• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Report of the division directo...
 Fiscal
 Information and education
 Library
 Methods development
 Bureau of apiary inspection
 Bureau of citrus budwood regis...
 Bureau of entomology
 Bureau of nematology
 Bureau of pest eradication and...
 Giant African snail
 Sugarcane rootstalk borer...
 Brown garden snail
 Personnel training
 Spreading decline
 Fruit fly detection
 Bureau of plant inspection
 Imported fire ant
 Turf grass certification
 Premium quality citrus tree
 Grades and standards
 Bureau of plant pathology
 Staff publications
 Personnel














Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00006
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1968-1970
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 39th (July 1, 1990-June 30, 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01242950
alephbibnum - 001511744
lccn - sn 86001883
lccn - sn 86001883
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Report of the division director
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Fiscal
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Information and education
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Library
        Page 13
    Methods development
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Bureau of apiary inspection
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Bureau of citrus budwood registration
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Bureau of entomology
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
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        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Bureau of nematology
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
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        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Bureau of pest eradication and control
        Page 126
    Giant African snail
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Brown garden snail
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Personnel training
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Spreading decline
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Fruit fly detection
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Bureau of plant inspection
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Imported fire ant
        Page 172
    Turf grass certification
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Premium quality citrus tree
        Page 179
    Grades and standards
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Bureau of plant pathology
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
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        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Staff publications
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Personnel
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
Full Text


Division of Plant Industry
Twenty-Eighth

BIENNIAL REPORT


July 1, 1968


HUME LIBRARY


SA.S. U iv. c f lorida


- June 30, 1970


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner








Division of Plant Industry

Twenty-Eighth

Biennial Report

July 1, 1968 June 30, 1970


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Doyle Conner, Commissioner
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Halwin L. Jones, Director

Single copies free to Florida residents on request to:
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Division of Plant Industry Library
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32601











PLANT INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL COUNCIL


Industry Represented


Lawrence W. Clements
P. O. Box 154
Bartow, Florida 33830

Vernon Conner
P. O. Box 183
Mount Dora, Florida 32757

Colin English, Sr.
Lewis State Bank Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

N. Curtis Peterson, Jr.
225 New Auburndale Road
Lakeland, Florida 33801

Foster Shi Smith
905 West Madison Street
Starke, Florida 32091

Felix H. Uzzell
Route 1, Box 57
Sebring, Florida 33870

Roy Vandegrift, Jr.
Star Route, Box 13-E
Canal Point, Florida 33438

Fred J. Wesemeyer
P. O. Box AA
Ft. Myers, Florida 33902


Citrus


Citrus


Citizen-at-Large



Ornamental
Horticulture


Forestry



Apiary



Vegetable



Commercial Flower


Member







FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

Doyle Conner, Commissioner

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY



Administrative Staff


Halwin L. Jones, Division Director ................ Gainesville

P. E. Frierson, Assistant Director ................. Gainesville

V. W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer .................. Gainesville

R. L. Meeker, Information Officer ................ Gainesville

G. D. Bridges, Chief
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration ....... Winter Haven

J. K. Condo, Chief
Bureau of Plant Inspection ................... Gainesville

H. A. Denmark Chief, Bureau of Entomology ....... Gainesville

G. G. Norman, Chief, Methods Development ........ Gainesville

P. M. Packard, Chief,
Bureau of Apiary Inspection ................ Gainesville

C. Poucher, Chief,
Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control ...... Winter Haven

C. P. Seymour, Chief,
Bureau of Plant Pathology .................. Gainesville

(Unfilled), Chief, Bureau of Nematology ........... Gainesville














TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR ........................ 1

Fiscal ........................... ..................... 5

Information and Education ............................... 11

L library .... ... ... .... ... ... .. .... .. .... ... ..... .. .... 13

Methods Development ................................... 14

BUREAU OF APIARY INSPECTION ............................ 20

BUREAU OF CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION ............... 25

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY ................................. 32

BUREAU OF NEMATOLOGY ................................ 104

BUREAU OF PEST ERADICATION AND CONTROL .............. 126

G iant A frican Snail ..................................... 127

Sugarcane Rootstalk Borer Weevil .......................... 132

Brown Garden Snail ................................... .141

Personnel Training ................. ................... 143

Spreading Decline ................. ....... ... .... ......147

Fruit Fly Detection ................. ................. 158

BUREAU OF PLANT INSPECTION ................ .......... 167

Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey ......................... 172

Im ported Fire Ant ..................................... .172

Turf Grass Certification ................................. 173

Premium Quality Citrus Tree ............... .. ........... 179

Grades and Standards .................................. .180

BUREAU OF PLANT PATHOLOGY ........................... .182

STAFF PUBLICATIONS ...................................... 219

PERSONNEL ................................... ............225















Gainesville, Florida


Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
Tallahassee, Florida

Sir: I have the honor to present herewith my report for the
biennium ending June 30, 1970.

Respectfully,






HALWIN L. JONES, Director
Division of Plant Industry









Report of the Division Director


Halwin L. Jones

Incidents of major importance during the 1968-70 biennium.
include the detection of the sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil,
Diaprepes abbreviata, infesting about 1,400 acres of citrus near
Apopka; and the detection of the giant African snail, Achatina
fulica, infesting some 50 acres in North Miami. Both of these pests
are currently being controlled and positive eradication measures
are being developed.
The office of Methods Development put to use its knowledge
of plant pest detection by means of infrared photography in a
cooperative effort with the State Department of Natural Re-
sources and State Department of Transportation to determine the
mean high water mark for lower Biscayne Bay.
A series of aerial infrared photographs of this virgin mangrove
swamp shows a line of demarcation between the areas in which the
tidal waters flow at high tide and the actual land area within the
swamp. The true mangrove, Rhizophora, Mangle L., is the plant
native to the area which flourishes in the tidal regions and provides
a high degree of leaf reflectance in the infrared wavelengths. The
plant lacks vigor in the relatively dry areas and, consequently, leaf
reflectance is lessened. The number of nurseries under inspection
during the biennium increased slightly to 4,358, compared with a
low of 4,213 during the 1966-68 period. Inspections per nursery
averaged 2.56 annually.
The amount of nursery stock in the state at the end of the
biennium totaled 332,858,995 plants, a decrease of 1,549,939
from 1966-68 statistics. The decrease in total plants reflects the
decline in number of citrus nurseries.
Efforts to protect the industry from dangerous plant pests
resulted in the quarantine of 2,611,124 plants on 418 acres.
The imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima, continued to
spread from the fringe areas of the primary infestations, currently
infesting 29 counties in their entirety and portions of 21
additional counties.
A temporary fumigation chamber was built on the grounds of
the headquarters building in Gainesville to comply with regula-
tions set down by Arizona, California, Hawaii and Texas against
the Caribbean fruit fly. The first chamber ever built to handle
1








2 Division of Plant Industry
semi-trailers loaded with fruit was constructed by Division
personnel, and the first fumigated load of fresh citrus was headed
west on the 14th day after construction began. A total of 318,620
shipping cartons (4/5 bu.) was fumigated during the biennium.
Record sales of certified turfgrass continued during the period
as some 12.5 million square feet were moved under blue tag
certification as compared to 11.4 million square feet during the
previous biennium. Floratine St. Augustine continued to be the
most popular single variety, accounting for 52 per cent of total
sales.
The Fruit Fly Detection Program, in which 13,756 traps are
maintained throughout the state, is a cooperative effort between
the Division of Plant Industry and the USDA's Plant Protection
Division.
The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, has been in
Florida since 1965 and now infests 30 counties in the peninsular
portion of the state. Research is being carried out by several
agencies, and a pilot eradication program is scheduled for late
1970 in Key West, using the sterile male technique to determine
the feasibility of such a program on a statewide basis.
The Spreading Decline Program continues to reduce in
magnitude, both in terms of manpower and financial needs,
primarily due to more efficient operation and to financial
contributions by citrus growers for combating the causal agent,
the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis.
Push-and-treat acreage during this biennium was reduced to
1,367 acres as compared to 1,856 acres during the 1966-68 period.
Lineal feet of buffer was reduced to 1,006,351 feet, a 15 per cent
decrease from the peak of the program in January 1966. The
number of infested properties which threaten adjacent groves has
been reduced from 126 to 76 during the biennium.
The Bureau of Apiary Inspection figured prominently in
maintaining Florida's ranking among the nation's top honey-pro-
ducing states. By methodical, exacting inspection of the state's
some 300,000 honeybee colonies, inspectors were able to suppress
the major bee disease, American foulbrood, to a rate of only .07
per cent while the national average was 1.1 per cent. American
foulbrood nevertheless continues to be a serious threat to the
Florida beekeeper.
Florida queen and package bee producers continue to supply
honey producers in northern states, England and South America.
The Florida farmer benefits from the $40 million worth of








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 3
cucurbits pollinated by the honeybee.
The Premium Quality Citrus Nursery Stock Program initiated
during the previous biennium saw fruition during this period as the
first trees were budded and will be ready for grove planting in late
1970. The premium concept sets a new standard for excellence
beneficial to all who plant citrus trees.
Demand for citrus nursery stock remained low during most of
the biennium, reflecting the lingering effects of overproduction in
the early 1960s and the subsequent economic decline of the
industry.
With reserve supplies dwindling, however, production is again
on the upswing. The number of registered trees rose sharply from
633,447 last biennium to 1,131,318 by the end of 1968-70.
Some 2,880 tests using sensitive citron indicator plants were
carried out to detect contamination by exocortis virus. The tests,
divided almost evenly between field plot and greenhouse locations,
resulted in 387 positive exocortis determinations.
The critical need for testing where exocortis-susceptible
rootstocks are to be budded is illustrated by the 26 per cent
accidental infection rate found in one bud source grove. Exocor-
tis-free budwood is becoming more of a requirement with the ever
increasing use of carrizo citrange rootstock, which is susceptible to
exocortis.
Additional problems for the citrus industry include tristeza
and "young tree decline," a condition of unknown origin which is
producing a massive research effort by all agencies.
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods now contains
approximately 448,076 pinned and labeled specimens, 77,765
insect and mite slides, several thousand papered or envelope
specimens (which includes 21,624 Odonata), for a total of
approximately 547,465 pinned and processed specimens. In
addition there are approximately 23,639 vials of alcohol speci-
mens. There were 25,600 identifications made in this bureau
during the biennium.
The red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, has been
eradicated for the second time from the West Palm Beach area.
The European brown snail, Helix aspersa Muller, apparently
has been eradicated from a Ft. Lauderdale nursery.
The Florida State Collection of Nematodes has grown to more
than 3,000 specimens of many different genera and species,
primarily plant parasitic nematodes which occur in or threaten
Florida agriculture.








Division of Plant Industry


The herbarium now contains about 680 native, naturalized and
cultivated plants, primarily ornamentals. A special attempt is being
made to include the unusual exotic plants introduced into Florida.
A seed collection started late in the last biennium now
contains 317 identified seed specimens consisting of weeds,
grasses, field crops, vegetables, fruits, nuts and ornamentals.
Survey continues for the soybean cyst nematode in Escambia,
Okaloosa and Walton Counties as 229 soil samples were taken and
analyzed. One new property in Escambia County and one in
Okaloosa County were found infested with the cyst nematode.
Regulatory procedures have apparently retarded the progress of
the pest in Florida.
The golden nematode continues to pose a threat to Florida
potato growers. Survey continues for the pest although only
negative results have been attained.
During the period, 42 new bacterial cultures were added to the
Florida Type Culture Collection. New methods were used and
standard methods updated by staff personnel to identify bacteria.
Specimens processed included 292 new and previously un-
reported fungus diseases from Florida. Added to the Florida Type
Culture Collection were 195 new fungus cultures.
Southern corn leaf blight appeared to be taking a heavy toll of
field corn toward the end of the biennium, particularly in North
Florida. Studies underway to determine the prevalence of each
Helminthosporium species occurring in Florida on sweet corn and
field corn showed H. maydis to be the causal agent of southern
corn leaf blight.
H. turcicum is the causal agent of northern corn leaf blight
and, based on preliminary study, appeared to be more common in
North Florida than South Florida. The studies showed H. maydis
to occur more frequently on both sweet corn and field corn
throughout the state.
The Division Library serves DPI staff members and University
of Florida students, staff and visitors. It contained a total of 6,394
bound volumes at the end of the biennium, as well as a large
number of periodicals relating to the Division's various fields of
specialization.
Notable purchases included two by the Bureau of Plant
Pathology: the periodical Mycologia, unbound volumes 1 54, and
Saccardo's Sylloge Fungorum. The Bureau of Entomology pur-
chased 22 entomological periodical titles from Dr. R. S.
Schierenberg of Holland. There were many other acquisitions,
including 200 gifts.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 5

FISCAL OFFICE
V. W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer

Resources and Expenditures

A complete summary of available funds, allotments, and
expenditures, covering actual and estimated needs of the Division
during 1968-69, 1969-70, and 1970-71, are detailed in Tables 1, 2,
and 3. This represents allocated funds, budgeted by the Division of
Plant Industry from legislative appropriations, and approved by
the Commissioner of Agriculture & Consumer Services.



Table 1. 1968-69 Allotments & Expenditures


1968-69
Allotments


Actual
1968-69
Reserves Expenditures


General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries & Retirement ...... $
Other Personal Services .....
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...
Apiarian Indemnities .......

Total ................... $

Spreading Decline
Salaries & Retirement ...... $
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...

T otal ................... $


Fire Ant Control
Salaries & Retirement ...
Expenses .............

T otal ................


1,328,514
44,000
409,782
57,902
10,000

1,850,198


66,150
289,560
5,387

361,097


S. $ 28,857
S. 197,140

...$ 225,997


Fire Ant Eradication
Other Personal Services ..... $
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...

T total ................... $


1,000
275,776
4,650

281,426


$ 30 $ 970
-0- 275,776
19 4,631

$ 49 $ 281,377


$ 49,500
1,792
56,073
201
-0-

$ 107,566


$ 421
85,069
40

$ 85,530


$ 6,302
21,480

$ 27,782


$1,279,014
42,208
353,709
57,701
10,000

$1,742,632


$ 65,729
204,491
5,347

275,567


$ 22,555
175,660

$ 198,215








Division of Plant Industry


Table 1. (continued)


Fixed Capital Outlay
Greenhouse 1 Gainesville .. $
6 Orlyt Greenhouses .......
Headquarters Building ......
Paving, Parking & Landscaping
Warehouse & Shop ........

T otal ................... $

TOTAL GENERAL REVENUE $

Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees
Balance 7/1/68 31,435
Receipts 81,281
Control 112,716
Fire Ant Control
Balance 7/1/68 1,939
Receipts 24,741
Control 26,680


Total Trust Funds ........... $

GRAND TOTAL ALL FUNDS $


18,870
44,265
10,868
15,314
24,645

113,962

2,832,680


$ 18,170
40,082
532
15,314
23,724

$ 97,822

$ 318,749


$ 700
4,183
10,336
-0-
921

$ 16,140

$2,513,931


$ 46,155 $ 66,561



$ 26,632 $ 48

139,396 $ 72,787 $ 66,609

2,972,076 $ 391,536 $2,580,540








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


Table 2. 1969-70 Allotments and Expenditures


General Revenue

General Activities
Salaries & Retirement ......$
Other Personal Services .....
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...
Apiarian Indemnities .......

T otal ...................$

Spreading Decline
Salaries & Retirement ......$
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...

T otal ................... $

Fire Ant Control
Salaries & Retirement ......$
Expenses ................

Total ...................$


Fixed Capital Outlay (Certified Forward)
Greenhouse No. 1 .........$ 1
6 Orlyt Greenhouses .......
Headquarters Building ......
Paving, Roads, Parking .....
Warehouse & Shop ........ 3


Total...................$

TOTAL GENERAL REVENUE $
Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees
Balance 7/1/69 46,155
Receipts 175,711

Control 221,866


Fire Ant Control
Balance 7/1/69
Receipts


Control


Total Trust Funds

TOTAL-ALL FUNDS


26,632
39,138

65,770


1969-70
Allotments Reserves

1,385,139 $ 53,127
,47,000 3,638
435,796 73,584
70,078 2,160
12,500 6,921

1,950,513 $ 139,430


71,301
206,005
3,182

280,488


31,126
168,955

201,081


18,170
14,386
532
2,360
32,373

7,821

!9,903


2,5
2,52


$ 7,563
-0-
-0-

$ 7,563


$ 11,164
107,380

$ 118,544


$ 18,170
44,386
532
2,360
32,373

$ 97,821

$ 363.358


$ 121,466 $ 100,400


$ 287,636

$ 2,817,539


$ 64,816

$ 186,282

$ 549,640


Actual
1969-70
Expenditures

$1,332,012
43,362
362,212
67,918
5,579

$ 1,811,083


$ 63,738
206,005
3,182

$ 272,925


$ 20,962
61,575

$ 82,537


$2,166,545


$ 954

$ 101,354

$2,267,899








Division of Plant Industry

Table 3. 1970-71 Allotments and Expenditures


General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries & Retirement ......$
Other Personal Services .....
Expenses ...... ........ .
Operating Capital Outlay ...
Apiarian Indemnities .......

T otal ...................$
Pest Eradication & Control
A. Special Programs
Salaries & Retirement .... $
Expenses ................
B. Spreading Decline
Salaries & Retirement ......
Other Personal Services .....
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...
C. Fruit Fly Survey & Control
Expenses ................
Operating Capital Outlay ...
D. Snail Eradication
Expenses ................
E. Fire Ant Eradication
Other Personal Services .....
Expenses ................
F. Weevil Eradication
Expenses ................

T otal ...................$


1970-71
Allotments

1,536,014
40,700
462,600
58,625
12,500

2,110,439


149,304
2,850

70,406
500
136,080
6,700

27,550
5,200

80,000

1,500


100,000

580,090


Estimated
1970-71
Reserves Expenditures

$1,536,014
40,700
462,600
58,625
12,500

$2,110,439


40,358


$ 149,304
2,850

70,406
500
136,080
6,700

27,550
5,200

39,642

1,500


100,000

$ 40,358 $ 539,732


Fixed Capital Outlay (Certified Forward)
Greenhouse 1 ............ $ 18,170
6 Orlyt Greenhouses ....... 44,386
Headquarters Building ...... 532
Paving, Roads, etc....... .. 2,360
Warehouse ............... 32,373
New Construction
Bio. Control Unit ......... 199,400
Screenhouse-Winter Haven .. 12,000
Security Fence ........... 3,500
Truck Fumigation Unit
(Fruit & Vegetable Inspection
Trust Fund)


T otal .................. .$

Total General Revenue ....... $


532



191,424
11,520


312,721 $ 203,476

3,743,250 $ 203,476


$ 18,170
44,386
-0-
2,360
32,373

7,976
480
3,500
(57,500)



$ 109,245

$3,539,774








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


Table 3. (continued)

Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fee
Balance 7/1/70 121,466
Estimated receipts 172,800

Control 294,266

Fire Ant Control
Balance 7/1/70 64,816
Estimated receipts 30,000


Control


94,816


Total Trust Funds ...........$

GRAND TOTAL ALL FUNDS $


389,082

4,132,332


$ 116,471 $ 177,795


$ 68,616 $ 26,200


$ 185,087

$ 388,563


$ 203,995

$3,743,769


Budget Requests


The Division director presents in Table 4 the estimated costs
deemed necessary to carry out the Division's activities in a
satisfactory manner during the 1971-72 fiscal year. This budget
was prepared under the new program planning and budgeting
system. Estimated expenditures are based on currently anticipated
receipts and costs from each Bureau and program under the
Division and are subject to adjustments and approval of the
Florida Legislature and the Division of Planning and Budgeting.




Table 4. 1971-72 Budget Requests


Trust Funds
Requested
Fiscal Year
1971-72


General Activities


Salaries & Retirement ...........
Other Personal Services .........
Expenses ....................
Operating Capital Outlay ........
Apiarian Indemnities ...........

Total ............... ........


General Revenue
Requested
Fiscal Year
1971-72


$ 54,179 $ 1,646,365
165,782
41,580 385,610
8,500 73,184
12,500

$ 104,259 $ 2,283,441








Division of Plant Industry


Table 4. (continued)

Pest Eradication & Control


A. Special Program
Salaries & Retirement ...........
B. Spreading Decline
Salaries & Retirement ...........
Expenses ....................
Operating Capital Outlay ........
C. Fruit Fly Survey & Control
Expenses ....................
Operating Capital Outlay ........
D. Snail Eradication
Salaries & Retirement ...........
Expenses ....................
Operating Capital Outlay ........
E. Fire Ant Control
Salaries & Retirement ...........
Other Personal Services .........
Expenses ....................
Operating Capital Outlay ........

F. Weevil Eradication
Salaries & Retirement ...........
Expenses ....................
Operating Capital Outlay ........

T o tal . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total Operating ..................


$ 140,559


75,000


84,837
127,779
11,380


$ 31,920
10,270


30,000



1,000
76,240
6,000


$ 188,240

$ 292,499


19,147
35,234
6,900

37,800


19,147
37,260
6,900

$ 569,133

$ 2,852,574


Fixed Capital Outlay (Certified Forward)

Headquarters Building-Gainesville .
Bio. Control Unit ..............
Screenhouse-Winter Haven
New Construction Requests
Steel Joists-Gainesville Warehouse
Research Greenhouse (2) Gainesville
Paving & Landscaping Gainesville .
Quarantine Greenhouse Gainesville
(Trust Fund)


Total Fixed Capital Outlay ......... $ 58,950

TOTAL REQUESTS ALL FUNDS .. $ 351,449


$ 43,828

$ 2,896,402


* Reserve


*(532)
* (191,424)
* (11,520)


58,950


3,828
25,000
15,000







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 11
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
Robert L. Meeker, Information Officer

Biennial production by Information and Education personnel
included minor and major publications, press releases, a quarterly
tabloid newspaper, a monthly house organ, field and studio
photography, black and white processing, visual aids, exhibits, and
other activities as assigned by the division director.

Publications Committee
The information officer served as chairman. Members were
Harold A. Denmark, chief entomologist; Paul E. Frierson, assistant
director; Miss A. Louise Henley, librarian; Kenneth R. Langdon,
nematologist; Mrs. Lucy Loehle, editorial assistant; and Carter P.
Seymour, chief plant pathologist.
Publications produced by the Division during the biennium
included:
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Lands Areas, Vol. 5, A
Synoptic Review of North American, Central American and
West Indian Solpugida, by Martin H. Muma.
Bulletin No. 8, Orchid Insects, Related Pests and Control, by
G. W. Dekle and L. C. Kuitert.
Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report of the Division of Plant
Industry.
Giant African Snail in Florida, a leaflet by H. A. Denmark and
C. Poucher. This leaflet was used as a survey tool in the North
Miami infestation. Nearly 50,000 were distributed to school
children and residents in the surrounding areas, resulting in
delimitation of the pest.
In addition to editing 36 papers of varying lengths which were
not published by the Division, the committee edited all DPI
circulars and presentation papers.

Periodicals

The Reporter, a house organ dealing with Department and
Division policy, professional activities of the staff, and sidelights
on aspects of their personal lives, was issued monthly.
The DPI News Bulletin, a tabloid-size quarterly newspaper,







Division of Plant Industry


was distributed to nurserymen, stock dealers, supermarkets, citrus
growers, state and federal agricultural officials, libraries, and the
news media. The publication serves as the official outlet for
regulations concerning the movement of plants and plant pests in
Florida. It serves as a vehicle for publicizing Division programs.


News Releases

Information provided to the mass media included audio,
visual, and print material at various times according to the needs
of specific programs and at the requests of media representatives.


Photography

Field and studio still photography in color and black and
white was provided the various bureaus primarily for publication
and training. Macro- and micro-photographs, basically technical in
nature, were used to illustrate works by staff authors.
Photographs were furnished for all Division publications, and
assistance was rendered other state and federal agencies.

Art

Maps, charts, graphs, signs, posters, and other illustrations
were prepared for Division bureaus to illustrate publications and
to serve as visual aids for talks and presentations.
Design and layout assistance was rendered to the authors of
Division publications and to other state and federal agencies upon
request.

