', Large Rose MK, Pink

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Perfection, Red Rubra, Rose Flat, and White Purity):
These varieties infested with camellia mining scale, Pseudaonidia clavigera
(Ckll.), received treatments of Temik 10G and Furadan 10G at 1 teaspoon per
gallon container. Plants were maintained in a screened cage in Gainesville from
December 1970 to September 1971. This scale can survive at this latitude.
The following scale and mealybug infested plants received Temik 10G at 1
teaspoon per container:

Dizygotheca elegantissima Vigi & Guill.
False aralia in gallon container infested with:
Hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker)
A soft scale, Saissetia miranda (Ckll. & Parr.)

Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. (Fig. 3)
Queen palm in quart containers infested with oleander scale, Phenacaspis
cockerelli (Cooley).
Leucophyllum frutescens (Berl.) Johnst.

Texas sage in quart containers infested with mealybug.

Fatshedera sp. (Fig. 4)

Fatshedera in gallon containers infested with cottony cushion scale,
Icerya purchase Mask.

Treated Untreated Check

Fig. 3: Foliage of queen palm 2 months after Temik 10G applied. Dosage: 1 tea-
spoon per gallon container.

Division of Plant Industry

Treated Untreated Check

Fig. 4: Temik 10G controls cottony cushion scale on Fatshedera sp. Dosage: 1 tea-
spoon per gallon container.

RESULTS: No live scale or mealybugs were found on the treated plants 2
months after treatment. The treated plants remained in the same greenhouse
with the check plants.
Live oleander scale, Phenacaspis cockerelli (Cooley) began to reoccur on
the treated container queen palm plants 4 months after treatment.

SUGARCANE BORER, Diatraea saccharialis (Fab.)
G. W. Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist

Azodrin EC (3.2 pounds technical per gallon) at a dosage of 1/ gallon to
100 gallons of water, at 30 day intervals, was used in the control test for the
sugarcane borer infesting pampas-grass, Cortaderia selloana (Schult.) Aschers &
Graebner, in Volusia County (Fig. 5). The 1970-71 pampas-grass crop received
the Azodrin treatment in September, October, and November 1970, and again in
April, May, and June of 1971. The 1970-71 Azodrin test was monitored by Dr.
Gerald L. Greene, Entomologist, University of Florida IFAS, who established
the initial Azodrin control test with a Volusia County grower beginning with
the 1968-69 plume crop. Mr. John Pott assisted by Mr. Charles Roberts, Plant
Specialists, DPI, made periodic checks of plume canes following the spray ap-
plications (Fig. 6).

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 87


Fig 5 Inspecting pampas grass for sugarcane borer.
Fig. 5. Inspecting pampas-grass for sugarcane borer.

Fig. 6. Sugarcane borer damage to pampas-grass.

Division of Plant Industry

Good control of the sugarcane borer was obtained with Azodrin, a systemic
insecticide. Azodrin has been registered for use on sugarcane and ornamentals

ROOT MEALYBUG, Rhisoecus americanus (Hambleton)
G. W. Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist
Control tests for root mealybugs were conducted with L. C. Kuitert, S. L.
Poe, and D. E. Short, Entomologists, University of Florida IFAS, for a more
effective, non-phytotoxic material for container grown ornamental plants. The
tests included eight plant species, three application methods, and three separate
growing media at four locations under greenhouse or slat house cover.
The materials evaluated were azinphosmethyl, Azodrin, carbaryl, carbo-
furan, Diazinon, dimethoate, disulfoton, dyfonate, malathion, Monitor, and toxa-
Several materials effectively killed mealybugs but exhibited root or foliar
toxicity to certain plant species. Carbofuran was the best material evaluated
for root mealybug eradication in a single application.
Effectiveness of chemicals varied with soil or growing media and moisture
Materials now recommended by IFAS for control of root mealybugs:
*Malathion 57% EC at 1 pint in 25 gallons of water
Di-Syston 66% EC at 1 pint in 16 gallons of water
DRENCHES: (to 500 sq. ft. of raised bench)
*Malathion 53% EC at 3 ounces in 25 gallons of water
Di-Syston 66% EC at 2 ounces in 25 gallons of water
*Do not use malathion when the weather is above 85 F. and the plants
are in containers on black plastic.
DI-SYSTON DIP TESTS: To determine if foliage plants dipped in a Di-
Syston solution could be packaged the same day for shipment, a test was estab-
lished at a nursery in Lake County by G. W. Dekle and C. L. Speaker, Plant
Specialist, DPI. Plants tested were: Nephthytis sp. (green gold); Peperomia
obtusifolia A. Dietr. (pepper face); Philodendron cordatum Kunth (florists'
cordatum); Peperomia sp. (variegated pepper face); Dieffenbachia exotica; D.
picta Schott; Aglaonema sp. (Chinese evergreen); Scindapsus sp. (marbled
pothos); Nephthytis sp. (emerald gem); Gynura sp. (purple passion); Hoya
sp. (wax plant); Maranta sp. (prayer plant); Hedera helix L. (ivy); Crypthan-
thus sp.; Nephthytis sp. (tri-leaf wonder); and Brassaia actinophylla Endl.
The above plants were completely submerged in a Di-Syston solution con-
taining 1 pound actual ingredient per 100 gallons of water for 2 minutes and
then allowed to air dry. One hour after the plants were dipped, they were
packaged and boxed for shipment. The plants were than held for 3 days and
examined. No injury was observed.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Plant Specialists J. R. McFarlin, C. L. Speaker, M. Howard Van Pelt,
and F. L. Ware assisted with the root mealybug tests and control in Florida

