Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Report of the division directo...
 Grades and standards program
 Information and education
 Apiary inspection section
 Citrus budwood registration...
 Entomology section
 Methods development section
 Nematology section
 Plant inspection section
 Grove inspection and citrus...
 Imported fire ant
 Turf grass certification progr...
 White fringed beetle program
 Citrus nursery site selection
 Fruit and vegetable certificat...
 Plant pathology section
 Special programs section
 Personnel training program
 Spreading decline program
 Staff publications

Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00005
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1966-1968
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 39th (July 1, 1990-June 30, 1992).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01242950
alephbibnum - 001511744
lccn - sn 86001883
lccn - sn 86001883
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Report of the division director
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Grades and standards program
        Page 9
    Information and education
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Apiary inspection section
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Citrus budwood registration section
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Entomology section
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Methods development section
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Nematology section
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Plant inspection section
        Page 107
    Grove inspection and citrus survey
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Imported fire ant
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Turf grass certification program
        Page 116
    White fringed beetle program
        Page 117
    Citrus nursery site selection
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Fruit and vegetable certification
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Plant pathology section
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Special programs section
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Personnel training program
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Spreading decline program
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Staff publications
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
Full Text

Division of Plant Industry



.. i~130, 1968

JUL 1 6169

Doyle Conner, Commissioner


Doyle Conner, Commissioner

Division of Plant Industry


Biennial Report

July 1, 1966 June 30, 1968

k, O RI

DOYLE CONNER, Commissioner


Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
Florida Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32601



Vernon Conner
P. O. Box 183
Mount Dora, Florida

Industry Represented


Colin English, Sr.
Lewis State Bank Building
Tallahassee, Florida

W. R. "Bill" McMullen
3422 Jean Circle
Tampa, Florida

N. Curtis Peterson, Jr.
225 New Auburndale Road
Lakeland, Florida




Stuart Simpson
P. O. Box 160
Monticello, Florida

Foster Shi Smith
905 West Madison Street
Starke, Florida

Felix H. Uzzell
Route 1, Box 57
Sebring, Florida

Roy Vandegrift, Jr.
Star Route, Box 13-E
Canal Point, Florida






Doyle Conner, Commissioner .......... .....---- -.- Tallahassee

Chester F. Blakemore, Executive Assistant -.............Tallahassee

Harold H. Hoffman, Assistant Commissioner ...-.....Tallahassee

Thomas J. Chapman
Director, Agricultural Information ....................Tallahassee


Administrative Staff

Halwin L. Jones, Division Director............................-- Gainesville
Paul E. Frierson, Assistant Director...............-...........Gainesville
Vernon W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer.........................-...Gainesville
Robert L. Meeker, Information Officer............................Gainesville
G. Doniford Bridges,
Chief, Citrus Budwood Section.......................Winter Haven
Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section..........Gainesville
Gerald G. Norman,
Chief, Methods Development Section-...............Gainesville
Philip M. Packard, Chief, Apiary Section....................Gainesville
Charles Poucher,
Chief, Special Programs Section........................Winter Haven
Carter P. Seymour,
Chief, Plant Pathology Section...............................Gainesville
Charles E. Shepard,
Chief, Plant Inspection Section..................... Gainesville
(Unfilled), Chief, Nematology Section..........-.........Gainesville



REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR...................................... ............. 1

Fiscal .............................................................................. 5

Grades and Standards ............................................................. ............ 9

Information and Education .................................................................... 10

Library ...... ........................................ ............. .. .............---- -- 13

APIARY INSPECTION SECTION ........................................... ................... 16

CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION SECTION ............................-................. 21

E NTOM OLOGY SECTION ............................................................. ................... 29

METHODS DEVELOPMENT SECTION ................................................ ............... 70

N EM ATOLOGY SECTION ...................................................................................... 76

PLANT INSPECTION SECTION .............................................................. 107

Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey ...................................................... 108

Im ported F ire A nt ...................................................................................... 114

Turf Grass Certification Program ............................ ......................... 116

White Fringed Beetle Programs ................................ ......................... 117

Citrus Nursery Site Selection .................................................................. 118

Fruit and Vegetable Certification ............................. ....................... 121

PLANT PATHOLOGY SECTION .............................................................................. 123

SPECIAL PROGRAMS SECTION .............................................................................. 153

Fruit Fly Detection Program ............................................................. 153

Personnel Training Program ................................ ............. ............ 161

Spreading Decline Program ........................................... .................... 164

STAFF PUBLICATIONS .................... ....... .................. 172

PERSONNEL ..............---...-.....--.....---- ......-------- -------- ............. 176

Gainesville, Florida

Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

Sir: I have the honor to present herewith my report for the
biennium ending June 30, 1968.


y (Ox?

Division of Plant Industry

Report of the Division Director

In January 1968 the Division moved into its first permanent
home, the Doyle Conner Building in Gainesville.
The $840,000, 36,000-square-foot structure put under one roof
some 65 scientists, technicians, and regulatory and administra-
tive personnel formerly housed in two floors of the John F.
Seagle Building and a small laboratory, both in Gainesville, and a
rented office in Winter Haven.
Office space is provided in the single story structure for the
Administration, Apiary, Plant Inspection and Methods Develop-
ment Sections. It includes a technical library and facilities for
the Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology Sections. The
Florida State Collection of Arthropods which numbers some 400,-
000 specimens is also maintained in the Conner Building.
Construction of a $125,000 warehouse-greenhouse complex is
scheduled to begin during the next biennium.
Incidents of major importance during the 1966-68 biennium
include the first reduction of burrowing nematode infestations
since the commencement of the burrowing nematode control pro-
gram in July 1955; the investigation of the Caribbean fruit fly,
Anastrepha suspense (Loew); and an eradication study during
control measures against the imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevis-
sima richteri (Forel).
Division apiary inspectors examined a record 416,326 colonies
in 12,856 apiaries, finding 3,480 colonies in 1,065 apiaries in-
fected with American foulbrood. The Section issued 319 permits
for 71,361 colonies to move into Florida from out of state; Flor-
ida beekeepers were issued 1,655 moving permits and 143 certifi-
cates of inspection.
Thorough inspection services provided by Apiary Section per-
sonnel are credited with playing a major role in helping Florida
remain the third largest honey producing state in the nation.
Problems with exocortis and tristeza viruses determined
major work areas for the Citrus Budwood Registration Section.
A major change in policy for handling tristeza infection at the
Division's Foundation Grove was necessary. Previously, tris-
teza tests for each Foundation Grove tree were begun at approxi-
mately six-month intervals and infected trees were removed as
soon as discovered. But when more than ten per cent of the en-
tire planting became infected during the biennium it was de-
cided it would be impractical to continue efforts to maintain

Division of Plant Industry

tristeza-free planting at that location. Infected trees, therefore,
will no longer be removed.
More than 23,000 separate tests were established to deter-
mine the exocortis status of planted bud-source trees following a
USDA research finding which threw the validity of virus tests
conducted since 1954 into question.
The federal research report showed that it was possible to
infect citrus trees with exocortis virus by means of contamina-
ted budding and pruning tools.
Some 400 budded citrus trees were planted to maintain a
tristeza-free source of important Foundation nucellar budlines.
The planting's potential value is demonstrated by the fact that it
includes propagations from Florida's only known virus-free
sources of Ruby Red grapefruit, Minneola tangelo, Navel and
Lue Gim Gong oranges.
At the request of leaders within the citrus nursery industry,
criteria for producing "Premium Quality Citrus Nursery Stock"
have been established and now await a more normal economic
situation for implementation.
Efforts to develop usable horticultural information on regis-
tered citrus clones continued by utilizing the Foundation Grove
and cooperative plantings with research agencies and private
Division entomologists made 26,026 identifications during the
biennium. An identification may consist of one or many speci-
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods contains 430,000
pinned and processed specimens and approximately 13,000 vials
of specimens in alcohol. Several major collections and many
grouped donations were acquired from museums, individuals and
official research associates.
Citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri (Comstock), continued to
spread into the southern counties being planted to citrus.
The pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, has appar-
ently been eradicated from the West Palm Beach area.
The Methods Development Section has completed an exhaus-
tive investigation of the practical uses of infrared photography
which has shown promise in fulfilling the required improve-
ments. Infrared techniques are now ready for implementation
where applicable on a limited scale.
The use of ultra-violet light as a plant disease detection tool
proved useful in a survey for stubborn disease of citrus. Al-
though the disease has been reputed to exist in Florida, its pres-

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

ence became doubtful when disease symptoms failed to appear
in selected fruits examined under an ultra-violet light.
In April 1967 the Methods Development Section hosted the
first "National Workshop on Color Photography in the Plant
Sciences" in Winter Haven.
The Nematology Section processed and diagnosed 13,894
samples. Examination and diagnosis of 347 samples were made
in cooperation with the Plant Pathology Section.
Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was recovered
and identified from samples taken in soybean fields in Escambia
An extensive survey for the golden nematode in Florida
proved negative, but cactus cyst nematode was found for the first
time. Nurseries hosting the pest have since been treated and it
is hoped that with continued proper nursery sanitation proce-
dures, recurrence of a severe problem involving cactus cyst
nematode can be prevented.
A total of 2,077 turf samples was examined for nematodes,
with 90 samples failing to pass certification requirements.
After more than six years of continuous activity serving the
Apopka area and surrounding counties, the Reniform Nematode
Program discontinued operations from its mobile laboratory.
Throughout its existence, the laboratory had been a valuable ex-
tension of the regulatory investigations of the Section.
During the second year of the biennium these operations
were centralized in Gainesville and amalgamated with the other
activities of the Section. The total number of samples processed
and examined by the Reniform Program during the biennium
was 2,334, taken from 94 properties.
Host testing was continued with the grass cyst nematode, the
pseudo-root-knot nematode of turf, and the burrowing nematode.
The nursery industry of Florida started a downward trend
following the peak years of 1964-65. Overproduction created
after the 1962 freeze and low market values of citrus were re-
sponsible for a decline in nursery statistics.
The amount of nursery stock in the state at the end of the
1964-66 period totaled 387,332,842 plants, in comparison to the
334,408,934 recorded at the completion of this biennium. The
number of nurseries under inspection also decreased from 5,018
to 4,213 during the same period.
A new system of citrus survey was begun, utilizing aerial
photography to chart and determine the citrus acreages in Flor-

Division of Plant Industry

ida. The plan calls for photographing the citrus areas every
other year.
A control program against the imported fire ant, which in-
fests approximately 14 million acres in Florida, was continued in
cooperation with the USDA. Some 4.3 million aggregate acres
were treated during the biennium; this figure includes acreage in
a cooperative treatment program between the state and farm
property owners.
A record-breaking 11,444,281 square feet of certified turf-
grass was sold by growers during the biennium. 'Floratine' St.
Augustine continues to be the most popular single variety, ac-
counting for nearly 50 per cent of total sales.
The Plant Pathology Section processed 8,455 plant specimens
during the biennium.
A significant increase in citrus virus indexing is reflected in
the completion of 36,812 tests during the two-year period. The
increase is attributed mainly to the continued indexing of tris-
teza, exocortis and psorosis for the Citrus Budwood Program and
the diagnosis of diseases of citrus, orchids, bromiliads, and fruit
and nut crops.
Specimens of foliage plants, woody ornamentals, trees, turf-
grasses, bulbs and other crops not specifically assigned were
processed at the new Gainesville laboratory.
Highlights of the biennium for the Section included the trans-
mission of the causal agent of lethal yellowing of coconut,
strongly suggesting a virus; the in-depth study of the cause of
root rot in pine seedling nurseries, separating charcoal rot from
a commonly used descriptive name, black root rot; and investiga-
tion evaluating the proficiency of seven sensitive citron clones for
their response to exocortis.
The Section also participated in a survey for sugar cane leaf
scald, Xanthomonas albilineans, in the Belle Glade-Canal Point
Forty-two new diseases from Florida were reported by the
Section compared to 15 during the 1964-66 biennium and seven
in 1962-64.
The Caribbean fruit fly continued to be a major problem.
Since the fly's detection in Dade County in 1965, a continuous ef-
fort has been directed toward defining its area of infestation,
and the development of lures and control measures.
Approximately 200 acres in the Ft. Pierce area were found
infested, primarily grapefruit, but also including a few finds
in some late season oranges.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Citrus in general, however, is not a preferred host of the
pest, which seems prone to restrict itself to non-commercial
crops. Twenty-eight counties were infested at the close of the
The first reduction in burrowing nematode infestations since
the 1955 start of the Division's control program against the pest
was recorded during the biennium.
The nematode causes spreading decline, one of the most im-
portant diseases affecting citrus in Florida. The nematode feeds
on protoplasm of the thin feeder roots of citrus trees.
The Department allocated $823,103 to carry on the fight to
control and where possible to eradicate burrowing nematode.
Due to limited funds available, push and treat was carried
out only in instances where the state found the method cheaper
than establishing or maintaining a buffer.
The state and growers pushed and treated 225 infested com-
mercial properties totaling 1,856 acres. Forty new buffers
were established with a total of 103,051 linear feet. Forty pre-
viously existing buffers, comprising 119,435 linear feet, were dis-
continued due to the infestations being pushed and treated. The
new buffers encircle 112 infested commercial groves.
The Division now maintains 302 buffers totaling 1,020,388
linear feet. These buffers encircle 856 infested groves and pro-
tect 1,112 non-infested groves.
Two training classes were graduated during the biennium.
The 16-week course was created in 1958 to train plant special-
ists in every phase of plant pest regulatory work. The trainees
are college graduates with degrees in agriculture or related sub-


V. W. VILLENEUVE, Fiscal Officer

Resources and Expenditures

A complete summary of available funds, allotments, and ex-
penditures, covering the estimated needs of the Division during
1966-67, 1967-68, and 1968-69, are contained in Tables 1, 2, and
3. This represents allocated funds, budgeted by the Department
of Agriculture from appropriations by the Florida Legislature.

Division of Plant Industry

Budget Requests

The Division Director presents in Table 4 the estimated costs
deemed necessary to carry out the Division's activities in a satis-
factory manner during the 1969-71 biennium. These expendi-
tures are based on currently anticipated receipts and costs, and
are subject to adjustments and approval of the Florida Legisla-
ture and the State Budget Commission.

Table 1. 1966-67 Allotments & Expenditures
1966-67 1966-67
Budget Allot- Total Expendi-
Reserve ments Available tures

..$ 133 $ 999,672
2 11,950
84 256,415
S 5 31,450
0 10,000

..$ 224 $1,309,487

Salaries ......................$ 0
0. P. S. ....................... 0
Expenses .................... 0
0 C. ........................ 50
Total ............................$ 50
Fire Ant Control
Salaries ......................$ 1,296
Expenses .................... 4
0 C . ........................
Total ............................$ 1,300
Fixed C. O.
Doyle Conner
Building ..................$ 289,124

Total General
Revenue .................$ 290,698
Inspection Fees ....$ 11,597
Fire Ant Control ...... 34,723
Citrus Cert.
For B. N. ................ 10,505
Total Trust Funds ....$ 56,825
ALL FUNDS ........$ 347,523

$ 54,968
$ 419,338

$ 26,622
$ 178,322

$ 999,539

$ 54,968
$ 419,288

$ 25,326
$ 177,022

$ 997,808

$ 53,838
$ 417,435

$ 23,954
$ 167,502

$ 814,705 $ 814,705 $ 525,581

$2,721,852 $2,724,278 $2,417,949

$ 83,280
$ 187,478

$ 88,495
$ 210,373

$ 76,898
$ 153,548

$2,909,330 $2,934,651 $2,571,497

General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries ....................
0 P. S. ......................
Expenses ..................
0. C. O ......................
Indemnities ..........
Total ..........................
Spreading Decline

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Table 2. 1967-68 Allotments & Expenditures

1967-68 1967-68
Budget Allot- Total Expendi-
Reserve ments Available tures

General Revenue

General Activities
Salaries ....................$
0. P. S ....................
Expenses ....................
0 C. .......................
Retirement ................
Indemnities ...........



Total ................................ 110,507

Spreading Decline
Salaries .....................$ 2,464
Expenses .................... 7,106
0. C. O ....................... 1,388
Retirement .............. 614

Total ............................. $ 11,572

Fire Ant Control
Salaries ....................$ 11,803
Expenses ...................... 1,128
Retirement ................ 1,130
Total .............................. $ 14,061
Fixed C. O.
Doyle Conner
Building .............$ 10,867
Doyle Conner
Building ................ 103,094

Total .............................$ $ 113,961
Fire Ant Eradication
O. P. S. ..................... $ 1,000
Expenses .................... 303,496
0. C. O. ...................... 4,650
Total .............................. 309,146
Total General
Revenue ....................$ 559,247
Inspection Fees ......$ 31,435
Fire Ant Control .... 1,939
Citrus Cert.
For B. N. .............. 10,505
Total Trust Funds ........$ 43,879
ALL FUNDS ............$ 603,126



$ 58,532

$ 385,200

$ 28,168

$ 130,534

$ 289,124


$ 414,124

$ 1,000

$ 720,041



$ 58,532

$ 385,200

$ 28,168

$ 130,534

$ 289,124

$ 414,124

$ 1,000

$ 720,041

$3,301,592 $3,301,592

$ 82,901


$ 128,901

$ 95,193


$ 132,143




$ 56,068
$ 373,628

$ 16,365
$ 116,473

$ 278,257


$ 300,163

$ 0

$ 614,854


$ 63,758


$ 98,769

$3,430,493 $3,433,735 $3,044,984

Division of Plant Industry

Table 3. 1968-69 Allotments & Expenditures

Estimated 1968-69 Estimated 1968-69
Budget Allot- Total Expendi-
Reserves ments Available tures

General Revenue

General Activities
Salaries .....................$
0. P. S. ......................
Expenses ....................
0. C. .....................
Retirement ..................


Indemnities ....... 0

Total .............................. $ 87,678
Spreading Decline
Salaries ...... ........$ 1,213
O. P. S. ..................... 0
Expenses .................... 7,106
0. C. O .................... 1,387
Retirement ................ 614

Total .............................. $ 10,320
Fire Ant Control
Salaries ......................$ 549
Expenses .................... 1,128
Retirement ................ 1,130

Total ................................$ 2,807
Fixed C. O.
Doyle Conner
Building ....................$ 10,868
Doyle Conner
Building .................. 0

Total ............................$ 10,868
Fire Ant Eradication
Expenses ....................$ 127,257
O. P. S. ........................ 0
O. C. ........................ 0

Total ...............................$ 127,257
Total General
Revenue ......................$ 238,930
Inspection Fees ....$ 31,435
Fire Ant Control .... 1,939
Citrus Cert.
For B.N. ................ 10,505

Total Trust Funds ........$ 43,879
ALL FUNDS ............$ 282,809




$ 59,464

$ 421,784

$ 26,928

$ 229,410

$ 103,094

$ 176,239

$ 181,889


$ 98,174


$ 110,674




$ 60,677
$ 432,104

$ 27,477

$ 232,217

$ 10,868

$ 113,962

$ 303,496

$ 309,146




$ 59,464

$ 423,171

$ 26,928

$ 229,410

$ 10,868

$ 113,962

$ 303,496

$ 309,146

$2,956,764 $2,872,716

$ 106,385


$ 123,385

$ 98,174

$ 110,674

$2,828,508 $3,080,149 $2,983,390

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 9

Table 4. 1969-71 Budget Requests
Estimated Requested Requested
Budget Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
Reserves 1969-70 1970-71
General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries & Retirement ..........$ 66,974 $1,599,176 $1,682,541
0. P. S. ...................................... 42,000 42,000
Expenses .................................. 397,650 401,050
0. C. 0. ...................................... 96,783 73,590
Apiarian Indemnities ............ 12,500 12,500
Total ..............................................$ 66,974 $2,148,109 $2,211,681
Spreading Decline
Salaries & Retirement ............$ 3,152 $ 75,174 $ 79,266
0. P. S. .................................... 1,000 1,000
Expenses .................................. 197,750 196,650
0. C. 0. .................................... 9,520 16,810
Total ..............................................$ 3,152 $ 283,444 $ 293,726
Fire Ant Control
Salaries & Retirement ..........$ 1,359 $ 32,511 $ 34,111
O. P. S. ...................................... 1,000 1,000
Expenses .................................. 200,000 197,250
0. C. 0. ...................................... 3,200 1,600
Total ..............................................$ 1,359 $ 236,711 $ 233,961
Fixed C. O.
Building & Improvements ....$ $ 118,129 $ 36,000
Total General Revenue ..............$ 71,485 $2,786,393 $2,775,368

Nursery Inspection Fees ......$ 191,517 $ 100,605 $ 90,912
Fire Ant Control .................... 30,000 20,000 10,000
Spreading Decline .................. 180,000 80,000 90,000
Total Trust Funds ......................$ 401,517 $ 200,605 $ 190,912
ALL FUNDS ..........................$ 473,002 $2,986,998 $2,966,280


C. S. BUSH, Nursery Grades Supervisor

At the request of the nursery industry, several species of or-
namental plants were placed under grade for the first time dur-
ing the biennium.
Addendums to the existing Grades and Standards manuals
included allowing smaller ball size in Butia capitata palms, plac-
ing Pyracantha coccinae var. low dense under Type B or spread-
ing, and placing Leucophylla texanum under Type C or globose.