Exhibits

A free-standing exhibit covering many activities appeared at
county fairs, trade shows, festivals and other agricultural events.
The backlighted, sectional exhibit is composed of transparencies in
a variety of interchangeable panels to depict Department and
Division activities. Specific sets of panels portray orchid diseases
and certified turfgrass uses.
Several lesser exhibits were shown on a special request basis.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 13

LIBRARY
Andrew Kolesar, Librarian

The Division library continues to serve staff members under
the guidance of the library committee appointed in 1967. The
committee members are S. A. Alfieri, R. P. Esser, R. E. Woodruff,
the librarian and P. E. Frierson, chairman.
New policies have been established concerning exchanges,
gifts, and indefinite loans, all of which will greatly benefit and
expand the library.



REFERENCE SERVICES

(1) Publications: Publications committee manuscript:
suggested corrections articles 47
(2) Reference Questions:
(a) Information located (684 scientific references) 1,722
(b) Interlibrary loan requests, sent to libraries
outside the Gainesville area 86
(3) Number of persons served:
(a) DPI staff approximately 27
(b) Other (U. of Florida staff, students, visitors)
approximately 49
(4) Visits by the librarian to:
U. of Florida Libraries, reference work,
(usually one full day each week) 67



ACQUISITIONS

Gifts of library materials were received from the following persons: S. A.
Alfieri, Clement S. Brimley, G. W. Dekle, H. A. Denmark, Fred O. Dickinson,
R. P. Esser, P. E. Frierson, Don Fuqua, H. L. Jones, R. M. Labadan, F. W.
Mead, R. C. Morris, George B. Saunders, Hervey Sharpe, D. E. Stokes, J.
Strayer, David Sturrock, R. V. Travis, C. Wehlburg, H. V. Weems, and D. L.
Wray.

Gifts: (approximately) 200
Periodicals:
(regularly received)
Exchanges 55
Gifts, regularly received, (including
state and government publications) 139
Subscriptions
(Paid) 148








Division of Plant Industry


THE COLLECTION
1968-70

Size (bound volumes as of June 30, 1968) 5,370
Acquisitions: (volumes)
Purchases 587
Gifts 180
Binding 257
Size (bound volumes as of June 30, 1970) 6,394

NOTABLE PURCHASES

In 1969 the periodical Mycologia, unbound volumes 1-54 ($1,492.07),
was purchased by the Plant Pathology Bureau. In 1970 Saccardo's Sylloge
Fungorum ($1,057.24) was also purchased by the Plant Pathology Bureau.
The Entomology Bureau purchased 22 entomological periodical titles
from Dr. R. Schierenberg of Antiquariaat Junk of Lochem, Holland.

PUBLICATIONS

The journal of the Florida Library Association, Inc., Florida Libraries,
featured the Division library in an article written by Miss Atha Louise Henley,
librarian, entitled "Division of Plant Industry Library." This article appeared
in the series "Spotlight on a Special Library" in the March 1970 issue,
Volume 21, Number 1, of Florida Libraries.

PERSONNEL

Miss Atha Louise Henley, librarian, resigned June 24, 1970.


METHODS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Gerald G. Norman, Coordinator

Introduction and Background

In the 55-year history (1915-1970) of the Division of Plant
Industry, the number of citrus trees in the state has increased
more than 700 per cent. An even greater expansion has taken
place in the production of vegetable crops, sugarcane, tropical
fruits, turfgrass and sod, cut flowers, ornamental plants, nursery
stock and related horticultural crops. In the past ten years this
unprecedented growth can only be described as one of the near
miracles of modern agricultural technology.
Because of the subsequent expansion of the Division's work-







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


load, an urgent need for improvement of techniques and methods
of field inspection soon became apparent.
Other factors contributing to the vulnerability of the agricul-
tural productivity of the state and thus increasing the responsibili-
ties of those charged with its protection included:
(1) a tremendous increase in the capital investment in agricul-
tural lands and equipment,
(2) the growing diversity of crops grown,
(3) a trend among plant breeders and seedsmen to utilize
Florida as a winter garden to evaluate new hybrids and
cultivars being developed all over the United States,
(4) the explosive growth of the state's international airports
and the attendant hazards arising from the importation of
agricultural commodities moving in commercial channels,
as well as from the illicit introduction of plant material by
travelers,
(5) the mounting difficulties in securing qualified men willing
to do field work at existing salaries,
(6) the growing immobility of field men hampered by heavy
traffic in metropolitan areas, and
(7) a trend among the general public toward restriction of the
more effective agricultural pesticides.
In view of this, the Division administration took the position
that some entirely new manner of inspection was mandatory,
regardless of the time and effort it might require or the degree of
adverse criticism the pursuit of such a radically new concept might
generate.
In July 1964 the decision to implement this search was made,
and the Methods Development Program was created for this
purpose.
It was known that sensing, scanning and recording in-
struments, and certain kinds of special purpose photography had
been used in industrial inspection and to some extent in terrain
studies related to forestry, hydrology and meteorology. In some
applications these had proved superior to visual inspection by
trained observers. The records were objective and permanent,
eliminating human errors. Exploratory trials of devices which
appeared to have possible applications in agriculture were begun in
August 1964.
The first instrument tried was an infrared sensitive bolometer
especially calibrated to focus at 12 inches with a field of view of







Division of Plant Industry


one degree. These tests showed that the amount of radiation from
virus-infected citrus trees was different from that of healthy ones.
This led to trials of an infrared scanning camera of the same kind
used in the U-2 planes to record thermographs of the distribution
of temperature over large land areas from very high altitudes.
Due to the almost identical "temperature" (wavelength) of
intermediate infrared emission from trees, soils and ambient
atmosphere under Florida conditions, these instruments proved
ineffective for the Division's purposes.
The next attempt was with aerial photography using black and
white films sensitized and filtered to function in the near infrared
octave of the spectrum. These films were quite satisfactory in
actual image acquisition and did distinguish many levels of tree
vigor.
The more vigorous trees registered as dark gray and the least
vigorous ones a very light gray, but in a single photograph there
might be hundreds of trees recorded in many gray tones between
these two extremes.
Interpretation of the infinite number of intermediate gray
tones was almost impossible because they varied from one
individual to another, and resulted in severe eyestrain and
headaches after relatively short periods of study.
The Eastman Kodak Company announced the release of an
improved version of aerial infrared Ektachrome, a film originally
designed for camouflage detection. By its nature this film was
particularly suited for use in aerial studies of vegetation. De-
pending on plant species, leaf reflectance usually ranges from 3 per
cent to about 15 per cent in the visible light range (400-700
millimicrons) but jumps to 40 per cent or more at about 750
millimicrons (just beyond visible light) in the near infrared
wavelengths.
In the visible wavelengths the chloroplasts reflect green light.
The red and blue wavelengths are absorbed. This energy is used in
the photosynthetic process. Near infrared radiation is transmitted
by the chloroplasts but reflected by the spongy mesophyll cells.
When the leaf is invaded by a pathogen, the mesophyll cells
immediately begin to lose their turgidity, creating intercellular air
spaces which in turn reduce the reflectivity of the leaf, causing
color changes in the photography sometimes long before they can
be seen otherwise.
From its first trials infrared Ektachrome showed great promise
in its applications to agricultural uses. As this initial promise was







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


subsequently fulfilled, the Division became committed more and
more firmly to its use.
This type of photography, performed at low levels from
helicopters and small planes, achieved a high degree of discrimina-
tion between healthy and diseased trees, in a scale large enough for
each frame to be used as a tree map. Interpretation was almost
instantaneous. Its principal disadvantage was the relatively high
cost of both film and processing.
Fortunately, the Eastman Kodak Company had become vitally
interested in what the Division was doing and supplied large
amounts of film, filters and technical assistance without cost. An
early estimate by Kodak technical representatives of the cost of
installation of a processing lab for aerial color films was
approximately $100,000. Over a period of several months the
Division purchased surplus military equipment at a cost of less
than $3,000, which has produced photographs of the very highest
quality.
Aerial cameras for the project were purchased and contributed
to the project by the United States Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service, Plant Protection Division. To
further reduce costs, aircraft were chartered as needed at the scene
to be photographed.
Total costs for a project of this type normally are extra-
ordinarily high. In this case the Division has borrowed, "pro-
moted," and "made do" on a very thin shoestring.
The work accomplished to date has, nevertheless, gained
international recognition, and some of the photographs are now
recognized as classics. Because of the Division's pioneering work in
the field, it has also been able to assist many other organizations.
The Division's last "Workshop on Infrared Photography in the
Plant Sciences," held in Gainesville in April 1969, was attended by
over 100 persons representing 26 universities, 17 federal or state
agencies, and 12 commercial companies.

The Second Phase

The K17 (1943 vintage) Fairchild aerial cameras used to date
are large (27 x 18 inches), heavy when loaded (80 pounds), and
awkward to handle. They were designed for vertical mounting in
camera wells located in the fusilage floor of large aircraft and were
never intended for use as handheld instruments as they have been
used in the present project. Their weight and size is a hazard in the








18 Division of Plant Industry

cramped quarters of small planes and helicopters and causes a
severe physical strain on the camera operator. Since they are not
attached to the aircraft, they could be easily dropped in sudden
turbulence or in any other emergency.
The cameras are fine instruments, rugged and dependable,
which have served the Division well in the past and no doubt will
be used to some extent in the future. However, their routine use
should be discontinued.
An important part of the recent American technical achieve-
ments in space exploration has been the development of suitable
films and cameras to accompany space vehicles. Today, small
cameras, high resolution lenses, and thin-based, high accutance
films are capable of achieving results in a film format 2 1/2 inches
square, equal or superior to 9 1/2-inch-square formats used in the
past.
These aerial cameras in miniature reduce costs of film and
processing, require less space, and are easily handled. Because of
their size they can be used in pairs or in sets of three or four,
allowing synchronous use of different films, or a single film may
take four sets of pictures with each camera filtered for a different
wavelength of the spectrum, thus increasing the amount of
information acquired at little extra expense. Some special arrays
now use as many as nine cameras with different lenses, films, and
filters to encompass the total range of the photographic spectrum.
At present the Division hopes to be able to use a double
system, primarily to take identical shots in natural color and
infrared color to add to ease of interpretation and to demonstrate
the difference between visual inspection (natural color film) and
the infrared technique (infrared film) in securing pre-visual
symptoms of disease.
During the past months the Division has taken photographs of
agricultural subjects for the following:
South Florida Field Laboratory, IFAS, Immokalee-potatoes,
sugarcane, peppers, watermelons.
Everglades Station, IFAS, Belle Glade-sugarcane.
Citrus Station, IFAS, Lake Alfred-young tree decline of
citrus, Martin and St. Lucie Counties.
Potato Investigations Laboratory, IFAS, Hastings-potatoes.
United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Plant Protec-
tion Division-burrowing nematode in citrus, nine locations.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 19

Florida Department of Conservation, Tallahassee-mangrove
shorelines in South Biscayne Bay, mean high water mark.
In addition Division photographs will be shown at the
International Congress on Color Photography at Ohio State
University.

Meetings Attended

Nov. 5-8, 1968-81st Annual Meeting, Florida State Horticultural Society,
Miami, Florida.
Dec. 2-5, 1968-Annual Meeting, Entomological Society of America, Dallas,
Texas.
Apr. 2-5, 1969-National Workshop, Color Photography in the Plant Sciences,
Gainesville, Florida.
Apr. 28-30, 1969-Purdue Centennial Year Symposium on Information
Processing, Lafayette, Indiana.
Jun. 9-11, 1969-Seminar, Expo '69, "New Horizons in Color Aerial
Photography," New York, New York, American Society of Photogram-
metry & Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers.
Nov. 4-6, 1969-82nd Annual Meeting, Florida State Horticultural Society,
Miami, Florida.
Jan. 7-9, 1970-Symposium, "Computational Photogrammetry," American
Society of Photogrammetry.
Mar. 9-14, 1970-Annual Meeting, American Congress on Survey and
Mapping, Washington, D.C.


Talks Presented

Dec. 2-5, 1968-"Infrared Color Aerial Photography in Pest Detection,"
Entomological Society of America, Dallas, Texas.
Apr. 2-5, 1969-Introduction to the 2nd National Workshop, Aerial
Photography, Gainesville, Florida.
Apr. 28-30, 1969-"Present Uses and Potential Applications of Infrared
Aerial Color Photography in Remote Sensing," Purdue University,
Lafayette, Indiana.


Job Related Activities

Executive Committee member and Program Coordinator, Florida State
Horticultural Society.
Deputy Chairman, Color Photography Section, American Society of
Photogrammetry.
Cooperator, National Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.
Secretary-Treasurer, Hughes Memorial Scholarship Foundation.









Bureau of Apiary Inspection


Philip M. Packard, Chief

With the tremendous population growth in Dade and Broward
Counties, the beekeepers using this area for apiary sites find
themselves with fewer and fewer locations. Enormous building
projects and new highways continue to consume vast areas of land
containing wild honey-producing plants. Due to the disappearance
of this bee pasture, these apiary operators must search for
locations in other areas or instigate a program of artificial feeding
to maintain their colonies during the winter months.
The apiarist using his tool, the honeybee, continues to provide
a service to the Florida farmer in pollinating an estimated 40
million dollars worth of cucurbits including cucumbers, squash,
cantalopes, and watermelons.
Florida's honeybee colonies, exceeding 300,000, continue to
produce over 20 million pounds of honey annually, placing
Florida third among the nation's honey-producing states. Packed
Florida honey finds its way to the supermarket, gift stand, and
northern markets including Canada. Some of the Sunshine State's
barreled bulk honey ends up in European markets.
Florida queen and package bee producers continue to supply
their ware to honey producers in northern states, England and
South America.
Although American foulbrood continued to be a serious threat
to the Florida beekeeper, Florida's disease rate was .07 per cent,
while national inspection records revealed 1.1 per cent of all
colonies inspected were infested with American foulbrood. Some
states reported as high as 23 per cent of inspected colonies
diseased.

Nosema Conference

On February 17, 1970, bee regulatory officials and package
bee shippers from the southeastern states met with USDA officials
from the Agricultural Research Service's Bee Laboratory. The
purpose of this meeting was an effort to solve difficulties coming
from Nosema apis increase in package bees being shipped to
northern states and Canada. It has long been known that extended
periods of confinement during shipment cause the major part of
20







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


the Nosema buildup. It was also brought out that the inclement
weather during the installation of these packages was a con-
tributing factor in the Nosema increase during colony enlarge-
ment. The continued use of fumigillin in feed used for package
bees was recommended.
USDA Baton Rouge Laboratory investigators told of their
search for Nosema-resistant strains of honeybees and of trying to
grow Nosema in tissue cultures. They also recommended that heat
treatment be applied in combs on which the packages were to be
installed to prevent a possible reoccurrence of Nosema apis. The
need for a more economical feeding procedure in the use of
fumigillin was thought to be one of the prerequisites of a
successful Nosema control program.

Screening Legislation

A House committee hearing was held in Tallahassee, May 20,
1969, on House Bill 1675. The bill, if passed, would have made it
unlawful to transport honeybees without providing adequate
safeguards against their escape.
Many beekeepers contacted their lawmakers and voiced
opposition to this bill. The committee ruled unfavorably and the
bill failed to get out of committee.

Diseased Larval Examinations

Seventy-four microscopic examinations of decomposed
honeybee larvae were made during 1969 by the chief of Apiary
Inspection. In 1970, 65 microscopic examinations were made. The
smears were sent in by Apiary inspectors and beekeepers to
determine the pathogen that caused the death of larvae.
Thirteen adult honeybee samples were sent to the Depart-
ment's Pesticide Residue Laboratory for analysis to identify the
pesticide that killed them.

Honey Certification Program

During the biennium, apiary inspectors sampled 463 drums of
Tupelo honey. In all, 119 composite samples were delivered to the
Department's Food Laboratory for analysis and certification.
These samples were examined for flavor, color, soluble solids,







22 Division of Plant Industry

moisture and pollen count. Moisture content of samples averaged
17.1 per cent. All samples submitted to the Food Laboratory were
certified as Tupelo honey.
Bureau of Apiary Inspection Activities

1968-1969 1969-1970

Apiaries inspected 5,912 5,788
Colonies inspected 192,651 185,752
Counties inspected 61 60
Apiaries infected with AFB 509 443
Colonies infected with AFB 1,707 1,317
AFB colonies destroyed 1,705 1,317
Apiaries with new infections of AFB 348 331
Florida Permits issued 731 727
Special Entry Permits issued 140 110
Point-To-Point Permits issued 82 86
Certificates issued 61 84
Apiary inspectors examined 378,403 colonies in 11,700
apiaries, finding 3,024 colonies in 952 apiaries to be infected with
American foulbrood. Nine beekeepers reported the thefts totaling
125 colonies of honeybees. The sum of $16,550.00 was paid to
Florida beekeepers in compensation for bees and equipment
destroyed by American foulbrood. The total operating cost of the
Bureau was $181,578.46, or approximately 48 cents per colony
inspection.
Road Guard Report

Monthly reports from the road guard stations indicated the
following movement of honeybees and used beekeeping equip-
ment through the stations: colonies going out-117,191; supers
going out-173,197; colonies coming in-89,275; supers coming
in-187,501.
Road guard reports also showed 44,910 colonies and 75,591
supers moved into Florida from other states, while 65,430
colonies and 66,078 supers left Florida for destinations across the
nation.
Personnel of the Bureau of Apiary Inspection examined and
certified 24,900 colonies for queen and package bee producers.
Apiary reports indicated that 52,552 colonies owned by some 63
beekeepers were certified for shipment to the following states:
Connecticut-4; Georgia-13,559; Illinois-114; Kansas-2,102;
Maine-108; Maryland-1,215; Massachusetts-325; Michigan-







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


247; Minnesota-4,546; Nebraska-150; New Jersey-138; New
York-6,953; North Dakota-3,250; Ohio-2,094; Pennsylvania-
4,073; South Dakota-7,706; Vermont-753; Virginia-300; Wis-
consin-4,915. Colonies numbering 696 were certified for ship-
ment to Andros Island where vegetable producers use them for
pollination.
Each year beekeepers move their honeybee colonies to take
advantage of Florida's citrus bloom. About two months later, after
the honey flow, they move their colonies to North Florida, bound
for titi, tupelo, and gallberry locations. Road guard reports
indicated the following migration of native colonies and equip-
ment during the biennium:
1968-69 1969-70
Cols. Supers Cols. Supers

Citrus groves 17,497 49,260 24,600 55,411
Titi, tupelo & gallberry 23,659 47,341 25,951 56,405
locations
Meetings
The following meetings were attended by the Chief of Apiary Inspection:
August 15 to August 17, 1968-Beekeepers Institute, Camp Cloverleaf,
Lake Placid. Conducted classes on bee diseases with accompanying
slides.
October 11, 1968-Georgia State Beekeepers Association, Waycross,
Georgia. Gave speech on the future of Florida beekeeping.
October 31 to November 1, 1968-Florida State Beekeepers Associa-
tion, Redington Beach. Gave annual apiary report.
January 23 and January 24, 1969-Apiary Inspectors of America,
Portland, Oregon. Gave speech on Ethylene Oxide Fumigation
Project and acted as Master of Ceremonies at A.I.A. Banquet.
January 27 and January 28, 1969-American Beekeepers Federation,
Portland, Oregon. Served as delegate from Florida.
September 11, 1969-Polk County Beekeepers Association, Bartow.
Gave speech.
October 9, 1969-Georgia State Beekeepers Association, Hahira,
Georgia. Gave speech.
October 15, 1969-Greater Jacksonville Fair. Judged honey exhibits.
October 17 and October 18, 1969-Florida State Beekeepers Associa-
tion, Tavares.
October 23, 1969-Beekeepers meeting with the National Forest
Service, Tallahassee.
February 12 and February 13, 1970-Apiary Inspectors of America,
College Station, Texas. Served as Chairman of Resolutions Com-
mittee and elected to Board of Directors representing the Southern
States.








Division of Plant Industry


February 17, 1970-Nosema Conference, Tifton, Georgia.
February 23, 1970-Central Florida Fair, Orlando. Judged community
honey exhibits.
April 5, 1970-Joint meeting of Florida State Beekeepers Association
and the Central Florida Beekeepers Association, Umatilla.

Yearly Summary of Apiary Inspection Work


Year Ending I
June 30, 1932 .....
June 30, 1933 .....
June 30, 1934 .....
June 30, 1935 .....
June 30, 1936 .....
June 30, 1937 .....
June 30, 1938 .....
June 30, 1939 .....
June 30, 1940 .....
June 30, 1941 .....
June 30, 1942 .....
June 30, 1943 .....
June 30, 1944 .....
June 30, 1945 .....
June 30, 1946 .. .
June 30, 1947 .....
June 30, 1948 .....
June 30, 1949 .....
June 30, 1950 .....
June 30, 1951 .....
June 30, 1952 .....
June 30, 1953 .....
June 30, 1954 .....
June 30, 1955 .....
June 30, 1956 .....
June 30, 1957 .....
June 30, 1958 .....
June 30, 1959 .....
June 30, 1960 .....
June 30, 1961 .....
June 30, 1962 .....
June 30, 1963 .....
June 30, 1964 .....
June 30, 1965 .....
June 30, 1966 .....
June 30, 1967 .....
June 30, 1968 .....
June 30, 1969 .....
June 30, 1970 .....