A ROOT MEALYBUG, Geococcus coffeae Green,

G. W. Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist
A root mealybug ,Geococcus coffeae Green, has been collected frequently
on the roots of foliage plants in Florida greenhouses, is a known pest of citrus,
and has been found on the native vine-like shrub, Ernodea angusta Small
(Rubiaceae family), on Sugar Loaf Key, Florida, by W. H. Pierce, Plant Spe-
cialist. This is the first positive record of this root mealybug being collected on
a native plant in Florida (See DPI Entomology Circular No. 43, December
Dr. Kenneth Langdon, Nematologist, identified the host and made the
following comment: "Two species of Ernodea occur in Florida, but are found
in different habitats. E. angusta Small is found in pineland on Everglade Keys
and the Florida Keys. E. littoralis Sw. is found on the coastal sand-dunes and
rocky shores of southern peninsular Florida and the Florida Keys." Both species
occur in the West Indies according to Small. Dr. Dan Ward, University of Flor-
ida Herbarium, has records of E. angusta being collected on Big Pine Key, at
Homestead, and at Sugar Palm.
Descriptions of the two species of Ernodea are found in Small's publica-
tion, "Shrubs of Florida".

During 1971 all Rhizoecus spp. slide mounts (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera)
were sent to J. Edson Hambleton, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. for
study. The following species were reported by Hambleton and slides are de-
posited in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods: Rhizoecus americanus
Hambl., R. cacticans Hambl., R. maritimus (Ckll.), R. pritchardi McK., R.
simplex Hambl., R. spinipes (Hambl.), R. latus (Hambl.), R. new sp. #6
Hambl., and R. new sp. #8 Hambl.

F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist
The Division is the cooperative state agency under contract with the USDA
Plant Protection Division, Economic Survey and Detection Operations, to pre-
pare weekly survey reports and annual summaries of economic insect conditions
in Florida. Highlights in the weekly reports and annual summaries from Flor-
ida and other states are published by the USDA in the weekly Cooperative
Economic Insect Report (CEIR). The DPI distributes the TRI-OLOGY Tech-

Division of Plant Industry

nical Report each month to summarize the most significant insects, plant patho-
gens, and nematodes found around Florida. Most of this information results
from the processing and determination of samples sent to the DPI during the
preceding month. The author as survey entomologist is responsible for as-
sembling the entomology portion of TRI-OLOGY each month and for editing
the entire publication once every three months. Information is received from
many sources, but the most consistent general source is from the DPI office in
Gainesville, which acts as the state clearing house as well as the focal point
for technical services to DPI men around the state. Much important informa-
tion is obtained from the University of Florida IFAS Experiment Stations and
extension scientists, and from USDA personnel. Information on insects affect-
ing commercial citrus continued to be supplied by Dr. W. A. Simanton and
coworkers at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred.
All of these reports help in varying degrees to fulfill the objectives of the
survey and detection program. These objectives are:
1. To assist agricultural workers by supplying current information on
insect activity so that crops can be more adequately protected from
insect attacks.
2. To aid and assure more prompt detection of newly introduced insect
3. To determine losses caused by insects.
4. To maintain records on the occurrence of economic insects.
5. To aid manufactures and suppliers of insecticides and control equip-
ment to determine areas of urgent need for supplies and equipment.
6. To develop a workable insect pest forecasting service.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)
F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist

In late April 1972, the California Department of Agriculture identified one
larva of the European corn borer collected at destination in California from a
sealed shipment of sweet corn that originated in Belle Glade, Florida. This
was highly significant, since Florida has been considered a non-infested state.
Officials in California placed restrictions immediately on the entry of Florida
sweet corn and certain other crops into California. Other non-infested states
followed suit. An emergency fumigation arrangement was worked out in which
Florida sweet corn was fumigated at El Paso, Texas, the shipment sealed, and
allowed entry into California and other states. Urgent attention was given to
surveys that would answer if the one borer was an isolated incident or an indi-
cation of a sizable infestation. Several survey techniques were employed. In-
spectors and plant specialists cut into exposed stalks of recently harvested corn
not fully disked under or awaiting the disking treatment. Inspectors examined
the ears either in field, during picking operations, or in packing houses. No
commercial corn fields were surveyed from silking time to harvest, since grow-

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report

Fig. 7. Blacklight trap survey for European corn borer at non-sprayed experimental
corn field, Belle Glade, Fla., May 10, 1972.

ers applied insecticides every day during this period. Another survey technique
used was to ride around corn fields at tasseling time, looking for broken tassels.
Experience in infested states to the north had shown that a broken tassel often
is an indicator of damage by the European corn borer. Another technique em-
ployed was the placement of blacklight traps in three of the major sweet corn
growing areas of central and southern Florida. The traps are an effective survey
tool because the adult moths are active flyers at night and come to the black-
light source where they are trapped. Survey entomologist Mead dispensed black-
light traps to DPI personnel on May 8-10, as follows: seven at Zellwood, six
at Belle Glade, and seven near Delray Beach. Several of these traps were placed
at the borders of non-sprayed experimental corn fields; for example, see Fig. 7.
Four traps were concentrated on a farm, six miles west of Delray Beach, be-
cause this is the presumed place of the original find, the picking time of the
corn being April 6-11, 1972. On May 26 the trapping program was concluded,
making approximately 300 samples collected. No borer adults were found. On
June 5, California removed the restrictions on entry of Florida sweet corn.

) L/

Division of Plant Industry

"LOVEBUG" Plecia nearctica Hardy
F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist
The Division of Plant Industry published a circular (Ent. Circ. 102, Nov.
1970) on the "lovebug" (Diptera: Bibionidae) authored by Professor L. A.
Hetrick, IFAS, University of Florida. Knowledge of the life history of this
nuisance pest has increased, but no practical solution to the lovebug problem
is in sight. Fig. 8 shows how the owner of an automobile service station at
Palatka, Florida, felt about lovebugs.




A WiX PiWoNaj tasToh0 ABOVfi

Fig. 8. Sign at service station in Palatka, Florida.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report 93