Division of Plant Industry

These changes and additions have been published in the DPI
News Bulletin and distributed to those concerned.
A working relationship is maintained with the State Road De-
partment in conjunction with their highway beautification pro-
At the request of and for the benefit of landscape architects,
two insertions for contracts to be put on bid were written. These
should assist in the maintaining of quality plants even for species
not presently under grade.
Several articles for the promotion of the grades and stand-
ards program were written, including "Specify Palm Grades in
Contract" and "Landscape Errors Cause Needless Losses." Sev-
eral thousand copies of Price VS. Quality, a three page leaflet on
plant grades, were distributed.
Plant grading was further promoted by television appear-
ances in Tampa and Orlando and an exhibit at the Miami Flower
Talks and instructions on plant grading of ornamentals were
made at the Florida State Prison at Raiford (Grades and Stand-
ards was the theme for their annual flower show), the Garden
Club Show Judges of South Florida, the Executive Club of Ft.
Lauderdale, and the landscape architecture and nursery manage-
ment classes at the University of Florida.
In addition to grading publications, Native Trees and Plants
for Florida Landscaping, co-authored by the Nursery Grades Su-
pervisor and Mrs. Julia Morton, director of the Morton Collec-
tanea at the University of Miami, was published by the Depart-
ment during the biennium. This 133-page booklet gives informa-
tive data on soil preferences, location, availability, hardiness,
transplanting, propagation and the best use in Florida landscap-
ing for 87 native species.
At the request of the Department, another booklet is being
prepared on growing and selecting plants for Florida landscap-
ing. Publication is scheduled for next biennium.


ROBERT L. MEEKER, Information Officer

Information and Education Office personnel were responsible
for publications, press releases, feature articles, a quarterly tab-
loid newspaper; a monthly house organ; still, motion picture and
studio photography; black and white photo processing; visual

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

aids; exhibits; printing; and other duties assigned by the Divi-
sion Director.
The entire Section benefited greatly from the move to gener-
ous quarters in the Doyle Conner Building.

Publications Committee

The information officer served as chairman. Members were
Paul E. Frierson, assistant director; Carter P. Seymour, chief
plant pathologist; Kenneth R. Langdon, nematologist; Miss
Louise Henley, librarian; and Mrs. Lucy Loehle, administration
Committee members reviewed and edited the following major
publications which were published by the Division during the bi-

Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, Vol. 4,
Scorpions, Whip Scorpions and Wind Scorpions of Florida.
By Martin H. Muma.

Florida Plant Industry Law and Rules and Regulations.

Price vs. Quality, Ornamental Plant Grades and Standards.
By Charles S. Bush.

Burrowing Nematode in Citrus. By Charles Poucher, H. W.
Ford, R. F. Suit and E. P. DuCharme.

Major Fruit Flies of the World. By H. V. Weems, Jr.

Revision of the Genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904 (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae). By Harold A. Denmark.

Imported Fire Ant (Revised). By Ralph Brown.

Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report of the Division of Plant Indus-

Circulars prepared monthly by the technical sections and all
manuscripts authored by staff members for non-Division publi-
cation were reviewed by committee members.

Division of Plant Industry

The Reporter, a house organ dealing with Department and
Division policy, professional activities of the staff, and sidelights
on the lives of the staff, was issued monthly.

News Bulletin
The News Bulletin, a quarterly, tabloid-size newspaper with a
controlled circulation of 10,000, was distributed to nurserymen,
stock dealers, supermarkets, citrus growers, state and federal
agricultural officials, libraries, and the news media. The publica-
tion featured articles on Division programs and served as a voice
for agency rules and regulations.

News Releases
Information was released to the mass media periodically
through news releases.

Still Photography
Photographs of Division activities were taken in the field and
in the studio for publication in the News Bulletin, Reporter, Tri-
Ology, technical circulars, leaflets and other publications, and
for distribution to statewide communications media.
Special services such as micro-photography, black and white
processing, printing, retouching and oil coloring were rendered.
The photo lab handled 522 work orders ranging from 1 to
500 exposures, black and white and color. Most of the work was
technical photography, requiring only a limited number of expo-
sures, however.
A working agreement between the Division and the Florida
State Museum requiring that a Division photographer devote one
8-hour day each week to the museum in exchange for use of the
darkroom and other photographic equipment was terminated in
January 1968.
Several major purchases were made to replace equipment
previously borrowed from the museum.

Art Work
Cartoons were drawn for the Reporter. Maps, charts, graphs,
signs, posters, illustrations, and other visual aids were prepared
as requested by Division sections and other agencies involved in

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

programs administered by the Division. Items sent to the news
media were complimented with appropriate art work. Design
and layout assistance was rendered to the authors of Division

Motion Picture Photography
A 20-minute color documentary film, "The Caribfly in Flor-
ida," was completed and is available to interested organizations.
A photo exhibit was presented at the Florida-Latin America
Agricultural Conference in Miami.
Orchid disease exhibits were presented at the West Coast
and South Florida Orchid Shows, the Apopka Foliage Festival
and the DeSoto, Palm Beach and St. Lucie County Fairs.
Fire ant exhibits were made available to the Pinellas County
Agent's Office, the Manatee,.Citrus, Sarasota and Pinellas County
Fairs, and Orlando Farm-City Week. A live fire ant exhibit was
shown at Legislative Appreciation Day in Tallahassee.
An exhibit depicting general DPI activities was shown at
Legislative Appreciation Day, at Farm-City Week in Tavares, at
the Phosphate Museum in Bartow, and at the DeSoto, St. Lucie
and Bradford County Fairs.
Turfgrass exhibits appeared at the Lawn Management Con-
ference in Daytona Beach, the Florida Turf Association Confer-
ences in Ft. Lauderdale and Clearwater.

Agricultural Relations
The information officer appeared on WCTV-TV, Tallahassee-
Thomasville, Ga., in July 1967 with an imported fire ant presen-
tation. He appeared periodically on WFLA-TV and WTVT-TV,
Tampa, with imported fire ant and Caribbean fruit fly presenta-

The DPI Library contains books, periodicals and materials
which represent the subject areas of the Division, especially
entomology, nematology and plant pathology.
March 13, 1967, the library assumed the responsibility, ac-
cording to the cooperative acquisition agreement between the

14 Division of Plant Industry

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences' Hume Library and
the DPI Library, of being the primary repository for taxonomic
and identification literature in the fields of entomology and
nematology, and in the exchange of information pertaining to
library holdings. The official Memorandum of Understanding
between the IFAS and DPI was dated July 17, 1967.
The library was designated by the Division director, Sept.
28, 1967, as a part of the Director's Office, Administration
Section. Formerly it was associated with the Entomology
A library committee was appointed by the director. Serv-
ing on this committee are representatives from the three tech-
nical sections: S. A. Alfieri, Plant Pathology; R. P. Esser, Nema-
tology; R. E. Woodruff, Entomology; the librarian is secretary
for the committee. Assistant Director Paul E. Frierson, chair-
man, represents all other sections and interests in the Division.
The director approved recommendations of the library com-
mittee which are now established policies:
(1) Regulations concerning circulation of DPI Library ma-
terial for users outside the Division which conform with
those of Hume Library.
(2) Prices and lists of DPI publications available for distri-
bution to Florida and out-of-state residents.
(1) Publications: Total
(a) Publications committee manuscript;
suggested corrections (57 hours) articles 88
(b) DPI publication requests filled 25,191
(2) Reference Questions:
(a) Information located (538 were scientific
references, more than 15 minutes) 1,040
(b) Interlibrary loan requests, sent to lib-
raries outside the Gainesville area 59 1,099
(3) Number of Persons served:
(a) DPI staff
approximately, 25
(b) Others (Univ. of Florida Staff, students, visitors)
approximately, 33
(4) Visits by the librarian to:
Univ. of Florida Libraries, reference work,
(usually one full day each week) 91
Gifts of library materials were received from the following persons:
S. A. Alfieri, Carlos Artaud, Miss Irene Ayres, Ed Ayers, Ralph Brown,
J. H. Davis, G. W. Dekle, H. A. Denmark, P. E. Frierson, Don Fuqua,
R. V. Krumm, D. R. (Billy) Matthews, F. W. Mead, J. E. Mullin, G. G.
Norman, H. J. Reitz, Hervey Sharpe, John Strayer, B. V. Travis, and H. V.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Notable Gift
In 1967 the Roland F. Hussey Collection of approximately 118 bound
entomology volumes and over 1,000 reprints of articles was donated by
Mrs. Hussey. This collection of the late Roland F. Hussey, professor of
biological sciences and zoology, University of Florida, was a gift to the
University of Florida Libraries. With permission of the University, it
is to be cataloged and shelved in the DPI Library.
Gifts .................................. .............................. 200
(Regularly received)
Exchanges ....................................................... 45
Gifts, regularly received, (including
State and Government publications) ........111
(paid) .................... ....................... ....118

Size (bound volumes as of
June 30, 1966) ......................... .... ........... .............. 4,481
Acquisitions: (volumes)
Books ............................................................ 443
Hussey Collection .................................... ...... .... 118
Others ........................ ........ .. .................. .................. 42
Books ................................... ... ....... ............ 61
Periodicals ..... .... ....... ........ .. ............ 225
Size (bound volumes as of
June 30, 1968) ............... ........ ... .. ......... 5,370
Periodicals: (titles)
Unbound (fill-in, special purchase) ............................... 126

Notable Purchases
In 1967 the periodical, Entomologische Zcitschrift, shelved in the DPI
Library, was acquired through the cooperative effort of DPI and IFAS,
Department of Entomology and Nematology. Volumes 1-76; 1887-1966,
were bought for approximately, $952.00. Each organization paid half the
price. A DPI Library subscription makes the set complete to date.
Also purchased by DPI was the periodical, Deutsche Entomologische
Zeitschrift, v. 2-62; 1882-1943, at a cost of $986.00.
In 1968 the collection of Muscidae and Anthomydiiae was obtained
through the cooperative purchase of DPI and IFAS from Dr. Fred M.
Snyder, Ft. Myers. This collection includes approximately 40 bound
volumes and several hundred reprints, which are to be added to the DPI
Library holdings.

Apiary Inspection Section

PHILIP M. PACKARD, Chief Apiary Inspector
The Apiary Section's activities center around the control of
honeybee diseases, chiefly American foulbrood which is caused
by a spore forming bacterium, Bacillus larvae White. This
highly contagious organism still presents a major threat to the
beekeepers of Florida. The apiary inspector's continuous pro-
gram of examing honeybee brood, plus the elimination of dis-
eased colonies by burning, has kept sources of re-infection to a
bare minimum. While the elimination of diseased brood is not
proof of disease eradication, the destruction of all visible signs
of infection by burning certainly plays a major role in removing
not only the viable spores but, secondly, the exposed host or
honeybee larvae without which the spores cannot form vegeta-
tive rods and produce the toxin which kills the honeybee larvae
in the first place.
The Section has encouraged beekeepers in the use of disease
preventative chemicals, namely sulfathiazole and Terramycin.
Although these drugs are not 100 per cent effective or foolproof,
laboratory tests have shown that they prevent the multiplica-
tion of the vegetative forms of Bacillus larvae. Consequently,
the two drugs are effective in preventing American foulbrood.
The three greatest dangers in the use of these chemicals are
(1) the organism may develop a high tolerance or so called
immunity to these drugs; (2) when improperly used, they may
adulterate the surplus honey crop; (3) the beekeepers may rely
too heavily on the drugs. The use of sulfathiazole and Terramy-
cin does not relieve the beekeeper's responsibility of periodic
examination of his colonies for symptoms of disease. Drugs
are not the replacement for good disease management or
common sense.

Ethylene Oxide Fumigation Project
Apiary inspectors supplied colonies of honeybees infected
with American foulbrood to the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station for further investigation in the steril-
ization of diseased equipment. Contaminated brood combs,
which had been fumigated with Ethylene Oxide, were placed in
nucelli and package bees were installed. After several months,

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

these small colonies had removed all but small numbers of dis-
eased larvae. More diseased material will be supplied for
further tests as both researcher and apiary inspector search for
better disease control methods. If and when Ethylene Oxide
fumigation of diseased honeybee equipment proves practical,
it is hoped that this method of fumigation could replace burn-
ing, and the sterilized equipment returned to the beekeeper for
re-use. However, all caution should be exercised and complete
knowledge of this method of disease control must be obtained
before this method is put into practical application.

Honeybee Losses
Instances of honeybee poisoning with an insecticide called
"Sevin" became more frequent during the biennium. Applica-
tion of this material on soybeans for insect control caused many
beekeepers severe losses. Planting of increased acreages of
soybeans continued to cause this problem to intensify and affect
large areas heretofore unaffected by this poison.
Along the coastal areas aerial applications of mosquito con-
trol chemicals continued to cause beekeeper losses, sometimes
only field forces, but in some instances complete colonies were
killed, depending upon the application intensity and the material

Road Guard Report
Monthly reports from the road guard stations during 1967
indicate the following movement of honeybees and used bee-
keeping equipment through the stations: Colonies going out-
52028; supers going out-52,282; colonies coming in-48,367;
supers coming in-72,755.
Road guard reports during 1968 showed 33,049 colonies and
55,295 supers moved into Florida from other states; 42,429
colonies and 51,976 supers left Florida for destinations across
the nation.
Apiary reports indicated 28,639 colonies owned by some 50
beekeepers were inspected and certified for shipment to other
states. A total of 42,429 colonies left Florida for the following
destinations: Minnesota, 6,160; South Dakota, 6,113; Kansas,
3,946; Georgia, 5,565; Pennsylvania, 904; New York, 673; Wis-
consin, 3,953; New Hampshire, 11; Tennessee, 106; Illinois, 208.
Reports showed 13,640 colonies and 25,893 supers from North
Florida moved south through the inspection stations bound for

Division of Plant Industry

the citrus groves. Two months later 8,612 colonies and 21,866
supers moved out of the citrus area and passed through the
inspection stations bound for tupelo and gallberry locations in
North Florida.
Apiary Section Activities
1966-67 1967-68
Apiaries inspected .................................................... 6,337 6,519
Colonies inspected .................................................... 197,833 218,493
Counties inspected .................................................... 63 62
Apiaries infected with AFB ................................ 561 504
Colonies infected with AFB .................................. 1,768 1,712
AFB colonies destroyed .......................................... 1,766 1,711
Apiaries with new infections of AFB .................... 432 361
Florida Permits issued ............................................ 732 923
Special Entry Permits issued ................................. 157 162
Point-To-Point Permits issued .............................. 108 101
Certificates issued .......................... .. ............ 75 68
The number of colonies examined during the biennium was
the largest during any corresponding period in the history of
apiary inspection service. The apiary inspectors examined
416,326 colonies in 12,856 apiaries; 3,480 colonies in 1,065 api-
aries were found to be infected with American foulbrood;
319 permits for 71,361 colonies of out-of-state bees to move into
Florida, and 209 special moving permits for moving from point
to point within the state were issued; 1,655 moving permits and
143 certificates of inspection were issued to Florida beekeepers.
The sum of $22,611.50 was paid to Florida beekeepers in com-
pensation for bees and equipment destroyed because of Ameri-
can foulbrood. The total operating cost of the Section was
$174,761.62, or approximately 42 cents per colony inspection.

Diseased Larval Examination
In 1967, 114 smears of honeybee larvae were examined by
the Chief Apiary Inspector to determine which pathogen caused
the death of the larva. During 1968, 69 smears of decomposed
larvae were examined. These smears were sent in by apiary
inspectors and beekeepers when questionable material was

Honey Certification Program
In 1967 the apiary inspectors in Districts 1 and 2 sampled
234 drums of Tupelo honey. Eighty-one composite samples were
delivered to the Food Laboratory for analysis and certification.
Sixteen samples failed to certify as Tupelo honey.
During 1968 the apiary inspectors in Districts 1 and 2 sam-

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Yearly Summary of Apiary Inspection Work
Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Apiaries Colonies American American
Year Ending Inspected Inspected Foulbrood Foulbrood
June 30, 1931 2,374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932 2,744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938 3,451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 3,371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940 3,414 76,851 61 234
June 30, 1941 3,711 81,950 80 371
June 30, 1942 3,671 83,354 106 698
June 30, 1943 3,347 80,823 100 524
June 30, 1944 2,646 73,649 106 456
June 30, 1945 2,371 69,262 105 379
June 30, 1946 2,265 71,161 138 959
June 30, 1947 2,464 87,674 104 683
June 30, 1948 3,266 98,147 100 391
June 30, 1949 3,710 105,678 130 406
June 30, 1950 3,082 105,296 175 369
June 30, 1951 2,872 95,405 237 772
June 30, 1952 2,836 88,206 232 578
June 30, 1953 3,259 92,267 449 1,366
June 30, 1954 5,102 135,168 683 2,158
June 30, 1955 5,885 157,388 524 1,421
June 30, 1956 6,168 176,616 460 1,180
June 30, 1957 5,813 162,885 490 1,121
June 30, 1958 4,932 159,692 457 1,623
June 30, 1959 5,123 153,677 454 1,329
June 30, 1960 5,056 149,227 438 1,422
June 30, 1961 4,991 152,288 319 1,271
June 30, 1962 5,693 173,538 341 1,053
June 30, 1963 5,497 169,411 416 1,546
June 30, 1964 5,230 166,641 481 1,614
June 30, 1965 5,680 179,861 500 1,709
June 30, 1966 5,833 189,802 485 1,340
June 30, 1967 6,337 197,833 561 1,768
June 30, 1968 6,519 218,493 504 1,712

Division of Plant Industry

pled 206 drums of Tupelo honey. Fifty-three composite samples
were delivered to the Food Laboratory for analysis and certifi-
cation. All samples certified as Tupelo honey.

The following meetings were attended by the Chief Apiary Inspector:
Aug. 18, 1966-Beekeepers Institute, Camp McQuarrie. Gave speech.
Sept. 27, 1966-Training Class.
Oct. 20-22, 1966-Florida State Beekeepers Association, Jacksonville. Gave
apiary report.
Oct. 21, 1966-Road Guard Personnel, White Springs. Gave speech.
Nov. 1, 1966-Georgia State Beekeepers Association, Moultrie, Ga. Gave
Jan. 23-24, 1967-Apiary Inspectors of America, Little Rock, Ark.
Jan. 25-27, 1967-American Beekeepers Federation, Little Rock, Ark.
May 29, 1967-Training Class.
Aug. 3-4, 1967-Beekeepers Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Oct. 25, 1967-Georgia Beekeepers Association, Homerville, Ga. Gave
Oct. 26-27, 1967-Florida State Beekeepers Association, Perry. Gave
annual apiary report.
Jan. 22-23, 1968-Apiary Inspectors of America, Niagara Falls, N.Y. Gave
Jan. 24-25, 1968-American Beekeepers Federation, Niagara Falls, N.Y.
March 21, 1968-Polk County Beekeepers Association, Bartow. Gave talk.
April 3-4, 1968-Southern Plant Board, Tampa.

Citrus Budwood Registration Section
G. D. BRIDGES, Chief

Massive overproduction of citrus nursery stock followed the
1962 freeze. In 1966 an inventory of 19.2 million budded trees in
citrus nurseries forecast the drastic curtailment of production
and the severe business recession which soon affected the citrus
nursery industry. A mild recovery trend appeared in the spring
of 1968.