Apiaries Colonies
nspected Inspected
2,744 44,211
2,219 42,307
2,305 43,877
2,445 49,379
3,344 73,415
3,544 72,795
3,451 64,668
3,371 70,655
3,414 76,851
3,711 81,950
3,671 83,354
3,347 80,823
2,646 73,649
2,371 69,262
2,265 71,161
2,464 87,674
3,266 98,147
3,710 105,678
3,082 105,296
2,872 95,405
2,836 88,206
3,259 92,267
5,102 135,168
5,885 157,388
6,168 176,616
5,813 162,885
4,932 159,692
5,123 153,677
5,056 149,227
4,991 152,288
5,693 173,538
5,497 169,411
5,230 166,641
5,680 179,861
5,833 189,802
6,337 197,833
6,519 218,493
5,912 192,651
5,788 185,752


Apiaries
Infected
American
Foulbrood
42
38
71
78
69
32
38
56
61
80
106
100
106
105
138
104
100
130
175
237
232
449
683
524
460
490
457
454
438
319
341
416
481
500
485
561
504
509
443


Colonies
Infected
American
Foulbrood
74
76
132
167
131
98
173
416
234
371
698
524
456
379
959
683
391
406
369
772
578
1,366
2,158
1,421
1,180
1,121
1,623
1,329
1,422
1,271
1,053
1,546
1,614
1,709
1,340
1,768
1,712
1,707
1,317









Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration


G. D. Bridges, Chief

The dramatic developments of 1966-68 were absent during
this biennium, but effects from earlier events-mechanical trans-
mission of exocortis virus and the economic collapse of the citrus
nursery industry-determined a major portion of the Bureau's
activities.
In 1965 more than 1,900 citrus-producing nurseries served the
needs of an industry that planted 7/2 million trees in a single year.
Following this peak, smaller demand and over-production of
nursery stock brought chaos to the citrus nursery business, setting
the stage for the present situation where less than 35 nurseries
produce approximately 90 per cent of all citrus nursery trees.
Utilization of citrus nursery stock was slightly less than two
million trees each year from July 1, 1968, to June 30, 1970, but
now reserve supplies are low and demand strong. Production of
registered trees continued at a low level, 633,447 for 1968-69, and
then rose sharply to 1,131,318 last year. As usual many thousands
of trees are produced from registered bud-source groves by
own-use nurseries that are not reflected in the figures for
registered nursery trees. The industry-wide impact of 20 million
trees having been propagated from registered bud sources during
the 1960's is not to be ignored; however, a major effort was made
to extend the effectiveness of Bureau activities by personal
contacts, talks before grower groups, and other means throughout
the present production lull.
The testing of specific bud-source trees to detect possible
contamination by exocortis virus continued at a rapid rate. The
2,880 total tests, using sensitive citron indicator plants, were
divided almost evenly between field plot and greenhouse locations.
In all, 387 positive exocortis determinations were made. The
critical nature of this work where exocortis sensitive rootstocks
are to be budded is illustrated by the 26 per cent accidental
infection rate found in one bud-source grove. All other groves
tested to date have shown only low rates of infection or negative
results. For the first time in Florida, exocortis-susceptible Carrizo
citrange became the third most widely budded rootstock, out-
numbering Cleopatra mandarin more than two to one.
Despite the critical effect that accidental exocortis con-
25







Division of Plant Industry


tamination of bud sources could produce in the situation outlined
above, two other problem areas appear to have greater disaster
potential for the citrus industry as a whole, namely young tree
decline and tristeza.
The decline condition of unknown origin, currently being
identified as "young tree decline," is producing a massive research
effort by all agencies. At least 16 staff members of the state and
federal research units are devoting all or a major portion of their
time in a determined effort to find the condition's cause. "Young
tree decline" appears to affect mostly round oranges on rough
lemon rootstock and may become evident at any age above five
years. Rough lemon is the predominant rootstock used in Florida.
The random pattern of occurrence in affected groves suggests
natural spread. Reports indicate some groves with as much as 80
per cent of the trees involved. The seriousness of the problem is
suggested by the amount of research effort.
Most east coast soils do not favor economical production of
citrus nursery trees, and for many years South Florida citrusmen
have planted trees grown in Orange, Lake, Polk and Highlands
Counties, all areas of comparatively high tristeza incidence.
Tristeza-infected nursery stock planted in groves adds to the
source of virus inoculum that can be picked up by insect vectors
and carried to even more trees. By 1963, using Key lime test
plants, natural tristeza spread had been detected in several South
Florida locations. In 1969 an east coast area was discovered where
sweet orange trees on sour orange rootstock are visibly declining,
apparently from insect-spread tristeza infection. Other important
aspects of the tristeza problem are discussed later in this report.
Significant progress was realized in the very important area of
selecting seed from specific source trees having known responses
to disease and predictable horticultural factors. Although pro-
visions for registered seed source trees were incorporated in the
original program policy effective in 1953, activity in this area has
been sporadic and response generally unsatisfactory. Citrus men
are now more generally aware that specific trees within a single
variety may vary widely in disease tolerance, reaction to nema-
todes and other important ways. During the last two years nearly
4000 buds were distributed from the Budwood Foundation Grove
to persons starting or adding to seed source plantings. Seeds from
79 of the Division's seed source trees are currently being screened
in the USDA's rootstock program, which is designed to establish
the reactions of each to various disease and horticultural factors.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 27

Citrus nursery stock qualifying as "Premium Quality" was
budded in 1969 for the first time, thus setting a new standard for
excellence beneficial to all who plant citrus trees. Peak yields
among the eight-year-old budded trees at the Budwood Founda-
tion Grove were ten boxes by one Valencia orange tree on Sweet
lime and ten boxes by one Duncan grapefruit on Poncirus
trifoliata.
For the first time since May 1960, the Budwood Registration
Manual has been completely updated and retyped ready for
distribution to plant specialists. Entirely new sections on root-
stocks and validated scion varieties have been added to the
contents.
Virus Diseases
A. Indexing.
Complete virus indexing was begun on 144 field trees. This
number includes 37 selections of commercial type lemons
being evaluated by the Citrus Experiment Station for
possible use in Florida. As several lemon selections had
previously been top-worked on old grove trees, the high
rate of virus contamination encountered was not unex-
pected.
B. Exocortis.
Problems with exocortis indexing; the high incidence of
exocortis virus in Florida bud-lines; mechanical trans-
mission of this virus on pruning tools; and the investigation
of various indexing techniques have been discussed in prior
reports. Requirements for certifying freedom from
psorosis and xyloporosis were included in Budwood
Program policy adopted in 1953, but specific requirements
for certifying exocortis freedom were wisely avoided.
Investigation, refinement and comparison of several detec-
tion techniques is still underway but certification require-
ments have now been established. Exocortis freedom is to
be based on satisfactory growth and freedom from scaling
after six years on P. trifoliate rootstock and on absence of
symptoms after 12 months on 10 test plants budded with
a minimum of two sensitive citron indicators.
C. Tristeza
Recent research reports from California refer to a new
severe strain of the tristeza virus affecting trees on Troyer







28 Division of Plant Industry

and Carrizo citranges there. In Florida, a somewhat
different pattern has shown up. During the 1950's Orange
County and the adjacent sections of Lake were the
principal areas of high tristeza incidence and infected trees
on sour generally declined. In the decade of the 1960's a
blanket of tristeza appeared to spread south into central
Polk County. Auburndale and Polk City areas were hard
hit, and tree loss was heavy northwest of Tampa to Elfers.
The wave of tristeza virus moving south along the ridge is
visibly evident east of Winter Haven and south of Haines
City where a marked increase in loss of sour orange-rooted
grove trees has recently become apparent.
Oddly, loss of citrus trees budded on sour orange
rootstock appears to have diminished considerably in the
high tristeza incidence area around Lake Apopka. This
observation has prompted research workers to wonder if
some protective effect created by mild strain inoculation
might be occurring naturally in that area.
Generally, the citrus area south of Polk County
including both coasts and the northern section of the
citrus belt have experienced only minor loss from tristeza.
However, as the tristeza loss potential of these sections is
generally high, 90 per cent or more in the northern belt,
rootstock screening to find a fully acceptable substitute
for sour orange becomes even more critical.


Foundation Grove
Tristeza-infected Budwood Foundation Grove trees are no
longer removed as infection is discovered, a decision made in 1968
based on 10 per cent infection within two years. The 1,673
previously negative foundation trees tested in this biennium
showed an annual infection rate of 14 per cent and 29 per cent
respectively. Only grapefruit varieties and trifoliata seedlings are
thus far escaping the onslaught; among other varieties, total
infection seems imminent. Forty-one Foundation Grove trees on
sour orange have been naturally inoculated with tristeza virus since
February 1968. None of these as yet is declining visibly, although
seven were rated as slightly smaller than average.
The high rate of tristeza infection at the Budwood Foundation
Grove and the Winter Haven test plot has slowed establishment of








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 29
a tristeza-free planting at the isolated Ona grove site. Alternative
propagative techniques are being employed to cope with the
problem.
Candidates for registered parent trees are selected for apparent
health, desirable fruit type and high yield potential. Direct
comparison of fruit and yields requires trials at a common location
and elimination of variable factors. Tabulating performance
information of both the old line and nucellar Budwood Founda-
tion Grove selections began in 1963 and will continue. Although
insufficient time has elapsed to permit detailed conclusions,
interesting facts are beginning to emerge that apparently forecast
valuable information. The following are examples: (1) among the
18 Duncan nucellar seedlings of equal age, cumulative yield totals
vary from a low of 8 boxes to 27 boxes, almost 3V2 times as much;
(2) among 35 nucellar Pineapple trees of similar age, cumulative
yields range from 4 to 163 boxes; (3) among seven old line and
seedling Duncan grapefruit selections, all budded across five
rootstocks, Cleopatra mandarin is the highest producing rootstock
to date, out-yielding rough lemon and sour orange by 51 and 46
per cent respectively; (4) four exocortis-free Duncan grapefruit
clones are budded across the five rootstocks used for Foundation
Grove trees; one selection has produced 24 per cent more fruit
than the average of the other three.
Active program cooperators are quick to utilize horticultural
information, and up-grading scion groves by replacing less
desirable selections with superior clones has become standard
practice despite extra costs to the participant.
Previous reports have discussed the potential industry-wide
benefits to be derived from the Division's virus-free nucellar
seedlings, especially with Red grapefruit, Navel orange, Dancy
tangerine and Minneola tangelo varieties. Additional value may be
derived from the un-named hybrids of trifoliate orange that were a
by-product of the closed pollenation which produced the nucellar
trees. Nearly 50 trees, citranges and citrumelos, are being observed
for desirable rootstock types. Four preliminary selections were
made on the basis of vigor, high seed content, uniformity of
seedling progeny, and apparent resistance to cold and drought.
Seedling progeny of the selected group were budded in nursery
rows with 26 selections representing 15 citrus varieties, and
performance compared with several other established and
potentially valuable rootstock selections. Two of the four new
hybrids responded exceptionally well in the nursery and have now







Division of Plant Industry


been included in a planting at the Foundation Grove where
additional studies will be carried out.
Legislative authority to market the fruit and seeds produced
on Foundation Grove trees has been secured and arrangements
have been made to sell commercial varieties through the Haines
City Citrus Cooperative. Rootstock types have been marketed as
either fruit or extracted seeds.
Total receipts for the 1968-69 fruit year amounted to
$1,559.25, and the projected returns for 1969-70 indicate
approximately $4,474.00 from all types. Four quarts of Milam
seed were sold for $100.00 per quart. More than 3,000 boxes of
fruit were produced in the 1969-70 fruit year.
Just prior to the end of the report period, a 15,000-gallon tank
was installed for fuel oil storage at the Budwood Foundation
Grove, thereby more than doubling the existing capacity for
reserve fuel.


Premium Quality Nursery Stock

As stated earlier, production of Premium Quality nursery trees
is under way. Sixteen citrus nurseries, with a combined annual
production of approximately two million trees, are following
procedures that will result in healthier citrus trees. Although
administration of Premium Quality certification is a function of
the Plant Inspection Bureau, personnel of the Budwood Registra-
tion Bureau provided much of the background work required to
get the project under way. The Budwood Bureau remains
responsible for approval of seed sources, hot water treatment of
seeds, selection of bud sources which accommodate the virus
tolerance or susceptibility of rootstocks employed, and the
records of identity for the registered and validated budlines
propagated. Hot water treatment of seeds, required to eliminate
phytophthora fungus inside the seed, provides an index to the
interest of nurseries in the Premium Quality project. Quantities of
citrus seed hot water treated at the Budwood Foundation Grove
since this service has been available are: 1966-67, 1,098 quarts;
1967-68, 496 quarts; 1968-69, 1,485 quarts; 1969-70, 4,045
quarts. Minor modifications of existing equipment are under way
to facilitate fast and efficient use of seed treating equipment.








Twenty'-Eighth Biennial Report


Training

Training classes XIX and XX were instructed in citrus virus
diseases and budwood registration procedures by G. D. Bridges, C.
O. Youtsey and L. H. Hebb.
Each year the Budwood staff conducts a two-day course in
virus diseases, indexing procedures and other registration activities
for advanced and graduate students from the University of Florida
majoring in citrus.
Fifteen visitors from nine foreign countries were conducted on
field trips to the virus test plots, the Budwood Foundation Grove,
and points of interest in commercial groves and nurseries.


Trips and Talks

Talks were made by G. D. Bridges at the Citrus Institute, Camp
McQuarrie; Southwest Florida Citrus School, LaBelle; and the South Florida
Citrus Institute, Lake Placid.
Other meetings attended by representatives of the Budwood Bureau in an
official capacity were Florida State Horticultural Society annual meetings;
called meetings of the Budwood Technical Committee; periodic meetings of
Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association; South Florida Citrus Institute
Planning Meeting; Indian River Citrus Seminar; and annual meeting of Florida
Citrus Research Foundation, USDA, Orlando.
A one-half day field trip was conducted for Budwood Bureau staff.










Bureau of Entomology


H. A. Denmark, Chief

SUMMARY

The Bureau of Entomology provides arthropod identification
service, conducts limited investigations of certain economic
problems, assists in instructing plant inspectors, continues to build
a general reference collection, and evaluates existing works. The
Florida State Collection of Arthropods now contains approxi-
mately 448,076 pinned and labeled specimens, 77,765 insect and
mite slides, several thousand papered or envelope specimens
(which include 21,624 Odonata), for a total of approximately
547,465 pinned and processed specimens. In addition there are
approximately 23,639 vials of alcohol specimens. There were
25,600 identifications made in this bureau during the biennium.
An identification may consist of one or many specimens. The red
wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, has been eradicated for the
second time from the West Palm Beach area.
The caribfly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), has continued to
spread over 30 counties. It destroys a large number of tropical
fruits and will infest over-ripe citrus fruit in some cases.
The European brown snail, Helix aspersa Muller, apparently
has been eradicated from a Ft. Lauderdale nursery.
The sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviata
(L.), is still confined to the two original infestations. Biological
and chemical controls are being conducted on this pest.
The Research Associates membership has been increased to 63,
and substantial contributions have been made.

BUREAU ACTIVITIES

The continued growth of the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods (FSCA) and the entomological library reference
material during this biennium has made the Bureau of Entomology
more effective in its identification services. Two private insect
collections were purchased jointly with the University of Florida
IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology, and a large
amount of material was donated by various research associates. In
addition to the budgeted library funds, $7,500 was approved by







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


the Commissioner and S2.500 by the University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology for the purchase of
most of the German periodicals needed to complete the sets in the
Division of Plant Industry (DPI) Library.
Biological control work was expanded during this biennium.
R. E. Swanson has been successful in the introduction of two
parasites that offer some biological control for the caribfly,
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). He is continuing his work with Dr.
R. M. Baranowski at the University of Florida Subtropical
Experiment Station in Homestead.
T. L. Kipp was transferred from the Bureau of Plant
Inspection to the Bureau of Entomology to conduct life history
studies on the sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbrevi-
ata (L.), and to work jointly with the USDA's ARS laboratory in
Apopka on the biological control of D. abbreviata. A parasite,
Tetrastichus haitiensis Gahan, was collected in Puerto Rico by
Allen Selhime and Dr. Barney Burkes. It has been laboratory
reared successfully, released, and recovered in limited areas of
citrus in the vicinity of Apopka.
Funds were appropriated for the construction of a biological
control unit at the Doyle Conner Building in Gainesville. The unit
will be used to introduce, mass rear, and release parasites and
predators for those economic pests that can be effectively
controlled by this method.
R. E. Woodruff has continued working cooperatively with the
USDA Insects affecting Man and Animals Laboratory and the
University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology on the distribution and relationship of a
myrmecophilous beetle, Myrmecaphodius sp. Light traps are used
to detect the beetles, and hundreds of samples have been taken in
several of the southeastern states.
G. W. Dekle has worked cooperatively with the University of
Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology on the
controls of ornamental insects. A good working relationship
continues between these two entomological organizations. All of
the entomologists with the DPI have courtesy appointments to the
University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology, and several of the IFAS entomologists are research
associates of the DPI Bureau of Entomology.
Several new state records of arthropods have been reported
through the Cooperative Economic Insect Survey (CEIS) by F. W.
Mead, who received his Ph. D. degree from North Carolina State
University in August 1968.








Division of Plant Industry


PUBLICATIONS: One more volume in the series of Arthro-
pods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas was published this
biennium. Twenty-four circulars and one leaflet were published in
addition to several papers in scientific journals.
IDENTIFICATIONS: Identifications of the various arthropod
groups are made by five full-time entomologists. The ento-
mologists and the groups for which they are responsible are as
follows:
G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs, and all immature stages.
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.
F. W. Mead: Adult Lepidoptera; Diptera, suborder
Nematocera, which includes midges and mosquitoes;
Hemiptera; Homoptera: Psyllidae, plus suborder
Auchenorhyncha, which includes leafhoppers, plant-
hoppers, spittlebugs, treehoppers, and cicadas.
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult higher Diptera (suborder Brachycera),
Hymenoptera (except Formicidae), Aleyrodidae,
Arachnida (except Acarina), and miscellaneous smaller
arthropod groups.
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthoptera.
Dr. L. A. Hetrick, University of Florida IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, continues to do routine identifica-
tions of termites. Dr. Dale Habeck, University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology, identifies the
Actiidae adults and immatures, and some other immature
Lepidoptera. Drs. Minter J. Westfall, Lewis Berner and Fred G.
Thompson, University of Florida Department of Zoology, identify
the Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and Mollusca, respectively.
During the biennium 81,076 pinned and labeled specimens;
37,535 slide mounts; 18,639 vials, 482 quarts, 290 olive bottles,
and 1520 pints of alcohol specimens; 21,545 papered or envelope
specimens; and 5,256 dried unmounted insects were added to the
collection. The FSCA now totals approximately 448,076 pinned
and labeled specimens, 77,765 slide specimens, several thousand
papered or envelope specimens (which includes 21,624 Odonata),
for a total of approximately 547.465 pinned and processed
specimens.
From July 1, 1968, to June 30, 1969, a total of 14,554
arthropod samples was received, processed, and identified. From
July 1, 1969, to June 30, 1970, a total of 16,937 arthropod
samples was received, processed, and identified.
Space was acquired in a portion of a 40 x 100-foot warehouse







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


that has helped relieve the problem of storage. During the
biennium six 48-drawer insect cabinets were purchased.
AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY: H. V. Weems, Jr., is the head
curator and is responsible for the overall development of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods. He also coordinates the
Research Associate Program and serves as editor of the irregularly
published bulletin series, Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring
Land Areas.
F. W. Mead is the survey entomologist for the state. The
Cooperative Economic Insect Report (CEIR) has been a joint
effort of the USDA and the DPI for the past 16 years. Weekly
reports of insect activities are forwarded to Washington, D.C.,
where all state reports are combined and published in the CEIR.
Monthly reports are combined with the other reports of the DPI
technical sections and published as the TRI-OLOGY Technical
Report.
R. E. Woodruff is in charge of the library development
program for the Entomology portion of the DPI. The DPI library
is the primary repository for the taxonomic and general zoogeo-
graphic literature, while the Hume Library at the University of
Florida will be the primary repository for all other subject areas.
Dr. Woodruff and Dr. Habeck coordinate the entomological
library purchases for the two organizations to eliminate costly and
unnecessary duplication.
G. W. Dekle works closely with the University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology on economic insect
and mite problems.

Cooperative Library Agreement

R. E. Woodruff. Entomologist

As a part of the previous cooperative agreement between the
libraries of the Division of Plant Industry and the University of
Florida, special effort has been made to increase the entomological
resources of both institutions. This has been done because of
increased demands by the great number of entomologists in the
area and with the purpose of making it the finest such library in
the Southeast.
All aspects of general library development (see 27th Biennial
Report) received some attention during the biennium. One of the
most important acquisitions was a joint purchase with the
University of Florida of 29 German periodicals at an approximate








36 Division of Plant Industry
cost of $7500.00. This was one of the weakest areas of our
periodical holdings and represents many rare and taxonomically
significant titles. The purchase was made possible by special
arrangement with Dr. R. Schierenberg of Antiquariaat Junk,
Lochem, Holland.
A preliminary draft has been prepared of the list of
"Entomological Periodicals of the World," and it is hoped that this
will be published eventually. It is a valuable asset in determining
needs and verifying obscure periodical titles.


BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLY,
ANASTREPHA SUSPENSE LOEW

R. W. Swanson, Entomologist

Studies for the biological control of the Caribbean fruit fly,
Anastrepha suspense (Loew), were initiated at the University of
Florida Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead, in January
1968. Parasites were imported when studies indicated that the
several native parasites found would probably never reach a
parasitization level of more than 1 per cent. Fourteen shipments
of 10 different parasites have been imported from cooperating
biological control agencies in Hawaii, Mexico, Trinidad and Costa
Rica. One parasite shipment has been sent from this station to the
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jamaica.
The imported parasites, all hymenopterous, were selected for
being indigenous to a climate comparable to that of South Florida
and for attacking A. suspense or other closely related fruit flies.
All parasites were tested for culture purity and laboratory
adaptability to A. suspense. Excellent results were obtained from
three species: Parachasma cereus (Gahan), Opius longicaudatus
Ashmead and Aceratoneuromyia indicum (Silv.). P. cereus and 0.
longicaudatus are small wasps that attack A. suspense larvae by
ovipositing into them through the host fruit. A. indicum, a wasp
approximately 2mm in length, attacks naked mature larvae. Due
to its short life span, limited chance at oviposition and gregarious
nature, P. cereus and 0. longicaudatus were deemed more feasible
to release.
Release sites were selected that had an abundance of host fruit
and a high A. suspense population. P. cereus was chosen for the
first release as it had prospered in the laboratory from 7 males and
17 females to a colony of over 400. On July 16, 1969, 71 P.







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 37
cereus were released by hand from a small cage at the Subtropical
Experiment Station. To July 1970 a total of eight releases have
been made in this manner. Three have been made in the
Homestead area, one in Fort Myers and four in Miami Springs.














A parasite, Parachasma cerus (Gahan), ovipositing in the larvae of infested
guava.
Effectiveness of these parasite releases is measured by taking
fruit samples at regular intervals from these release points. The
number of flies and parasites emerging from the fly pupae
collected in this manner will give the parasitization rate. Approxi-
mately 200 fruit samples have been processed using this technique.
A sample taken six weeks after the first release yielded 778
parasites or a parasitization rate of 12 per cent. The highest rate
recorded to July 1970 is 43 per cent. The farthest dissemination
detected is .4 mile from a release point. Parasites have been
recovered from the field this spring, indicating that they were able
to withstand the 1969-70 winter.
Additional releases of P. cereus are planned for the summer
and fall of 1970, and samples taken after this should give an
indication whether it is feasible to continue releases of this
parasite. Optimism regarding the potential of P. cereus was
generated when a sample of 600 pupae taken from release point
number one on July 2, 1970, yielded 280 parasites for a 46 per
cent parasitization rate. Smaller samples from release point
number two gave a 63 per cent parasitization rate.
An entomophagous fungus, Entomophthora dipterigina
(Thaxter), found attacking A. suspense was discounted after
investigation because of its low incidence and its specific humidity
requirements.







38 Division of Plant Industry
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL LABORATORY

T. L. Kipp, Plant Specialist

The Division's mobile field laboratory was modified and
equipped to study the life cycle and biological control of the
sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviata (L.). The
Apopka-Plymouth area is the only known infestation in the
United States.
Life cycle studies were carried out involving 1,787 adult
weevils, which also supplied 140,297 eggs to be used in parasite
rearing. The effects of food plants, various chemicals and fungi
were studied in the tests on adults, while larval tests included
effects of temperature, moisture and light. A number of artificial
media were tested for larval rearing with little success. Simulation
of field conditions by placing larvae in containers with soil and
citrus seedlings is the best method developed to date, producing
adults reared from the egg stage in just over 7 months in the
laboratory.


Adult weevils collected for their eggs are being fed bean seedlings.







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


Adult Diaprepes abbreviata (L.) ovipositing on folded wax paper.
-4 1 \s


An egg parasite, Tetrastichus haitiensis (Gahan), ovipositing in the eggs of
Diaprepes abbreviata (L.)
Attempts to rear the egg parasite, Tetrastichus haitiensis
(Gahan), succeeded in producing only 280 parasites. A suitable
environment could not be maintained in the field laboratory.
Limited tests by the USDA Entomology Research Division, which
has succeeded in rearing enough parasites for grove release,
indicate that T haitiensis (Gahan) can survive on eggs of
Pachnaeus opalus (Oliv.) and Pachnaeus litus (Germ.) in the
laboratory.
Several chemicals were tested on various instar larvae for
controls by Drs. W. A. Simanton and R. C. Bullock of the
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Some larvae of known age have been preserved to aid in
identification of field collected specimens.


p


- ^ *







40 Division of Plant Industry
SUGARCANE BORER INFESTS PAMPAS-GRASS

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), was found
infesting pampas-grass, Cortaderia selloana (Schult.) Aschers &
Graebner, in Volusia County during October 1968. Larvae of
various sizes and pupae were found generally infesting the entire
20-acre planting.
The owner estimated his production dropped about 40,000
plumes in 1968. He attributed this reduction to the sugarcane
borer.
A survey conducted by the Division of Plant Industry with the
USDA Sugarcane Research Unit, Canal Point, and the University
of Florida Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford, indicated
















The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.)

a severe infestation. Some parasites of the borer were found during
the survey; however, the parasites were not controlling the
infestation. Dr. T. E. Summers, Entomologist, USDA Sugarcane
Research Station, recommended Azodrin, an experimental
constemic insecticide, for control.
Dr. Gerald L. Greene, Entomologist, UF Central Florida
Experiment Station, established the control tests. Good control
was achieved with applications of Azodrin EC (3.2 pounds
technical per gallon) at a dosage of 1/3 gallon to 100 gallons of







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 41
water, at 30-day intervals. Approximately 100 gallons of spray
were applied per acre per treatment. The grower reported a good
plume crop for 1968-69.
Dr. Greene suggested sprays be applied for the 1969-70 crop as
follows: September, October and November during 1969; April,
May and June of 1970.
A spot survey check of the pampas-grass was made on June 30,
1970, and several canes were collected with live larvae. Adult
moths emerged on July 9 from infested canes collected by the
grower during June 1970. The extent of damage to the 1970 crop
appears to be 5 to 10 per cent, according to the owner. Plans are
underway to continue the Azodrin tests during 1970-71.