First Florida or United States Records of Invertebrates

Reported through the Cooperative Survey Program,
July 1, 1970 June 30, 1972

F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist

1. FOURSPOTTED SPIDERMITE, Tetranychus canadensis (McGregor):
FIRST RECORD FROM FLORIDA. Adults were taken on redbud, Cercis
canadensis, at Oakland, Orange County 23 September 1970, (F. L. Ware)
(Det. H. A. Denmark).
2. A PODAGRIONID PARASITIC WASP, Euchrysia hyalinipennis Ashmead.
FIRST RECORD FROM FLORIDA. An adult was taken in a malaise trap
set in a soybean field at Quincy, Gadsden County 2-3 October 1970, (W.
L. Hasse) (Det. B. D. Burks).
3. A EURYTOMID WASP, Prodecatoma cookei (Howard): FIRST RECORD
FROM FLORIDA. Seven adults were reared from grape seeds, Vitis sp.,
obtained at Wildwood, Sumter County 19-23 July 1971 (W. C. Adlerz)
(Det. B. D. Burks).
4. A CECIDOMYIID, Olesicoccus coccidivora (Felt): NEW NORTH
AMERICAN RECORD. Adults were reared from soft scales, Saissetia mi-
randa (Cockerell & Parrott) and Pulvinaria urbicola (Cockerell) on Bar-
bodos cherry, Malpighia glabra, at Hialeah, Dade County 21-26 July 1971
(C. E. Stegmaier) (Det. R. J. Gagne). Larvae of this species feed on eggi
of some scale insects. Occurs in South America.
5. A CECIDOMYIID, Asteromyia modest (Felt): FIRST RECORD FROM
FLORIDA. Adults were reared from the leaves of a daisy fleabane, Eri-
geron strigosus Muhl. var. beyrichii (Fisher & Meyer) at Miami, Dade
County 16 April 1971, (C. E. Stegmaier) (Det. R. J. Gagne).
6. A WHITEFLY, Pealius hibisci (Kotinsky): FIRST RECORD FROM CON-
TINENTAL UNITED STATES. A specimen was collected from cassava,
Manihot sp., in a nursery at Samsula, Volusia County 3 July 1971 (C. L.
Speaker and C. R. Roberts) (Det. L. M. Russell). This is an oriental spe-
cies. In Hawaii it is common on hibiscus and gardenia.
7. A PHYTOSEIID MITE, Ricoseius loxocheles (DeLeon): FIRST RECORD
FROM THE UNITED STATES. Nymphs and adults were collected on
seagrape, Coccoloba uvifera Linnaeus, at a nursery in Miami, Dade County
18 January 1972 (F. J. McHenry) (Det. H. A. Denmark). Previous records
of this predatory mite include Piracicoba, Sao Paulo, Brasil, September
1966 (Carlos Flechtmann) on Morus alba Linnaeus, and from Cayey
Mountain, Puerto Rico, 28 August 1963, (D. DeLeon) on Cordia alliodora.
8. A WEEVIL, Microlarinus lypriformis Wollaston: FIRST RECORD FROM
FLORIDA. An adult and two larvae were collected 23 February 1972; 4
larvae, 2 pupae, 6 March 1972; 1 larva (reared) 26 March 1972; 6 larvae,

Division of Plant Industry

26 April 1972, all at Miami International Airport, Dade County, on
puncturevine, Tribulus cistoides Linnaeus; C. E. Stegmaier, collector and
determiner; confirmed R. E. Warner, May 1972.
9. A EULOPHID, Aphelinus flaviventris Kurdg.: FIRST RECORD FROM
NORTH AMERICA. A female was swept from weeds at Hialeah, Dade
County, 3 April 1967, by C. E. Stegmaier, Determined by B. D. Burks
and confirmed by C. Ferriere.
10. A THRIPS, Rhaebothrips lativentris Karny: FIRST RECORD FROM CON-
TINENTAL UNITED STATES. Collected from corkscrew 3-awn, Aristida
gyrans Chap., near Cuban Refugee Reception Center, Miami, Dade County,
14 January 1971 by C. E. Stegmaier; also swept from dead grasses same
locality 24 January 1971 by Stegmaier. Determined by S. Nakahara and
confirmed by K. O'Neill, 1971. Previously reported from Hawaii, Pacific
Islands, Java, Australia, Formosa, Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
and Panama.
11. A SUGARCANE WEEVIL, Nicentrus saccharinus Marshall: FIRST
UNITED STATES RECORD. One adult was collected on puncturevine,
Tribulus cistoides (not necessarily host) at Miami International Airport,
Dade County 15 April 1972, by C. E. Stegmaier. Determined by R. E.
Warner. A second specimen was swept from same plot of grass and weeds
on 22 June 1972 by R. E. Woodruff, B. K. Dozier, and Gordon Johnson.
Determined by Woodruff. Additional larvae and adults were taken early in
July 1972 on goose grass, Eleusine indica, at Miami and Miami Shores by
W. H. Pierce.

A FRUIT FLY PARASITE, Parachasma anastrephilum Marsh: DE-
FROM THE UNITED STATES. Thirty-six adults, mostly reared from
Anastrepha suspense (Loew) and Anastrepha interrupta Stone, collected at
Miami and Homestead, Dade County, August 1967 (A. G. Selhime, R. W.
Swanson, R. M. Baranowski) (Determined and described by Paul M. Marsh.
1970. Florida Ent. 53(1):31-32.)
MEXICAN FRUIT FLY, Anastrepha ludens (Loew): An adult female was
collected in a McPhail trap, hanging in a grapefruit tree, at Sarasota,
Sarasota County, February 23, 1972, by S. V. Hiatt. Determined H. V.
Weems, Jr., and F. Lopez. An intensive trapping and fresh fruit survey,
through June 1972, failed to disclose any more specimens.
A EURYTOMID WASP, Eurytoma vernonia Bugbee: Nineteen specimens
were collected from seeds heads of Eupatorium coelestinum at Hialeah,
Dade County (September 1 and October 2, 1970) (C. E. Stegmaier) (Det.