Problems with exocortis and tristeza viruses determined
major work areas for the Citrus Budwood Section this biennium
and a major change in policy for handling tristeza infection at
the Department's Foundation Grove was necessary. Previously
tristeza tests for each Foundation Grove tree were begun at ap-
proximately six-month intervals and infected trees were removed
as soon as discovered. But when slightly more than 10 per cent
of the entire planting became infected between July 1966 and
June 1968, despite a major effort to control the tristeza vector,
it was decided it would be impracticable to continue efforts to
maintain a tristeza-free planting at that location. Infected trees,
therefore, would no longer be removed. Despite rather striking
tree loss from tristeza in certain locations and a continuing
grower-oriented educational effort on the loss potential from this
virus, the use of sour orange rootstock remains high. An analy-
sis of the rootstocks for just over 10 million registered trees pro-
duced since the 1962 freeze shows rough lemon and the tristeza-
susceptible sour orange most popular, propagations on each root-
stock being approximately four million.
In July 1966 Stephen M. Garnsey, plant pathologist, USDA,
Orlando, supplied information that it was possible to infect citrus
trees with exocortis virus by means of contaminated budding and
pruning tools. The chance for mechanical virus contamination
thus introduced a question of validity for virus tests dating back
to 1954. Moreover the possibility of contamination required that
more than 23,000 separate tests be established to determine the
exocortis status of bud-source trees already planted, a project
requiring multiple buds in at least 100,000 test plants which
would occupy more than nine acres. More detailed analyses of
the problems with tristeza and exocortis viruses appear later in
this report.

Division of Plant Industry

The possibility that a new citrus disease is causing losses in
Florida groves is being investigated. Increased attention is being
directed to a decline problem of sweet orange scions with lemon
rootstocks. Research pathologists, production men and person-
nel of the Division are concerned over the substantial loss of
trees in some central Florida groves and in the Indian River sec-
tion. To date the cause of this blight-like decline is unknown.
In early 1968 nearly 400 budded citrus trees were planted at
an isolated site on the Range Cattle Station at Ona. The purpose
of this planting is to maintain a tristeza-free source of important
Foundation nucellar budlines. The planting's potential value is
demonstrated by the fact that it includes propagations from
Florida's only known virus free sources of Ruby Red grapefruit,
Minneola tangelo, Navel and Lue Gim Gong oranges.
At the request of leaders within the citrus nursery industry,
criteria for producing "Premium Quality Citrus Nursery Stock"
have been established and now await a more normal economic
situation for implementation. Incorporated among the 13 re-
quirements are such advanced steps as approved rootstock seed-
lings, hot water treatment of seeds as insurance against attack
by fungal organisms, and fumigation of nursery and seedbed
sites to control nematodes, fungi, and noxious weeds.
Efforts to develop usable horticultural information on regis-
tered citrus clones continued by utilizing the Budwood Founda-
tion Grove and cooperative plantings with research agencies and
private growers. A significant step forward is evident in the in-
creased awareness within the industry concerning the need for
standardized rootstocks.
It has been necessary to institute a card system for accumu-
lating exocortis data in order to evaluate and analyze the results
of various related tests. The composite records for this exten-
sive exocortis test schedule materially increases the work load
for the Section's clerical staff.
Expansion in both grove and test nursery acreage now make
the use of herbicides and other labor saving procedures manda-
tory for adequate maintenance of field plantings.


A. Exocortis

The discovery that exocortis virus could be spread on con-
taminated budding and pruning tools precipitated the most in-

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

tensive indexing effort in Budwood Program history. Older test
plots with Poncirus trifoliata as an exocortis indicator contained
previously unexplained examples of infection that could now be
logically understood as contamination. It was evident that the
validity of all previous testing for exocortis must be suspect.
To begin the job of re-indexing, a procedure for assuring
aseptic propagation was established using a solution of two per
cent formaldehyde and two per cent sodium hydroxide applied to
tools from small moisture bottles, as described in the American
Orchid Society Bulletin of May 1966.
New tests for approximately three thousand parent selections
and Foundation trees made up a backlog of work needing imme-
diate attention. Initiation of this volume testing required that
more than 12,000 seedlings be planted, budded with sensitive
citron indicators, and finally inoculated with buds from the par-
ent or Foundation tree to be tested. In order to obtain suitable
budwood for inoculation it was necessary to travel to each parent
In addition to field testing, simultaneous tests were conducted
under greenhouse conditions. These greenhouse tests would pro-
vide a wider range of experience with symptom expression, test-
ing techniques and growing conditions; and provided added in-
formation useful for evaluating the accuracy of indexing results.
In biological testing, symptom expression may vary with chang-
ing environmental factors and it was found that greenhouse and
field results did not always agree. Where questionable results
are encountered, additional testing follows. It has been found
difficult to guard citron bud-source plants against mechanical in-
fection with exocortis virus. When infection does occur in this
manner, positive symptoms are not always apparent. This prob-
lem requires that detailed records be kept of all budding, fre-
quent cross-indexing of citron bud sources, and the use of check
plants to detect contamination.
It has been determined that April through June budding for
summer growth is most favorable for symptom expression in
Etrog citron and future tests are being arranged to take advan-
tage of this fact.
While exocortis can generally be detected within a relatively
short time with Etrog citron, P. trifoliata remains an important
tool for evaluating clonal growth response. Certain scion selec-
tions, free of exocortis, grow more slowly than do nucellar selec-
tions on the same trifoliate orange strain. In other instances,
clones which cause exocortis scaling when budded on P. trifo-

Table 1. Exocortis Status of Scion Grove Trees, June 1968*
Scions of Parents Scions of Variety
Negative or Positive
Symptomless Parents

Scions of Parents
Negative or

Bearss Lemon .................................. 0
Blood Orange .................................. 0
Blood Orange Seedling .................. 41
Connor's Seedless Orange ............ 0
Duncan Grapefruit ........................ 91
Duncan Grapefruit Seedling ...... 179
Enterprise ........................................ 25
Enterprise Seedling ........................ 5
Hamlin .............................................3,879
Homasassa ...................................... 8
Jaffa ........................................ ..... 0
Jaffa Seedling ................................ 66
Lake Tangelo .................................. 447
Lime (Persian) ................................ 403
Lue Gim Gong ................................ 0
Lue Gim Gong Seedling ................ 20
Marsh Grapefruit ............................1,009
Marsh Grapefruit Seedling .......... 668
Minneola Tangelo .......................... 0
Minneola Tangelo Seedling .......... 252
Murcott .......................................... 146
Murcott Seedling ............................ 834


*Scion trees representing exocortis negative parent lines which

Navel ........................................ 0
Navel Seedling .............................. 185
Orlando Tangelo ......................... 1,424
Orlando Tangelo Seedling .......... 679
Parson Brown .............................. 386
Parson Brown Seedling .............. 472
Pineapple ........................................ 2,387
Pineapple Seedling ...................... 886
Queen .............................................. 1,652
Red Grapefruit .............................. 0
Red Grapefruit Seedling ............ 173
Satsuma ........................................ 0
Satsuma Seedling ........................ 236
Sweet Seedling .............................. 137
Tangerine ...................................... 184
Tangerine Seedling ...................... 1,050
Temple .......................................... 0
Thompson Grapefruit ................. 0
Valencia ........................................ 996
Valencia Seedling ........................ 1,474
Misc. (Mostly Seedling) ............. 158


TOTAL-All Varieties ................20,552 24,373

may be mechanically contaminated with exocortis virus


Scions of

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

liata rootstocks seem to grow as rapidly as exocortis-free nu-
cellars of the same variety. Planning for optimum grove spacing
is one of several possible applications which exist for using
growth rate information.
Indexing results for old line parents show that an extremely
high percentage of Florida's best citrus trees are infected with
exocortis. Without exception among those tested, old lines of
Navel and Temple oranges and Red grapefruit are infected with
this virus. Moreover, the same condition exists for seven addi-
tional minor varieties. Valencia oranges and Marsh grapefruit
are also highly infected. From these results it would appear
that old lines which have demonstrated satisfactory horticul-
tural response on trifoliata, and mature nucellar seedling lines
with proven production records, present the best chance of suc-
cess for those propagating on exocortis susceptible rootstocks.
Exocortis testing of clonal selections in the Division's Foun-
dation Grove is well advanced and results show that 45 clones
are infected. Apparently 53 Foundation Grove trees have been
infected through contamination. New propagations have been
made to replace these contaminated trees and new selections of
exocortis free clones are being made in a continuing effort to
make additional virus free selections available to the industry.
The threat of mechanical contamination by exocortis virus
necessitates testing scion trees that represent exocortis-free par-
ent lines. Such trees are planted in several hundred bud-source
groves scattered throughout the state. Record analysis provided
information which showed that a total of 20,552 trees required
tests. Anticipating this extraordinary workload, unusual pro-
cedures were sought to enable the Section to cope with this prob-
lem. Accordingly several cooperative trials were initiated where
the bud-sources being checked in a participant's groves are
tested in his own nursery. Thus the beneficiary of the informa-
tion being developed provides space, plants and plant care while
supervision, records and virus determinations are a function of
the Section's staff. It is expected that this procedure will ab-
sorb the bulk of the extra workload and more quickly supply
adequate sources of known exocortis-free propagative material
for the industry.

B. Psorosis

Indexing for psorosis virus in Florida's seed source plantings
of Carrizo citranage, mostly established from variety releases of

Division of Plant Industry

1960, was begun in the last biennium. These tests are nearing
completion and the industry is assured of adequate seed sources
free from the possibility of seed-transmitted psorosis infection.
After determinations for psorosis were made on the original bud
source trees and the progeny of infected parents eliminated,
there were 450 Carrizo seed source trees remaining of unknown
origin. These 450 trees were indexed for psorosis, and positive
determinations resulted on four trees.


Grower interest in the Validation Project has remained at a
high level with approximately 100 cooperators. Varieties in-
cluded in this program were budded in the Section's test plot in
late 1966 for complete virus indexing, and to date show no signs
of psorosis, xyloporosis or exocortis infection. As an interim
measure, a superior selection of the burrowing nematode resist-
ant rootstock-Carrizo citrange-is being carried on the records
of validated material now available to the industry. Additionally,
five unreleased hybrids have been received from the USDA plant
breeders at Orlando for long-time indexing under an agreement
to index new varieties prior to release.

Foundation Grove

Early in 1965, as it became evident that seed transmission
of citrus viruses occurred more frequently than was formerly be-
lieved, plans were developed for complete indexing of the Divi-
sion's 580 Foundation nucellar selections. Priorities for indexing
were based on maturity and production potential. Testing began
in April 1965. During the present biennium one nucellar Dancy
tangerine selection has been found infected with xyloporosis.
In order to gain additional horticultural data on potentially
valuable nucellar selections, propagations were made from nu-
cellar Navels, Hamlins, Pineapples, Valencias, and from the
USDA hybrids, Nova, Page, Robinson, Osceola and Lee. These
have been budded on ten rootstocks that include P. trifoliata and
trifoliate hybrids, and are to be planted in 1969 on available land
at the Budwood Foundation Grove site.
The need for more effective manpower utilization has
prompted the use of herbicides in older test plots and on Foun-
dation Grove replants. The recurring problem with footrot dis-
ease on young grove replants has caused soil fumigation of grove

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

vacancies and new test nursery plots to be adopted as standard
Among groves adjacent to the Budwood Foundation, the cur-
rent tristeza infection rate ranges from approximately 30 per
cent to more than 50 per cent and is increasing. Natural spread
of tristeza into the Foundation Grove from surrounding groves
required a major policy change. From 1960 through June 1966,
95 Foundation Grove trees were removed due to tristeza infec-
tion. Tests begun in January 1967 revealed 33 infected trees,
and even though frequent and thorough applications of systemic
insecticides were made, tests begun in August 1967 showed the
disease had been aphid-vectored to 131 additional trees. With
these circumstances in mind a meeting of the Budwood Technical
Committee of the Florida State Horticultural Society was called
in February 1968 for the purpose of reviewing the tristeza policy
at the state's Foundation Grove. The committee recommended
discontinuing efforts to keep the Foundation Grove tristeza free
by removing infected trees. The plan for establishing nucellar
selections at an isolated site on the Range Cattle Station near
Ona is to be carried to completion, with the objective that this
planting be kept tristeza free if possible. The Division will con-
tinue tristeza testing on a fee basis for growers seeking a usable
bud-source for tristeza-susceptible rootstocks. In other action
the committee recommended that Budwood Section personnel
continue to encourage cooperators to make registered plantings
and to make these groves available to Section personnel for horti-
cultural evaluation; and secondly, that Experiment Station per-
sonnel make and encourage registered plantings of superior reg-
istered clones in order to screen these selections for horticul-
tural characteristics.


Instruction in virus diseases and budwood registration pro-
cedures was conducted for Division training classes XVII and
XVIII and three foreign students; and for citrus classes from
the University of Florida and Florida Southern College. Semi-
nars were held for Division personnel in the recognition of field
symptoms of the stubborn and greening viruses at Winter
Haven, Orlando and Fort Pierce.
Seventy foreign visitors, representing 22 countries, were con-
ducted through the Division's Foundation Grove and test facili-
ties and on field trips to groves and nurseries in citrus areas.

Division of Plant Industry

Trips and Talks

G. D. Bridges traveled to Rome, Italy, in October 1966 to attend the con-
ference of International Organization of Citrus Virologists, and also par-
ticipate in the post-conference tour to citrus growing areas of the Western
Mediterranean, including Corsica, France, Spain and Morocco.

C. O. Youtsey traveled to California in March 1968 to attend the Inter-
national Citrus Symposium at Riverside and participate in field trips and
tours to citrus areas in the San Joaquin and Coachella Valleys and the
coastal and subcoastal citrus areas at Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Santa

The following talks were presented:

Bridges, G. D. Aug. 1966-"Tristeza-a Growing Problem"
Citrus Growers' Institute
Camp McQuarrie
Published in The Citrus Industry
----Jan. 1967-"Registered Trees May Make the Difference"
Indian River Citrus Seminar.
Published in The Citrus Industry
---- July 1967-"Progress Report on the Citrus Budwood Pro-
gram" Production Managers' Association
Apr. 1968-"Money Grows on Trees"
Gulf Coast Citrus Institute
Published in The Citrus Industry
Youtsey, C. 0. Oct. 1966-"Tristeza-a Review"
Production Managers' Association
Published in The Citrus Industry
-- Apr. 1968--"Report on California Citrus"
Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association
May 1968-"Procedures for Citrus Budwood Registration"
Pinecrest F.F.A.
June 1968-"Procedures for Citrus Budwood Registration"
Junior Citrus Institute, Camp Cloverleaf.

Entomology Section

H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist

The 27th biennium brought about many changes. The most
welcomed change was the Division's move to the Doyle Conner
Building. Each entomologist has a separate office-laboratory,
and a museum room is provided to house the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods. The library is housed in a separate wing
of the building and has been placed under the supervision of the
Administration Section. Robert W. Swanson was transferred
in January 1968 from the Plant Inspection Section to the Ento-
mology Section to work on the biological control of the caribfly,
Anastrepha suspense (Loew). He will continue to be headquar-
tered in the Miami area and work with Dr. R. M. Baranowski of
the University of Florida IFAS Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
at Homestead. Caribfly research is being conducted coopera-
tively by the Florida Department of Agriculture, USDA Plant
Pest Control Division, and the University of Florida IFAS De-
partment of Entomology and Nematology on the chemical, bio-
logical, and sterile technique controls.
R. E. Woodruff, who received his Ph. D. degree from the Uni-
versity of Florida in December 1967, is working cooperatively
with the USDA Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory
and the University of Florida IFAS on the imported fire ant.
Woodruff is investigating the relationship of the ants and a
scarab, Myrmecaphodius proseni Martinez. It is thought that
this beetle is host specific to the imported fire ant nest and could
be used as an indicator species to detect the presence of the ants
by the use of blacklight traps. This beetle is readily attracted to
blacklight traps.
Frank Mead received his Ph. D. degree from North Carolina
State University. He worked on the revision of Oliarus (Hom-
optera: Cixiidae) in North America north of Mexico.
H. V. Weems, Jr., has continued to develop the Research As-
sociates Program. There are 58 research associates in the pro-
gram and numerous valuable donations have been made by these
associates in developing the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
G. W. Dekle has worked cooperatively with the University
of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology,
particularly with Dr. L. C. Kuitert and Dr. R. F. Brooks on the
control of citrus snow scale, and with Dr. Kuitert on the root

Division of Plant Industry

mealybug, Geococcus coffeae (Green) and aglaonema scale, Tem-
naspidiotus exisus (Green). Red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens
Maskell, was apparently eradicated from Palm Beach County
where it was found infesting 15 different species of ornamentals.
A good working relationship has continued to develop be-
tween the University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomol-
ogy and Nematology and the Division of Plant Industry Ento-
mology Section in working with entomological problems, the
joint purchase of a private collection, and the development of en-
tomological literature. Most of the identifications are now
handled by the Division with the exception of those listed below
under identifications. The Florida State Museum has phased
out its holdings and support for a permanent arthropod collec-
tion, as the Florida Department of Agriculture has assumed this
role and is charged by Chapter 581.031, Sub-Section 22-23 of the
Florida Statutes with the responsibility for the continued hous-
ing, care and development of the Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods (FSCA) and to publish findings based on this collec-
tion. All Division entomologists have courtesy appointments
with the University of Florida IFAS and are asked to lecture
and serve on graduate committees.
PUBLICATIONS: The Lepidoptera of Florida by C. P. Kim-
ball, the first in the series of Arthropods of Florida and Neigh-
boring Land Areas, has been well received. Three other volumes
(see Publications List) have been published, with several more
in preparation. Twenty-five circulars and bulletins pertaining to
the economic and taxonomic insect problems of Florida have
been prepared by the entomologists and our research associates.
IDENTIFICATIONS: Identifications of the various arthro-
pod groups are made by five full time entomologists. The en-
tomologists and the groups for which they are responsible are
as follows:

G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs, and all immature stages.
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.
F. W. Mead: Adult Lepidoptera; Diptera, suborder Nemato-
cera: examples-midges, sandflies, mosquitoes, crane-
flies, gall midges, etc.; Hemiptera; Homoptera: Psyllidae,
plus suborder Auchenorhyncha, examples of which are
leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittlebugs, treehoppers, and
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult higher Diptera (suborder Brachy-
cera), whiteflies, Hymenoptera, Archnida (except Aca-

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

rina), and miscellaneous smaller arthropod groups.
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthoptera.

Dr. L. A. Hetrick, University of Florida IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, continues to do routine identifica-
tion of termites. Dr. Dale Habeck, University of Florida IFAS
Department of Entomology and Nematology, identifies the Arc-
tiidae adults and immatures and some other immature Lepidop-
During the biennium 34,273 pinned and labeled specimens,
20,018 slide mounts, 2,240 vials, and 583 quarts of alcohol speci-
mens, 11,100 papered or envelope specimens, and 175 pill boxes
of unmounted insects were added to the collection. The muscid
collection of the late Dr. Fred M. Snyder, purchased jointly with
the University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and
Nematology, totaling 20,647 specimens, was also added to the col-
lection. The Florida State Collection of Arthropods now totals
approximately 367,000 pinned and labeled specimens, 40,230
slide specimens, several thousand papered or envelope specimens
(which includes 15,624 Odonata), for a total of approximately
430,000 pinned and processed specimens.
From July 1, 1966 to June 30, 1967, 11,764 arthropod samples
were received, processed and identified. From July 1, 1967 to
June 30, 1968, 12,831 arthropod samples were received, processed
and identified for the Division inspectors. In addition, 1,431
samples were received from other sources for a total of 26,026
identifications during the biennium.
AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY: Areas of responsibilities
are designated as follows: H. V. Weems, Jr., is the head curator
and is responsible for the overall development of the arthropod
collections. He also coordinates the research associates pro-
F. W. Mead is the survey entomologist for the state. The
Cooperative Economic Insect Report (CEIR) has been a joint
effort between the USDA and the DPI for the past 14 years.
Weekly reports of insect activities are forwarded to Washington
where all state reports are combined and published in the CEIR.
Monthly reports are combined with the other reports of the DPI
technical sections and published as the Tri-Ology Technical Re-
R. E. Woodruff is in charge of the library development pro-
gram for the Entomology portion of the DPI. The DPI library
is the primary repository for the taxonomic and general zoogeo-

Division of Plant Industry

graphic literature, while the Hume Library at the University of
Florida will be primary repository for all other subject areas.
Woodruff and Dale H. Habeck, University of Florida IFAS De-
partment of Entomology and Nematology, coordinate the ento-
mological library purchases for the two organizations to elimi-
nate costly and unnecessary duplication.
G. W. Dekle works closely with the University of Florida
IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology on economic
insect and mite problems.