ERIOPHYID MITE ON GARDENIA

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
An apparently unreported host specific eriophyid mite,
Eriophyes gardeniella Keifer, was first discovered in Florida and
the United States on Gardenia sp. in 1965 by L. O'Berry,
laboratory technician, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant
Industry. This mite previously had been intercepted in 1964 at
San Diego, California. on Gardenia jasminoides Ellis from Mexico
City, the only known locality at that time.
In March 1968 this mite was again found on Gardenia
'VEITCHII,' Gardenia 'AMIE YOSHOKA' and Gardenia
jasminoides Ellis in a Polk County Nursery by J. C. Denmark, L.
L. Skipper, H. G. Schmidt, R. R. Snell and G. W. Dekle. The mite
was found in colonies beneath the terminal growth stipules and
was generally distributed throughout 4500 container-grown
grafted gardenias. Infestations were also found on all stock plants
used by the nursery for scion cuttings. The infested stock plants
apparently are responsible for the distribution in the nursery.
Initial control tests were conducted at the nursery with Dr. L.
C. Kuitert, University of Florida IFAS Dept. of Entomology and
Nematology, assisted by DPI Plant Specialists Henry G. Schmidt
and Larry L. Skipper.
Meta-systox-R 24.5% EC, dimethoate (Cygon) 267 and
Diazinon 85% EC at dosages of 1 quart to 100 gallons of water
were evaluated against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri
(Risso), and the eriophyid mite Eriophyes gardeniella Keifer,
which were infesting the container-grown gardenias. Two applica-








Division of Plant Industry


County infested with
Eriophyes ardeniella Keifer
July 27, 1970


tions of the sprays were applied and provided only fair to
moderate control. The sprays were applied on March 27 and April
16, 1968.
A second test was established on May 16, 1968. In this test the
treatments were applied as drenches and as granular formulations.
Each treatment consisted of treating 20 container-grown gardenia
plants (18" x 24"). The materials, formulations and rates of
application follow:
Drenches /gal
Bidrin 9 lb. A/gal. EC 1 pt /100 4.73 cc
Phorate (Thimet) 47.5% EC 2 qts/100 18.92cc
Meta-Systox-R 25.4% E 3 pts/100 14.19cc
Dimethoate (Cygon 267E) 2 qts/100 18.92cc
Bay 68138 3 lb. A/gal EC 2 qts/100 18.92cc
One half pint of the dilute spray was applied to each plant.







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 43

Granular

DiSyston 10% Gr. 3 cc/gal container
Phorate (Thimet) 10% Gr. 3 cc/gal container
Furadan (Nia 10242) 10% Gr. 3 cc/gal container

The surface of the soil was loosened; the material was sprinkled on
the surface of the loose soil and then mixed into the upper 1-2
inches and watered in.

Evaluation

Examination of 10 terminals per treatment was made. Plants
were examined for phytotoxicity five days after treatments by
DPI plant specialists.

Results

The phorate (Thimet) and Furadan treatments gave good
control for the eriophyid mite, Eriophyes gardeniella Keifer. The
materials used in this test caused no phytotoxicity to the gardenia
plants.
A survey of ornamental nurseries for Eriophyes gardeniella
Keifer was conducted by the DPI during the biennium. Nurseries
in 25 Florida counties were found infested.




LEATHERLEAF FERN BORER

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist

The leatherleaf fern borer, Undulambia polystichalis Capps,
continues to be a sporadic economic pest of leatherleaf fern in
Central Florida. Since 1962 Thiodan 2E (24% emulsifiable
concentrate) at a dosage of 1 quart to 100 gallons of water has
been the recommended control for this stem borer.
In November 1968 C. R. Roberts, DPI plant specialist,
reported that fern growers in Crescent City, Pierson, and DeLand
were not controlling the borer with Thiodan. Roberts also
requested information on other chemicals he could recommend
for control.








44 Division of Plant Industry
Dr. L. C. Kuitert, IFAS entomologist, with whom the Division
cooperated in developing the initial control, was consulted on the
possibility of recommending one of the other materials tested.
Kuitert re-evaluated the data compiled on experimental materials
included in previous tests and none could be suggested for control.
Previous tests included Guthion, Isotox (lindane + malathion +
tedion) and Sevin, along with Thiodan and Endrin. Zectran was
effective but caused some phototoxicity; Diazinon also appeared
to turn the tips of some fronds brown. An experimental material
SD-9129, now called Azodrin, was effective but is not registered
for Florida use.
Dr. Kuitert was interested in evaluating several new materials
for control of this borer. E. A. Graham, DPI plant specialist, made
arrangements with a fern grower in Crescent City for IFAS to
establish test plots.
Test plots were established and experimental materials applied
on November 26, 1968. The test plots were damaged so severely
by falling debris, caused by hurricane wind and later by freezing
temperatures, that all the test plots were abandoned.


The treatments,
evaluated, included:

MATERIAL
Azodrin
Azodrin
Bidrin
Bidrin
Ciba
Methomyl (Lannate)
Dasanit
Diazinon
VC 506


formulations and rates of application


FORMULATION
EC (3.2 lb./gal.)
EC (3.2 lb./gal.)
WS (7.5 lb./gal.)
WS (7.5 lb./gal.)
9491 E (3 lb./gal.)
90 W (1 lb./gal.)
E (4 lb./gal.)
Ag 500 (4 lb./gal.)
EC (3 lb./gal.)


RATE/100 GAL.
1 quart
2 quarts
1 quart
2 quarts
2 quarts
1 quart
4 quarts
2 quarts
2 quarts


Phytotoxicity was observed on some fronds found in the
following treatments: M-2838, Dasanit, VC-506 and Ciba 9491 in
descending order of severity. The injury consisted of a cupping
and distortion of the leaflets and a twisting of the tips of the
fronds.







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 45

COFFEE ROOT-MEALYBUG CONTROL TEST

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist

Arrangements were made by C. L. Speaker, plant specialist,
DPI, with an Apopka nurseryman to use several thousand
miniature calamondins infested with coffee root-mealybug,
Geococcus coffeae Green, in a number of control tests. Treat-
ments, including nine dips, two drenches and four granular
formulations, were applied to the infested calamondins in co-
operation with the IFAS Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology. The plants were growing in 2-inch and 4-inch clay pots
which had been plunged into a sterilized peat medium on a
greenhouse bench. The plants showed little evidence of injury
from the very heavy mealybug infestations.


























Root system of infested and non-infested container citrus. Plant on right
non-infested. Plants are in 2-inch plastic containers.







46 Division of Plant Industry
The dip treatments involved placing 12 infested plants in a
plastic tray and submerging the tray so that the soil surface was
below the surface of the insecticidal treatment. Plants were held in
the treatment for five minutes, removed and the excess material
allowed to drain before plunging the treated plants in the
steam-sterilized medium. Each treatment was repeated four times.
The treatments and the active ingredients (ounces) used per 100
gallons included Bayer 68138 (6), Furadan (14.7), DiSyston (16),
Azodrin (12.8), phorate (16), Zinophos (8), Zinophos (16),
Lannate 90W (8) and Dasanit (16). Azodrin, Zinophos, Lannate
and phorate gave excellent control after four weeks.



The drench treatments were applied with a hose-on applicator.
The plots consisted of 80 square feet of bench with 2-inch and
4-inch pots plunged into the medium. The treatments included
Zinophos and Dasanit at the rate of 8 ounces active ingredients in
15 gallons applied to each plot. Following application the
treatments were watered in with approximately the same amount
of water. Following the initial treatments, four additional applica-
tions of Zinophos were made to the entire test plot at 2-to-3-week
intervals. Three weeks after the last application some 200 plants
were examined for mealybug nymphs, adults and viable eggs. No
living mealybugs were found in the potting material; however, the
root mealybugs were found on roots extending outside of the
2-inch pots into the plunging medium. Some of these roots
extended as much as 2 feet from the pot.



Four granular treatments were applied to calamondin plants
growing in 2-inch and 4-inch pots plunged in peat. Each plot
consisted of 45 plants and required an area of approximately 2 1/2
square feet of bench. Two cc's of the granular formulation were
applied to each plot. The granular formulations applied were
carbofuran 10%, phorate 10%, and methomyl 5%.



Treatments were repeated three times. None of these
systematic insecticides applied as granules were effective in
appreciably reducing the root mealybug infestations.







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 47
COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT SURVEY PROGRAM

F. W. Mead, Entomologist

The Division is the cooperative state agency under contract
with the USDA Plant Protection Division, Survey and Detection
Operations, to prepare weekly survey reports and annual sum-
maries of economic insect conditions in Florida. Highlights in the
weekly reports and annual summaries from Florida and other
states are published by the USDA in the weekly Cooperative
Economic Insect Report (CEIR). The DPI distributes the TRI-
OLOGY Technical Report each month to summarize the most
significant insects, plant pathogens, and nematodes found around
Florida. Most of this information results from the processing and
determination of samples sent to the DPI during the preceding
month. The author, as survey entomologist, is responsible for
assembling the entomology portion of TRI-OLOGY each month
and for editing the entire publication once every three months.
Information is received from many sources, but the most
consistent general source is from the DPI office in Gainesville,
which acts as the state clearing house as well as the focal point for
technical services to DPI men around the state. Much important
information is obtained from the University of Florida IFAS
Experiment Stations and extension scientists, and from USDA
personnel. The regularly appearing reports on citrus insects and
mites by Dr. W. A. Simanton of the University of Florida IFAS
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred are especially valuable.
All of these reports help in varying degrees to fulfill the objectives
of the survey and detection program. These objectives are:
1. To assist agricultural workers by supplying current
information on insect activity so that crops can be more
adequately protected from insect attacks.
2. To aid and assure more prompt detection of newly
introduced insect pests.
3. To determine losses caused by insects.
4. To maintain records on the occurrence of economic
insects.
5. To aid manufacturers and suppliers of insecticides and
control equipment to determine areas of urgent need for
supplies and equipment.
6. To develop a workable insect pest forecasting service.








18 Division of Plant Industry

First Florida or United States Records of Invertebrates
Reported through the Cooperative Survey
Program, July 1968 June 1970

F. W. Mead, Entomologist
1. AN ENCYRTID WASP, Carabunia myersi Waterston: New U.S. record.
Female was swept from grasses along seashore of Dodge Island, Miami,
Dade County. Collected by C. E. Stegmaier, April 14, 1967.
Determined by B. D. Burks. This wasp parasitizes nymphs of
Cercopidae in the West Indies, Jamaica, Cuba, El Salvador, and in
Central America.
2. AN ANT, Myrmelachista ramulorum Wheeler: New U.S. record.
Collected on sweet orange at Highland City, Polk County, by R. E.
Tyner, R. R. Snell and J. C. McLeon, January 21, 1964. Determined by
D. R. Smith. This ant is known from the West Indies and is a pest in
coffee plantations in Puerto Rico.
3. A POWDER-POST BEETLE, Mintha rugicollis (Walker): New con-
tinental U.S. record. Taken in oak flooring in new home at Coral
Gables, Dade County. Collected by A. L. Humphries and J. L. Weaver,
May 6, 1968. Determined by R. E. Woodruff & confirmed by E. J.
Ginsberg. Limited followup surveys were negative for additional
infestations. This beetle is apparently tropicopolitan and has been
reported intercepted approximately 250 times since 1928 at U. S. ports
of entry, mostly in bamboo.
4. A COCKROACH, Neoblattella detersa (Walker): New U. S. record.
Collected on begonia plants at Miami, Dade County, by A. S. Mills,
December 3, 1965. Determined by A. B. Gurney. This species is known
also from Jamaica.
5. A CYNIPID WASP, Pseudeucoila hookeri (Crawford): New North
American record. A few specimens were reared presumably from
Anastrepha suspense pupae at Homestead, Dade County, May 10, 1967,
by R. M. Baranowski. Determined by B. D. Burks. This beneficial insect
was originally described from Puerto Rico.
6. A PAMPHILID SAWFLY, Acantholyda circumcincta (Klug): New state
record. Larvae were found defoliating 100 acres of sand pine, Pinus
clausa, near Niceville, Okaloosa County. Collected by Charles W.
Chellman, May 30, 1968. Determined by D. R. Smith.
7. AN ANT, Camponotus pylartes fraxinicola M. R. Smith: New state
record. Collected from bullhorn acacia at nursery in Hypoluxo, Palm
Beach County, by W. E. Wyles, December 1, 1967. Determined by D.
R. Smith.
8. A HUMPBACKED FLY, Apocephalus antennatus Malloch: New state
record. Reared from immature stage of lampyrid beetles, Photuris spp.,
at Gainesville, Alachua County; emerged May 1967 (J. E. Lloyd).
Determined by W. W. Wirth.
9. A PIT SCALE, Asterolecanium bambusicola Kuwana: New state record.
Collected from bamboo at nursery in Daytona Beach, Volusia County,








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


by L. W. Holley and J. N. Pott, May 13, 1968. Determined by G. W.
Dekle.
10. AN APHID, Neophyllaphis podocarpi Takahashi: New state record.
Abundant on Podocarpus sp. at Miami, Dade County, April 17, 1968.
Collected by O'Connor & determined by A.N. Tissot.
11. ELM LEAF BEETLE, Pyrrhalta luteola (Muller): New state record.
Larvae were defoliating some trees of elm, Ulmus sp., at a trailer court
in Jacksonville, Duval County. Collected by Ed Allen, August 16, 1968.
Determined by L. A. Hetrick and confirmed by G. W. Dekle.
12. GIANT AFRICAN SNAIL, Achatina fulica Ferrussac: New continental
U. S. record. First taken in residential yard at North Miami, Dade
County, September 12-15, 1969, by Jessie Parkhurst and W. S.
Brewton. Numerous other specimens of this serious pest were dis-
covered, necessitating an eradication program.
13. A SNAIL, Bulimulus exilis (Gmelin); =B. quadalupensis (Bruguiere):
New U.S. record. Collected on Snead Island, Palmetto, Manatee
County. October 16-17, 1969, by L. B. Hill et al. Determined by F. G.
Thompson. This is a West Indian species that is common in eastern
Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, and Central America.
Very little is known about its ecology, but it is a land snail that feeds on
decaying vegetable matter and is not considered economically im-
portant.
14. A SNAIL, Helix pomatia Linnaeus: New state record. Collected on
outside wall of residence in North Miami, Dade County, by C. M. Rizer,
November 7, 1969. Determined by F. G. Thompson. This species is a
pest of succulent plants, including vegetable, and has caused economic
damage to vegetables in Jackson, Michigan. Previously collected at New
Orleans, Louisiana, but apparently not established. This snail is the
edible escargot of European restaurants.
15. A DELPHACID PLANTHOPPER, Delphacodes nigrifacies Muir: New
U. S. record. Collected on bahiagrass. Paspalum notatum at Belle Glade,
Palm Beach County, W. G. Genung, June 27, 1966. Determined by J. P.
Kramer. This is a neotropical species previously recorded from Costa
Rica, Guyana, and Martinique. Little is known about its economic
importance.
16. BLUEBERRY BUD MITE, Aceria Vaccinii (Keifer): New state record.
Collected on blueberry, Vaccinium sp., at Melrose, Alachua County, by
L. C. Kuitert, March 25, 1969. Determined by H. H. Keifer.
17. AN AMPULICID WASP, Ampulex ferruginea Bradley: New state
record. Collected in a Steiner trap hanging in a tangerine tree at
Bunnell, Flagler County, August 15, 1969, by J. N. Pott. Determined
by H. V. Weems.
18. COTTON LEAF PERFORATOR, Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck: New
state record. Collected on cotton at Vero Beach, Indian River County,
by F. Saba, April 8, 1969. Determined by D. R. Davis.
19. A GALL MIDGE, Neolasioptera Portulacae (Cook): New North
American record. Adults and gall were collected from Portulaca
oleracea at Dania, Broward County, on April 11, 1962, by D. P. B.








50 Division of Plant Industry

McLean. Determined by R. J. Gagne, 1970. Previously reported from
St. Vincent, West Indies, and Cuba.
20. ALFALFA WEEVIL, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal): New state record.
First taken in larval stage on experimental alfalfa at Gainesville, Alachua
County, March 18, 1970, by F. W. Mead. Determined by J. Howell, D.
H. Habeck, W. H. Whitcomb, & Mead. Confirmed by D. M. Anderson.
Populations remained at low level remainder of spring at Gainesville.
The second record for Florida occurred on a farm near Quincy,
Gadsden County, March 24, 1970. W. B. Tappan, collector, and D. H.
Habeck, determiner. The host was crimson clover, Trifolium
incarnatum. A third record for Florida was obtained in roadside
crimson clover at Tallahassee, Leon County, April 30, 1970, D. H.
Habeck and F. W. Mead, collectors.
21. LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL, Hypera nigriostris (F.): New state
record. Common on crimson clover at a farm near Quincy, Gadsden
County, April 28, 1970. W. B. Tappan, D. H. Habeck, and F. W. Mead,
collectors. Determined by R. E. Woodruff. Second record obtained on
crimson clover at Tallahassee, Leon County, April 30, 1970, Habeck &
Mead, collectors.
22. CLOVER HEAD WEEVIL, Hypera meles (Fabricius): New state record.
Five adults were collected in 100 sweeps of crimson clover at a farm
near Quincy, Gadsden County, April 28, 1970, F. W. Mead, collector;
one adult was taken in 200 sweeps of crimson clover at Tallahassee,
Leon County, April 30, 1970. Mead, collector. Determined by C. W.
O'Brien.






09%





Ilk







Some alfalfa weevils, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), collected from crimson
clover, Trifolium incarnatum, at Quincy, Florida, April 28, 1970.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 51

Miscellaneous Survey Reports
A limited number of Xerox copies of the 1968 and 1969
annual summaries of insect conditions in Florida was prepared.
The contents of these summaries were published in the Co-
operative Economic Insect Reports (CEIR) distributed from
Washington, D.C.
The survey entomologist coordinated the preparation of
several Florida reports by University of Florida personnel on
"Estimated Losses and Production Costs Attributed to Insects and
Related Arthropods." These include separate reprots on flue-cured
and shade-grown tobacco by W. B. Tappan, North Florida
Experiment Station, Quincy; pecans by Dr. Harold W. Young, Big
Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Monticello; peaches by Dr. R. H.
Sharpe, Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, and J. E. Brogdon, Gainesville. The
Florida reports were published in CEIR along with those of other
states.
Distribution maps: Each year the Washington staff of the
survey program publishes in CEIR a number of up-to-date
distribution maps of economic insects. To make the maps as
complete as possible, each state is canvassed for distribution data.
For the State of Florida the survey entomologist coordinated the
procuring of new county records for maps submitted during 1968
and 1969.
SPECIAL PROJECTS

H. A. Denmark, Chief Entomologist
(1) Ants associated with pecan groves in West Florida. A joint project
with Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, University of Florida IFAS Big Bend
Horticultural Laboratory, Monticello. (Completed)
(2) The Phytoseiidae of Florida. A joint project with Dr. Martin H.
Muma, University of Florida IFAS Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred. (Completed)
(3) Control of the caribfly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), in Florida.
A joint project with the University of Florida IFAS Department
of Entomology and Nematology, the USDA Plant Pest Control,
and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services' Division of Plant Industry.
(4) Initial stages in the development of a biological control center at
the Doyle Conner Building, Gainesville.
(5) Revision of the genus Galendromimus.
(6) Redescription of Ricoseius loxoches De Leon. (Completed)
(7) South American Phytoseiidae.
(8) Phytoseiidae of Paraguay.
(9) Colombia Phytoseiidae for Dr. Zuluaga.








Division of Plant Industry


(10) Injury to citrus by a tenuipalpid mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis.
(Completed)

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
(1) Preparation of an illustrated publication on the soft scale insects
of Florida.
(2) Investigation with Dr. L. C. Kuitert, University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology, cooperator, on the
use of chemicals for control of insects and related pests of orchids.
(3) Coffee root-mealybug control investigations. A joint project with
Dr. Kuitert, cooperator.
(4) Leatherleaf fern borer control investigations. A joint project with
Dr. Kuitert, cooperator.
(5) Eriophyid mite on Gardenia. A joint project with Dr. Kuitert,
cooperator.
(6) Sugarcane borer on pampas-grass. A joint control project with Dr.
Gerald L. Green, IFAS, cooperator.
(7) Wax scale studies. A joint project with Dr. John Davision,
entomologist, University of Maryland.

F. W. Mead, Entomologist
(1) Identification and numerical counts of nearly all the Hemiptera
and auchenorhynchous Homoptera being taken in a five-year
ecological study at Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee.
This project, initiated in 1969 by Professor W. H. Whitcomb,
IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, has the encouragement
and partial financial support of Tall Timbers Research, Inc.
Briefly, land that has been in corn prior to 1969 is being plowed
at different times of year to test the effect on insect populations.
Plowing is done at two-month intervals and on the same dates
each year. One plot in each area is left unplowed as a control.
There are seven treatments, replicated three times one-half mile
apart. Sampling is done by means of D-Vac machines and pitfalls.
Others who have been involved in this project include Dr. Andre
Clewell, Florida State University, Department of Biological
Sciences, Tallahassee (plant identification and ecology); Dr. L. H.
Rolston, Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana (identification of Hemiptera: Pentato-
midae); Richard J. Nielsson, Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville (identification of Homoptera:
aphididae); Dr. Hugh B. Cunningham, Department of Zoology and
Entomology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama (identification
of Empoasca leafhoppers); Dr. H. K. Wallace, Department of
Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville (identification of
spiders) and Dr. Whitcomb, also on spiders.
(2) Daily operation of a blacklight trap at the border of the
agricultural experiment station grounds, University of Florida,
and the Doyle Conner Building area. There are several purposes in
operating this trap. These include:








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 53

(a) Fulfill the cooperative agreement with USDA, Economic
Insect Survey and Detection Branch, Plant Protection
Division, to make counts of certain economic moths on a
special want list. Examples are corn earworm, tobacco
budworm, and hornworm, cabbage looper, various cut-
worms, and armyworms. A total of 5,891 identifications in
this select group of moths was made. Reports on Population
build-up of moths in the Deep South are valuable, not only
locally but to entomologists farther north in estimating the
arrival dates and multiplication of the economic species in
their own agricultural areas.
(b) Use of traps as a survey tool to ascertain presence and
population fluctuations of other economic moth species
such as velvetbean caterpillar, striped grass loopers, etc.
(c) Provide source of material for students and professors
having special taxonomic projects. An example of this is the
tiger moth project of Professor D. H. Habeck and his
student, Jack Batcheler. Several thousand tiger moths taken
in this trap have been utilized by these researchers.
(d) To use the traps as a detecting tool for the whole spectrum
of insect groups. R. E. Woodruff of DPI gives special
attention to the scarab beetles caught in this trap. Many of
the parasitic and predatory kinds of insects are being
identified by specialists, with the resulting information
adding to the store of knowledge on these important forms.
New state and county records obtained through use of the
light trap have been and will continue to be published in the
Arthropods of Florida series and other scientific publica-
tions.
(e) Surplus insects are accumulated which can be used for
exhibits and exchange of specimens with scientists in other
museums. A reciprocal exchange of light trap specimens is
maintained with the California Department of Agriculture,
Sacramento.
(3) Revise thesis and submit for publication, "Revision of Oliarus in
North America North of Mexico."
(4) Taxonomic research on Oliarus (Homoptera: Cixiidae) in the
neotropical region.
(5) Taxonomic research on Haplaxius (Homoptera: Cixiidae).
(6) Prepare and publish list of the publications by Dr. J. S. Caldwell,
retired homopterist.
(7) Prepare and co-author with Dr. Jon L. Herring, Systemetic
Entomology Laboratory, USDA, Washington, D.C., a list of
publications of the late Professor Roland F. Hussey, University of
Florida, who specialized in Hemiptera taxonomy.
(8) Continue to investigate insects of alfalfa fields and prepare with
Professor W. H. Whitcomb an annotated list of predators in alfalfa
fields of Florida.
(9) Give support to the "Hemiptera of Florida" project by Dr. R. M.








54 Division of Plant Industry

Baranowski, University of Florida, Subtropical Experiment Sta-
tion, Homestead, and Dr. James S. Slater, Department of Zoology
and Entomology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.