Twenty-Ninth Biennial Report


H. A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology
(1) Continued development of a biological control center at the Doyle
Conner Building, Gainesville.
(2) Phytoseiidae of Paraguay. (Completed)
(3) Colombia Phytoseiidae. (Completed)
(4) Phytoseiidae of Brazil
(5) Ants associated with soybeans, with Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, University
of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology.

G. W. DEKLE, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Preparation of an illustrated publication on the soft scale insects
of Florida.
(2) Investigations with Dr. L. C. Kuitert, University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology, on the use of chemicals
for control of insects and related pests on ornamentals.
(3) Root mealybug investigations. A cooperative project with Dr. L. C.
Kuitert, S. L. Poe, and D. E. Short, Entomologists, University of
Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology.
(4) Sugarcane borer on pampas-grass. A joint control project with Dr.
Gerald L. Greene, University of Florida IFAS Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Quincy.
(5) Wax scale studies. A joint project with Dr. John Davidson, Entomo-
logist, University of Maryland.
(6) Root mealybug (Rhizoecus spp.) studies with Edson J. Hambleton,
Collaborator, USDA, Entomology Research Division, Washington, D.C.

F. W. MEAD, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Identification and numerical counts of most of the Hemiptera and
Homoptera (Auchenorhyncha) in a five year ecological study at Tall
Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee. This project, initiated in 1969
by Professor W. H. Whitcomb, IFAS, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, has the backing of Tall Timbers Research, Inc., E. V. Komarek,
(2) Daily operation of a blacklight trap at the border of the agricultural
experiment station grounds, University of Florida, and the Doyle
Conner Building area. Main purposes of this trapping are to provide
a numerical count of certain economic moths for the weekly survey
report and to detect other important insects.
(3) Continued work on a revision of Oliarus in North America north of
Mexico (Homoptera: Cixiidae).

Division of Plant Industry

(4) Systematic research on Oliarus in neotropical region.
(5) Systematic research on Haplaxius (Homoptera: Cixiidae) especially
in Florida.
(6) Collection and identification of some of the more important insects in
Florida alfalfa fields, with emphasis on Hemiptera and Homoptera.
(7) Examination of blacklight trap samples from major sweet corn grow-
ing areas in Florida for possible presence of the European corn
borer. Additionally, the samples have been and will be screened for
other insect pests of corn.
(8) As a member of the Insect Surveys and Losses Committee of the
Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America, con-
sultations were held primarily with Florida's extension entomologists
to prepare a list of the top 25 insect pests in Florida. This prelimi-
nary list and rough estimates of the dollar losses to Florida agri-
culture by these pests were taken to the Southeastern Branch meeting
at Mobile, Alabama, February 1972. The committee then proposed
a list of the most important insects in the southeastern states together
with rough estimates of dollar losses. These estimates are in need of
considerable refinement, but at least a start was made.
H. V. WEEMS, JR., Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Continuation of a long-range study of the taxonomy and ecology of
the Syrphidae of Mexico, especially Volucellinae, involving occa-
sional trips during the several seasons of the year.
(2) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of the Syrphidae
of the southern escarpments of the Appalachian Plateau.
(3) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of the Syrphidae
of Cranberry Glades, a large disjunct bog in the Monongahila Na-
tional Forest of West Virginia.
(4) Participation in a faunal survey and ecological study of the arthro-
pods of Tall Timbers Research Station and the surrounding wooded
areas of northern Leon County.
(5) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on arthropod groups, primarily
pertaining to their identification, habitat relationships, seasonal and
geographic distribution, and techniques for collecting them, with em-
phasis on Florida.
(6) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on the Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods and the research associates program which sup-
ports its development and publishes on arthropod studies.
(7) Accumulation of material for an eventual illustrated bulletin on fruit
flies and related groups.
(8) Identification of Syrphidae for other individuals and institutions as
a part of the process of further building a research collection of
Syrphidae and a more thorough knowledge of this family of flies,
especially those of the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions.

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