F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

The Division is the cooperative state agency under contract
with the USDA Plant Pest Control Division, Survey and Detec-
tion Operations, to prepare weekly survey reports and annual
summaries of economic insect conditions in Florida. Highlights
in the weekly reports and annual summaries from Florida and
other states are published by the USDA in the weekly Coopera-
tive Economic Insect Report (CEIR). The DPI distributes the
Tri-Ology Technical Report each month to summarize the more
significant insects, plant pathogens, and nematodes found around
Florida. Most of this information results from the processing
and determination of samples sent to the DPI during the preced-
ing month. The author, as survey entomologist, is responsible
for assembling the entomology portion of Tri-Ology each month
and editing the entire publication once every three months. In-
formation is received from many sources, but the most consist-
ent general source is from the DPI office in Gainesville, which
acts as the state clearing house as well as the focal point for
technical services to DPI men around the state. Much important
information is obtained from the University of Florida IFAS ex-
periment stations and extension personnel, and from USDA per-
sonnel. The regularly appearing reports on citrus insects and
mites by Dr. W. A. Simanton of the University of Florida IFAS
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred are especially valu-
able. All of these reports help in varying degrees to fulfill the

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

objectives of the survey and detection program. These objec-
tives are:

(1) To assist agricultural workers by supplying current in-
formation on insect activity so that crops can be more
adequately protected from insect attacks.
(2) To aid and assure more prompt detection of newly intro-
duced insect pests.
(3) To determine losses caused by insects.
(4) To maintain records on the occurrence of economic in-
(5) To aid manufacturers and suppliers of insecticides and
control equipment to determine areas of urgent need
for supplies and equipment.
(6) To develop a workable insect pest forecasting service.
(This effort must fall primarily on experiment station
workers who can concentrate their efforts on one or a
few crops such as citrus or tobacco, for example.)


R. E. WOODRUFF, Entomologist

During the biennium a proposal was submitted for a coopera-
tive library agreement between the University of Florida IFAS
and the Division. This proposal has been implemented and
serves to strengthen the resources of both libraries and improve
the services available to an increasing number of users.
The sciences of entomology and nematology are recognized
as particularly important to the field of agriculture. As a result
of concerted efforts involving agencies such as the USDA, Uni-
versity of Florida IFAS, and Florida Department of Agriculture
DPI, Gainesville has become one of the largest and most out-
standing entomological and nematological centers in the South.
With the completion and staffing of the new USDA insect at-
tractants laboratory under construction, there will be nearly 100
professional entomologists in Gainesville.
It is apparent that excellent and extensive library holdings
are an essential part of any research program. With the large
number of entomologists and nematologists in the area, the pres-
ent library holdings and budgets are insufficient to meet the in-
creased demand. This cooperative agreement is one step in try-
ing to improve the situation.

34 Division of Plant Industry

The agreement provides for the following specific items de-
signed to achieve maximum procurement for and utilization of
the libraries:

(1) Cross-index all entomological and nematological holdings
in both libraries as of March 15, 1967; and
(2) Provide catalog cards to each other for all such publica-
tions procured subsequent to March 15, 1967; and
(3) Assure that all staff members of the Institute and the
Division have access to publications in both libraries;
(4) Appoint and maintain a joint library committee of at
least one appropriate person from the University of
Florida IFAS and one from the DPI (presently D. H.
Habeck and R. E. Woodruff, respectively) that will work
through the proper administrative channels to:
a) Pursue the orderly accomplishment of 1, 2, and 3
b) Synchronize all future purchases to. prevent unneces-
sary duplications;
c) Review current subscriptions to periodicals to de-
termine where unnecessary duplication exists;
d) Plan the orderly purchase of publications to fill exist-
ing gaps in present holding; and
e) Recommend other procedures whereby the libraries
may continue to be strengthened and operated more
(5) The DPI library will be the primary repository for taxo-
nomic and identification literature; Hume library will be
the primary repository for all other subject areas.

H. A. Denmark, Chief Entomologist
(1) Ants associated with pecan groves in west Florida. A joint project
with Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, University of Florida IFAS Big Bend
Horticultural Laboratory, Monticello.
(2) The Phytoseiidae of Florida. A joint project with Dr. Martin H.
Muma, University of Florida IFAS Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred.
(3) Control of the caribfly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew) in Florida. A
joint project with the University of Florida IFAS Department of
Entomology and Nematology, the USDA Plant Pest Control, and the

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

F. W. Mead, Entomologist

(1) Revision of Oliarus in North America north of Mexico.
(2) Taxonomic cooperation with experiment station workers who are in-
vestigating leafhoppers and planthoppers on pasture and cereal
grasses in Florida.
(3) Preparation of a checklist of psychodid flies in Florida.
(4) Weekly examination of insects caught in a blacklight trap in Gaines-
ville, to count certain economic moths and to screen this material for
unusual insects.
(5) Studies on red bay and yaupon psyllids.
(6) Leafhoppers on ferns (with Dr. D. H. Habeck, University of Florida
IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville).

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist

(1) Preparation of an illustrated publication on the soft scale insects of
(2) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on orchid insects and related
pests with Dr. L. C. Kuitert, University of Florida IFAS Department
of Entomology and Nematology.
(3) Investigation on the use of fumigants and chemical drenches against
scale insects infesting nursery stock. Special interest has been given
citrus snow scale, with Dr. Kuitert cooperating.
(4) Investigation with Dr. Kuitert on the use of chemicals for control of
insects and related pests of orchids.
(5) Investigation on the relationship, if any, existing between Brevipal-
pus species mites on Pittosporum and the disease rough-bark.
(6) Continuation of survey for eriophyid mite on Gardenia spp. Control
tests on plants in a commercial nursery are also underway with Dr.
Kuitert cooperating.
(7) Survey of mealybugs on pine species.
(8) Survey of mealybugs associated with citrus.

R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist:
(1) A review of the genus Euparixia, with description of new species
from leaf-cutting ant nests in Louisiana (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).
A paper was prepared jointly with O. L. Cartwright, U. S. National
Museum, and published in 1967.
(2) The scarab beetles of Florida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Part I
of this study, treating 107 species of the subfamilies Scarabaeinae,
Aphodiinae, Geotrupinae, Ochodaeinae, Hybosorinae, and Acantho-
cerinae, was completed in November 1967. This was submitted as a
dissertation to the graduate school of the University of Florida,
where the Ph. D. degree was received in December 1967. It is hoped
that Part I will be published in the next biennium as a part of the
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas series.
(3) A review of the genus Polyphylla in the eastern U. S. (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae). One paper has been completed, although not yet pub-
lished, and data was secured for a more lengthy paper in progress.
(4) Survey of the terrestrial arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands, a
joint study with H. V. Weems, Jr., F. W. Mead, and H. A. Denmark.
Various families of beetles have been loaned to specialists to obtain
identifications for subsequent publication.
(5) Study of the fossil insects from an asphalt deposit in Trinidad. Some
progress has been made in removing specimens from matrix and
rough sorting for future identification and publication.

36 Division of Plant Industry

(6) Surveillance of the distribution, host plants, and economic status of
a Cuban May beetle, Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin, in Miami. Distri-
bution maps were kept up-to-date and additional host plants and
biological information were obtained.
(7) Identification of the Coleoptera and Orthoptera found in stomach
contents of the armadillo in Florida, in cooperation with W. O.
Wirtz, U. S. National Museum.
(8) Continued screening weekly light trap collections from Stock Island
for possible detection of foreign insect introductions.
(9) Insect food of the burrowing owl in Florida, in collaboration with
Dr. C. T. Collins, American Museum of Natural History. A large
percentage of the diet consists of dung beetles, of which more than
12 species have been identified. The study is near completion and
publication is anticipated shortly.
(10) Supervision of the DPI library. A new librarian was secured during
the biennium and the writer was relieved of this responsibility in No-
vember 1967.
(11) Supervision of the preparation of a list of the entomological period-
icals of the world being compiled by the Division. Considerable prog-
ress has been made on this list which has been indispensable as
guide in completing our library holdings.
(12) Supervision of the preparation of a list of the publications of the
State Plant Board of Florida and the Division. The manuscript has
been completed through 1967 and submitted for publication.
(13) Designing a lightweight, collapsible, blacklight insect trap for use
with either 110V A.C. or 12V D.C. Several designs have been tested
and a satisfactory unit has been used on several trips to Mexico and
throughout Florida.
(14) A long range study of the possible systems of storage and retrieval
of entomological literature and records. Some experimentation was
done on the feasibility of producing microcards, microfilm, and mi-
(15) Preparation (sorting, mounting, and labeling) of several hundred
light trap samples from Florida, Mexico, and Central America. Sev-
eral thousand specimens have been processed during the biennium,
adding much valuable material to our reference collection.
(16) The arthropods associated with packrats, Neotoma floridana small,
on Key Largo. Several additional Berlese funnel samples were proc-
essed and several thousand specimens collected. These include at
least four blind, wingless species of special interest. Dr. R. M. Bara-
nowski, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, joined the
project in January 1968 and will collect monthly samples during the
coming year to obtain seasonal data on these nests.
(17) The genus Rhyparus new to the Western Hemisphere, with descrip-
tions of several new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). This is a
joint study with O. L. Cartwright, U. S. National Museum. Three
additional new species were discovered during the biennium and a
preliminary draft of the manuscript was completed.
(18) The biology, ecology, and behavior of Myrmecaphodius proseni
Martinez (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), associated with the imported
fire ant. Preliminary studies indicate the possibilities of using the
beetle as an indicator of the presence of imported fire ants. Since it
is readily attracted to blacklight traps, it will only be necessary to
determine the flight range in order to estimate the distance within
which the ants can be found. The project will become a part of a
formal cooperative research agreement between the USDA, ARS, and
the University of Florida IFAS Department of Entomology and

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Nematology, and it is anticipated that a graduate student will be su-
pervised on this project beginning in September 1968. During June,
July and August, primary emphasis will be placed on obtaining geo-
graphical data, in which connection the USDA has supplied four as-
sistants to process blacklight trap samples.

H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist

(1) Continuation of a long-range study of the taxonomy and ecology of
the Syrphidae of Mexico, especially Volucellinae, involving occa-
sional trips during the several seasons of the year.
(2) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of the Syrphidae
of the southern excarpments of the Appalachian Plateau.
(3) Continuation of a taxonomic and ecological study of the Syrphidae
of Cranberry Glades, a large disjunct bog in the Monongahila Na-
tional Forest of West Virginia.
(4) Project leader on continuation of a comprehensive survey of the ter-
restrial and littoral arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands.
(5) Participation in a faunal survey and ecological study of the arthro-
pods of Tall Timbers Research Station and the surrounding wooded
areas of northern Leon County.
(6) Coordination of the continuing study of leaf, stem, and seed mining
Diptera of Florida in which the principal investigators are Carl E.
Stegmaier, Jr., of Hialeah and Kenneth A. Spencer of London, Eng-
(7) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on arthropod groups, primarily
pertaining to their identification, habitat relationships, seasonal and
geographic distribution, and techniques for collecting them, with em-
phasis on Florida.
(8) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods and the research associates program which supports
its development and publishes on arthropod studies.
(9) Accumulation of material for an eventual illustrated bulletin on fruit
flies and related groups.
(10) Identification of Syrphidae for other individuals and institutions as
a part of the process of further building a research collection of Syr-
phidae and a more thorough knowledge of this family of flies, es-
pecially those of the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions.
(11) Visit other institutions in North and Central America which main-
tain substantial arthropod collections in order to observe curatorial
techniques, arrange exchanges of specimens, and study collections in
my areas of taxonomic interest and responsibility.
(12) Make occasional field trips to conduct special insect surveys, to col-
lect material for taxonomic study in special interest groups (espe-
cially Syrphidae), and/or to make general collections for the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods.
(13) Conduct exchanges of reference material to make the Florida collec-
tion more complete. A special continuing effort is being made to ob-
tain representatives of the principal arthropod pests occurring in
other parts of the world which constitute a potential threat to Flor-
ida agriculture. This will materially aid staff specialists in making
more rapid, accurate, and complete identifications. It also provides
additional material for taxonomic research, display, and teaching
(14) Examination of samples taken from insect flight traps, light traps,
and several kinds of baited traps located in various parts of Florida
and from those operated by collaborators in various foreign lands,

Division of Plant Industry

notably the Bahamas, the West Indies, Mexico, and Central America.
Valuable material obtained from these traps is processed and added
to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, and some specimens
of special interest are noted in the Tri-Ology Technical Report.
(15) Experiments with designs for more effective insect flight traps and
field testing of these traps.


H. A. Denmark, Chief Entomologist

(1) Secretary, Florida Entomological Society.
(2) Membership Committee, Southeastern Branch Entomological Society
of America.
(3) Member, Executive Committee, Southeastern Branch Entomological
Society of America.

F. W. Mead, Entomologist

(1) Member, Entomology in Action Committee, Florida Entomological
Society, 1967.

G. W. Dekle, Entomologist

(1) Co-Chairman with H. V. Weems, Jr., Graduate Fellowship Committee,
Florida Entomological Society, 1966-67, 1967-68.
(2) Member, 50th Anniversary Committee, Florida Entomological So-
ciety, 1966-67.
(3) Chairman, Exhibits Committee, Entomology in Action, Florida En-
tomological Society, 1966-67, 1967-68.
(4) Member, Local Arrangements Committee, 50th Annual Meeting, Flor-
ida Entomological Society, 1966-67.
(5) Chairman, Graduate Student Awards Committee, Southeastern
Branch Entomological Society of America, 1968-69.

R. E. Woodruff, Entomologist

(1) Member, Entomology In Action Committee, Florida Entomological
Society, 1966.
(2) Local Arrangements Committee, Florida Entomological Society,

H. V. Weems, Jr., Entomologist

(1) Head Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
(2) Editor, Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, irregu-
larly appearing bulletin published by the Division.
(3) Assistant Curator in Arthropods, Florida State Museum, University
of Florida.
(4) Associate Professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida IFAS.
(5) Member, Committee on the Common Names of Insects, Entomologi-
cal Society of America, 1966-67.
(6) Co-Chairman with G. W. Dekle, Graduate Fellowship Committee,
Florida Entomological Society, 1966-67, 1967-68.
(7) Member, Nominations Committee, Florida Entomological Society,

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report



H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

Many people contributed specimens to the Florida state collection dur-
ing the biennium, not all of whom are acknowledged in this report. The
most important single addition was the collection of Muscidae and Antho-
myiidae, together with books, reprints, and files of the late Dr. Fred M.
Snyder of Fort Myers, Florida. This collection, purchased jointly by the
Florida Department of Agriculture and the University of Florida, is one of
the finest collections of Muscidae and Anthomyiidae in North America, and
it is world-wide in scope, containing representatives of 2,178 identified spe-
cies and many types.

*Dr. Elisabeth C. Beck (biologist, Bureau of Entomology, Florida State
Board of Health, P. O. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201)

29 slide mounts, all type specimens, of 14 new species of Chironomidae
(Diptera) described in "Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida"; 1 Penta-
neurini (Tanypodinae) ; bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biologi-
cal Sciences, Volume 10, Number 8, pages 305-379, Plates 1-18, May 30,

*Dr. Lewis Berner (professor and chairman, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
A collection of Ephemeroptera consisting of 4,375 vials and 51 jars of
alcohol-preserved specimens and 4,270 pinned, labelled specimens, in-
cluding 6 holotypes, 3 allotypes, and 111 paratypes. This research col-
lection, primarily of North American Ephemeroptera, represents ap-
proximately two-fifths of a private collection developed by Dr. Berner
over much of a lifetime, and it is the second portion of this collection
which has been donated to the Florida state collection. The re-
mainder is to be donated to the state during the next two years.

*Dr. Franklin S. Blanton (professor, Department of Entomology and Nem-
atology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
500 jars of alcoholically preserved insects collected in light traps in
Mexico, plus several small jars of specimens collected in Mexico; 36
dozen pints and 13 dozen quarts of alcohol-preserved collections of
miscellaneous insects made by the donor and his associates in Mexico
and Central America, principally in Honduras and El Salvador; 1 vial
of treehoppers (1 species, 7 specimens, collected in N. Y. State).

*Mr. Byrd Dozier (32 Corydon Drive, Miami Springs, Florida 33166)
620 pinned, labelled, insects mostly from Jamaica, Honduras, Texas,
Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, Arizona, New Mexico, representing 6
Diptera, 39 Hymenoptera, 80 Hemiptera, 38 Homoptera, 3 Orthoptera,
451 Coleoptera, 3 Neuroptera; 4 pill boxes of insects collected by the
donor in Jamaica in May-June 1966, consisting of 58 specimens (31
Homoptera, 5 Hemiptera, 3 Hymenoptera, 10 Diptera (including 7 Syr-
phidae), and 9 Coleoptera); 9 Scarabaeidae (Aphodius unmounted)
from Jamaica.

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Division of Plant Industry

Dr. G. B. Fairchild (Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, Balboa Heights, Canal
Zone, Panama)
74 Tabanidae representing 52 Neotropical species, 48 of them new to
the Florida State Collection; 8 genera were new to the Florida collec-

*Dr. Ben A. Foote (Department of Biological Sciences, 265 McGilvery Hall,
Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240)
128 Diptera representing 128 species and subspecies, 49 of which are
new to the Florida collection (consisting of 85 species and subspecies
of Scionyzidae, 40 of which are new to the Florida State Collection;
11 species of Heleomyzidae, 4 of which are new to the Florida collec-
tion; 5 species of Micropezidae, 2 of which are new to the Florida col-
lection; 27 species of Chloropidae, 3 of which are new to the Florida
collection) ; 21 pinned, labelled Syrphidae collected in Montana.

Dr. S. W. Frost (professor emeritus, Pennsylvania State University, Uni-
versity Park, Pennsylvania 16802)
31 insects which were collected at the Archbold Biological Station, con-
sisting of 21 moths representing 20 species, many of them new to the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, and 10 Mantispidae represent-
ing two species; 95 pinned, labelled, identified insects representing 48
species, including 4 Hemiptera, 17 Homoptera, 3 Orthoptera, 12 Cole-
optera, 2 Diptera and 57 Lepidoptera; 42 pinned, labelled, identified
insects representing 2 species of Coleoptera and 15 species of Diptera,
mostly new to the Florida collection; 18 specimens representing 9
species which are represented in the Florida collection by a few or no
specimens; 27 specimens consisting of 6 beetles representing 3 species,
and 21 flies representing 8 species about half of them new to the
Florida collection. All specimens were collected by Prof. Frost at the
Archbold Biological Station near Lake Placid, Florida.

"Mr. Stanley V. Fuller (Cassadaga, Florida-deceased)
937 neatly pinned, labelled Lepidoptera, mostly identified Florida speci-
mens; also two 12-drawer USNM insect storage cabinets and one 20-
drawer insect storage cabinet. 5530 specimens were stored in Schmitt
boxes; 3837 specimens were stored in insect storage cabinets. This is
the largest donation of Lepidoptera ever received for the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods.

*Dr. Dale H. Habeck (associate entomologist, Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
507 pinned insects consisting of 1 Diptera, 6 Florida Hymenoptera, 84
spread Wisconsin Noctuidae, and 409 Florida Noctuidae, mostly
spread; 324 pinned, labelled insects, mostly from California, North
Carolina, Wisconsin and North Dakota, representing the following
orders: Coleoptera (273), Homoptera (47), Hemiptera (1), Neurop-
tera (1), Diptera (1), Hymenoptera (1); 1 Pseudoscorpion, 1 weevil
ex water lily, 1 sample of several hundred Coleoptera from light at
Melrose, Putnam County, Florida.

'Mr. E. I. Hazard (USDA Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
2,037 pinned, labelled, partly identified Coleoptera, mostly Chrysomeli-
dae from Ohio and Georgia.