R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist
(1) The taxonomy, biology, ecology, behavior, and distribution of a
myrmecophilous beetle (Myrmecaphodius sp.) associated with the
imported fire ant (Solenopsis saevissima). A two-year grant for
this study was received from the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service, through the Department of Ento-
mology, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences. This support included up to four personnel for sorting
blacklight trap samples, a graduate assistantship (D. P. Wojcik),
and a trip to South America to study the beetle in its natural
habitat and to study specimens in several museums there.
Collections made as a part of this study will be several years
in processing, but they already have contributed several hundred
thousand Scarabaeidae as well as other groups of insects. These
bulk collections are gradually being made available to specialists
for their taxonomic studies.
Visits were made to the following:
1) Museo do Zoologia, Secretaria do Agricultura in Sao
Paulo, Brazil, where many new and valuable specimens were
found in their unsorted collections.
2) Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura, Montevideo,
Uruguay, where the fire ant studies were reviewed.
3) Private collection of Dr. Antonio Martinez in Buenos
Aires, Argentina. The type specimens of Myrmecaphodius proseni
Martinez were studied and a joint project initiated on all of the
related myrmecophilous Aphodiinae from North and South
America. Dr. Martinez accompanied me for a week through
Argentina and into a remote area of Bolivia.
4) Rockefeller Foundation at Universidad del Valle in Cali,
Colombia, and at a remote collecting area (Oleoducto del Pacifico,
Dagua). I was accompanied here by Dr. F. G. Thompson,
malacologist of the Florida State Museum.
(2) Survey of the insect fauna of Jamaica, with special emphasis on
the beetle family Scarabaeidae. Four trips have now been made to
collect specimens for this study: Trip 1-November 16-26, 1968.
Two weeks were in the company of Dr. T. J. Walker and Dr. J. E.
Lloyd, Department of Entomology, University of Florida.
Trip 2-May 7-23, 1969. Accompanied by Peter Drummond,
Graduate Student, Department of Entomology, University of
Florida.
Trip 3-August 15-31, 1969. Accompanied by Edward
Farnworth, Graduate Student, Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of Florida.
Trip 4-February 13-28, 1970.
Approximately 40,000 insect specimens have been collected
and are being mounted, labeled, and studied. About 10,000 of








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 55

these represent Scarabaeidae, which is the writer's taxonomic
specialty. The remainder are to be studied by various specialists
and reports prepared by them. The specimens are being in-
corporated into the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
The study was supported by a grant from the U. S. Public
Health Service under a larger Biomedical Institutional Support
Grant through the University of Florida. It was also supported in
many ways by the Clarke family of Worthy Park Estates, Ltd.,
Jamaica.
Special effort has been made to collect during different
seasons and to reconnoiter as much of the island as practical
within the time limits. Approximately 50 per cent of each trip was
spent working out of the biological station provided by Worthy
Park Estates. This base headquarters enabled us to work more
efficiently and thoroughly. The other 50 per cent of the time was
spent in different ecological areas that were too far to commute to
Worthy Park. Collections were made from sea level to 7,400 ft.
(Blue Mtn. Peak) and from all areas of the island. Habitats
included salt marshes, mangrove swamps, sand dunes, cactus
forest, coastal plains, cockpit country, dwarf or elfin forest,
volcanic areas, limestone outcrops, tree fern forest, bromeliads,
sphagnum bog (unique in Jamaica), cloud forest, xeric scrub,
caves, John Crow Mountains and the Blue Mountains.
General insect collections were accomplished by the routine
methods but were enlarged considerably by the use of three kinds
of bulk sampling techniques: 1) ultraviolet blacklightt) traps, 2)
Malaise traps, and 3) Berlese funnels. These techniques have
provided many species not readily collected by other methods.
Scarab beetles were especially searched for in dung and in termite
and ant nests, as well as at lights.
A total of eight specimens of a new species (Rhyparus
Zayasi Cartwright & Woodruff) was collected on the four trips.
This species is a guest in the nests of Nasutitermes and also is
found in Cuba. A list of the family Scarabaeidae of Jamaica has
been prepared, with the ultimate aim of publishing a faunal study
of the island.
Special efforts have also been made to collect pest species,
especially of citrus and sugarcane. These are of great importance
in our work with the Florida Department of Agriculture, because
they will enable us to identify such species if they are introduced
into Florida. A recent pest of both crops was introduced into the
Apopka area from the West Indies, and a costly eradication
program is under way. The Caribbean fruit fly, a recent pest in
Florida, was collected in adult and larval stages in Jamaica.
Cooperation with various Jamaican governmental agencies
has been mutually beneficial and will assist in our long range
working arrangements. Following is a list of agencies and
individuals who have provided assistance in various ways:
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Plant Protection Section
Dr. A. G. Naylor (chief) and Dr. S. A, Apegi (entomologist),








Division of Plant Industry

Institute of Jamaica
Dr. T. H. Farr (entomologist) and Dr. Richard Proctor
(botanist).
University of the West Indies
Dr. John Parnell (entomologist) and Dr. C. D. Adams
(botanist).
Sugar Manufacturers' Association, Research Division
Dr. J. Howard Frank (entomologist)
DeCarteret College (Mandeville)
Mr. Kent Stanton (biology instructor)
Munro College (Malvern).
Mr. Leach (biology instructor).
PWD Fishing Club (Portland Ridge) provided lodging.
Mr. Ernie Brennan (secretary) and Mr. John Fisher
(member).

The Clarke family of Worthy Park Estates not only provided
strategic lodging and storage facilities, but their friendly, personal
hospitality made the visits more pleasant.
In addition to the specimens collected for my own studies,
an effort was made to obtain material of interest to others
working on the Jamaican fauna and flora. Approximately 400
land snails have been provided for Dr. F. G. Thompson of the
Florida State Museum, and 165 frogs and lizards have been
donated to the same institution. Several thousand Culicoides
(sand flies) have been supplied for studies being conducted by Dr.
F. S. Blanton, Department of Entomology, University of Florida.
Over 50 species and several thousand specimens of the beetle
family Staphylinidae have been loaned to Dr. J. Howard Frank of
the Sugar Manufacturers' Association at Mandeville, Jamaica.
Four other entomologists (Dr. T. J. Walker, Dr. J. E. Lloyd, P. C.
Drummond, and E. G. Farnworth) are involved in the same grant,
and numerous specimens have been collected for their studies.
With the large quantity of specimens (40,000) and the
number of specialists studying them, it will be some time before
processing and study have been completed. These collections will
provide the raw material for taxonomic and zoogeographic studies
extending over the next 10 to 20 years. They probably represent
the most extensive insect sampling ever made in this interesting
Caribbean island.
(3) Arthropods associated with packrats (Neotoma floridana small)
on Key Largo, Florida; conducted jointly with Dr. R. M.
Baranowski, Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead.
Monthly samples have been taken over a three-year period
and run through Berlese funnels. Several blind, wingless, and some
presumably new species have been discovered in the nests. This
population of packrats is disjunct over 200 miles from the
mainland population. The arthropods from the Keys are of great
interest zoogeographically and particularly those from such a
unique niche as the nests of this endemic packrat.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 57

(4) Food habits of the burrowing owl in Florida; in cooperation with
Dr. C. T. Collins (Long Beach State College, California) and W. D.
Courser (University of South Florida).
Numerous pellets have been analyzed from several Florida
burrowing owl populations (e.g. Trenton, Gainesville, Tampa).
These have contained about 90 per cent Scarabaeidae of about 15
species. Several samples are yet to be studied, but publication of
the results is anticipated within the next biennium.
(5) Taxonomic studies of the myrmecophilous (ant-loving)
Aphodiinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of North and South
America; jointly with Antonio Martinez and O. L. Cartwright.
This is a broad, long-range study which will probably be
broken down into several individual studies. However, material is
being accumulated at a rapid rate which will facilitate this study.
(6) Scarabaeidae of Florida. This project has been under way for 12
years and the first part covering 106 species will be published
during the coming biennium in the Division of Plant Industry
series, Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. Over
100,000 additional specimens have been obtained since Part 1 was
completed in 1967 as a PhD. dissertation. Continued effort has
been made to collect and obtain data for Part II covering the
remaining 134 known species from Florida.
(7) Study of the genus Rhyparus new to the Western Hemisphere
with the description of nine new species (Coleoptera: Scara-
baeidae); conducted jointly with O. L. Cartwright (U. S. National
Museum). This study was based in great part on material collected
on previous expeditions to Mexico and Central America. The
study culminated in a paper published by the Smithsonian
Institution. Additional material is also currently under study from
South America.
(8) Surveillance and study of a West Indian weevil (Diaprepes
abbreviata (L.) in Florida.
After a single adult was found at Apopka in 1964, the
species suddenly reappeared in great numbers at the same locality
in September 1968. Studies were made of the economic
importance and a survey was initiated to determine the extent of
distribution. The results of this preliminary investigation were
published in Division of Plant Industry Entomology Circular No.
77. Detailed survey, control, and life history studies were assigned
to entomologist Terry Kipp, and a cooperative agreement with
the U. S. Department of Agriculture is continuing.
(9) Survey of the terrestrial arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands.
This is a long-range project jointly with H. A. Denmark, H. V.
Weems, and F. W. Mead in cooperation with the National Park
Service, most of the collecting being done in 1962-63, but the
specimens are still being "farmed out" to specialists for study.
(10) Study of fossil insects from asphalt deposits in Trinidad. This is
also a long-range project, on which some time was spent
extracting specimens from matrix and rough-sorting for future
study. These fossils are extremely important for zoogeographic
studies because of the few known insect fossils from the West








58 Division of Plant Industry

Indies. The only others are specimens in amber from the
Dominican Republic.
(11) Designing and testing a light weight, collapsible, blacklight insect
trap. Various new ideas have been incorporated into the basic
design which make it more efficient to use. These traps are now
in use by various taxonomists and entomology departments
around the country. Several have been provided for collectors in
the tropics who are a part of the Research Associate Program of
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods and who are providing
us with a wealth of material as a result.
(12) Screening blacklight samples for foreign pests. Several traps,
especially at Key West, Fort Myers, Tampa, Miami and Jackson-
ville, have been checked regularly for detection of species not
known in Florida and which are likely to be introduced.
(13) Supervision of the preparation of a list of State Plant Board and
Division of Plant Industry publications from 1915 to 1970. This
list was prepared by Miss Irene Ayres and has been submitted for
publication during the next biennium.

H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist
(1) Continuation of a long-range study of the taxonomy and ecology
of the Syrphidae of Mexico, especially Volucellinae, involving
occasional trips during the several seasons of the year (initiated
with grant support from the American Philosophical Society).
(2) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of the
Syrphidae of the southern escarpments of the Appalachian
Plateau (partially supported by a National Science Foundation
grant received through the Highlands Biological Station (N.C.)).
(3) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of the
Syrphidae of Cranberry Glades, a large disjunct bog in the
Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia.
(4) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of several
groups of insects at Torreya State Park, Liberty County, Florida,
involving systematic insect flight trapping in several types of
habitats. Collections made in this park have included the
southern-most records for insects in several families in several
orders.
(5) Project leader on continuation of a comprehensive survey of the
terrestrial and littoral arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands.
Various families of Diptera, Hymenoptera, and other arthropods
have been loaned to specialists to obtain identifications for
subsequent publication.
(6) Participation in a faunal survey and ecological study of the
arthropods of Tall Timbers Research Station and the surrounding
wooded areas of northern Leon County. A project involving the
trapping, processing, and identification of several groups of
day-flying insects has been set up in cooperation with Dr. W. H.
Whitcomb of the University of Florida and Donny Harris and E.
V. Komarek of Tall Timbers Research Station. Bombyliidae,








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 59

Stratiomyidae, and Conopidae are prepared for identification by
Dr. Weems. The remaining collections are preserved dry in
specially designed storage boxes with a small amount of chloro-
cresol crystals added to keep the material at least partially
relaxed.
(7) Coordination of the continuing study of leaf, stem and seed
mining Diptera of Florida in which the principal investigators are
Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., of Hialeah and Dr. Kenneth A. Spencer of
London, England. The original study was confined to Florida and
the West Indies but has been expanded to encompass all of the
southeastern United States.
(8) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on arthropod groups,
primarily pertaining to their identification, habitat relationships,
seasonal and geographic distribution, and techniques for collecting
them, with emphasis on Florida.
(9) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods and the Research Associate Program,
which supports its development and publishes on arthropod
studies.
(10) Accumulation of material for an eventual illustrated bulletin on
fruit flies and related groups.
(11) Identification of Syrphidae for other individuals and institutions
as a part of the process of further building a research collection of
Syrphidae and a more thorough knowledge of this family of flies,
especially those of the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions.
(12) Visit other institutions in North and Central America which
maintain substantial arthropod collections in order to observe
curatorial techniques, arrange exchanges of specimens, and study
collections in my areas of taxonomic interest and responsibility.
(13) Make occasional field trips to conduct special interest surveys, to
collect material for taxonomic study in special interest groups
(especially Syrphidae), and/or to make general collections for the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
(14) Conduct exchanges of reference material to make the Florida
collection more complete. A special continuing effort is being
made to obtain representatives of the principal arthropod pests
occurring in other parts of the world which constitute a potential
threat to Florida agriculture. This will materially aid staff
specialists in making more rapid, accurate, and complete identifi-
cations. It also provides additional material for taxonomic
research, display, and teaching purposes.
(15) Examination of samples taken from insect flight traps, light traps,
and several kinds of baited traps located in various parts of
Florida and from those operated by collaborators in various
foreign lands, notably the Bahamas, the West Indies, Mexico, and
Central America. Valuable material obtained from these traps is
processed and added to the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, and some specimens of special interest are noted in
the TRI-OLOGY Technical Report.









60 Division of Plant Industry

(16) Experiments with designs for more effective insect flight traps and
field testing of these traps.
(17) Preparation of a brochure, "Entomology in the Sunshine State,"
which is to be sent to the more than 7,000 addresses on the
mailing list of the Entomological Society of America prior to the
1970 meeting of the society in Miami Beach.

JOB RELATED ACTIVITIES

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology
(1) Chairman, Registration Committee, Florida Department of Agri-
culture Annual Conference, 1968.
(2) Vice President and Program Chairman, Florida Entomological
Society, 1968-69.
(3) President, Florida Entomological Society, 1969-70.
(4) Chairman, Membership Committee, Gamma Sigma Delta, 1970.
(5) Assistant Curator in Arthropods, University of Florida, Florida
State Museum.
(6) Associate Professor (courtesy appointment), University of Florida
IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology; on Ph. D.
committee of one graduate student.

R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist
(1) Program Committee, Florida Entomological Society, 1969-70.
(2) Program Committee, Southeastern Branch, Entomological Society
of America, 1970.
(3) Associate Editor, Florida Entomologist, 1969-70.
(4) Editor, Coleopterists Newsletter, 1970.
(5) Merit badge counselor (Nature Study) for Eagle Scout, 1969.
(6) Assistant Professor (courtesy appointment), University of Florida
IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology.

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
(1) Professor (Courtesy appointment), University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology.
(2) Co-Chairman with H. V. Weems, Jr., Graduate Fellowship
Committee, Florida Entomological Society, 1968-69; 1969-70.
(3) Member, Honors and Awards Committee, Florida Entomological
Society, 1968-69.
(4) Chairman, Entomology In Action Committee, Florida Entomo-
logical Society, 1969-70.
(5) Chairman, Graduate Student Awards Committee, Southeastern
Branch Entomological Society of America, 1968-69.
(6) Member, Homecoming Exhibit Committee, Gamma Sigma Delta,
1969-70.
(7) Moderator, Modern Approaches to Forest Insect Taxonomy
Workshop. 14th Southern Forest Insect Work Conference, 1969.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 61

F. W. Mead, Entomologist
(1) Assistant Professor (courtesy appointment), University of Florida
IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology; on Ph. D.
committee of one graduate student.
(2) Secretary, Florida Entomological Society, 1968-69; 1969-70.
(3) Member, Nominating Committee, Florida Entomological Society,
1969-70.
(4) Insect and Nature Study Merit Badge Counselor, Boy Scouts of
America.

H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist
(1) Assistant Curator in Arthropods, University of Florida, Florida
State Museum.
(2) Professor (courtesy appointment), University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology.
(3) Chairman, Honors and Awards Committee, Florida Entomological
Society, 1969-70.

TRIPS AND MEETINGS

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology
July 30, 1968: Citrus Seminar, Lakeland.
August 15-16: Pink Bollworm Meeting, Pensacola.
September 5-6: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference,
Gainesville.
September 11-13: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting,
Clearwater.
November 6-8: Florida State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting,
Miami Beach.
December 1-6: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Dallas, Texas.
January 27-30, 1969: Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Biloxi, Mississippi.
February 27-28: First Annual Tall Timbers Conference, Tallahassee.
March 17-19: Pathology-Entomology-Nematology Conference, Sanford.
March 23-25: Imported Fire Ant Research Meeting, New Orleans,
Louisiana.
May 22: Interagency Pesticide Conference, Tallahassee.
September 10-12: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Ft.
Lauderdale.
October 7-8: Annual Conference on Imported Fire Ant, Gainesville.
November 4-7: Florida State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting,
Miami Beach. Visited Archbold Biological Station on return trip.
November 19-21: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Con-
ference, Tallahassee.
December 1-5: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Chicago, Illinois.
February 25-27, 1970: Second Annual Tall Timbers Conference,
Tallahassee.








62 Division of Plant Industry

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
August 13-15, 1968: Southern Forest Insect Work Conference, Stark-
ville, Mississippi.
September 5-6: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference,
Gainesville.
September 11-13: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting,
Clearwater.
November 6-8: Florida State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting,
Miami Beach.
December 1-6: Entomolgoical Society of America Annual Meeting,
Dallas, Texas.
January 27-30, 1969: Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Biloxi, Mississippi.
February 27-28: First Annual Tall Timbers Conference, Tallahassee.
March 17-19: Pathology-Entomology-Nematology Conference, Sanford.
May 5-18: United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
to study Coccoidea.
May 18-23: Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia.
August 11-13: 14th Southern Forest Insect Work Conference, Houston,
Texas.
September 10-12: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Ft.
Lauderdale.
November 19-21: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Con-
ference, Tallahassee.
December 1-4: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Chicago, Illinois.
March 19-24, 1970: Collecting trip in Florida with M. Williams and J.
Howell of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
April 22-23: Floriculture Workshop, Bradenton.


F. W. Mead, Entomologist
September 5-6, 1968: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual
Conference, Gainesville.
September 11-13: Florida Entomological Society 51st Annual Meeting,
Clearwater.
February 25-26, 1969: Annual Pest Control Conference, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
February 27-28: First Annual Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological
Animal Control by Habitat Management, Tallahassee.
March 17-19: Pathology-Entomology-Nematology Conference, Sanford.
May 3-16: Cooperative trip with USDA for taxonomic studies at U.S.
National Museum, Washington, D. C.
September 10-12: Florida Entomological Society 52nd Annual Meeting,
Ft. Lauderdale.
November 28-December 4: Entomological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Chicago, Illinois; taxonomic research at Field Museum
Natural History, Chicago.
February 24-25, 1970: Annual Pest Control Conference, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
February 25-27: Second Annual Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 63

Control of Animals by Habitat Management, Tallahassee.
March 9-11: Pathology-Entomology-Nematology Conference, Gaines-
ville.
H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist:
June 24-July 21, 1968: Field trip to Mexico.
September 5-6: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference,
Gainesville.
September 11-13: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting,
Clearwater.
November 6-8: Florida State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting,
Miami Beach.
February 27-28, 1969: First Annual Tall Timbers Conference on
Ecological Control of Animals through Habitat Management,
Tallahassee.
March 17-19: Pathology-Entomology-Nematology Conference, Sanford.
July 27-August 27: Field trip to northeastern U. S. and southeastern
Canada including visits at the U. S. National Museum; Academy
of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia; American Museum of Natural
History in Ndw York; Museum of Comparative Zoology at
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Canadian National
Collection in Ottawa, Canada; and Ohio State University at
Columbus.
September 10-12: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Ft.
Lauderdale.
November 4-7: Florida State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting,
Miami Beach. Stopped at Archbold Biological Station on return.
November 19-21: Florida Department of Agricutlure Annual Con-
ference, Tallahassee.
February 25-28, 1970: Second Annual Tall Timbers Conference on
Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, Tallahassee.
March 9-11: Pathology-Entomology-Nematology Conference, Gaines-
ville.
April 9: Subtropical Branch Florida Entomological Society Meeting,
Miami.
June 13-July 13: Field trip to southeastern Canada and the New
England States, involving visits at the Carnegie Museum in
Pittsburgh, the Canadian National Collection in Ottawa, Canada,
and the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist
September 5-6, 1968: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual
Conference, Gainesville.
September 11-13: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting,
Clearwater.
November 16-26: Jamaica; sponsored by a grant from University of
Florida.
December 1-6: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Dallas, Texas.
February 1-March 4, 1969: South America to study beetle associated
with imported fire ant: sponsored by USDA through the
University of Florida.









64 Division of Plant Industry

May 7-23: Jamaica; sponsored by a grant from the University of
Florida.
August 15-31: Jamaica, sponsored by a grant from the University of
Florida.
September 10-12: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Ft.
Lauderdale.
October 7-8: Annual Conference on Imported Fire Ant, Gainesville.
November 19-21: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Con-
ference, Tallahassee.
November 28-December 8: Entomological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Chicago, Illinois. In conjunction with these meetings,
specimens were studied before and after at the Chicago Museum
of Natural History, Purdue University, and Illinois Natural
History Survey.
February 12, 1970: Subtropical Branch Florida Entomological Society
Meeting, Miami.
February 13-28: Jamaica; sponsored by a grant from the University of
Florida.

TALKS

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology
July 11, 1968: "Caribfly in Florida," Subtropical Branch Florida
Entomological Society, Miami.
December 5: "An Arthropod Collection and Its Relation to Regulatory
Work," Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Dallas, Texas.
April 29, 1969: "Insect Identification," Inverness Garden Club,
Inverness.
February 25, 1970: "Biological Control Center," Tall Timbers Con-
ference, Tallahassee.

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
August 15, 1968: Panel Discussion Leader for Extension Forest
Entomology, Southern Forest Insect Work Conference, Starkville,
Mississippi.
September 12: "Unaspis Scales Known to Attack Citrus in Florida,"
Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Clearwater.
September 10, 1969: "Progress Report on the Brown Garden Snail,"
Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale.
November 1: "Orchid Insects," Florida Orchid Growers Short Course,
Gainesville.
December 3: "Florida Soft Scales," Entomological Society of America
Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois.
February 17, 1970: "Survey Techniques," Fruit Fly Detection Meeting,
Homestead.
May 28: "Orchid Insects," Southwest Orchid Society, Ft. Myers.

H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist
September 12, 1968: "Insect Collecting in Mexico," Florida Ento-
mological Society Annual Meeting, Clearwater.








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


November 14: "Florida State Collection of Arthropods and Research
Associate Program," Newell Entomological Society, Gainesville.
April 9, 1970: "Arthropod Collecting in Mexico," Subtropical Branch
Florida Entomological Society, Miami.

R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist
December 5, 1968: "A West Indian Weevil in Florida," Entomological
Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas.
January 7, 1969: "Insects," Special Naval Reserve Unit, Gainesville.
March 26, 1969: "Insect Collecting in South America," Gainesville
Entomology Club, Gainesville.
April 3, 1969: "Entomological Work in the Caribbean," Latin American
Conference, University of Florida, Gainesville.
September 11: "Progress Report on a West Indian Weevil in Florida,"
and "A Myrmecophilious Beetle Associated with the Imported
Fire Ant," Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Ft.
Lauderdale.
September 22: "Entomological Illustrations," Insect Morphology
Course, University of Florida, Gainesville.
February 12, 1970: "An Entomologist in Jamaica," Subtropical
Branch-Florida Entomological Society, Miami.
May 25: "Scarab Beetles of the West Indies," Zoogeography Seminar,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

F. W. Mead, Entomologist
September 12, 1968: "Notes on Metcalfa pruinosa (Say), a planthopper
pest of citrus and ornamentals," Florida Entomological Society
51st Annual Meeting, Clearwater.
February 17, 1969: "Entomology-in-Action," Boy Scout Troop 396,
Gainesville.
September 11: "Planthopper families in Florida," Florida
Entomological Society 52nd Annual Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale.
December 3: "North American Oliarus (Homoptera: Cixiidae),"
Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Chicago,
Illinois.
December 11: "Comments on the systematics and ecology of the
planthopper genus Oliarus," Entomology Seminar, Ohio State
University, Columbus.