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

*Mr. Richard Heitzman (3112 Harris Avenue, Independence, Missouri
1686 pinned, labelled insects collected by the donor, including 1026 ex-
ceptionally handsomely spread, identified Lepidoptera plus 184 repre-
senting 102 species and 264 representing 93 species; 17 Coleoptera plus
186 representing a single species; 3 Diptera, 2 Neuroptera, and 4 Hom-
optera. Donated 15 vials of alcohol-preserved insects, consisting of 2
vials of Trichoptera, 1 vial of Ephemeroptera, 2 vials of Diptera, 1 vial
of Hemiptera, 4 vials of Coleoptera (2 of them identified to species),
and 5 vials of Lepidoptera larvae (identified to species); also 15 vials
of identified Lepidoptera larvae and pupae representing 6 species; 404
pinned, labelled insects consisting of 179 neatly spread Lepidoptera
(partially identified to species-41 foreign Leps identified), 173 Cole-
optera, 14 Hemiptera, 4 Homoptera, 11 Neuroptera, 3 Hymenoptera,
and 10 Diptera. In addition, he relaxed, pinned, and spread 85 Hun-
garian Lepidoptera which we sent to him as papered specimens to be
processed. 82 pinned insects collected in Michigan, consisting of 27
Homoptera (periodic cicadas), 1 Neuroptera, 2 Mecoptera, 7 Coleop-
tera, and 45 Diptera (including 23 Syrphidae) ; 18 vials and 11 olive
bottles containing several hundred miscellaneous insects; 665 Lepidop-
tera, including 18 vials and 11 olive bottles containing several hundred
miscellaneous insects; 665 Lepidoptera, including 18 specimens from
Canada (collected by donor and other members of his family) ; 257
pinned, labelled, unidentified insects other than Lepidoptera; 3 olive
jars of Scarabaeidae and 13 vials of miscellaneous insects. The insects
other than Lepidoptera consist of 4 Homoptera (cidadas), 11 Hemip-
tera, 14 Hymenoptera, 4 Diptera, 1 Trichoptera, 224 Coleoptera, and 27

*Dr. Roland F. Hussey (professor, Department of Biological Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville 32601-deceased)
Synoptic collection of Hemiptera, mostly Neotropical, consisting of
293 specimens representing 293 species, almost all of which are new to
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. This is a noteworthy do-
nation of choice material.

'Mr. C. P. Kimball (7340 Point of Rocks Road, Sarasota, Florida 33581)
643 pinned, spread, labelled, identified Lepidoptera representing ap-
proximately 200 species.

Mr. Tokuwo Kono (systematic entomologist, Bureau of Entomology, Cali-
fornia Department of Agriculture, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, Califor-
nia 95814)
47 slide mounts of Thysanoptera, representing 47 species.

H. J. P. Lambeck (professor, Genetisch Institut van de Rijksuniversiteit
te Utrecht, Opaalweg 20, Utrecht, the Netherlands)
98 pinned, labelled European Syrphidae, representing 51 species of
which none is also American.

*Mr. Bryant Mather (P. O. Drawer 2131, Jackson, Mississippi 39205)
209 pinned, labelled, spread, and identified insects consisting of 13
Lepidoptera representing 4 species and subspecies of Polygonia; 148
Neuroptera representing 14 species; 48 Trichoptera representing 1 spe-
cies; 373 pinned, labelled insects collected in Mississippi representing

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Division of Plant Industry

47 species, including 150 authoritatively identified Neuroptera, 185 au-
thoritatively identified Trichoptera, 6 identified Mecoptera, and 10 un-
determined Homoptera, 2 undetermined Hemiptera, 4 undetermined Hy-
menoptera, 8 undetermined Diptera, and 2 undetermined Psocoptera.

*Mr. John W. McReynolds (P. O. Box 182, Nevada, Missouri 64772)
A private collection of 1109 pinned, labelled insects mostly collected in
Missouri; 133 pinned, unlabelled insects collected by him at Cranberry
Glades, West Virginia; 81 pinned, unlabelled insects collected by the
donor at Torreya State Park, Florida.

Mr. Frank W. Mead (entomologist, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville,
Florida 32601)
661 pinned and labelled insects, including 93 identified Hemiptera.

Dr. T. B. Mitchell (Department of Entomology, North Carolina State Uni-
versity, Box 5215, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607)
187 wild bees representing 106 species of eastern North America, 64 of
them new to the Florida collection, 42 species representing sexes not
previously represented in the Florida collection; also 16 more wild
bees, each representing a species or a sex of a species new to the Flor-
ida collection. Dr. Mitchell also donated 5 flies which he collected in
Trinidad (3 Syrphidae and 2 Tabanidae).
Mr. Frank Moore (museum assistant, Department of Zoology and Ento-
mology, Ohio State University, Ohio 43210)
182 pinned, labelled and identified Elateridae, Cleridae, Buprestidae,
mostly from California, Arizona, and Ohio; 50 Scarabaeidae from Ohio
in alcohol; 85 Scolytidae (Stephanoderes hampei Ferrari, a serious pest
of coffee, from Brazil) ; 103 adult Japanese beetles in alcohol from
Ohio; 42 cereal leaf beetle adults from India; 95 identified Coleoptera
from Ohio, California and Arizona.
*Mr. John W. Patton (Plant Quarantine Division, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA, P. O. Box 266, Tampa, Florida 33601)
Mr. Patton, during this biennium, continued his practice of sending for
the Florida state collection hundreds of vials and pill boxes of miscel-
laneous insects collected by him in the Tampa area throughout the
period and in other states during his annual leaves. Many specimens
of exceptional interest are included in this material.
*Dr. Dennis R. Paulson (Organization for Tropical Studies, Ciudad Uni-
versitaria, Costa Rica, Central America)
1,115 envelopes and 25 vials of reared material in an Odontata dona-
Dr. C. B. Philip (principal medical entomologist, Rocky Mountain Labora-
tory, Hamilton, Montana 59840)
9 boxes of Malaise trap collections made in the vicinity of the Rocky
Mountain Laboratory, at or near Hamilton, Montana. Each box con-
tains hundreds of insects between layers of cellucotton; included are
16 pinned Syrphidae; 36 rare to uncommon Tabanidae, including our
first male of Chrysops pachycera Williston, our first male and female
of Tabanus aegrotus Osten Sacken, our first female of Stonemyia tran-
quilla subspecies fera Williston and our first male and female of Stone-
myia abaureus Philip; 50 flies preserved in alcohol, about half of them

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Syrphidae, which he collected in June 1967, in a Malaise trap in west-
ern Montana; 1 male Chrysops virgulatus Bellardi, 1 male and 1 female
Chryseps frigidus Osten Sacken. 1 female Hybomitra tetrica var. hir-
tula (Marten), sent as a gift; 16 pinned, labelled Diptera, including 14
Syrphidae, collected by the donor at high altitudes in western Montana.
*Dr. George W. Rawson (retired veterinarian, 3306 Turner Lane, Chevy
Chase, Maryland 20015)
Specimens from "The Crater," South Africa, collected by Mrs. E. L.
Ayres, representing 3 Coleoptera, 1 Orthoptera, 1 Neuroptera and 1
Diptera: 365 pinned, spread, identified Lepidoptera, mostly collected in
Mexico by Dr. Rawson; 82 pinned, labelled, spread, mostly determined
Lepidoptera; also included in this donation were 34 envelopes contain-
ing: 1 lyctid beetle, 1 robber fly, 1 green stink bug, 1 cicada, 2 leafhop-
pers, 39 unidentified Lepidoptera and 19 identified Lepidoptera.
*Mr. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr. (11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida
1 book and 9 bulletins and papers dealing with Siphonaptera; approxi-
mately 505 vials and pill boxes containing hundreds of miscellaneous
insects, many of them identified by specialists; 249 envelopes, each con-
taining one or more representatives of one or more species which he
collected by rearing or by sweeping various plants; of these, 71 en-
velopes containing undetermined specimens and 178 containing speci-
mens identified by U. S. National Museum specialists.
Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. (entomologist, Division of Plant Industry, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32601)
Misses Pamela, Debra, Brenda, and Camilla Vail Weems, and Mr.
Howard V. Weems, III.
910 miscellaneous pinned, labelled insects collected in Florida by the
donor at personal expense and time; 1,238 pinned, labelled arthropods;
5,968 pinned insects, mostly collected by Dr. Weems and family during
June-July on field trip to western US and Canada, donated to the Flor-
ida collection.
*Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. (associate professor, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
Odonata totalling 5000 specimens in envelopes; 6 pinned, labelled in-
sects (3 Syrphidae, 1 Scoliidae, 1 Membracidae, 2 Pyrrhocoridae) col-
lected in Jamaica and California.
*Mr. Joe Wilcox (21171 Mohler Place, Anaheim, California 92805)
409 Asilidae, including 6 topotypes and 107 paratypes, representing 67-
90 species and subspecies, 86 of them new to the Florida collection; 4
species including both sexes of species which previously were repre-
sented in the Florida collection by a single species; in almost all cases
each species was represented by a male and a female.
*Mr. C. F. Zeiger (3751 Sommers Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205)
2695 pinned, labelled insects collected in Florida by donor, consisting
of 693 Coleoptera, 92 Hemiptera, 1284 Diptera (including 500 Syrphi-
dae); 463 Hymenoptera, 414 neatly spread Lepidoptera, 104 Homop-
tera, 8 Orthoptera, 4 Odonata, 1 Plecoptera immature, 78 Hemiptera, 1
Mecoptera, 2 Ephemeroptera, 1 Neuroptera, and 1 Isoptera; 7 vials of
arthropods, including 3 of Diplopoda, 3 of Lepidoptera larvae, and 1 of
Diptera larvae.

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Division of Plant Industry


Dr. Richard D. Alexander (Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor 48106)
9 Rhadine (Carabidae) from pocket gopher burrows in Mexico.

Mr. Darrell W. Anthony (graduate student, Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
A male and female of a rare tabanid, Merycomyia brunnea Stone.

Dr. Walter Auffenberg (curator, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida
State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
5 Scarabaeidae (Coprinae) from India and 2 Tenebrionidae from

Capt. Timothy O. Austin (U. S. Air Force, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
2 large centipedes, 1 leech, and 1 crab, all from Thailand.

*Dr. R. M. Baranowski (entomologist, University of Florida, Sub-Tropical
Experiment Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead,
Florida 33030)
6 Berlese sample collections from Key Largo, Florida, 3 of which were
from pack rat nests.

Mr. Steve Bass (museum assistant, Florida State Museum, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
44 vials of miscellaneous arthropods from Surinam, South America.

Dr. Joseph C. Bequaert (Department of Entomology, University of Ari-
zona, Tucson, Arizona 85721)
1 tangle-veined fly, Hirmoneura flavipes Williston (Family Nemestrini-
dae), new to the Florida collection.

Dr. George E. Bohart (Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Wild Bee
Pollination Investigations, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84321)
12 specimens of Conopidae representing 6 species, 2 of them new to the
Florida collection; 29 pinned, labelled, undetermined specimens of Syr-

Mr. Henry Brouwer (Department of Entomology and Nematology, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
181 vials (with typed labels but unidentified to species) of arthropods
consisting of 153 spiders, 13 phalangids, 2 ticks, 2 Hemiptera, 18
beetles, representing Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia,
Louisiana, Nebraska, Nevada, Tennessee, Texas, Utah; Mexico (6

*Mr. Don Bryne (Suwannee Laboratory, Rt. 5, Box 249-B, Lake City, Flor-
ida 32055)
1 vial of giant Mexican mites, Trombidium magnificum Le Conte (Fam-
ily Trombidiidae).

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 45

Mr. John F. Burger (graduate research assistant, Division of Parasitol-
ogy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720)
20 rare Arizona Syrphidae and 6 Arizona Tabanidae collected by the

Mr. Neil Chernoff (graduate student, Department of Zoology, University
of Miami, Florida 33146)
212 pinned and labelled Coleoptera, mostly from Mexico, Panama, Co-
lombia, and Florida; 89 pinned, labelled Coleoptera, mostly Scarabaei-
dae, Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae; and 81 beetles in alcohol.

Mr. William B. Clemcnts (Clements Pest Control, 609 S. 14 Street, Lees-
burg, Florida 32748)
5 huge queens of a species of termites from the Philippine Islands; 100
specimens representing 100 species of exotic Coleoptera from Taiwan

Mr. Larry D. Cline (graduate student, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
1 Ogcodes (Ogcodes) pallidipennis Loew.

Dr. J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson (Department of Zoology, University of
Khartoum, and Keeper, Sudan Natural History Museum, Khartoum,
Sudan, Africa)
4 very large African wind scorpions.

Mr. C. T. Collins (Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Nat-
ural History, New York, New York 10024)
Insects in alcohol and envelopes from Venezuela and Trinidad-212
Coleoptera, 3 Diptera, 3 Neuroptera, 8 Hemiptera, 2 Lepidoptera, 22
Homoptera, 2 Dermaptera, 7 Orthoptera, 57 Odonata.

Dr. W. A. Connell (Department of Entomology, University of Delaware,
Newark 19711)
21 Nitidulidae (Coleoptera), pinned, labelled and determined, 16 species
of which are new to the Florida collection.

Dr. D. E. Cooperrider (Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratories, Division
of Animal Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Kissimmee,
Florida 32741)
Two bottles of bot fly larvae, family Gasterophilidae, and 1 bottle of
Sarcoptes mites from a dromedary camel.

Mr. James Cope (Department of Natural Sciences, California State Col-
lege at San Jose, California 95125)
363 Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera) consisting of 174 pinned, labelled, speci-
mens, 189 in alcohol, mostly from California, Arizona, and Texas.

Mr. James I. Cowger (assistant regional supervisor in charge of Survey
and Detection Operations, Southern Region, USDA, Plant Pest Con-
trol Division, Gulfport, Mississippi 39502)
2 adults of the Neotropical corn borer, Zeadiatrea lineolata (Walker);
1 adult of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius); 7
specimens of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formo-
sanus Shiraki.

Division of Plant Industry

*Dr. C. Howard Curran (associate professor-honorary-University of
Florida, Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Leesburg,
Florida 32748)
384 insects collected by the donor in the vicinity of Leesburg, Florida,
including 112 pinned, labelled Lepidoptera (some spread, some un-
spread), 13 Hemiptera, 50 Diptera (including 36 midges), 2 Orthop-
tera, 8 Coleoptera, 6 pinned Odonata and 40 envelopes containing 153
Odonata, housed in 4 insect storage boxes and 5 cigar boxes; also 21

Mr. E. A. Davenport (museum assistant, Department of Natural Sciences,
University of Florida, Florida State Museum, Gainesville 32601)
90 arthropods in alcohol from Jamaica as follows: 49 ants, 2 Ichneu-
monidae, 4 isopods, 1 Isoptera, 2 Dermaptera, 1 Tettigoniidae, 2 Pas-
salidae, 2 Curculionidae, 23 Scarabaeidae, 4 Acarina (on passalids).

Mrs. William M. Davidson (1504 Bodell, Orlando, Florida 32803-wife of
the late Mr. W. M. Davidson)
Donated a small collection of papered Hungarian Lepidoptera to the
Florida Audubon Society, who referred the material to the Florida
State Museum, who referred it to the Division of Plant Industry for in-
clusion in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Although the
material was transferred in February 1966, no record was made of this
in our accessions file until August 1967. This collection consists of 81
specimens stored in 79 envelopes.

Dr. R. W. Dawson (Department of Entomology, Washington State Uni-
versity, Pullman, Washington 99163)
24 pinned, labelled Syrphidae.

*Mr. Peter C. Drummond (graduate student, Department of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
20 vials of millipedes collected in Florida; 2 light trap samples from
Dominica, W. I., 1 light trap sample from Montserrat, W. I., 7 Scara-
baeidae unpinnedd) from Montserrat, W. I., 2 Scarabaeidae unpinnedd)
from Puerto Rico, 2 Passalidae unpinnedd) from Grenada, W. I., 1 Pas-
salidae unpinnedd) from St. Lucia, W. I.

Mr. F. Robert Duchanois (Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville
30 circulars and pamphlets on economic insects, mostly Lepidoptera.

Mr. Paul B. Dunaway (Radiation Ecology Section, Health Physics Divi-
sion, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 87831)
4 adult reared Cuterebridae (Diptera).
Mr. E. B. Fagan (graduate student, Department of Entomology and Nem-
atology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
4 vials, several hundred specimens of insects mostly leafhoppers from
pangola grass and kikuyu grass in Costa Rica collected in June 1967;
111 pinned and labelled specimens from Costa Rica, representing 79
Coleoptera and 32 Hemiptera; 4 pints of light trap samples (mostly
Coleoptera) from Costa Rica.

Mr. George W. Folkerts (Department of Zoology-Entomology, Auburn
University, Alabama 36830)

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

81 pinned and labelled Scarabaeidae from Alabama and Ecuador; 3
specimens of Platypsyllus castoris Ritsema, a beetle parasite of the
beaver, which is the only member of the family Platypsyllidae in the
U. S. previously unrepresented in the Florida collection.

Mr. James C. Haley (supervisor in charge, Florida Plant Pest Control
Division, USDA, ARS, Winter Haven, Florida 33880.
1 vial of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus
Shiraki (family Rhinotermitidae), collected in Orleans Parish, Louisi-
ana, in 1966.

Mr. William Hasse (graduate student, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
1 Scarabaeidae from British Honduras.

*Dr. L. A. Hetrick (entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
6 pinned, labelled specimens of a rarely collected syrphid fly, Polybio-
myia pedicillata (Williston) ; 10 pinned, labelled, identified specimens
of Platypus quadridentatus (Oliver) collected by Hetrick-first time it
has been taken in Florida since Blatchley collected it over 50 years
ago; 1 tufted millipede; 1 adult Abachrysa eureka (Banks), family

*Mr. Harry O. Hilton (P. O. Box 144, Shalimar, Florida 32579)
80 pinned, labelled, spread Lepidoptera collected by the donor in Flor-
ida, Mexico, and Panama. In addition to this donation Mr. Hilton re-
turned 6 large insect storage boxes filled with Lepidoptera which he
had relaxed, pinned, and spread as a service to the Division of Plant
Industry; this material consisted of 229 specimens collected by H. V.
Weems, Jr., 150 specimens collected by R. E. Woodruff, and 1 specimen
collected by Rawson-all in Mexico and Central America; 3 palm
weevils, pinned and labelled.

*Dr. Roland F. Hussey (professor-deceased, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
The Roland F. Hussey Library of Hemiptera publications-see Li-
brarian's Report, "Notable Gift."

*Mr. Harold L. "Verne" King (P. 0. Box 1171, Sarasota, Florida 33578)
33 vials of miscellaneous insects collected in Texas, Mexico and Central
America during 1967 by the donor and the late Mrs. Roberta Woods of
Sarasota; 3 tropical damselflies, 2 moths, 2 bugs, 2 wasps and 1 fly.

Mr. J. N. Knull (professor emeritus, Ohio State University, Columbus,
Ohio 43210)
37 Cerambycidae, Elateridae, and Cleridae, all representing species
new to the Florida collection.

*Dr. James E. Lloyd (assistant professor, Department of Biological Scien-
ces, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
32 mounted and labelled beetles from New York.

Mr. Cliff Lofgren (USDA Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Division of Plant Industry

2 specimens of Myrmecaphodiuts proseni Martinez from 10 miles south
of Bartow, Florida. This is a new locality for this species which in-
habits imported fire ant nests.

Mrs. Ernestine Mercer (laboratory technician, Division of Plant Industry,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
3 light trap samples from near Moultrie, Georgia; 1 Dynastes tityus
(L.) from Moultrie, Georgia; 9 Scarabaeidae from Gainesville, Florida;
1 blacklight trap sample from Gainesville.

Mr. Edward P. Merkel (project leader, Forest Insect Research, Naval
Stores and Timber Production Laboratory, U. S. Forest Service, Olus-
tee, Florida 32072)
9 quarts of blacklight trap collections of insects from Olustee, Florida;
4 light trap samples (pints and half pints) collected at Perry, Florida.

Dr. W. W. Middlekauff (Division of Entomology, University of California,
Berkeley, California 94720)
36 sawflies, representing 18 species, most of them new to the Florida

Dr. D. R. Miller (Department of Entomology, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of California, Davis 95616)
3 paratype slides of 3 species of eriococcid scales described recently by
Dr. Miller (Ovaticoccus mackenzici Miller, Ovaticoccus salviae Miller,
and Ovaticoccus variabilis Miller).

Mr. C. F. W. Muesebeck (Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction
Research Branch, USDA, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.
7 paratypes of parasitic wasps which he described in the Florida En-
tomologist (2 males and 1 female of Macrocentrus dioryctriae Mues.,
family Braconidae; 1 male and 1 female of Trichopria myoleptae
Mues.) (an exchange).

'Dr. Martin H. Muma (entomologist, University of Florida, Citrus Experi-
ment Station, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850)
15 adults of a dusky-wing Coniopteryx vicina Hagen, family Coniop-

Mr. Cyrus J. Nicholson (entomologist, Division of Animal Industry, Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture, Sebring Air Terminal, P. 0. Box 821,
Sebring 33870)
4 full pints and 320 vials of egg masses and larvae of flies of medical
and veterinary importance; 12 vials of arthropods, consisting of 5 vials
of Diptera larvae, 1 vial of cattle tail lice (Haematopinus quadriper-
tusus Fahrenholz) and 6 vials of ticks, all collected in southern and
central Florida.

Mr. John A. Novak (graduate student, Department of Biological Sciences,
Kent State University, Ohio 44240)
176 pinned, labelled, identified Diptera representing 1 species of Otitidae
and 9 species of Tephritidae, collected by the donor in Florida, Ohio,
and Montana; 39 unpinned Homoptera.

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Mrs. Ladonia O'Berry (laboratory technician, Division of Plant Industry,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
1 large millipede from Florida; 2 Coleoptera from Texas and Louisi-

Dr. and Mrs. (Dr.) C. W. O'Brien (Department of Entomology and Para-
sitology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720)
34 pinned, labelled Diptera, consisting of 29 Syrphidae, 3 Acroceridae,
and 2 Cuterebra latifrons Coquillett, a species new to the Florida col-

Dr. H. Eugene Ostmark (Tropical Research Division Tela Railroad Co.-a
subsidiary of United Fruit Corporation, La Lima, Honduras)
19 Syrphidae and 11 Scarabaeidae, 11 pinned and labelled, collected in
Panama and Honduras by the donor.

Mr. Jerry A. Payne (Department of Entomology and Zoology, Clemson
University, South Carolina 29631)
2 adults, 6 nymphs of an anthocorid, Lyctocoris campestris (F.), new
to the Florida collection; also 3 other specimens of Hemiptera for the
collection; also a mirid new to the collection, Fulvius brunneus (Pro-

Mr. Neil G. Payne (museum assistant, Department of Natural Sciences,
Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
1 Dynastes tityus (L.), family Scarabaeidae, from Big Stone Gap, Vir-

Dr. L. L. Pechuman (curator of insects, Department of Entomology and
Limnology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850)
17 Tabanidae, 7 of these representing 7 species new to the Florida col-
lection and 2 others each being the first representation of a sex of a
species in the Florida collection; three others were the second repre-
sensations of a sex of a species for the Florida collection; earlier Dr.
Alan Stone, U. S. National Museum, sent us our first representations of
a sex for each of these three species.

Mr. Stewart B. Peck (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Univer-
sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138)
25 pinned and labelled Scarabaeidae from Costa Rica; 229 alcoholic
Scarabaeidae from Costa Rica and Illinois.
Dr. L. R. Penner (Department of Entomology, University of Connecticut,
Storrs 06268)
2 adult males and an adult female of the spirobolid milliped, Florido-
bolus penneri Causey, collected at the Archbold Biological Station
near Lake Placid, Florida.
Mr. William H. Pierce (P. O. Box 232, Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Is-
lands, USA 00820)
98 pinned, labelled Diptera, including 18 Syrphidae, collected by the
donor in the Virgin Islands.
*Dr. John E. Porter (scientist-director, Quarantine Station, U. S. Public
Health Service, 1015 Port Boulevard, New Port of Miami, Miami, Flor-
ida 33132)

'Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

50 Division of Plant Industry

144 pill boxes of miscellaneous insects from mosquito light traps oper-
ated at four different ship dock facilities in the Miami area; 24 pill
boxes of miscellaneous unmounted dried insects collected in Everglades
National Park; and 36 pill boxes of identified Otitidae and Tephritidae.

Dr. George B. Saunders (retired from U. S. Wildlife Service, 3009 S. E.
Hawthorne Road, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
9 pinned, labelled Corixidae collected by the donor in the state of Si-
naloa, Mexico; 115 reprints, mostly pertaining to arthropods.

Joseph C. Schaffner (professor, Department of Entomology, Texas A & M
University, College Station, Texas 77843)
3 specimens representing 3 species of exotic Alydidae (Hemiptera).

Mr. R. G. Schaffter (student, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
27 vials of miscellaneous insects from Long Island, Bahamas.

*Mr. C. E. Seiler (208 N. W. Avenue I, Belle Glade, Florida 33430)
2 adult Cuterbridae with puparia; specimens were collected at Belle
Glade and reared by the donor.

Mr. Allen Selhime (investigations leader, USDA Humid Areas Citrus
Insects Investigations, 2120 Camden Road, Orlando, Florida 32803)
3 vials of hymenopterous parasites of fruit flies reared by H. Kamasaki
in Mexico.
Dr. Alan Stone (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, U. S. Na-
tional Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560)
14 Tabanidae representing 14 species, 9 of these being the first repre-
sentatives of the males of those species in the Florida collection and
4 females being the first representatives of those species in the Florida
collection (an exchange).
Tall Timbers Research Station (Route 1, Box 110, Tallahassee, Florida
Several thousand Scarabaeidae from blacklight traps at the station.
Dr. Sam R. Telford, Jr., through Dr. Walter Auffenberg (Florida State
Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
40 Scarabaeidae, 2 spiders, 1 cacada, 1 tabanid, from Japan.
Mrs. Donna Thompson (Florida State Museum, University of Florida,
Gainesville 32601)
567 insects in alcohol from Mexico (mostly aquatics) as follows: 301
Coleoptera, 80 Hemiptera, 50 Ephemeroptera, and 1 Neuroptera.
Dr. Fred G. Thompson (research associate, Florida State Museum, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
150 water beetles in alcohol, from Mexico; 4 Coleoptera, 3 Hemiptera
in alcohol from Guerrero, Mexico.
Dr. William J. Tilden (Department of Natural Sciences, California State
College at San Jose, and his son, Bruce A. Tilden)
199 pinned, labelled California insects, consisting of 4 determined
Diptera, family Tipulidae, representing 1 species; 17 undetermined
Neuroptera (16 Raphidioidea, 1 Oorydalidae); 178 Coleoptera (140
determined) representing 51 species, and 38 undetermined.

*Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Mr. W. H. Tyson (Department of Natural Sciences, California State
College at San Jose, San Jose, California 95125)
37 Scarabaeidae in alcohol from California; 44 Scarabaeidae in alcohol
from Texas.

*Mr. Karl Valley (Department of Entomology and Limnology, Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York 14850)
17 Diptera representing 10 species, 3 of them new to the Florida col-
lection; 9 pillboxes of leafhoppers collected by the donor in north-
eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania.

Dr. J. R. Vockeroth (Entomology Research Institute, Central Experi-
mental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)
54 Scatophagidae representing 8 species, 6 of them new to the Florida

*Dr. Thomas J. Walker, Jr. (associate professor, Department of Entomo-
logy and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601)
11 Scarabaeidae from Trinidad, B.W.I.

Dr. Rupert L. Wenzel (Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt
Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605)
107 reprints of Scarabaeidae from the library of the late Mr. Bernard

Mr. Weldon E. Wheat (105-B Swan Avenue, Hohenwald, Tennessee 38462)
4 specimens and 3 adults of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles
reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik. These specimens are the first representa-
tives of this interesting species for the Florida collection.

Dr. Richard E. White (Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction
Research Branch, USDA, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.
2 Florida paratypes of Cryptoramorphus floridanus White, family

Dr. Willis W. Wirth (Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Re-
search Branch, USDA, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.
45 slide mounts representing 14 species of Ceratopogonidae.

'Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods

52 Division of Plant Industry


of the


The Research Associates Program matured during this biennium.
Fifty-eight Research Associates, officially appointed by Commissioner of
Agriculture Doyle Conner, are supporting the further development of the
state collection. These Research Associates, who serve without pay, are
making significant contributions to our knowledge of the arthropod fauna
of Florida and neighboring areas which constitute the "Area Of Interest"
of the program. The results of their studies are being published in the
Florida Entomologist, in monthly circulars published by the DPI as a part
of Tri-Ology, in the Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas
series published by the DPI, and in other publication outlets.
Twenty-two new research associate appointments were made during the
biennium: Mr. Dale R. Birkenmeyer, Dr. Nell B. Causey, Dr. C. Howard
Curran, Mr. Terhune S. Dickel, Mr. Peter C. Drummond, Dr. Ben A. Foote,
Mr. J. Richard Heitzman, Dr. James E. Lloyd, Mr. Bryant Mather, Dr.
John D. McCrone, Dr. Jos6 M. Osorio, Dr. William L. Peters, Dr. John E.
Porter, Dr. George W. Rawson, Dr. Walfried J. Reinthal, Dr. Jonathan
Reiskind, Mr. Kilian Roever, Mr. Charles E. Seiler, Mr. Kenneth A. Spencer,
Mr. Karl R. Valley, Dr. Willard H. Whitcomb, and Mr. Joseph Wilcox.
Five research associates were lost during the biennium: Dr. Fred C.
Bishop (retired), Dr. John W. Wilson (retired), Mr. Don E. Payne, Mr.
Stanley V. Fuller (deceased Nov. 30, 1966), and Dr. Roland F. Hussey
(deceased Aug. 19, 1967). As a part-time DPI staff member for several
years and assistant curator of the Lepidoptera section of the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Mr. Fuller made hundreds of contributions
to the collection. His major contribution came at the time of his death
when he willed his personal collection to the State of Florida. More than
10,000 pinned, labelled, and authoritatively identified specimens were
donated. Dr. Hussey, editor of the Annals of the Entomological Society
of America during the last 10 years of his life, author of 58 publications,
mostly dealing with aquatic and semi-aquatic Hemiptera, and a world-wide
authority on the order Hemiptera, willed his excellent collection of Hemip-
tera to the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan. Mrs.
Hussey has given his fine library to the University of Florida and it has
been deposited in the DPI library. It is unfortunate that Dr. Hussey left
unfinished what would have been his greatest contribution, a catalogue
of the Heteroptera of the Americas. Dr. Jon L. Herring of the Smithsonian
Institution and one of Dr. Hussey's former graduate students at the Uni-
versity of Florida has accepted the task of completing the Heteroptera
Research Associate C. P. Kimball was honored at the 1966 annual
meeting of the Florida Entomological Society. The award was made for
his many contributions to the Florida state collection as well as for his
work on Lepidoptera of Florida. He began his compilation of the book
in 1953. It was published in 1965 by the DPI as Bulletin No. 1 in the
irregularly appearing series Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land
Bulletin No. 4 of Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas,
titled Scorpions, Whip Scorpions and Wind Scorpions of Florida, by Re-
search Associate Dr. Martin H. Muma of the University of Florida Citrus
Experiment Station, was published during 1967. More than a dozen other

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 53

manuscripts to be published in this series are in various stages of prepara-
tion by staff members and Research Associates.
The following is a list of officially appointed research associates of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, effective June 30, 1968:
1. Dr. Richard M. Baranowski, Assistant Entomologist, University of
Florida Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street,
Route 1, Homestead, Florida 33030. (Hemiptera, especially of Florida)
2. Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck, Biologist, Bureau of Entomology, Florida
State Board of Health, P.O. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201.
(Insects of public health importance, especially adult Chironomidae
and Ceratopogonidae)
3. Mr. William M. Beck, Jr., Biologist, Florida State Board of Health,
P. O. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201. (Ecology and taxonomy
of insects of public health importance, especially of immatures in re-
lation to pollution of water resources)
4. Dr. Lewis Berner, Chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Ephemeroptera of
North America, especially the southeastern U.S.) Dr. Berner is cur-
rently the Chairman of the University of Florida Library Committee.
5. Mr. Dale R. Birkenmeyer, c/o American Consulate, AID-4, ARS, P. O.
Box 2895, Salisbury, Rhodesia. (Southern Rhodesian insects)
6. Dr. Franklin S. Blanton, Professor, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (In-
sects of public health importance, especially Ceratopogonidae of
Middle America)
7. Mr. Don Bryne, Suwannee Lab, Rt. 5, Box 249-B, Lake City, Florida
32055. (Exotic insects and other arthropods, especially Lepidoptera)
8. Dr. Nell B. Causey, 145 Audubon Hall, Zoology and Physiology De-
partment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803.
9. Dr. C. Howard Curran, Associate Professor (honorary), University
of Florida Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Lees-
burg, Florida, and former Curator of Natural History at the Ameri-
can Museum of Natural History now living at 1302 Peters Drive,
Leesburg, Florida 32748. (Taxonomy of Diptera, especially Mydai-
10. Mr. Terhune S. Dickel, 108 Cedar Avenue S. W., Fort Walton Beach,
Florida 32548. (Lepidoptera)
11. Dr. Thomas W. Donnelly, Department of Geology, State University
of New York at Binghamton, New York 13901. (Odonata of the world,
especially of Latin America and the West Indies)
12. Mr. Byrd K. Dozier, 32 Corydon Drive, Miami Springs, Florida 33166.
(Coleoptera of North America and the West Indies, especially Buprest-
13. Mr. Peter C. Drummond, Instructor, Department of Mathematics and
Science, Clearwater Branch, St. Petersburg Junior College, Clear-
water, Florida 33710. (Terrestrial and littoral Isopoda)
14. Dr. William G. Eden, Chairman, Department of Entomology, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville 32601. (Entomology in general; admin-
15. Dr. Ben A. Foote, Department of Biological Sciences, 265 McGilvrey
Hall, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240. (Diptera, especially
Sciomyzidae, Chloropidae)
16. Mr. William G. Genung, Assistant Entomologist, University of Florida
Everglades Experiment Station, P. O. Drawer A., Belle Glade, Florida
33430. (Forage crop and truck crop insects, especially of southern

Division of Plant Industry

17. Dr. Dale H. Habeck, Assistant Entomologist, Department of Ento-
mology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601. (Ecology and
taxonomy of Nitidulidae and immature Lepidoptera of North America)
18. Dr. Gonzalo Halffter, Laboratorio de Sinecologia y Biogeografia,
Department de Biologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
I. P. N., M6xico, D. F., M6xico. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, especially
19. Mr. Edwin I. Hazard, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory,
USDA, P. O. Box 1268, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Coleoptera, espe-
cially Chrysomelidae and Culicidae)
20. Mr. J. Richard Heitzman, 3112 Harris Avenue, Independence, Missouri
64052. (Lepidoptera)
21. Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick, Professor, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601. (Forest insects
and wood products infesting insects, especially Isoptera)
22. Mrs. William H. (Shirley) Hills, Route 4, Box 114, Pensacola, Florida
32504. (Lepidoptera of the southeastern United States, especially of
northwestern Florida)
23. Mr. Harry O. Hilton, P. O. Box 144, Shalimar, Florida 32579. Lepidop-
tera of the southeastern United States and Mexico; insect photog-
24. Dr. E. G. Kelsheimer, Entomologist, University of Florida Gulf Coast
Experiment Station, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, Florida
33507. (Truck crop, forage crop and cut flower insects of southern
25. Mr. Charles P. Kimball, 7340 Point of Rocks Road, Sarasota, Florida
33581 (winter address); West Barnstable, Massachusetts (summer
address). (Lepidoptera of eastern North America, especially of Flor-
26. Mr. Harold L. "Verne" King, P. O. Box 1171, Sarasota, Florida 33578.
(Lepidoptera of North and Central America and the West Indies,
especially Lycaenidae)
27. Dr. Louis C. Kuitert, Entomologist, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601. (Aquatic Hem-
iptera of North America; tobacco, peach, truck crop, and ornamental
insects of Florida)
28. Dr. James E. Lloyd, Assistant Professor in Biological Sciences and
Entomology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Florida,
Gainesville 32601. (Taxonomy, ecology, and behavior of Lampyridae
and other light producing Coleoptera)
29. Mr. Bryant Mather, P. O. Drawer 2131, Jackson, Mississippi 39205.
(Lepidoptera, especially of Mississippi)
30. Dr. John D. McCrone, Interim Associate Professor of Biology, De-
partment of Biological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville
32601. (Taxonomy and ecology of spiders, especially the genus Latro-
dectus; chemistry and toxicity of spider venoms)
31. Mr. John W. McReynolds, P. O. Box 182, Nevada, Missouri 64772.
(Insects in general, especially Carabidae and Cicadidae)
32. Dr. Edward L. Mockford, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois
State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 61761. (Psocoptera of the
world, especially of the New World)
33. Dr. Martin H. Muma, Associate Entomologist, University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida
33850. (Acarina; Aranaeida; Solpugida; Scorpionida and related
groups of arachnids; biological control, especially of citrus pests)
34. Dr. Jos6 M. Osorio, Carrera 21, No. 10-66, Barquisimeto, Edo Lara,
Venezuela. (Venezuelan insects)

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 55

35. Mr. Dudley A. Palmer, Instructor, Ornamental Horticulture Depart-
ment, Junior College of Broward County, 3600 S. W. 70th Avenue,
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314. (Insects in general, especially of
36. Mr. John W. Patton, Plant Quarantine Division, USDA, ARS, P. 0.
Box 266, Tampa, Florida 33601. (Insects in general, especially of
Florida and the Appalachian Plateau)
37. Dr. Dennis R. Paulson, Department of Zoology, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27515. (Odonata of North and
Central America; Coleoptera of North and Central America)
38. Dr. William L. Peters, Associate Professor of Entomology, P. 0.
Box 111, School of Agriculture and Home Economics, Florida Agri-
cultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307.
39. Mr. William J. Platt, III, Division of Biological Science, G. E. Bldg.,
No. 3, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. (Lepidoptera of
North America, especially of Florida; ecology of the millipedes and
centipedes of Florida)
40. Dr. John E. Porter, Scientist-Director, Quarantine Station, U. S. Public
Health Service, 1015 Port Boulevard, New Port of Miami, Miami,
Florida 33132. (Arthropods of medical importance, especially Cul-
icidae; quarantine entomology; hackberry psyllids)
41. Dr. George W. Rawson, Retired Veterinarian, 3306 Turner Lane, Chevy
Chase, Maryland 20015. (Lepidoptera; chemistry of insects pigments)
42. Dr. Walfried J. Reinthal (M. D.), 4026 Sequoyah Avenue, Knoxville,
Tennessee 37919. (Lepidoptera, especially Asterocampa)
43. Dr. Jonathan Reiskind, Assistant Professor, Department of Biological
Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32601. (Archnida, espec-
ially Clubionidae and Salticidae)
44. Mr. Kilian Roever, P. O. Box 2191, 734 E. SP Drive, Phoenix, Arizona
85001. (Lepidoptera, especially Rhopalocera, Hesperioidea, Sphingi-
dae, Theclinae)
45. Mr. Charles E. Seller, 208 N. W. Avenue I, Belle Glade, Florida 33430.
(Biology and ecology of Hymenoptera)
46. Mr. Kenneth A. Spencer, 19 Redington Road, London N. W. 3, Eng-
land. (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
47. Mr. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., 11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida
33012. (Leaf-, stem-, and seed-mining Diptera and Lepidoptera of
Florida, especially Agromyzidae, and their parasites)
48. Mr. Karl J. Stone, Research Associate, Departmest of Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
(Aranaeida, especially of Florida; arthropods in relation to biological
49. Mr. William B. Tappan, Assistant Entomologist, University of Florida
North Florida Experiment Station, P. O. Box 470, Quincy, Florida
32351. (Insects in general, especially of tobacco)
50. Mr. Dade W. Thornton, 3226 N. W. 11th Court, Miami, Florida 33137.
(Coleoptera of North and Central America and the West Indies;
51. Mr. Karl R. Valley, Department of Entomology and Limnology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. (Diptera, especially
Sciomyzidae, Chloropidae)
52. Dr. Thomas J. Walker, Jr., Associate Professor, Department of Ento-
mology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Orthop-
tera of North America, especially Gryllidae, Oecanthinae; insect
sounds) Dr. Walker is currently Editor of the Florida Entomologist.