AWARDS
F. W. Mead, Entomologist
Ph. D. degree conferred by North Carolina State University in August
1968.
Elected to regular membership in the Society of the Sigma Xi by the
North Carolina State University Chapter, 1970.

R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist
Elected to membership in the honorary scientific society of Sigma Xi
on May 31, 1970.








66 Division of Plant Industry
FLORIDA STATE COLLECTION OF ARTHROPODS

H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist

Two important collections were purchased jointly by the
University of Florida and the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. The Lepidoptera collection of Mrs.
Florence M. Grimshawe of Miami consists of 1,588 cabinet
specimens, including representatives of approximately 425 identi-
fied species and subspecies of moths, skippers, and butterflies, and
a small number of unidentified species; approximately 7,200
papered Lepidoptera, mostly identified, representing several
hundred species and subspecies, some of which are represented
also in the pinned, spread cabinet collection. This collection
includes some material from other parts of the United States and
from foreign countries. Some of these species are very rare and of
exceptional value. Several specimens are the only known Florida
representatives of the species. Some species which are uncommon
today and are approaching extinction are represented in good
series from collections made by Mrs. Grimshawe as long ago as
fifty years.
The second collection purchased was the Mallophaga collec-
tion, together with library and files, of Harold S. Peters of
Simsbury, Connecticut. This collection consisted of 4,589 slide
mounts of Mallophaga housed in 61 slide boxes, plus additional
alcohol-preserved Mallophaga, Siphonaptera, and Acarina. While
most of the material is North American, it includes representatives
of many genera from the West Indies, Central America, Africa,
China, England, Germany, and other parts of the world. The
library, fairly world-wide in coverage, includes several bound
volumes, 517 unbound volumes, bulletins, and reprints, including
many which are out of print and can no longer be obtained from
the publishers or from arthropod literature dealers, in addition to
other rare publications which can be obtained only with difficulty
and at substantial expense.
A nearly complete set of the publications of the world famous
dipterist, Dr. C. Howard Curran*, consisting of close to 300 titles,
was purchased during the biennium. This is possibly the most
complete set in existence of Dr. Curran's publications.
Other specimens and some sizeable contributions were made
to the collection during the biennium by many people, not all of
whom are acknowledged in this report.
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


Major Collections Incorporated

*Dr. R. M. Baranowski (University of Florida Sub-tropical Experiment
Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead, Florida 33030)
48 bottles of blacklight trap collections of insects from subtropical
hammocks near Homestead, Florida; 5 bottles of arthropods collected via
Berlese funnels from pack rat nests on Key Largo Key, Florida; 20
specimens of Bephrata cubensis Ashmead (Eurytomidae) reared from
Anona reticulata.

*Dr. Lewis Berner (Chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
5,474 vials and 57 jars of alcohol-preserved Ephemeroptera, primarily
North American, authoritatively identified by the donor-the final portion
of a major donation of Dr. Berner's personal research collection donated in
portions over a period of 5 years; 2 blacklight trap collections from Lake
Itasca State Park, Minnesota.
*Mr. Dale R. Birkenmeyer (Tsetse Fly Project, USDA, Salisbury, Southern
Rhodesia, Africa)
89 quarts and 26 pints of blacklight trap collections taken by the donor in
Southern Rhodesia. This is an exceptionally fine collection of alcohol-
preserved insects.
*Dr. F. S. Blanton (IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
53 slide mounts of rare male Strepsiptera; 58 slide mounts of sand flies,
Culicoides, partially determined to species (domestic material supplied to
Dr. Blanton by Dr. Frank Mead) and processed by Dr. Blanton; 60 pints of
mosquito light trap collections from Chantilly Acres, Gainesville, Florida;
144 pints of blacklight trap collections from Cuba (48 bottles), Wyoming
(7 bottles), Montana (24 bottles), Nevada (64 bottles), and Orlando,
Florida (1 bottle); 647 pints and quarts of miscellaneous insects collected
in blacklight traps in British Honduras (33 jars), Rhode Island, Wisconsin,
Kentucky, and Florida; 480 jars of neotropical arthropods collected by the
donor and associates.
Dr. William H. Cross (Entomology Research Division, P. O. Box 5367, State
College, Mississippi 39762)
150 adult Odonata, determined, from North America; 150 undetermined
Zygoptera from North America.
*Mr. Byrd K. Dozier (32 Corydon Drive, Miami Springs, Florida 33166)
11,953 pinned, labelled Coleoptera, 5 Orthoptera, 8 Hymenoptera, 20
Hemiptera, and 138 Homoptera, nearly half of them identified, almost all
of them collected by the donor, from the United States, Bahama Islands,
Honduras, British Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Mexico,
Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Panama, Cuba, Jamaica, and
several other foreign countries. This collection-a research collection
developed over a period of many years-is of exceptionally fine quality.
The material is very neatly prepared and labelled and representatives of
many rarely collected species are included, including several dozen
undescribed species.
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








68 Division of Plant Industry

*Dr. G. B. Fairchild (Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, P. O. Box 2016, Balboa
Heights, Canal Zone, Panama)
A large barrel filled with 899 pill boxes, each of which contains several to
many specimens of insects, mostly collected in Panama and the neighbor-
ing Latin American countries. A more detailed accounting will be made on
this accession eventually.
Dr. Ollie Flint (U.S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Constitution
Avenue at 10th Street, Washington, D.C. 20560)
243 adult Odonata from Argentina and Chile (in exchange for determina-
tion of his specimens by Research Associate Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr.).
*Dr. Dale H. Habeck (IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
3,523 pinned, labelled, undetermined, domestic insects and 326 pinned,
labelled, undetermined exotic insects, collected by the donor in Costa
Rica, Honduras, and the Panama Canal Zone. All but a few specimens are
Coleoptera.
*Dr. Gonzalo Halffter (Cerrada de Monte Kamerum 34, Lomas de
Chapultepec, Mexico 10, D. F.)
884 miscellaneous insects collected in Mexico by the donor, representing 9
orders of insects and including 775 Coleoptera-9 vials of specimens
preserved in alcohol, the remainder stored in cotton in small containers;
265 specimens, papered and in alcohol, from Costa Rica, consisting of 186
Coleoptera, including 109 Scarabaeidae, 2 Homoptera, 1 Neuroptera, 1
Orthoptera, 10 Hemiptera, 4 Diptera, 43 Hymenoptera, 2 Phalangida, 4
Diplopoda, and 2 Pedipalpida; 882 unmounted, drystored insects collected
by the donor in Mexico, consisting of 2 Diptera, 12 Hymenoptera, and
868 Coleoptera, mostly Scarabaeidae and Staphylinidae.
Dr. Paul D. Harwood (Hess & Clark, Ashland, Ohio 44805)
218 adult Odonata identified (a number of nymphs, all North American).
*Mr. Gerd H. Heinrich (Wild Street, Dryden, Maine 04225)
2,360 unmounted insects, mostly Diptera and Hymenoptera, collected by
the donor in Florida and Maine in 1968; 1 cigar-boxful of unmounted
insects collected by the donor in Florida during July 1969, consisting of
123 Deptera, 148 Hymenoptera, 1 Neuroptera, 1 Hemiptera, and 7
Coleoptera.
*Mr. J. Richard Heitzman (3112 Harris Avenue, Independence, Missouri
64052)
1,449 pinned, labelled, neatly spread, identified Lepidoptera, mostly
collected by the donor in Missouri and Texas; 54 pupal shells of
Lepidoptera in 4 olive bottles and 1 vial; 483 pinned, labelled, spread,
unidentified Lepidoptera, mostly collected by the donor in Missouri and
Texas; 186 pinned, labelled, spread unidentified exotic Lepidoptera,
mostly European; 2 vials containing 1 scorpion and 4 centipedes; 1 vial
containing 40 Ephemeroptera; 9 olive bottles containing 3,233 alcohol-
preserved Scarabaeidae, 84 pinned, labelled, unidentified insects consisting
of 14 Homoptera, 63 Coleoptera, 1 Hymenoptera, and 6 Diptera.
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 69

Heitzman and his son, "Robbie," also relaxed, respread, and verified
identifications of 879 skippers from the former University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station collection which is now a part of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, 26 exotic butterflies without data
but identified to species, 49 exotic butterflies without data, and 841
butterflies, skippers and moths collected in Mexico and the United States
by Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. and family. Mr. Heitzman identified the domestic
butterflies and skippers, and he labelled most of the material after
spreading it.
Mr. Roy O. Kendall (135 Vaughan Place, San Antonio, Texas 78201)
1,634 envelopes containing 3,497 identified Texas Lepidoptera, mostly
butterflies and skippers, representing 145 species. Almost all of these
specimens were reared by the donor.
*Mr. Harold L. King (formerly of Sarasota, Florida, c/o Gordon Small, Jr.,
Box 2510, Balboa, Canal Zone)
360 envelopes containing 433 insects consisting of 332 Lepidoptera (19
determined to species), 10 Coleoptera, 16 Orthoptera, 10 Homoptera, 9
Hemiptera, 6 Diptera, 26 Hymenoptera, 4 Ephemeroptera, 4 Trichoptera,
13 Odonata, and 3 Megaloptera, all collected by the donor in Mexico and
Central America; 53 envelopes containing 69 domestic Lepidoptera,
mostly from Texas; 14 bottles of alcohol-preserved arthropods, consisting
of 4 tarantulas, 1 scorpion, 1 tailless whipscorpion, 4 Coleoptera, 1
Hemiptera, 3 Hymenoptera, and 2 Orthoptera; 544 pinned, labelled
arthropods consisting of 1 tarantula, 4 Diptera, 2 Neuroptera, 7
Orthoptera, 11 Coleoptera, 3 Hymenoptera, 1 inflated Lepidoptera larva,
82 spread, unidentified Lepidoptera, and 320 spread, identified Lepidop-
tera, all from Mexico and Central America, and 113 spread, unidentified
domestic Lepidoptera, mostly from Texas; 736 unmounted insects and
other arthropods collected by the donor in Mexico and Central America.
Dr. James N. Layne (Director of Research, Archbold Biological Station,
Route 2, Box 380, Lake Placid, Florida 33852)
40 slides consisting of the following: 1 Coleoptera (Platypsylla castoris
Ritsema, a rarely collected beaver ectoparasite), 6 Diptera (2 slides of 1
species of Streblidae, 4 slides of 3 species of Nycteribiidae), 33 slides
representing 13 species of Acarina; 100 slide-mounted Siphonaptera
consisting of 14 Cediopsylla simplex, 21 Polygenis gwyni, 38 Polygenis
floridanus Johnson & Layne (including 36 paratypes), 8 Echidnophaga
gallinacea (Westwood) (females only), 6 Pulex simulans, and 12 Orchopeas
leucopus (Baker) (all except one species are represented by both sexes).
*Mr. Harold F. Loomis (USDA Agricultural Research Service, Crops Research
Division, 13601 Old Cutler Road, Miami, Florida 33158)
11 vials containing 42 specimens representing 8 species of millipeds, 6 of
them described by the donor, these including 19 paratypes and 8
topotypes; 6 vials containing 6 species of millipeds as follows: 2 males, 1
female, 1 young Abacion tesselatum creolum (Chamberlin); 1 male
paratype Cleidogona cyclipes Loomis, new species; 1 immature (dried and
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Division of Plant Industry


broken) paratype Dicellarious sternolobus Loomis, new species holotypee
in USNM); 1 male paratype Docodesmus cooki Loomis, new species; 1
male paratype Eurymerodesmus hamatilis Loomis, new species; 1 male and
1 female Pseudopolydesmus bidens Loomis; 8 vials containing approxi-
mately 75 millipeds representing 8 species, including holotypes and
paratypes of two species-Caraibodesmus pictus Loomis (male, 3 females);
Peckfiskia cavernicola Loomis, both from Jamaican caves.
*Mr. Bryant Mather (Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180)
27 Coleoptera representing 4 authoritatively determined species of
Cicindelidae; 216 pinned, labelled, spread Lepidoptera representing 9
determined species, all collected by the donor in Mississippi and Alabama;
57 pinned, labelled, identified insects representing 21 species in 6 orders,
as follows: 28 neatly spread Neuroptera representing 10 species, 6 spread
Trichoptera representing 3 species, 12 Coleoptera representing 4 species, 7
Diptera representing 2 species, 2 Hymenoptera representing 1 species, and
2 Homoptera representing 1 species.
*Mr. John W. McReynolds (P. O. Box 182, Nevada, Missouri 64772)
Papered exotic Coleoptera consisting of 18 Carabidae representing 6
identified species; 290 insects stored in cellucotton consisting of: 132
Coleoptera, 6 Orthoptera, 13 Hemiptera, and 2 Diptera collected by the
donor in Texas and 21 Dermaptera, 7 Orthoptera, 7 Hemiptera, 101
Homoptera, and 1 Odonata collected by the donor in Mexico; 106 pinned,
unlabelled insects collected in Mexico by the donor; 529 pinned, labelled
insects consisting of 115 exotic: 1 Diptera, 1 Lepidoptera, 89 Coleoptera
(41 determined) and 427 domestic; 269 Coleoptera (34 determined), 12
Lepidoptera, 92 Diptera, 28 Orthoptera, 3 Neuroptera, 18 Hymenoptera,
1 Ephemeroptera, 3 Hemiptera, 1 Homoptera.
Dr. Frank W. Mead (Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville,
Florida 32601)
1,560 pinned, labelled, unidentified insects; 396 pinned, labelled insects
identified to species; 30 pint jars of blacklight trap collections; 7 4-dram
vials of insects determined to species; 75 4-dram vials of unidentified
insects-collected by the donor in Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, South
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Ohio.
Dr. A. E. Miller (1909 15th Street N. W., Winter Haven, Florida 33880)
A private collection of insects consisting of 14,981 pinned, labelled insects
consisting of the following: 12,535 Coleoptera representing 888 species;
299 Diptera representing 86 species; 512 Hymenoptera representing 168
species; 553 Homoptera representing 168 species; 24 Isoptera representing
7 species; 5 Corrodentia representing 4 species; 15 Ephemeroptera
representing 8 species; 29 Neuroptera representing 10 species; 18 Mecop-
tera representing 6 species; 51 Trichoptera representing 17 species; 26
Plecoptera representing 9 species. The collection includes 347 unidentified
specimens of Hymenoptera and 14,634 identified specimens representing
1,554 species of insects, mostly collected by the donor in Ohio, Illinois,
and other states in the midwestern United States, and housed in 24 insect
storage boxes.
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


*Dr. Martin H. Muma (University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, P. O.
Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850)
4 dozen olive bottles of miscellaneous arthropods, preserved in ethylene
glycol, which material consists of thousands of specimens collected in can
traps placed in soil; 76 bottles of alcohol pit-fall collections from Florida.
Mr. Robert L. Newell (Biology Department, Idaho State University, Pocatella,
Idaho 83201)
250 adult Odonata, many reared with exuviae, and many nymphs,
undetermined, from Montana and Idaho.
*Dr. J. M. Osorio (Universidad de Lara Barquisimeto, Estado Lara,
Venezuela) (also, 1027 S. W. 9th Street, Miami, Florida)
13 jars, 261 vials containing approximately 2,675 alcohol-preserved insects
and 24 envelopes of Lepidoptera, all collected in Venezuela by the donor.
*Dr. Dennis R. Paulson (Department of Zoology, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington 98105)
775 Odonata (484 foreign, 291 domestic) all authoritatively identified to
species, labelled, preserved in plastic envelopes; 3,274 insects, 952 foreign
and 2,322 domestic, consisting of the following: 42 papered foreign
Lepidoptera; pinned, labelled specimens as follows-839 foreign and 2,065
domestic Coleoptera, 36 foreign and 195 domestic Diptera, 12 foreign and
44 domestic Hymenoptera, 8 domestic Neuroptera, 1 domestic
Ephemeroptera, 8 foreign and 2 domestic Homoptera, 3 foreign and 4
domestic Hemiptera, 5 foreign and 1 domestic Orthoptera, 1 foreign and 1
domestic Lepidoptera, 1 foreign Trichoptera, 1 foreign Plecoptera, 4
foreign Dermaptera.
Mr. William H. Pierce (P. O. Box 596, Key West, Florida 33040)
1,102 pinned, unlabelled insects (1,055 Diptera, 14 Coleoptera, 33
Hymenoptera); 44 pill boxes of unmounted insects (35 Coleoptera, 2
Orthoptera, 811 Diptera, 99 Hymenoptera, 85 Homoptera, 1 Neuroptera,
39 Hemiptera, 27 Lepidoptera); 25 vials and 2 jars of alcohol-preserved
arthropods (785 adult Diptera, 89 immature Diptera, 127 Coleoptera, 12
Hemiptera, 1 Dermaptera, 4 Orthoptera, 7 Chilopoda, 57 Diplopoda, 11
Araneida), all specimens collected by the donor on St. Croix Island, Virgin
Islands; 1,078 pinned, labelled insects collected by the donor in South
Viet Nam consisting of 1,075 Diptera, 2 Coleoptera, and 1 Orthoptera; 24
pinned, unlabelled insects collected by the donor in South Viet Nam,
consisting of 2 Coleoptera, 3 Hemiptera, 3 Diptera, 2 Hymenoptera, 6
Orthoptera, and 8 Neuroptera; 26 pill boxes, 4 small jars, and 76 vials
containing approximately 2,860 arthropods collected by the donor in
South Viet Nam as follows: 943 Coleoptera, 170 Hemiptera, 148
Homoptera, 55 Hymenoptera, 35 Dermaptera, 200 Isoptera, 960 Diptera,
200 Orthoptera, 100 Collembola, 5 Neuroptera, 15 larval Lepidoptera, 10
Diplopoda, and 20 Chilopoda.
*Dr. Walfried J. Reinthal (4026 Sequoyah Avenue, Knoxville, Tennessee
37919)
41 unidentified, pinned, labelled, spread moths collected by the donor in
Arizona; 291 butterflies and skippers consisting of the following: 52
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Division of Plant Industry


spread, labelled, identified foreign, 205 spread, labelled, identified
domestic, 30 spread, labelled, unidentified domestic, and 4 labelled,
unspread domestic.
*Mr. Kilian Roever (3729 West Townley Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 80521)
385 pinned, labelled, undetermined insects, mostly collected in Arizona by
the donor, consisting of 188 spread Lepidoptera, 125 Coleoptera, 28
Hymenoptera, 24 Diptera, 3 Orthoptera, 2 Isoptera, 10 Neuroptera, 3
Homoptera, and 2 Hemiptera.
*Mr. Joe Schuh (4039 Shasta Way, Klamath Falls, Oregon 79601)
685 wild bees representing 37 species, 15 Simuliidae representing 3
species, and 4 Streblidae representing 1 species, all collected by the donor
and authoritatively identified; 82 Cicadidae representing 6 species new to
the Florida state collection; 14 Carabidae representing 1 species; 11
Syrphidae and 1 Stratiomyidae unidentified.
Dr. James Slater (Chairman, Department of Entomology, University of
Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268)
121 pinned, labelled Scarabaeidae from South Africa and Ghana; 150
Hemiptera, family Lygaeidae, representing 88 exotic species, all new to the
Florida state collection.
Dr. C. A. Triplehorn (Curator of Insects, Department of Zoology and
Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
Blacklight trap collections consisting of the following: 4 pints from
Georgia, Oklahoma and Texas, including 2 pints of Scarabaeidae, 1 pint of
Scarabaeidae from Costa Rica, 7 pints from Honduras, including 4 pints of
Scarabaeidae, 1 quart and 3 pints from Mexico, including 4 pints of
Scarabaeidae, and 55 pints from Brazil, including 27 pints of Scarabaeidae;
40 pinned, labelled, authoritatively identified Homoptera representing 3
species of Achilidae new to the Florida state collection.
*Dr. H. K. Wallace (Chairman, Department of Zoology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
4,000 vials of alcohol-preserved Araneida, complete with data labels,
authoritatively identified to species, and a corresponding file of ecological
notes-part of his private collection of spiders being donated over a period
of several years.
Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. (Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville,
Florida 32601)
6,251 pinned, labelled insects collected in Mexico by the donor and other
members of his family; 1,233 pinned, labelled insects collected in Canada
by the donor and other members of his family; 3,927 pinned, labelled
insects collected in the United States by the donor and other members of
his family, especially in western North Carolina, West Virginia, Virginia,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana,
Idaho, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. In addition to these
donations, all of which were pinned by the donor, Dr. Weems processed on
personal time during the biennium an additional 14,288 specimens which
he collected in Florida on a series of state-sponsored field trips and

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


specimens which were received as donations to the Florida state collection
which required relaxing, cleaning, resetting of appendages, and relabelling.
*Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. (Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
7,000 authoritatively identified Odonata preserved in envelopes. (part of
his private collection being donated over a period of several year); 596
pinned, labelled insects, 437 determined and 159 undetermined, consisting
of the following: 243 Coleoptera, 199 Lepidoptera, 48 Hemiptera, 74
Homoptera, 10 Hymenoptera, 11 Orthoptera, 4 Diptera, 1 Trichoptera, 2
Neuroptera, 2 Mecoptera, 1 Ephemeroptera, and 1 Plecoptera.
*Dr. W. H. Whitcomb (IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
48 quarts of blacklight trap collections from Monticello, Florida; 115
reprints of publications concerning Thysanoptera.
Mr. Joe Wilcox (21171 Mohler Place, Anaheim, California 92806)
11 Apioceridae representing 5 species, 4 of them with both sexes and
including 4 paratypes, 4 of these species new to the Florida state
collection; 284 Asilidae representing 135 species and 45 genera, including
79 paratypes and 12 topotypes, 127 species new to the Florida state
collection. This is a donation of exceptionally high quality and value.
Dr. Robert E. Woodruff (Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville,
Florida 32601)
2,377 pinned and labelled insects and 75 vials of alcohol-preserved
arthropods collected by the donor while not on official duty.
Mr. H. Allan Wright (1007 S. W. 13th Street, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
8 pints and 12 quarts of alcohol-preserved blacklight trap collections as
follows: 1 pint, Antigua (British West Indies); 1 pint, Grenada (British
West Indies); 1 pint, Trinidad (British West Indies); 5 pints and 12 quarts,
Brazil (various points on the Amazon River).
Mr. Charles F. Zeiger (3751 Sommers Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205)
229 pinned, spread, labelled, identified Lepidoptera; 45 pinned, labelled,
unidentified Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Orthop-
tera; 33 vials of alcohol-preserved arthropods collected by the donor in the
United States and Puerto Rico; 177 papered Lepidoptera consisting of 116
identified butterflies and 51 unidentified skippers, all collected in Florida
by the donor: 120 pinned, labelled insects consisting of 16 Coleoptera and
104 Lepidoptera (8 exotic, undetermined, spread Lepidoptera, 42 spread,
undetermined Lepidoptera from Florida and Tennessee, and 54 spread,
determined Lepidoptera from Colorado).