56 Division of Plant Industry

53. Dr. Howard K. Wallace, Chairman, Department of Zoology, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville 32601. (Araneida, especially Lycosidae
and Salticidae of the eastern U. S.)
54. Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr., Associate Professor, Department of Bio-
logical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
(Odonata, adults and nymphs, of the New World)
55. Dr. Willard H. Whitcomb, Entomologist, University of Florida Big
Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Box 539, Monticello, Florida 32344.
(Pecan and peach insects, spiders; biosurvey)
56. Mr. Joseph Wilcox, 21171 Mohler Place, Anaheim, California 92806.
(Asilidae of the New World, Mydidae of the World)
57. Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, Entomologist, University of Florida Sub-
Tropical Experiment Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1, Home-
stead, Florida 33030. (Truck crop, ornamentals, and tropical fruit
insects; insect dispersion)
58. Mr. Charles F. Zeiger, 3751 Sommers Street, Jacksonville, Florida
32205. (Lepidoptera of North and Central America)

H. A. Denmark:
Sept. 13, 1966: Florida Nursery Growers Association, Royal Palm Chap-
ter, Ft. Myers.
Sept. 28-30: 49th Annual Meeting, Florida Entomological Society,
Oct. 24-27: Insect Detection Workshop and Florida State Horticultural
Society Annual Meeting, Miami Beach.
Nov. 27-Dec. 6: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
Portland, Oregon; California Academy of Science at San Francisco;
California Department of Agriculture at Sacramento; University of
California at Davis; and University of California at Riverside.
Jan. 29-Feb. 2, 1967: Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Atlanta.
March 15-17: Imported Fire Ant Control Meeting, Gulfport, Miss.
April 24: Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology Workshop,
July 17-26: Second International Congress of Acarology, London,
England. Also visited the British Museum of Natural History.
Sept. 13-16: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference,
Nov. 1: Food Sanitation Clinic, Tampa.
Nov. 27-Dec. 1: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, New
Jan. 29-Feb. 1, 1968: Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Charleston, S. C.
Feb. 12-13: Pink Bollworm Conference, Miami.
Feb. 14-16: Florida Department of Agriculture Preparedness Sanita-
tion Workshop, Orlando.
March 11: Imported Fire Ant Annual Meeting, Biloxi, Miss.
April 2-4: Southern Plant Board Meeting, Tampa.
April 16-18: Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology Work-
shop, Gainesville.
F. W. Mead:
Sept. 28-30, 1966: 49th Annual Meeting, Florida Entomological So-
ciety, Jacksonville.
Oct. 24-27: Insect Detection Workshop and Florida State Horticultural
Society Annual Meeting, Miami Beach.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

G. W. Dekle:
Aug. 22-24, 1966: Eleventh Southern Forest Insect Work Conference,
Baton Rouge.
Sept. 28-30: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Jackson-
Oct. 12: St. Johns County Timber Growers Association Meeting, Bakers-
Oct. 24-27: Florida State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting, Miami
Nov. 14: Florida Lychee Growers Association Meeting, Winter Haven.
Nov. 28: Better Fruit Program Advisory Committee Meeting, Lake
Jan. 30-Feb. 2, 1967: Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Atlanta.
April 24-26: Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology Workshop,
Aug. 15-16: Twelfth Annual Southern Forest Insect Work Conference,
Charlottesville, Va.
Aug. 18-19: Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Entomology Department,
Blacksburg, Va.
Sept. 13-16: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference,
Oct. 4: St. Johns Timber Growers Association Meeting, Bakersville.
Nov. 6-9: Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, Miami Beach.
Jan. 29-Feb. 1, 1968: Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Charleston, S.C.
R. E. Woodruff:
Sept. 28-30, 1966: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Jack-
Dec. 8: Subtropical Branch Florida Entomological Society Meeting,
Feb. 14-16, 1967: Annual Pest Control Conference, University of Flor-
ida, Gainesville.
April 24-26: Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology Work-
shop, Leesburg.
June 14-17: First International Conference on Systematic Biology,
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Oct. 22-Nov. 4: Congreso Nacional Entomologia, Mexico City, Mexico.
Feb. 27-28, 1968: Annual Pest Control Conference, University of Flor-
ida, Gainesville.
April 16-18: Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology Work-
shop, Gainesville.
H. V. Weems, Jr.:
Sept. 28-30, 1966: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting,
Oct. 24-27: Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, Miami Beach.
Feb. 15-March 5, 1967: Trip to California to visit major entomological
programs at museums and universities, including the California De-
partment of Agriculture in Sacramento, the University of California
in Davis, the University of California in Berkeley, the University of
California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, California State
College at San Jose, Claremont College in Pomona, the Los Angeles
County Museum in Los Angeles, and the Natural History Museum in
San Diego.
April 12-16: Field trip to Torreya State Park and other parts of north-
western Florida.
June 24-July 16: Field trip to Cranberry Glades, West Virginia.

Division of Plant Industry

Sept. 13-16: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference,
Oct. 11-13: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Gaines-
Nov. 1-2: Archbold Biological Station, near Lake Placid.
Nov. 6-9: Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, Miami Beach.
Nov. 26-Dec. 1: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting
and work at the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
April 2-16, 1968: Field trip to southern Florida, working primarily out
of Zim Laboratory on Plantation Key.
May 5-20: Field trip to Tall Timbers Research Station, near Tallahassee,
and Torreya State Park.
June 24-July 21: Field trip to Mexico.


H. A. Denmark:
Sept. 13, 1966: "Plant Mites and Their Damage to Plants," Royal Palm
Chapter, Florida Nursery Growers Association, Ft. Myers.
Sept. 29: "Some eriophyid mites of fruit and shade trees, and orna-
mental plants," 49th Annual Meeting, Florida Entomological Society,
Oct. 25: "History of Economic Insect Survey in Florida," Insect Detec-
tion Workshop, Miami Beach.
Jan. 5, 1967: "Citrus Insects Not Known to Occur in Florida," Trap-
pers Workshop, Winter Haven.
Feb. 22: "Relationship between the Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and the Entomology Department, Uni-
versity of Florida," Florida Union, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Feb. 22: "General Entomology," 9th Grade Biology Class, Howard
Bishop Junior High School, Gainesville.
Oct. 11: "Some Spider Mites of Florida," 50th Annual Meeting, Florida
Entomological Society, Gainesville.
Oct. 17: "Activities of the Entomology Section, Division of Plant
Industry," Gainesville Entomological Club, Gainesville.
Nov. 1: "Stored Products Insects," Food Sanitation Clinic, Tampa.
March 5, 1968: "Caribbean Fruit Fly," Peach Growers Conference, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville.
April 9: "Mites: Acarina," Medical Entomology Class, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
F. W. Mead:
Oct. 25, 1966: "Introduction and purpose of workshop," Insect Detec-
tion Workshop, Miami Beach.
G. W. Dekle:
Aug. 24, 1966: "Mealybugs on Pines," Southern Forest Insect Work
Conference, Baton Rouge.
Oct. 15: "How to Put Orchid Insects Behind the Eight Ball," Eighth
Annual Orchid Growers Short Course, University of Florida, Gaines-
Oct. 17: "Armored Scale Insects of Economic Importance," Tropical
Agriculture Class, University of Florida IFAS Department of Ento-
mology, Gainesville.
Oct. 24: "Soft Scale Insects of Florida," Florida Department of Agri-
culture Workshop, Miami.
Oct. 27: "Control of Root Mealybug," with Dr. L. C. Kuitert, Florida
State Horticultural Society Annual Meeting, Miami Beach.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 59

Jan. 31, 1967: "Orchid Insects and Their Control," Southeastern Branch
Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Atlanta.
Feb. 13, "Put Orchid Insects Behind the Eight Ball," Fort Lauderdale
Orchid Society, Fort Lauderdale.
April 20: "Scale Insects," Gainesville Entomological Club, Gainesville.
May 8: "Insects Associated with Orchids," Gainesville Men's Garden
Club, Gainesville.
June 20: "Insects of Woody Ornamental Plants," Florida Nursery and
Growers Association Meeting, Daytona Beach.
July 13: "Orchid Insects and Their Control," West Coast Orchid Society,
St. Petersburg.
Aug. 15: "Armored and Soft Scale Insects on Pine and Hardwood,"
Twelfth Southern Forest Insect Work Conference, Charlottesville, Va.
Oct. 12: "Scale Insects," Invitational Paper, Florida Entomological
Society Annual Meeting, Gainesville.
Oct. 17: "Minor Pests of Roses," Gainesville Rose Society, Gainesville.
Oct. 19: "Orchid Insects and Control," Jacksonville Orchid Society,
Nov. 1: "Turf Insects," Lake City Junior College Horticultural Class,
Lake City.
Jan. 30, 1968: "Scale Insects," Invitational Paper, Southeastern Branch
Entomological Society of America, Charleston, S. C.
March 12: "Citrus Snow Scale," Lake County Growers Meeting, Ta-
April 4: "Orchid Insects and Related Pests," Central Florida Orchid
Society, Orlando.
May 2: "Orchid Insects," Naples Orchid Society, Naples.
June 3, "Snow Scale-Things We Must Know to Control It," 15th
Annual South Florida Citrus Institute, Lake Placid.
R. E. Woodruff:
Sept. 29, 1966: "A proposal for the development of a comprehensive
library in entomology and nematology through a cooperative effort
between the University of Florida and the Florida Department of
Agriculture," with Drs. H. V. Weems, Jr. and D. H. Habeck, Florida
Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Jacksonville.
Oct. 25, 1967: "The establishment of a Mexican national insect collec-
tion," 5th Congreso Nacional Entomologia, Mexico City, Mexico.
May 31, 1968: "Behavior of the Scarabaeidae," University of Florida
Insect Behavior Class, Gainesville.
H. V. Weems, Jr.:
Aug. 1966: 25 minute television tape with Jim Brogdon, Charlie Bryan
and host interviewer Ed Allen concerning contributions of entomology
in Florida and the forthcoming meeting in Jacksonville of the Florida
Entomological Society, played over station WJAX, Jacksonville.
Sept. 29: "The Florida State Collection of Arthropods Research Asso-
ciates Program," Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting,
Sept. 29: "A proposal for the development of a comprehensive library
in entomology and nematology through a cooperative effort between
the University of Florida and the Florida Department of Agriculture,"
prepared with Dr. Dale H. Habeck and Mr. Robert E. Woodruff,
Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Jacksonville.
Oct. 25: "The Caribbean fruit fly in Florida," Florida State Horticul-
tural Society Meeting, Miami Beach.
Oct. 31: "Anastrepha suspense (Loew), a newly introduced fruit fly,"
University of Florida Department of Entomology Seminar.

60 Division of Plant Industry

Nov.: Two hour lecture and laboratory on fruit flies (Tephritidae) for
Dr. L. C. Kuitert's class in tropical entomology, University of Florida
Department of Entomology.
Jan. 24, 1967: "Biology, Distribution, Hosts, Importance-Caribbean
fruit fly (Anastrepha suspense (Loew) )," Annual Fruit Fly Trappers'
Workshop, Winter Haven.
April 5: "Insects," Fourth Grade Class, Sidney-Lanier School, Gaines-
April 25: "Insects," Second and Third Grade Classes, Littlewood School,
June 11: "The Florida State Collection of Arthropods," Dr. F. S. Blan-
ton's Medical Entomology Class, University of Florida.

F. W. Mead:
Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Jacksonville, September
1966: (1) Some closely related economic noctuid moth species and
variation in their color patterns.
R. E. Woodruff:
Florida Entomological Society 50th Annual Meeting, Gainesville, October
1967: (1) Original drawings of Florida Scarabaeidae.
Congress Nacional Entomologia, Mexico City, Mexico, October 1967:
(1) Entomological publications of the Florida Department of Agri-
culture, Division of Plant Industry.
H. V. Weems, Jr.:
Florida Entomological Society 50th Annual Meeting, Gainesville, Octo-
ber 1967: (1) Display of insect collections from the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods.

R. E. Woodruff:
Ph. D. degree conferred by the University of Florida in December 1967.
Elected to membership in Gamma Sigma Delta, 1968.


Baranowski, R. M. 1966. Soil application of systemic insecticides for
mite control on chrysanthemums. Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc.

1966. Systemics for ornamentals. Florida Pest Control Associa-
tion's Service Letter.
1967. Insecticide treatments for the control of potato-infest-
ing wireworms. Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80: 115-117.

1968. Research on the Caribbean fruit fly at the Sub-tropical
Experiment Station. Nurserymen's Buyers Guide and Bull.
13(6) :7-8.

Beck, William M. Jr. 1967. Comparative limnology of the streams of
Florida and the upper Amazon basin. Atas do Simposio sobre a
Biota Amazonica; Limnologia 3:51-62.

and Elisabeth C. Beck. 1968. The concept of genus in the family
Chironomidae. Annales Zoolotici Fennici 5:14-16.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 61

Blanton, F. S., and W. W. Wirth (senior author). 1967. The North Amer-
ican Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group (Diptera: Ceratopogon-
idae). Florida Ent. 50(3) :207-232.

Causey, Nell B. 1966. Redescriptions of two Chinese species of Anaula-
cinus (Diplopoda, Julida, Nemasomatidae), a genus known in
Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. La. Acad. Sci. Proc. 29:63-66.

S1966. The millipedes of the caves of Mexico and Guatemala.
Association for Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter: 2(5) :124-125.

S1967. Aniulus paludicolens, n. sp. (Julidae, Paraiulidae), a bog-
dwelling milliped. Michigan Entomologist 1(4) :127-129.

1967. Trichopetalum subterraneum, n. sp., from Kentucky, new
records and a key to the genus (Diplopods, Chordeumida, Tricho-
petalidae). Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 80:117-122.

*Donnelly, T. W. 1967. The discovery of Chrysobasis in Central America
with the description of a new species. (Odonata: Coenagrioni-
dae). Florida Ent. 50(1) :47-52.

1968. A new species of Enallagma from Central America
(Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Florida Ent. 51(2) :101-105.

Foote, B. A. 1967. Biology and immature stages of fruit flies: the genus
Icterica (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60:1295-1305.

1967. Biology and immature stages of the fruit flies (Diptera:
Tephritidae) of the Pacific Northwest. Am. Philos. Soc. Year-
book 1967:266.

and E. J. Allen (senior author). 1967. Biology and immature
stages of three species of Otitidae which have saprophagous
larvae (Diptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60:826-836.

and W. B. Garnett (senior author). 1966. Notes on the biology
of certain heleomyzid flies of eastern North America (Diptera:
Heleomyzidae). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 39:552-555.

and W. B. Garnett. 1967. Biology and immature stages of
Pseudoleria crassata (Diptera: Heleomyzidae). Ann. Ent. Soc.
Am. 60:126-134.

and L. V. Knutson (senior author), A. D. Bratt, L. Edwards,
C. O. Bert. 1967. Calcareous septa formed in snail shells by lar-
vae of snail-killing flies. Science 156:522-523.

and J. A. Novak (senior author). 1968. Biology and immature
stages of fruit flies: Paroxyna albiceps (Diptera: Tephritidae).
J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 41:108-119.

and J. A. Novak (senior author), E. J. Allen, W. B. Stoltzfus.
1967. New host records for North American fruit flies (Diptera:
Tephritidae). Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 69:146-148.

*Sponsored by Division of Plant Industry

62 Division of Plant Industry

*Habeck, D. H. 1968. Annotated key to the Plusiinae moths of Florida
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Dept. of Agr., Div. of Plant
Ind. Circ. 72.

and L. C. Kuitert. 1967. Extremine los grillotopos. La Ha-
cienda, p. 64-65.

Halffter, Gonzalo, and A. Martinex. 1966. Monografia de los Canthon-
ina americanos, I. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 27:89-177.

,A. Ortega, and Dieter Enkerlin. 1966. Entomological Teaching
and Research in Mexico. Bull. Ent. Soc. Am. 12(1) :16-19.

,and Eric G. Matthews. 1966. The Natural History of Dung
Beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae. Folia Ent. Mex. 12-14:

,and A. Martinez. 1967. Monografia de los Canthonina amer-
icanos, II. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 28:79-116.

1967. La Especie en Biologia. Acta Politec. Mexicana 8(41):

,and Eric G. Matthews. 1968. New data on American Copris
with discussion of a fossil species. Ciencia Mex.26(4) :147-162.

Hazard, E. I., and Jareslav Weiser. (IN PRESS). Spores of Thelohania in
adult female Anopheles: development and transovarial transmis-
sion, and redescriptions of T. legeri Hesse and T. obesa Kudo. J.

,M. S. Mayer, and K. E. Savage. 1967. Attraction and ovi-
position stimulation of gravid female mosquitoes by bacteria
isolated from hay infusions. Mosquito News 27 (2) :133-136.

1967. Modification of the ice water method for harvesting
Anopheles and Culex pupae. Mosquito News 27(1):115-116.

,R. B. Turner and C. S. Lofgren. 1967. Mosquito growth sti-
mulating substances associated with infusions. J. Med. Ent.
4(4) :455-460.

1967. Potential of insect pathogens in mosquito control. Flor-
ida Anti-Mosquito Association, Proceedings 38th Annual Meeting.

Hetrick, L. A. 1967. Sex ratios of Platypus. Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 69
(3) :297.

*Kuitert, L. C., G. W. Dekle, and J. E. Brogdon. 1967. Orchid insect con-
trol and four major pests. Florida Dept. Agr., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent. Circ. 65:1-2.

Lloyd, J. E. 1966. Two cryptic new firefly species in the genus Photinus
(Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Coleopterists' Bull. 20:(2) 43-46.

*Sponsored by Division of Plant Industry

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 63

1966. Signals and mating behavior in several fireflies (Coleop-
tera: Lampyridae). Coleopterists' Bull. 20:84-90.

1966. Studies on the flash communication in Photinus fire-
flies. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Misc. Pub.

S1967. The prairie peninsula, secondary intergradation and
Photinus fireflies. Coleopterists' Bull. 21(2) :33-39.

W. H. Biggely (senior author), and H. H. Sellger. 1967. The
spectral distribution of firefly light. 11. J. Gen. Phys. 50(6):

1968. A new Photinus firefly, with notes on mating behavior
and a possible case of character displacement (Coleoptera:
Lampyridae). Coleopterists' Bull. 22(1) :1-10.

Mather, Bryant. 1966. Louisiana Butterfly Records. J. Lepidopterists'
Soc. 20(2) :102.

S1967. Insect Pests (review of). J. Lepidopterists' Soc. 21(2):

S1966. Speyeria cybele in Mississippi. J. Res. on the Lepi-
doptera 5(4) :253-254.

S1966. Euphyes dukesi-additional record. J. Res. on the Lepi-
doptera. 5(4) :254.

1967. Variation in Jiuonia coenia in Mississippi (Nymphalidae).
J. Lepidopterists' Soc. 21(1) :59-70.

1966. Phyciodes batesii (Nymphalidae) in Mississippi: an exam-
ination of the probability of occurrence. J. Lepidopterists' Soc.
20(4) :245-247.

S1966. Cercyonis pegala pegala (Satyridae) : occurrence in Miss-
issippi and variation in forewing maculation. J. Lepidopterists'
Soc. 20(3) :186-188.

1967. Hesperiidae from San Jose Purua, Michoacan, Mexico.
Assn. of Minnesota Entomologist Newsletter 1(4) :77-81.

S1966. Interesting Lepidoptera are where you find them. TIEG
Newsletter 2(4) :9.

1967. More on shipping specimens. TIEG Newsletter 3(1):15.

1967. Mississippi-in TIEG Season Summary.

S1967. North American Annual Summary for 1966, Zone VI-
Southeast. (Editor) Lepidopterists' News 3:11-13.

S1968. North American Annual Summary for 1967, Zone VI-
Southeast. (Editor) Lepidopterists' News 3:15-18.

64 Division of Plant Industry

McCrone, J. D. 1967. Biochemical differentiation of the sibling black
widow spiders, Latrodectus mactans and L. various. Psyche
74(3) :212-217.

,and R. J. Hatala. 1967. Isolation and characterization of a
lethal component from the venom of Latrodectus mactans mactans
in animal toxins. Animal Toxins, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

and H. W. Levi. 1967. Postembryological development of spider-
lings from two Peruvian Latrodectus populations. Psyche 73(3):

and R. J. Hatala. 1968. Serological relationship of the lethal
components of two black widow spider venoms. Toxicon 6(1):

Mockford, E. L. 1967. The electrentomoid psocids (Psocoptera). Psyche
74(2) :118-165.

1967. Some psocoptera from plumage of birds. Ent. Soc. Wash.
Proc. 69(4) :307-309.

Muma, M. H. 1966. The life cycle of Eremobates durangonus (Arachnida:
Solpugida). The Florida Ent. 49(4):233-242.

S1966. Burrowing habits of North American Solpugida (Arach-
nida). Psyche 73(4):251-260.

S1966. Egg deposition and incubation for Eremobates duran-
gonus with notes on the eggs of other species of Eremobatidae
(Arachnida: Solpugida). Florida Ent. 49(1) :23-31.
.1966. Mating behavior in the solpugid genus Eremobates Banks.
Animal Behavior 14(2-3) :346-350.

S1966. Feeding behavior of North American Solpugida (Arach-
nida). Florida Ent. 49(3) :199-216.