Other Contributions to the Collection

Mr. Milan Alby (1002 Oak Street North, Apartment 2, Fargo, North Dakota
58102)
126 adult Odonata representing about 40 species, from North Dakota and
Minnesota, mostly determined.
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








74 Division of Plant Industry

Mr. R. L. Armistead (Exhibits Department, Florida State Museum, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
129 Arthropods in alcohol collected in Haiti consisting of the following:
28 Scarabaeidae, 1 Curculionidae, 23 Orthoptera, 2 Diptera, 36 Hymenop-
tera, 1 Diplopoda, 8 Isopoda, 30 spiders (including 28 tarantulas).
*Dr. Ross H. Arnett, Jr. (Department of Entomology, Purdue University,
Lafayette, Indiana 47905)
1 topotype of a scarabaeid beetle, Onthophagus arnetti Howden &
Cartwright, the fourth known specimen of this rare Arizona species.
Mr. Jack S. Bacheler (Graduate Student, IFAS Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
4 females and 11 males of a saturniid moth, Rothchildia orizaga
Westwood, from Mexico, all pinned, labelled, and spread, reared from eggs
by the donor.
Mr. John Bache-Wiig (Assistant Inspector in Charge, Plant Quarantine
Division, ARS, USDA, Room 202 Federal Inspection Building, 100
Terrace Avenue, Nogales, Arizona.
Given through Mr. Byrd K. Dozier (Research Associate), 1,342 insects
from Nogales, Arizona collected by the donor and stored in vials and pill
boxes; 243 papered Coleoptera from southern Arizona, including many
associated with host plants.
Mr. Wilson Baker (Biologist, Tall Timbers Research Station, Route 1, Box
160, Tallahassee, Florida 32301)
4 light trap samples of Scarabaeidae in alcohol totaling 51 specimens.
Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck (Entomologist, Bureau of Entomology, Florida State
Board of Health, P. O. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201)
Slide mounts of a male and cast skins of the following Chironomidae new
to the Florida state collection: Cryptotendipes casuarius (Townes),
Parachironomus (Wulp), Harnischia galeator Townes, Parachironomus
hirtalatus (Beck and Beck), and Parachironomus carinatus (Townes).
Dr. George H. Bick (Biology Department, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame,
Indiana 46556)
44 adult Odonata (5 reared with exuviae) and 3 nymphs, determined,
North American.
Dr. H. Derrick Blocker (Department of Entomology, Kansas State University,
Manhattan, Kansas 66502)
Male and female of a leafhopper, Strangalia apicalis (Osborn & Bell), first
specimens for the Florida state collection.
Dr. D. J. Borror (Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
119 pinned, labelled Diptera, including 55 Syrphidae and 21 Coelopidae
(All unidentified beyond family). Most of the specimens were collected by
Dr. Borror in Maine.
Mr. L. J. Bottimer (Taxonomy Section, Canada Department of Agriculture,
Research Branch, Entomology Research Institute, Central Experimental
Farm Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 75

13 paratypes of Bruchidae (Coleoptera) representing 12 Acanthoscelides
helianthemum Bottimer and one A. tridenticulatus Bottimer.
Dr. W. L. Brown (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850)
5 vials of Scarabaeidae and Curculionidae from Berlese samples as follows:
1 scarab (Island of Mauritius), 1 scarab (South Africa), 5 scarabs, 1 weevil
(Malaya), 13 scarabs, 6 weevils (Luzon, Philippines), 1 scarab (Georgia).
Dr. B. D. Burks ( U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560)
2 paratype specimens of each of 2 species of Torymidae . Physothorax
bidentulus Burks and Sycophila butcheri Burks. (Technically an ex-
change).
Mr. Jerry F. Butler (Assistant Professor, IFAS Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601).
2 Hippoboscidae unmountedd), 37 hog lice, Haematopinus suis (L.)
unmountedd).
Dr. John S. Caldwell (Circleville, Ohio 43113)
A carton of reprints of publications on Homoptera, especially on
Fulgoroidea.
Dr. Carl W. Campbell (Associate Horticulturist, University of Florida
Sub-tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Florida 33030)
18 small jars (approximately 12 drams) filled with miscellaneous insects
collected with a blacklight in Ghana, Africa.
Dr. Duke Campbell (Department of Natural Sciences, Florida State Museum,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
41 Coleoptera in alcohol from can traps for lizards operated in scrub
habitats.
Mr. Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr. (Department of Zoology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
16 undetermined adult Odonata from Ecuador.
*Dr. Nell B. Causey (Department of Zoology and Physiology, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803)
7 vials of millipeds (11 specimens) representing 4 species of millipeds
collected at Tall Timbers Research Station, Leon County, Florida.
Mr. Neil Chernoff (Department of Biology, University of Miami, Miami,
Florida 33124)
102 pinned Coleoptera and 2,437 Coleoptera in alcohol from Florida,
Mexico, and Central America.
Mr. J. F. Coyne (Entomologist, Institute of Forest Genetics, P. O. Box 2008,
Evergreen Station, Gulfport, Mississippi 39501)
14 adult males, 16 adult females, 12 larvae, and 23 ichneumonid parasites
of a sawfly, Neodiprion taedae linearis Ross.
Dr. Alfredo D'Ascoli (Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061)
3 blacklight trap samples (pints) from 3 locations in Venezuela.
Mr. C. J. Davis (Chief, Entomology Branch, Hawaii Department of Agricul-
ture, 1428 South King Street, P. O. Box 5425, Honolulu, Hawaii 96814)
2 slide mounts (10 adult specimens) of Patasson calendrae (Gahan), family

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods









76 Division of Plant Industry

Mymaridae, collected at Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, by Harry Nakao and
Richard Suzukawa in June 1968 and bred from a parasitized egg of
Sphenophorus in lovegrass material; this appears to be the first record of P.
calendrae from Florida.
Mr. Don R. Davis (U. S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C. 20560)
A neatly spread pair of codling moths.
Dr. Frank M. Davis (Boll Weevil Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural
Research Service, Crops Research Division, P. O. Box 5367, State College,
Mississippi 39762)
6 pinned, spread, labelled adults, 1 vial of eggs, 1 vial of pupae, 1 vial of
the summer form of larvae, and 1 vial of the overwintering form of larvae
of the southwestern corn borer, Zeadiatraea grandiosella (Dyar), family
Crambidae.
Mr. A. T. Drooz (Forestry Sciences Laboratory, USDA, P. O. Box 12254,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709)
3 vials of parasitic Hymenoptera which are currently being investigated in
the lab for possible introduction into the U. S. for biological control
purposes (Monodontomerus dentipes (Dalman), family Icheumonidae,
reared from Diprion similis (Hartig), (27 adults); Exenterus amictorius
(Panzer), family Ichneumonidae, 5 males, 3 females .. all 3 vials of
specimens from lab cultures in Wisconsin).
*Mr. Peter Drummond (Graduate Student, IFAS Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
3 blacklight trap samples from Jamaica, collected by the donor.
*Dr. Thomas C. Emmel (Assistant Professor, Department of Biological
Sciences, 12 Flint Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
21 reprints of publications, mostly on Lepidoptera, by Dr. Emmel.
Dr. Brad Fagan (IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
5 vials of insects (2 vials of Dermaptera, 1 vial of Chalcididae, 1 vial of
Med flies from Costa Rica; 1 vial of beetles, Pachydrus princeps
(Blatchley) from Florida; 15 reprints, one of which is a scarce one by Z. P.
Metcalf on "The Cercopoidea of China."
Dr. G. Truman Fincher (Coastal Plains Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia
31794)
42 Phanaeus (Scarabaeidae) from Georgia, including 31 speciments of the
rarely collected Phanaeus torrens niger d'Ols.
Florida State Museum (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
1 tarantula collected in Surinam by P. C. H. Pritchard; 4 vials of spiders
(approximately 75 specimens) and 8 nymphs of a pentatomid bug
collected in Viet Nam by Captain Timothy O. Austin.
Dr. J. Howard Frank (Sugar Manufacturer's Association, Research Depart-
ment, Mandeville, Jamaica)
195 Scarabaeidae and 5 Lampyridae from Jamaica, 13 Scarabaeidae from
Trinidad, preserved in alcohol.

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


Mr. Rosser W. Garrison (Star Route Box 500, Cave Creek, Arizona 85331)
28 identified adult Odonata of two species from Arizona.
Dr. Carter R. Gilbert (Department of Natural Sciences, Florida State
Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
8 blacklight trap samples from Isla de Providencia in the Caribbean Sea,
about 150 miles east of Nicaragua (owned by Colombia). These are likely
the first insect collections from this remote island.
Mr. James C. Haley (Supervisor in Charge, Florida, Plant Pest Control
Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, P. O. Box 393, Winter
Haven, Florida 33880)
4 pinned, labelled, identified fruit flies representing 2 species which are
pests in Cyprus; 1 vial of Mediterranean fruit flies from Cyprus; 1 vial of
weevils from Chile; 2 pinned, labelled specimens of the spiny boll worm
moth, Earias insulana Bsd.
*Mr. Fred C. Harmston (1940 Larkspur Drive, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521)
59 Dolichopodidae representing 17 species; 58 undetermined Syrphidae
collected by the donor in Colorado.
Dr. William Hilsenhoff (Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wisconsin 53706)
9 nymphs of two species of Odonata in vials, determined, from Wisconsin.
(An exchange for determinations).
*Mr. Harry O. Hilton (P. O. Box 144, Shalimar, Florida 32579)
Relaxed and respread 133 skippers from the former University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station collection which is now a part of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods; also at our request, he relaxed,
pinned, spread, and labelled 166 Lepidoptera collected in Mexico by Dr.
Robert E. Woodruff and 270 Lepidoptera collected in Central America by
another Research Associate, Mr. H. L. King.
Mr. Fred Hough (Accord 1, New York 12404)
20 undetermined adult Odonata from New York.
Dr. Fred C. Johnson, II (Associate Professor, Department of Zoology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
24 specimens, adults in cellophane and identified, from Germany, and at
least 25 adults, identified, from North America.
Mr. L. F. Martorell (University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, P.R.)
12 specimens of 3 species of Curculionidae from Puerto Rico new to our
collection. These are species related to the "sugarcane root-stalk borer
weevil" which recently was established in Florida.
Mr. W. F. Mauffray (3308 Blanchard Street, Chalmette, Louisiana 70043)
10 Odonata determined in envelopes, from U. S.; 21 specimens of
Odonata, several species, including 3 specimens used as types of a new
North American species.
Mr. David W. Meifert (Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research
Laboratory, Entomology Research Divsion, USDA, University of Florida
campus, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








78 Division of Plant Industry

14 Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), 17 Phaenicia cuprina Shannon, 21 Phormia
regina (Meigen).
Mr. Edward P. Merkel (Project Leader, Forest Insect Research, Naval Stores
and Timber Production Laboratory, U. S. Forest Service, P. O. Box 3,
Olustee, Florida 32072)
11 specimens in alcohol of Pachystethus oblivia (Fabricius), family
Scarabaeidae.
Mr. Alfred S. Mills (2305 N. W. 87th Street, Miami, Florida 33147)
18 vials of alcohol preserved foreign arthropods intercepted at the USDA
Plant Inspection House in Miami, totalling 156 specimens (1 Collembola,
104 Hymenoptera, 1 Diptera, 1 Orthoptera, 8 Dermaptera, 5 Hemiptera,
33 Psocoptera, 1 Coleoptera, 1 Lepidoptera, 1 Acarina), all identified at
least to genus.
*Dr. Edward L. Mockford (Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State
University, Normal, Illinois 61761)
11 vials of Psocoptera, genus Caecilius, collected in the Dominican
Republic by Dr. Mockford. Dr. Mockford published on this material
recently, describing several new species; a holotype and several paratypes
are included.
Mr. Frank J. Moore (Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio State
University Columbus, Ohio 43210)
2 slide mounts of Mecoptera, family Boreidae Boreus sp.); a rarely
collected trapdoor spider from Kentucky, Antrodiaetus unicolor (Hentz).
Dr. Lois B. O'Brien (Horticulture and Entomology Section, Department of
Park Administration, Texas Tech University, P. O. Box 4169, Lubbock,
Texas 79409)
7 specimens representing 4 species of determined Homoptera, all new to
the Florida state collection.
Dr. R. H. Painter (Deceased 12-23-68, Department of Entomology, Kansas
State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66502)
178 Diptera collected by the donor and his wife in the U.S., Mexico,
Central and South America (consisting of 1 Tachinidae, 2 Stratiomyidae, 5
Conopidae, and 170 Syrphidae-20 U.S., 45 Mexico, 105 Central and
South America).
Mr. Steward Peck (Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge,
Massachusetts 02138)
107 Scarabaeidae, including 65 Aphodiinae, in alcohol from blacklight
trap collection from Florida Caverns State Park, Jackson County, Florida.
*Dr. William L. Peters (Associate Professor of Entomology, School of
Agriculture and Home Economics, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
University, P. O. Box 111, University P. O., Tallahassee, Florida 32307)
20 adult Odonata from northwest Florida and Alabama, undetermined.
Dr. C. B. Philip (Principal Medical Entomologist, Rocky Mountain Labora-
tory, Hamilton, Montana 59840)
1 male and 1 female paratype of Stenotabanus (Aegialomyia) pechumani
Philip: 9 unpinned Diptera collected in Colombia, consisting of 7
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report


Syrphidae, 1 Tachinidae, 1 Calliphoridae; 8 papered Syrphidae from the
Himalayas: 4 pinned, labelled insects consisting of 2 Himalayan Syrphidae,
1 Montana Syrphidae, and 1 large Montana Cerambycidae.
Professor Sidney L. Poe (University of Florida Gulf Coast Experiment
Station, 5007 60th Street East, Bradenton, Florida 33505)
2 adult Euxesta notata (Wiedemann) (Otitidae) reared from rotting
Ranunculus bulbs.
Dr. John T. Polhemus (3115 South York, Englewood, Colorado 80110)
Vial containing 102 undetermined insects, nearly all leafhoppers and
planthoppers from Ceylon.

Mr. R. L. Pope (Department of Biology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
33124)
41 specimens representing 9 identified species of Passalidae from Mexico.
*Dr. John E. Porter (Scientist Director, United States Quarantine Station,
Public Health Service, 1015 Port Boulevard, Room 124, New Port of
Miami, Miami, Florida 33132)
4 vials and one pillbox of specimens collected in Indonesia in March 1968
by Mr. Henry Kaplan (13 ants, 1 reduviid bug, 1 beetle, 1 large milliped); 2
pill boxes of light trap collections made by Dr. Porter in La Boule, Haiti
during 1969, consisting mostly of small Diptera and 87 microlepidoptera.
Mr. D. S. Potter and Mr. R. A. Haick (Department of Zoology, University of
Montana, Missoula, Montana 59801)
126 adult Odonata, many reared with exuviae and a number of nymphs
from Montana and Wyoming.
Mr. Russell L. Pyke (11742 SW 185th Terrace, Miami, Florida 33157)
50 adult Odonata, undetermined, from Mexico.
Dr. Niphan Ratanaworabhan (29 Soi Sansook Padipat Road, Bangkok,
Thailand)
51 adult Odonata, undetermined, from Thailand.
*Dr. George W. Rawson (10405 Amherst Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland
20902)
132 envelopes containing 180 identified Lepidoptera representing 27
species collected in Florida by the donor; 1 tailed whipscorpion, 1 wolf
spider, 1 scarab beetle, 2 scoliid wasps, 1 phymatid bug, and 20 Diptera
(including 16 Syrphidae).
Dr. Milton W. Sanderson (Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois
61801)
28 Scarabaeidae consisting of the following: 23 Phyllophaga representing
18 species new to the Florida state collection; 4 topotypes of Diplotaxis
urbanae Vaurie; 1 Onthophagus representing a species new to the Florida
state collection.
Mr. J. C. Schuster (Graduate Student, IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
1 syrphid fly from Costa Rica.
*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods









Division of Plant Industry


Professor Francis M. Summers (Department of Entomology, University of
California, Davis, California 95616)
32 Cheyletidae slides, including 16 species.
Dr. Walter R. Suter (Department of Biology, Carthage College, Kenosha,
Wisconsin 53140)
33 pinned, labelled, identified Scarabaeidae representing 18 species.
Dr. Horace S. Telford (Chairman, Department of Entomology, Washington
State University, Pullman, Washington 99163)
125 unmounted Syrphidae collected in Puerto Rico in 1969 by Dr.
Telford.
Dr. Fred G. Thompson (Florida State Museum, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
14 Scarabaeidae from Peru, 13 Scarabaeidae from Panama, and 3
blacklight trap samples from Panama; 1 Dynastes tityus L. (Scarabaeidae)
from Alabama.
Mr. Mac A. Tidwell (Department of Zoology and Physiology, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803)
79 Diptera, including 65 Syrphidae.
Dr. H. H. Tippins (Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment, Georgia 30212)
7 Coccoidea slide mounts, two of them (eriococcids) new to the Florida
state collection.
Dr. John E. Tisdale (2022 S. E. 46th Terrace, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
1 Tabanidae and 2 Syrphidae from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
Mr. W. H. Tyson (California State College at San Jose, San Jose, California
95125)
74 Scarabaeidae in alcohol from California and Texas.
U. S. National Museum, courtesy of Dr. Reece I. Sailer (Chief, Insect
Identification and Parasite Introduction Research Branch, Entomology
Research Division, USDA, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland
20705, and Mr. Joseph W. Gentry, Chief Staff Officer, Survey and
Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA, Federal Center Building, Hyattsville, Maryland 20872)
Representatives of 5 species of foreign insects which, if introduced into
the United States, might pose threats to American agriculture, consisting
of 3 larvae, 1 pupa, and a male and female of Hylemya coarctata (Fallen)
(Anthomyiidae), a male and female of Carpomyia (Myiopardalis) para-
dalina Bigot (Tephritidae), a female of Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Tephritidae),
1 Phytodecta fornicata (Bruggm.) (Chrysomelidae), and 1 Melolontha L.
(Scarabaeidae). (Technically an exchange)
Dr. Barry D. Valentine (Academic Faculty of Population and Environmental
Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
13 Anthribidae representing 4 genera and 11 species, 7 of the species new
to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
*Mr. Karl R. Valley (Graduate student, Department of Entomology and
Limnology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850)

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 81

143 pinned, labelled, undetermined insects consisting of 29 Coleoptera, 3
Hemiptera, 1 Neuroptera, 10 Hymenoptera, 51 Diptera (including 45
Syrphidae), 1 Mecoptera, and 3 Lepidoptera; 48 pinned, labelled,
determined insects representing 30 species, consisting of 2 Hymenoptera, 1
Hemiptera, 4 Coleoptera, and 41 Diptera representing 11 families.
Dr. J. R. Vockeroth (Insect Systematics and Biological Control Unit,
Entomology Division, Department of Agriculture, Science Service Build-
ing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)
12 specimens of Diptera representing 3 families and 5 species, all new to
the Florida state collection, consisting of the following: 2 specimens of
Camilla glabra (Fallen) (Family Camillidae); 2 specimens of Aulacogaster
leucopeza (Meigen) (Family Aulacogasteridae); and 3 species of Opomyzi-
dae-4 specimens of Opomyza germinationis (Linnaeus), 2 specimens of
Geomyza balachowskyi Mesnil, 2 specimens of Geomyza tripunctata
Fallen.
*Dr. T. J. Walker, Jr. (Associate Entomologist, IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, 336 B McCarty Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
18 insects representing 5 orders collected by the donor in Puerto Rico and
the Virgin Islands; 89 pinned, labelled, undetermined continental United
States insects consisting of 1 Neuroptera, 8 Homoptera, 11 Hemiptera, 13
Diptera, 26 Coleoptera, 26 Dermaptera, and 4 Hymenoptera.
Dr. J. S. Waterhouse (Department of Biological Sciences, State University
College of Arts and Science, Plattsburgh, New York 12901)
Approximately 40 adults and immatures of the garden symphylan,
Scutigerella immaculate (Newport), the first representatives of the Class
Symphyla for the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
Dr. David Webb (Department of Natural Sciences, Florida State Museum,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
2 cicadas, 2 Orthoptera, 1 blacklight trap collection from Honduras.
Dr. Rupert Wenzel (Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605)
31 specimens representing 27 species of determined Homoptera, all new to
the Florida state collection.
Mr. R. L. Westcott (Oregon Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, Oregon
97330)
70 pinned, labelled Scarabaeidae from Oregon, including a long series of
the rare genus Lichnanthe; 30 Aphodius (Scarabaeidae) in alcohol from
Saddle Mountain, Oregon.
Mr. Robert Weston (3031 Glen Oaks Street, Clearwater, Florida 33515)
12 scorpions representing 6 species, 5 from Mexico and 1 from Africa; 1
Mexican centipede; 1 Mexican tailed whip-scorpion, Mastigoproctus sp.; 1
golden-banded tarantula, Aphonopelma smith (F. Cambridge) from the
state of Colima, Mexico.
Mr. Charles E. White (2441 East Northview Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana
46220)

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








82 Division of Plant Industry
9 Scarabaeidae consisting of the following: 5 Psammodius laevipennis
Costa, a rare species from the sand dunes of Lake Michigan; 3 Plectrodes
pubescens Horn, a rare California species; 1 male Dynastes granti Horn, the
western counterpart of our eastern rhinoceros beetle.
Mr. Hal B. White, III (8 Cedar Street, Wellesley, Massachusetts 02181)
43 adult Odonata determined in envelopes from United States.
Dr. R. F. Wilkey (California Department of Agriculture, 1220 North Street,
Sacramento, California 95814)
25 slide mounts representing 22 species of scales and mealybugs.
Dr. Robert C. Wilkinson (IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
Approximately 100 specimens of an ichneumonid wasp recently intro-
duced into Florida, Exenterus amictorius (Panzer); 10 determined speci-
mens of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock).
Dr. Elizabeth Wing (Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32601)
43 arthropods collected in Mexico: 1 Odonata, 5 Hymenoptera, 3 Diptera,
17 Coleoptera, 8 Hemiptera, 5 Orthoptera, 2 Dermaptera, 1 Pedipalpida, 1
Crustacea.
Mr. Dan Wojcik (Graduate student, IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
11 quarts of blacklight trap samples from Afghanistan, Africa.

Research Associates
of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods

The Research Associate Program, unique in the world in several
respects, continued its growth and development during this
biennium. Seventy-eight research associates, officially appointed
by Commissioner of Agriculture Doyle Conner, serve without pay
while making significant contributions to our knowledge of the
arthropod fauna of Florida and neighboring areas which constitute
the "area of interest" of the program. The results of their studies
are being published in the Florida Entomologist, in monthly
circulars published by the DPI as a part of the TRI-OLOGY
Technical Report, in the Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring
Land Areas series published by the DPI, and in other publication
outlets.
Eight new research associate appointments were made during
the biennium: Dr. Ross H. Arnett, Dr. Joseph A. Beatty, Dr.
Thomas C. Emmel, Glen R. Gibbs, Fred C. Harmston, Gerd H.
Heinrich, Harold F. Loomis, and Joe Schuh. Three research
associates were lost: Dr. E. G. Kelsheimer (retired), D. A. Palmer,







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 83

and J. W. Patton. A former research associate, Dr. Fred Corry
Bishopp, died April 8, 1970.
Volume 5 of Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land
Areas, titled A Synoptic Review of North American, Central
American, and West Indian Solpugida (Arthropoda: Arachnida),
by Research Associate Dr. Martin H. Muma of the University of
Florida Citrus Experiment Station, was published in June 1970.
Volume 6 by Dr. Muma and H. A. Denmark is in the galleyproof
stage. Completed manuscripts for volumes 7 and 8 are in the hands
of the editor, and more than a dozen other manuscripts to be
published in this series are in various stages of preparation by staff
members and research associates.
Several research associates are involved in special projects
relating to the program here. C. P. Kimball and H. O. Hilton are
continuing to collaborate on a DPI-supported project in which
Kimball selects and obtains from both American and foreign
museums and private collections representatives of hundreds of
species of Lepidoptera, primarily from Florida and neighboring
areas, which are then photographed in color by Hilton. Several
thousand species of Lepidoptera, including the type specimens of
some, already have been photographed, and many others are yet
to be photographed. Complementing this steadily growing file of
color transparencies of adult Lepidoptera, Dr. D. H. Habeck is
photographing in color many species of immature Lepidoptera,
primarily in the larval stage. Dr. Alvah Peterson, selecting from
hundreds of color transparencies of the eggs of Lepidoptera,
Hemiptera, and other orders of insects, has prepared several
hundred duplicates for the files of the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods. These color transparencies constitute an important
aid in the identification of arthropods by DPI staff entomologists.
C. P. Kimball has continued a project initiated a dozen or
more years ago in which blacklight trap collections from several
locations in Florida, as well as from several locations in North and
Central America, are screened for specimens of special interest,
many of which are photographed and retained for the permanent
collections. This ambitious effort has yielded numerous new state
records for Florida and a substantial number of undescribed
species.
Richard Heitzman is serving as the prime worker and co-
ordinator in a special project designed to develop the FSCA
Lepidoptera collection. Along with several other research associ-
ates whose primary interest is the Lepidoptera, together with staff







84 Division of Plant Industry
entomologists of the Division of Plant Industry, he is collecting
hundreds of Lepidoptera stored in plastic envelopes. These
specimens are identified by Heitzman, and other competent
Lepidoptera specialists, after which they are kept on file by him
and eventually sent to other lepidopterists, both foreign and
domestic, in exchange for representatives of species needed for the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods. The specimens which are
received through these exchanges are then processed . relaxed,
pinned, neatly spread, and labeled ... by Heitzman and several
other research associates, notably Harry O. Hilton and C. F.
Zeiger, and then given to Dr. Frank Mead for incorporation into
the Florida state collection. This accelerating program will add
many species to the Florida state collection over the next several
years.
Heitzman, in addition to collecting, processing, and identifying
hundreds of Lepidoptera each year which he donates to the
Florida state collection, processes many additional Lepidoptera
which are sent to him by the curator of the Florida collection,
including 7,200 "papered" Lepidoptera acquired as a part of the
Florence M. Grimshawe Collection.
Dr. Thomas C. Emmel, who is pursuing a long range,
grant-supported study of population biology, life histories,
evolution, genetics, ecology, and taxonomy of Nearctic and
Neotropical butterflies, especially the Satyridae, is accumulating
thousands of Lepidoptera, which are to be contributed to the
Florida state collection as his studies on the various groups of
material are completed.
Gerd H. Heinrich completed the basic phase of a faunistic
survey of the Ichneumoninae of Florida and the West Indies and
submitted a manuscript based on this study which will be
published as a volume in the Arthropods of Florida and
Neighboring Land Areas series. Financial support for this study
was provided by the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. It will be continued for several years and
expanded to include other Southeastern states. As a by-product of
the field work, Heinrich collected aid dry-preserved over 3,000
selected insects other than Ichneumoninae; 1,366 of these have
been added to the Florida state collection, including 602 Diptera
and 734 Hymenoptera. Additional material will be submitted
later.
Dr. Kenneth A. Spencer and Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., completed
the basic phase of a faunistic survey of the Agromyzidae of







Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 85

Florida and the West Indies and submitted a manuscript based on
this study, which will be published in the Arthropods of Florida
and Neighboring Land Areas series. Financial support for the
study was provided by the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services and by the Department of Entomology and
Nematology of the University of Florida. The study will be
continued for several years and expanded to include other
Southeastern states. In October 1958, Dr. Spencer came to Florida
from London, England, and spent three weeks collecting
Agromyzidae (leaf-, stem-, and seed-mining Diptera) throughout
much of the state. He anticipates pursuing additional field work in
Florida and other Southeastern states during the next several
years. Stegmaier, who has conducted extensive field and labora-
tory studies of Agromyzidae in Southern Florida for more than six
years, is continuing these studies, which have already produced
many new host records, added dozens of species of Agromyzidae
to the Florida checklist, and have uncovered several new species
which have been described by Dr. Spencer.
During the biennium the Thysanoptera collection and associ-
ated files of the late Professor J. R. Watson were transferred from
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in
Gainesville to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. This
fine research collection, consisting of 22,109 slide mounts
representing 496 species, has been carefully cleaned and added
into the state collection.
During the biennium many thousands of specimens were sent
to specialists for study and/or identification or for verification of
identifications made by staff entomologists before these specimens
are added to the permanent collection. Many specialists have
worked on material in their respective groups during this period.
Among those who made particularly noteworthy contributions
are: *Dr. Lewis Berner, Dr. G. E. Bohart, Dr. R. M. Bohart, *Dr.
B. A. Foote, *F. C. Harmston, *Dr. L. A. Hetrick, Dr. M. T.
James, *Mrs. Elisabeth Beck, Dr. W. D. Duckworth, Dr. D. R.
Davis, *Dr. D. H. Habeck, Dr. Lloyd Knutson, Dr. R. W. Hodges,
Dr. J. L. Herring, Dr. R. C. Froeschner, Dr. J. P. Kramer, J. N.
Knull, *C. P. Kimball, *J. R. Heitzman, Dr. John Davidson, Dr. E.
E. Lindquist, Dr. W. E. LaBerge, Dr. W. H. Levi, Dr. E. G.
MacLeod, Dr. Michael Kosztarab, Dr. F. M. Marsh, Dr. D. J. Miller,
*Dr. M. H. Muma, Steve Nakahara, Dr. C. B. Philip, *Dr. John

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








86 Division of Plant Industry

Reiskind, Dr. Vincent Roth, Miss L. M. Russell, Dr. C. W.
Sabrosky, *Dr. K. A. Spencer, G. C. Steyskal, Dr. P. H.
Timberlake, Dr. A. N. Tissot, K. R. Valley, *Dr. T. J. Walker, *Dr.
M. J. Westfall, Jr., *Joe Wilcox, C. E. White, M. L. Williams, R. F.
Wilkey, and Dr. D. A. Young, Jr.

Research Associates of the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods
(Effective 1 October 1970)

1. Dr. Ross H. Arnett, Department of Entomology, Purdue University,
Lafayette, Indiana 47905. (Coleoptera: Oedemeridae of the world;
Elateridae of the Neotropics)
2. Dr. Richard M. Baranowski, Entomologist, University of Florida Sub-
tropical Experiment Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1,
Homestead, Florida 33030. (Biology and taxonomy of Hemiptera,
especially of Florida)
3. Dr. Joseph A. Beatty, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois
University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901. (Spiders of North America,
especially of the southeastern United States)
4. Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck, Biologist, Bureau of Entomology, Division of
Health, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, P.
O. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201. (Insects of medical
importance, especially adult Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae of
Florida)
5. Mr. William M. Beck, Jr., Biologist, Department of Air and Water
Pollution Control, 300 Tallahassee Bank Building, 315 S. Calhoun
Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32301. (Ecology and taxonomy of
insects of public health importance, especially of immatures in
relation to pollution of water resources)
6. Dr. Allen H. Benton, Department of Biology, Fredonia State College,
Fredonia, New York 14063. (Ecology, distribution and host
relationships of Siphonaptera; life history of small mammals; wildlife
management; conservation education)
7. Dr. Lewis Berner, Chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, and
Interim Director, Division of Biological Sciences, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Ephemeroptera of North
America, especially of the southeastern United States; bottom
dwelling insects of large rivers of the South East)
8. Mr. Dale R. Birkenmeyer, USDA Insects Affecting Man and Animals
Laboratory, 1600 S. W. 23rd Drive, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32601. (Blacklight trapping of insects of Southern
Rhodesia; tsetse flies; fire ants; chemosterilization)

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 87

9. Dr. Franklin S. Blanton, Entomologist, IFAS Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
(Insects of public health importance, especially Ceratopogonidae of
Middle America; taxonomy of Culicidae; taxonomy of Tephritidae
and other Diptera; ornamental insect control)
10. Mr. Don Bryne, Suwannee Laboratory, Route 5, Box 249-B, Lake City,
Florida 32055. (Exotic insects and other arthropods, especially
Lepidoptera; arthropods of Mexico, Central America, and South
America; cacti)
11. Dr. Nell B. Causey, 145 Audubon Hall, Zoology and Physiology
Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
70803. (Systematics of Diplopoda)
12. Mr. Harry K. Clench, Section of Insects and Spiders, Carnegie Museum,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213. (New World Lycaenidae; classifica-
tion of Lycaenidae; African Lycaenidae; butterfly zoogeography;
butterfly behavior; West Indian butterflies)
13. Dr. C. Howard Curran, 1302 Peters Drive, Leesburg, Florida 32748.
(Taxonomy of Diptera; medical and economic entomology; weed
control)
14. Mr. Terhune S. Dickel, Talla Villa Apartments, Apartment B-8, 925 E.
Magnolia Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32301. (Lepidoptera; butterfly
migrations)
15. Dr. Thomas W. Donnelly, Department of Geology, Harpur College State
University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13901.
(Systematics, Life histories, and distribution of Odonata of the
world, especially of Latin America and the West Indies)
16. Mr. Byrd K. Dozier, 32 Corydon Drive, Miami Spring, Florida 33166.
(Coleoptera of the New World; Buprestidae of the world)
17. Mr. Herbert L. Dozier, Jr., Assistant to the Director for Cooperative
Relations, USDA, ARS, Pesticides Regulation Division, Washington,
D.C. 20560. Send mail to home address: 3715 Marlbrough Way,
College Park, Maryland 20740. (Taxonomy of several families of
Coleoptera, especially Coccinellidae)
18. Mr. Peter C. Drummond, IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
(Systematics of terrestrial and littoral Isopoda, especially of Florida
and the West Indies)
19. Dr. William G. Eden, Chairman, IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology, 3103 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32601. (Entomology and Nematology; administration)
20. Dr. Thomas C. Emmel, Assistant Professor, Department of Biological
Sciences, 12 Flint Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32601. (Population biology, life histories, evolution, genetics,
ecology of Rhopalocera; taxonomy of Nearctic and Neotropical
groups, especially the Satyridae)








88 Division of Plant Industry

21. Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, P. O. Box 2016,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, Panama. (Tabanidae of the world,
especially of the Neotropics; Psychodidae: Phlebotomus of the
world)
22. Mr. Edward G. Farnworth, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
3103 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32601. (Tropical Lampyridae, especially behavior)
23. Dr. Ben A. Foote, Department of Biological Sciences, 265 McGilvrey
Hall, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240. (Systematics of
Diptera, especially Sciomyzidae, Chloropidae, Otitidae, Tephritidae,
and Micropezidae; ecology and life cycles of acalyptrate Diptera)
24. Mr. William G. Genung, Entomologist, University of Florida Everglades
Experiment Station, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade, Florida 33430.
(Biology, ecology, and control of insects of vegetable crops, field
crops, and pastures)
25. Mr. Glen R. Gibbs, 9271 Marine Drive, Miami, Florida 33157. (Lepidop-
tera of southern Florida)
26. Dr. Dale H. Habeck, Associate Entomologist, IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, 201 Entomology and Nematology
Research Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32601. (Ecology and taxonomy of Nitidulidae; immature
Lepidoptera of North America; Arctiidae, Noctuidae and
Stenomidae of North America; biology and control of vegetable
insects; plant resistance to insects)
27. Dr. Gonzalo Halffter, Laboratorio de Sinecologia y Biogeographia,
Departamento de Biologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas,
Institute Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 17, D. F. (Taxonomy of
Scarabaeidae, especially Coprinae of North America and Mexico,
zoogeography, ecology, and behavior of Coleoptera)
28. Mr. Fred C. Harmston, 1940 Larkspur Drive, Fort Collins, Colorado
80521. (Taxonomy of Dolichopodidae and Culicidae of North and
Central America; vector control associated with water resource
projects; Colorado tick fever, tularemia)
29. Mr. Donny Lee Harris, Insect Ecologist, Tall Timbers Research Station,
Route 1, Box 160, Tallahassee, Florida 32303. (Carabidae; habitat
manipulation)
30. Mr. Edwin I. Hazard, Insects Affecting Man & Animals Laboratory,
USDA, 1600 S. W. 23rd Drive, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32601. (Coleoptera, especially Chrysomelidae; Culicidae;
Corydalidae; insect pathology; microsporidian diseases of insects;
Protozoa)
31. Mr. Gerd H. Heinrich, Dryden, Maine 04225. (Ichneumoninae of the
world; birds of Africa, Europe, and Asia)
32. Mr. J. Richard Heitzman, 3112 Harris Avenue, Independence, Missouri
64052. (Nearctic Lepidoptera, primarily Rhopalocera; life histories
of Nearctic Lepidoptera, especially Hesperiidae; fossil Lepidoptera;
photography of insects; identification of Nearctic Lepidoptera)








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 89

33. Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick, Entomologist, IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, 3103 McCarty Hall, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Forest insects and wood
products infesting insects, especially Isoptera)
34. Mrs. William H. (Shirley) Hills, Route 2, Box 276, Mason Road, Durham,
North Carolina 27705. (Lepidoptera of the southeastern United
States; Cerambycidae)
35. Mr. Harry O. Hilton, P. O. Box 144, Shalimar, Florida 32579.
(Lepidoptera of the southeastern United States and Mexico; insect
photography)
36. Mr. Ronald L. Huber, 3205 Century Avenue North, St. Paul, Minnesota
55110. (Cicindelidae)
37. Dr. Fred Clifford Johnson, II, Associate Professor, Department of
Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Biology
of Odonata)
38. Mr. Roy O. Kendall, 135 Vaughan Place, San Antonio, Texas 78201.
(Life histories spatial and temporal distribution of Rhopalocera of
Texas and contiguous land areas; interests include larval food plants,
parasites, predators, diapause, chromosomes, and migratory habit)
39. Mr. Charles P. Kimball, West Barnstable, Massachusetts 02668 (summer
address); 7340 Point of Rocks Road, Sarasota, Florida 33851
(winter address). (Lepidoptera of North and Central America,
especially of Florida)
40. Mr. Harold L. "Verne" King, P. O. Box 1322 Christobal, Canal Zone,
Panama. (Lepidoptera of North and Central America and the West
Indies, especially Lycaenidae)
41. Dr. Louis C. Kuitert, Entomologist, IFAS Department of Entomology
and Nematology, 206 Newell Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32601. (Aquatic Hemiptera of North America; biology and
control of tobacco, peach, truck crop, pasture and ornamental
insects of Florida.
42. Dr. James N. Layne, Director of Research, Archbold Biological Station,
Route 2, Box 380, Lake Placid, Florida 33852. (Ecology, behavior,
and physiology of mammals; general vertebrate biology; host and
geographic distribution of Florida Siphonaptera and other parasitic
arthropods)
43. Dr. James E. Lloyd, Associate Entomologist, IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, 3103 McCarty Hall, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Taxonomy, ecology, and
behavior of Lampyridae and other luminescent insects)
44. Mr. Harold F. Loomis, 5355 S. W. 92nd Street, Miami, Florida 33156.
(Taxonomy of western hemisphere Diplopoda; genetics of corn and
cotton and phytopathology of the latter; agronomic studies of
tropical crop plants, especially rubber, coffee, cacao, and miscel-
laneous drug plants)
45. Dr. John D. McCrone, Assistant Dean, Graduate School, University of








90 Division of Plant Industry
the Pacific, Stockton, California 95202. (Taxonomy and ecology of
spiders, especially the genus Latrodectus; chemistry and toxicity of
spider and scorpion venoms)
46. Mr. John W. McReynolds, P. O. Box 182, Nevada, Missouri 64772.
(Insects in general, especially Carabidae and Cicadidae; Calosoma of
the world)
47. Dr. Ellis G. MacLeod, Department of Entomology, University of Illinois,
Urbana, Illinois 61801. (Larvae and adults of Nearctic Neuroptera;
Megaloptera of the world; Rhaphidioidea; Mecoptera; Lepidoptera;
Nearctic Papilionoidea)
48. Mr. Bryant Mather, Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180. (Lepidop-
tera, especially of Mississippi; Trichoptera and Neuroptera of
Mississippi; insect variation, distribution in time and space)
49. Dr. Edward L. Mockford, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois
State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 61761. (Systematics and
biology of Psocoptera of the world, especially of the New World)
50. Dr. Martin H. Muma, Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus
Experiment Station, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850.
(Biological control of citrus insects and mites; taxonomy and
biology of mites; taxonomy, biology and behavior of Arachnida
(spiders, solpugids, scorpions))
51. Dr. Gayle H. Nelson, Department of Anatomy, Kansas City College of
Osteopathy and Surgery, 2105 Independence Avenue, Kansas City,
Missouri 64124. (Coleoptera: especially the biology and taxonomy
of Buprestidae)
52. Mr. John Nordin, Box 458, Webster, South Dakota 57274. (Lepidoptera,
especially Hesperiidae; ecology)
53. Dr. Jose M. Osorio, Carrera 21, No. 10-66, Barquisimeto, Edo Lara,
Venezuela. (Venezuelan insects)
54. Dr. Dennis R. Paulson, Department of Zoology, University of Washing-
ton, Seattle, Washington 91805. (Systematics, zoogeography,
ecology, behavior, and life history of Odonata of North and Central
America; systematics and ecology of Vertebrata, especially
Amphibia, Reptilia, and Aves)
55. Dr. William L. Peters, Associate Professor of Entomology, P. O. Box 111,
School of Agriculture and Home Economics, Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307. (Higher
classification of Ephemeroptera; ecology and life history of North
Florida Ephemeroptera)
56. Dr. John E. Porter, Scientist Director, United States Quarantine Station,
Public Health Service, 1015 Port Boulevard, Room 124, New Port of
Miami, Miami, Florida 33132. (Ecology and biology of arthropods
of medical importance, especially Culicidae; quarantine entomology;
hackberry psyllids; mites associated with mosquitoes)








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 91

57. Dr. George W. Rawson, 10405 Amherst Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland
20902. (Lepidoptera; chemistry of insects pigments)
58. Dr. Walfried J. Reinthal, 4026 Sequoyah Avenue, Knoxville, Tennessee
37919. (Ecology, systematics, and distribution of Rhopalocera,
especially Asterocampa: United States, Mexico, Central America,
Caribbean area, and Europe)
59. Dr. Jonathan Reiskind, Assistant Professor, Department of Biological
Sciences and Department of Zoology, 428 Life Sciences Building,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Systematics,
ecology, and behavior of Arachnida, especially Clubionidae;
mimicry)
60. Mr. Kilian Roever, P. O. Box 2191, 734 E. SP Drive, Phoenix, Arizona
85001. (Lepidoptera, especially Rhopalocera, Hesperiodidea,
Sphingidae, Theclinae)
61. Mr. Joe Schuh, 4039 Shasta Way, Klamath Falls, Oregon 79601. (Insects
of North America, especially of Oregon; Hemiptera; Coleoptera;
agricultural insect control)
62. Mr. Charles E. Seiler, University of Florida Everglades Experiment
Station, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade, Florida 33430. (Biology and
ecology of Hymenoptera, especially Sphecidae and Pompilidae)
63. Dr. Kenneth A. Spencer, 10 Willow Road, London, N.W. 3, England.
(Diptera: biology, taxonomy, and Zoogeography of Agromyzidae of
the world)
64. Mr. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., 11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida
33012. (Life history and ecology of Tephritidae, Chloropidae, and
leaf-, stem-, and seed-mining Agromyzidae and Lepidoptera of
Florida and their parasites)
65. Dr. Karl J. Stone, Division of Science, Minot State College, Minot, North
Dakota 58701. (Taxonomy and natural history of spiders; biological
control)
66. Mr. Gayle Strickland, 1744 Brocade Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
70815. (Lepidoptera, including distribution, life histories)
67. Mr. William B. Tappan, Associate Entomologist, University of Florida
North Florida Experiment Station, P. O. Box 470, Quincy, Florida
32351. (Biology and control of insects and nematodes attacking
shade-grown, cigar-wrapper tobacco)
68. Mr. Dade W. Thornton, 3226 N. W. llth Court, Miami, Florida 33137.
(Coleoptera of North and Central America and the West Indies;
photography)
69. Mr. Karl R. Valley, Department of Entomology and Limnology, Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York 14850. (Biology and life history of
acalyptrate Diptera)








Division of Plant Industry


70. Dr. Thomas J. Walker, Jr., Entomologist, IFAS Department of Ento-
mology Nematology, 3103 McCarty Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Taxonomy of ensiferan Orthoptera;
insect acoustics)
71. Dr. Howard K. Wallace, Professor, Department of Zoology, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Araneida, especially Lycosidae
and Salticidae of the eastern U.S.)
72. Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr., Associate Professor in Biological Sciences,
Zoology and Entomology, Department of Biological Sciences, 210
Flint Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
(Taxonomy, life history, ecology, zoogeography, and behavior of
Odonata, especially of the New World)
73. Dr. Willard H. Whitcomb, Entomologist, IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, USDA Insect
Attractants Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, P. O.
Box 14565, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Biological and integrated
control of arthropods, especially with reference to Florida;
taxonomy and ecology of spiders and ants)
74. Mr. Joseph Wilcox, 21171 Mohler Place, Anaheim, California 92806.
(Asilidae of North America, Mydidae of the world)
75. Dr. Nixon Wilson, Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa,
Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613. (Vertebrate ectoparasites, especially
Ixodidae)
76. Dr. Willis W. Wirth, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, c/o U.
S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560. (Systematics of
Diptera, especially aquatics, Ceratopogonidae, Ephydridae, and
Chironomidae)
77. Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, Entomologist, University of Florida Sub-tropical
Experiment Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead,
Florida 33030. (Truck crop, ornamentals, and tropical fruit insects;
insect dispersion)
78. Mr. Charles F. Zeiger, 3751 Sommers Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205.
(Lepidoptera of North and Central America; insect associated with
aquatic plants)








Twenty-Eighth Biennial Report 93

PUBLICATIONS BY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES
OF THE FLORIDA STATE COLLECTION OF ARTHROPODS

Arnett, Ross H. 1968. Nomenclatural changes in Oedemeridae (Coleoptera).
Ent. News 79: 192-193.

S1968. Measurement of adventitious sound produced by some stored
product insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 61: 1170-1172.

S1968. Blister beetle; Boll weevil; Bombardier beetle; Borer; Burying
beetle; Carpet beetle; Chafer. Encyclopedia Americana 4: 81, 174,
187, 271;5: 37, 703; 6: 233.

SE. C. Mignot, and E. H. Smith. 1969. North American Coleoptera
fauna: Notes on Pyrophorinae, Elateridae. Coleopterists' Bull. 22:
9-15.

,G. A. Samuelson, et al. 1969. Directory of Coleoptera collections of
North America. Center for study of Coleoptera, 123p.

1969. Determination of host plant of pollen-feeding beetles through
pollen association. Year Book, Am. Philos. Soc.: 285-286.

S1970. Three previously unrecognized New World species of Oxacis
(Coleoptera: Oedemeridae). Ent. News 81: 50 (Data Document
3.0221, ISNS, 6 p.

1970. Data documents: a new publication plan for systematic
entomology. Ent. News 81: 1-11.

1970. The type locality and the study of natural populations. Ent.
News 81: 95-100

Baranowski, Richard M. 1968. Research on the Caribbean fruit fly at the
Sub-tropical Experiment Station. Nurserymen's Buyers Guide and
Bull. 13(6): 7-8.

S1969. Ally found in fight against Caribbean fruit fly. Sunshine State
Agr. Res. Report 14(6): 10-11.

1969. Control of a leafhopper, Empoasca krameri, by various
methods of applying systemic insecticides to pole beans. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 82: 134-136. (Journal Series 3375)

and Richard C. Froeschner (senior author). 1970. First United States
records for a West Indian burrower bug, Amnestus trimaculatus
Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). Florida Ent. 53(1): 15. (Journal
Series No. 3500)

Beatty, Joseph A. 1970. The spider genus Ariadna in the Americas (Araneae,
Dysderidae). Bull. of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 39(8):
433-518.








94 Division of Plant Industry

Beck, Elisabeth C., and W. M. Beck, Jr. 1969. The Chironomidae of Florida.
II. The nuisance species. Florida Ent. 52(1): 1-11.

and W. M. Beck, Jr. 1969. Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida. III.
The Harnischia complex (Chironomidae). Bull. Fla. State Museum
13(5): 277-313.

Beck, William M., Jr. 1969. Stream monitoring biological parameters.
Florida's Envir. Engineering Conf. on Water Pollution Control. Bull.
No. 135: 1-168.

Berner, Lewis J. 1968. Ephemeroptera (in Keys to Water Quality Indicative
Organisms (Southeastern United States), F. K. Parrish, ed.): 1-10;
illus., Dept. of Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Ad-
ministration.

Blanton, Franklin S., Mabel O. Wirth (senior author), and Willis W. Wirth.
1968. Plant materials as breeding places of Panama Culicoides
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 70: 132.

and Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1968. A revision of the
Neotropical biting midges of the Hylas group of Culicoides (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent. 51(4): 201-215.

Sand Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1969. A new Culicoides species
from Guyana (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent. 51(4):
251-252.

Sand Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1969. New species and records
of Culicoides from Western North America. (Diptera: Ceratopogoni-
dae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 71(4): 556-567;

and Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1969. North American
Culicoides of the Pulicaris group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).
Florida Ent. 52(4): 207-243.

and Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1969. A new Nearctic species of
the genus Paradasyhelea Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Pan-
Pacific Entomologist 45: 97-100.

and Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1970. New genera of Neo-
tropical Ceratopogonidae (Diptera). Florida Ent. 53(1): 7-14.

and Willis W. Wirth (senior author). 1970. New species of Neo-
tropical Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent. 53(2):
93-104.

Causey, Nell B. and Darwin Tiemann. 1969. A revision of the bioluminescent
millipeds of the genus Motyxia (Xystodesmidae, Polydesmida). Proc.
Am. Philos. Soc. 113(1): 14-33; 20f.

1969. New trichopetalid (Chordeumidea: Chordeumida) millipeds




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