1967. Basic behavior of North American Solpugida. Florida
Ent. 50(2) :115-123.
1967. New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mestostigmata) from
southern Asia. Florida Ent. 50(4) :267-280.
*-- 1967. Scorpions, whip scorpions and wind scorpions of Florida.
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 4:1-28.

S1967. Biological notes on Coniopteryx vicina (Neuroptera:
Coniopterygidae). Florida Ent. 50(4) :285-292.
.1968. Phytoseiidae of sand-pine litter. Florida Ent. 51(1):
*-- and H. A. Denmark (senior author). 1966. Revision of the
genus Proprioseius Chant, 1957 (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Flor-
ida Ent. 49(4):253-264.

*Sponsored by Division of Plant Industry

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

and A. G. Selhime. 1966. Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae) on Florida citrus. Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc.

and Jareslav Weiser (senior author). 1966. Entomophthora
floridana n. sp. (Phycomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), a parasite
of the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banks. Florida Ent.
49(3) :155-159.

and A. G. Selhime (senior author). 1966. Biology of Ento-
mophthora floridana attacking Eutetranychus banksi. Florida
Ent. 49(3) :161-168.

*- and H. A. Denmark (senior author). 1967. Six new Phyto-
seiidae from Florida (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Florida Ent.
50(3) :169-180.

L. J. Metz, and M. H. Farrier. 1967. New species and records
of Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from North Carolina
forest litter. Florida Ent. 50(3) :199-206.

*- and H. A. Denmark. 1967. Biological studies on Macroseius
biscutatus (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Florida Ent. 50(4) :249-255.

Palmer, D. A. Editor of monthly newsletter of the Horticultural Spray-
men's Association of Florida.

Paulson, D. R. 1966. New records of Bahamian Odonata. Florida
Acad. Sci. Quart. J. 29(2) :97-110.

Peters, W. L. 1966. The nymph of Hagenulodges ulmer (Leptophlebiidae:
Ephemeroptera). R. Ent. Soc. London Proc. (B) 35:26-28.

1967. Abstract. The nymphs of the West Indian mayfly genus
Hagenulus. Bull. Ent. Soc. Am. 13:197.

,and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1966. Abstract. The phylogeny and
relationships of the Eastern Hemisphere Leptophlebiidae (Ephem-
eroptera). Bull. Ent. Soc. Am. 12:290.

,and L. O. Warren. 1966. Northwestern Arkansas. Kans. Ent.
Soc. J. 39:396-401.

Porter, J. E. 1967. A check list of the mosquitoes of the Greater Antil-
les and the Bahama and Virgin Islands. Mosquito News 27(1):

*Rawson, G. W. 1968. Study of fluorescent pigments in Lepidoptera re-
vealed by means of paper partition chromatography. Lepidop-
terists' Soc. J. 22(1) :27-40.

Reiskind, Jonathan. 1966. The taxonomic problem of sexual dimorphism
in spiders and a synonym in Myrmecotypus (Araneae, Clubion-
idae). Psyche 72(4) :279-281.

*Sponsored by Division of Plant Industry

66 Division of Plant Industry

,and H. W. Levi. 1967. Anatea, an ant-mimicking theridiid
spider from New Caledonia (Araneae, Theridiidae). Psyche 74
(1) :20-23.

Spencer, K. A. 1966. Notes on European Agromyzidae. Beitr. Ent. 16:

S1966. New and interesting Agromyzidae from Florida. Stutt-
gart. Beitr. Naturkunde 158:1-20.

S1966. Notes on the Neotropical Agromyzidae. Papeis Avulsos
Dept. Zool. Sao Paulo 19:141-150.

S1966. Agromyzidae (Diptera) from the Bismarck Archipelago.
Ent. Medd. 34:489-520.

S1967. A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of
the United States. 83:1-23. Family Agromyzidae. Dept. Zool.,
Sao Paulo.

S1967. Some Agromyzidae from Morocco. Ent. Mon. Mag.

S1968. Relationships between the Nearctic and Palaearctic
Agromyzidae. 13th Int. Cong. Ent. Moscow. Published by

(Editor). 1968. Erich M. Hering: Briefe fiber Blattminierer.
Letters on leaf miners, xii+450 p, port., 1 Fig., refs. The Hague,
Dr. W. Junk. Reviews of Applied Entomology (A) vol. 56.

*Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966. Liriomyza commelinae, a leaf miner on
Commelina in Florida (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Florida Ent.
49(3) :147-149.

-- 1966. A leaf miner on Lantana in Florida, Ophiomyia camera
(Diptera, Agromyzidae). Florida Ent. 49(3) :151-152.

*- 1967. Notes on the biology and distribution of Florida leaf-
mining flies of the genus Phytobia Lioy, subgenus Calycomyza
Hendel (Diptera:Agromyzidae). Florida Ent. 50(1):13-26.

*- 1967. Pluchea odorata, a new host record for Acinia picturata
(Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Ent. 50(1) :53-55.

*- 1967. Some new host plant records and parasites of Phytobia
(Amauromyza) maculosa in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae).
Florida Ent. 50(2):99-101.

*- 1967. Notes on new host plant records and parasites of Lirio-
myza sorosis in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Florida Ent.
50(2) :133-136.

*- 1967. Notes on a seed-feeding Tephritidae, Paracantha forficula
(Diptera) in Florida. Florida Ent. 50(3) :157-160.

*Sponsored by Division of Plant Industry

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 67

1967. New host plant records of Haplomyza togata from Florida
(Diptera: Agromyzidae). Florida Ent. 50(3) :197-198.

*- 1967. A new host plant record of Hippclates nobilis in Florida
(Diptera: Chloropidae). Florida Ent. 50(3) :233.

1967. Host plants of Liriomyza brassicae, with records of their
parasites from South Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Florida
Ent. 50(4) :257-261.

1968. Host plant records of Dyseuaresta mexicana (Diptera:
Tephritidae) with notes on its life history in Florida. Florida
Ent. 51(1) :19-21.

Erigeron, a host plant genus of tephritids (Diptera). Florida
Ent. 51(1) :45-50.

*- 1968. Notes on the biology of Trupanea actinobola (Diptera:
Tephritidae). Florida Ent. 51(2):95-99.

Tappan, W. B. 1967. Chemical control of nematode root rot complex of
shade-grown tobacco. North Florida Mimeo Rpt. 68-3.

,C. H. Van Middelem, and A. H. Moye. 1967. DDT, Endosulfan,
and Parathion residues on cigar-wrapper tobacco. J. Econ. Ent.
60(3) :765-8.

,C. H. Van Middelem, and A. H. Moye. 1967. Comparison of
insecticide deposits applied as dust and spray by airplane to cigar-
wrapper tobacco. Tobacco Sci. XI:112-4.

,D. T. Sechler (senior author), and H. H. Luke. 1967. Effect
of variety and fumigation on nematode populations in oats,
wheat, and rye. Plant Disease Reptr. 51(11) :915-9.

,and John Strayer. 1967. Shade-grown tobacco insect control
for 1968. Florida Agr. Ext. Mimeo 43:1-9.

,R. R. Kincaid, and G. C. Smart, Jr. 1967. Shade-grown tobacco
root rot complex. Fungicide-Nematocide Tests, Results of
1967. 23:142-3.

Walker, T. J. 1966. Cricket songs reveal new species. Sunshine State
Res. Rept. 11(3) :10-12.

S1966. Annotated checklist of Oecanthinae (Orthoptera: Gryl-
lidae) of the world. Florida Ent. 49(4) :265-277.

S1967. Revision of Oecanthinae (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) of Amer-
ica south of the United States. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60(4):784-

,and A. B. Gurney. 1967. The metanotal gland as a taxonomic
character in New World Oecanthus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae).
Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 69(2) :157-161.

*Sponsored by Division of Plant Industry

Division of Plant Industry

,and J. E. Lloyd (senior author). 1967. Names are not enough.
(Letter) Science 158:1525.

,and D. C. Rentz. 1967. Host and calling song of dwarf Oecan-
thus quadripunctatus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Pan-Pacific Ent.
43(4) :326-327.

Westfall, M. J., Jr., and S. S. Roback (senior author). 1967. New records
of Odonata nymphs from the United States and Canada with water
quality data. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 93:101-124.

Whitcomb, W. H., C. Lincoln (senior author), J. R. Phillips, G. C. Dowell,
W. O. Boyer, K. O. Bell, Jr., G. L. Dean, E. J. Matthews, J. B.
Graves, L. D. Newsom, D. F. Lower, J. R. Bradley, Jr., and J. L.
Bagent. 1967. The bollworm-tobacco budworm problem in Ar-
kansas and Louisiana. Arkansas Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 720:1-66.

-- 1967. Bollworm predators in northeast Arkansas. Arkansas
Farm Research 16(3):2.

,R. R. Eason (senior author), and W. B. Peck. 1967. Notes on
spider parasites, including a reference list. J. Kansas Ent. Soc.
40(3) :422-34.

,J. W. Stewart (senior author) and K. O. Bell. 1967. Estiva-
tion studies of the convergent lady beetle in Arkansas. J. Econ.
Ent. 60 (6) :1730-5.

---, 1967. Field studies on predators of the second-instar bollworm
Heliothis zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Georgia
Ent. Soc. 2(4) :113-8.

,and W. B. Peck (senior author). 1967. An adaptable method
for rearing spiders and cannibalistic insects. Turtox News 45
(10) :242-4

and R. Hemenway (senior author). 1967. Ground beetles of
the genus Lebia Latreille in Arkansas (Coleoptera: Carabi-
dae): ecology and geographical distribution. Arkansas Acad.
Sci. Proc. 21:15-20.

,and R. R. Eason. 1967. Life history and predatory importance
of the striped lynx spider (Araneida: Oxyopidae). Arkansas
Acad. Sci. Proc. 21:54-8.

,and R. Hemenway (senior author). 1968. The life history of
Disonycha glabrata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Kansas Ent.
Soc. 41(2) :174-8.

Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1966. Aphid trap collections over a three-year
period from four locations. J. Econ. Ent. 59:953-954.

S1966. Incidence-Distance and Incidence-Time Relationships of
Papaya Virus Infections. Plant Disease Reptr. 50(12) :908-909.

S1966. Pachysatethus marginata, a locally serious pest of avo-
cado, lychee, and mango. Florida Ent. 49(2) :125-126.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report 69

S1966. Red Spider mite infestation difference in mango varieties.
Caribbean Region Proc., A.S.H.S., for 1965, 9:165-169.

1966. Thrips on avocados and control measures. Caribbean Re-
gion Proc., A.S.H.S. for 1966. 10:108-113.

and B. E. Colburn. 1967. Recent observations on some avocado
pests in Mexico and El Salvador. Florida State Hort. Soc. Proc.
for 1966, 79:335-337.

,and C. E. Hoelscher. 1967. Contact and fumigant toxicity of
oils, surfactants, and insecticides to two aphid and three beetle
species. Florida Ent. 50(1) :25-36.

- and W. D. Moore. 1968. Insect abundances on tomatoes and
squash mulched with aluminum and plastic sheetings. J. Econ.
Ent. 61:34-36.

,and W. D. Moore. 1967. Mulch treatment of squash and to-
matoes with respect to virus inoculations and yields. Florida
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:217-221.

Methods Development Section


During the biennium the Division sponsored the first "Na-
tional Workshop on Color Photography in the Plant Sciences"
in Winter Haven, April 1967.
It also continued its studies of the effectiveness of infrared
photography for disease and pest detection in citrus and ex-
panded these to other crops including avocados, mangos, papa-
yas, peaches, lawn and turf grasses, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage,
beans, strawberries, soybeans and corn.
Similar photographic studies utilizing wave lengths in the
ultraviolet region have been initiated.
The Section has assisted other Sections of the Division with
photography and color film processing; one series requiring
over 600 photographic records of the progressive reaction of
young citrus trees to the virus of exocortis.
The Section has advised and assisted other organizations in-
terested in the field and has contributed photographs with ac-
companying textual information to many publications.

National Workshop Color Photography
in the Plant Sciences

As the Section became known for its pioneer work in infrared
color photography, a number of persons who visited the Winter
Haven Laboratory suggested that the Division sponsor a meeting
for all those interested in the field.
It was argued that no individual or any one organization was
likely to resolve all the problems inherent in the application of
this technique, and that a real need existed for the free ex-
change of information among all organizations beginning or con-
sidering its use.
It seemed apparent (1) that each of these should be known
to each other, (2) that basic literature on the subject should be
established with nomenclature and phaseology suitable for de-
scribing its general and technical elements and (3) that some
common meeting place or forum where both problems and pro-
gress could be discussed on a person-to-person basis was essen-

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

This suggestion and the reasoning behind it was submitted
to, and approved by the Division Director. In January 1967
invitations were issued to all organizations that had previously
indicated some interest. At the time, it was assumed that a
dozen or so might attend. Actually 62 individuals attended this
meeting with some organizations sending representatives from
each national region. Among those represented were: Univer-
sity of Florida, University of Georgia, Cornell University, Uni-
versity of Minnesota, University of Maine, U.S. Geological Sur-
vey, USDA Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Coast and
Geodetic Survey, U. S. Forest Service, Canadian Forest Service,
Department of the Army, Cold Regions Research and Engi-
neering Laboratory, Department of the Army, Electronics Com-
mand, U. S. Department of the Interior, Color Technique, Inc.,
U. S. Sugar Corp., Florida State Road Department, Kucera and
Assoc., Eastman Kodak Co., USDA Forest Insect Control
Branch, Pennsylvania State Department of Forest Pathology,
USDA Plant Pest Control, USDA Soil and Water Conservation
Service, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Data
Processing Corp., Mark Systems, Inc., Georgia Forestry Commis-
sion, and Itek Corp. The disciplines represented by this group
included the following: agronomists, aquatic biologists, botan-
ists, citriculturists, horticulturists, ecologists, conservationists,
efficiency experts, entomologists, foresters, nematologists, pa-
thologists, physiologists, photographers, photo-optical engineers,
photo-chemical engineers, film manufacturers and processors,
pilots, and statisticians.
Two days were devoted to the workshop, the first primarily
a review and briefing session which included Dr. Walter Clark,
technical advisor to the Research Division of the Eastman Kodak
Co., and author of the original reference book on the subject
"Photography by Infrared." Dr. Clark was followed by Norman
L. Fritz, technical consultant on infrared color films for the
Eastman Research Laboratories. Captain Edward Knipling
of the U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering
Laboratories spoke on "Physical and Physiological Basis for
Differences in Reflectance of Healthy and Diseased Plants,"
followed by Phillip LeTourneaux, president of Color Technique,
Inc., whose subject was "High Quality Color Film Processing."
On the second day 14 of the participants discussed their own
experience with color film in its application to their own fields of

Division of Plant Industry

At the insistence of the participants all the information pre-
sented during both days was transcribed from tape recordings
and reproduced by the multilith process. All copies of the ori-
ginal proceedings were distributed immediately. Since that
time, 60 additional copies have been reproduced by the Division
library staff. Twenty-six of these have been sold to organiza-
tions who did not know about the meeting at the time it was held.
Almost all those who attended have asked that it be continued
on a biennial basis.

Soybean Cyst Nematode
A cyst nematode, highly destructive and an economically
important pest of soybeans was reported for the first time in
Florida in September 1967.
The presence of two infestations near the Escambia-Santa

Fig. 1. Eye-level view of apparently healthy field of soybeans infested
with cyst nematode.
Rosa County line represented a major threat to the principle
source of agricultural income of both counties.
During a preliminary hearing at the North Florida Exper-
iment Station, Jay, it was agreed (1) that all the farmers in the
area should be informed immediately of the infestations; (2) the
serious problems that might arise from them and (3) what each
farmer could do to prevent the spread of the nematode into their
own fields.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Following that meeting the Plant Inspection Section began
intensive ground surveys of adjacent fields and all other areas of
the two counties where loss of vigor in soybean crops indicated
the possibility of cyst nematode infestations.
At the same time the Methods Development Section launched
a series of infrared photographic flights over the same areas to
support and supplement the information acquired on the ground.
While the aerial photography did not reveal any additional
nearby infestations, interpretation of photographs of the known
infestations clearly defines the extent of each, the pattern of
nematode distribution within each field and proves that lateral
(cross-field) spread of the nematode follows paths of cultivation
equipment from a single central infestation. These photographs
have also been used by the technical staff at the Jay station as

Fig. 2. Aerial view of cyst nematode infestation; light areas indicate
loss of vigor.

part of the basis for long-term studies of the nature of the cyst
nematode and its control under Florida conditions.
So far as is known this is the first time that infrared photo-
graphy has been used as an early warning system in a potential
agricultural emergency of this nature.

Surveys of Additional Crops
In addition to citrus and soybeans, the photography has been
tried on many other crops. Trials indicate effective discrimina-
tion of diseased from healthy plants and trees in all these with
two exceptions-the lethal yellows virus of coconut palms and
phony virus of peaches.

Division of Plant Industry

Loss of reflectance is conspicuous in bean varieties infected
with stem rot, limes reacting to the genetic effect of "wood
pocket" disease, blight and zinc deficiency in potatoes, leaf
mattle virus in papayas, residual herbicidal toxicity in tomatoes,
salt toxicity in several field crops, and a variety of reflectance
variations in avocados which indicates the possibility of several
unrecognized diseases. Thus it appears that infrared photo-
graphy is potentially feasible as a disease survey method in most
of the major crops of the state.

Fluorescence of Fruits
Under Long Wave Ultraviolet Light
In October 1966 R. E. Schwarz of the Citrus and Subtropical
Fruit Research Institute, Nelspruit, Republic of South Africa,
reported the diagnosis of "greening" virus in sweet orange varie-
ties . "by means of the specific fluorescence of the albedo
under ultraviolet light."
Since trees infected with greening disease produce fruits
with a very unpleasant flavor, it is one of the principle problems
of citriculture in South Africa and India, and could conceivably
be introduced into Florida in the future. Because of this the

Fig. 3. Fluorescence of columella and pulp vesicles under "long wave"
(3660A) ultraviolet.

(NOTE: All figures reproduced from infrared color originals.)

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Division was interested in this method of diagnosis and began
sampling fruit from many different varieties of sweet oranges,
all selected from trees in various stages of decline. All these
fluoresced under ultraviolet light. This was later found to be
true of grapefruit, limes, and lemons, as well as many citrus
hybrids regardless of their parentage or state of vigor. This
was also true of the Division's own nucellar clones including the
whole range of all varieties used commercially in Florida groves.
Nucellar clones are generally presumed to be free of virus dis-
Since fruits with greening virus cannot be imported for
comparison, it is not known why ultraviolet light is specific in
South Africa and apparently not so under Florida conditions.
The difference in source and wave length of ultraviolet light
used, or environmental factors may account for the apparent
discrepancies in the results obtained.

Meetings Attended
Civil Defense Training School, Orlando.
Florida State Horticulture Society, Miami.
American Society of Horticulture Science, Panama City, Panama.
Department of Agriculture Annual Business Conference, Tallahassee.
National Workshop, "Color Photography in the Plant Sciences," Winter

Contributions to Publications
Photograph and accompanying text, "Manual of Aerial Color Photog-
raphy," American Society of Photogrammetry.
Photograph and information, "What's New at Kodak."
Photograph and information, "Color the Orange Grove Red," Miami
Photograph, Kodak Technical Data Guide, "Applied Infrared Photog-

Talks Presented
Southern Plant Board, Tampa.
Dade County Vegetable Farmers.
Faculty, Biological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
North Florida Experiment Station, Jay.
Santa Rosa & Escambia County Farmers, McDaniel.

Job Related Activities
Cooperator, National Register of Fruit & Nut Varieties.
Secretary-Treasurer, Hughes Memorial Foundation, Citrus Scholarship
Program Coordinator, Florida State Horticulture Society.
Chairman, National Workshop Color Photography in the Plant Sciences.

Honorary Membership, Florida State Horticulture Society.
Invitational Membership, American Society of Photogrammetry.



K. R. LANGDON AND R. P. ESSER, Nematologists


Diagnostic work: A total of 13,894 samples was processed and
diagnosed during this biennium (Table 1). This is a slight de-
crease from the last biennium.

Table 1. Numbers of samples processed from each diagnostic
work category, including per cent of the total of each category
Diagnostic work category Number
samples Per cent
processed of total
a) Ornamental nursery plants ...................................... 3,949 28.4
b) Caladium survey ........................................................ 2,526 18.1
c) Turf certification program ........................................ 2,077 14.9
d) Cyst nematode survey ................................................ 311 2.2
e) W orm grower survey .................................................. 267 2.0
f) Reniform nematode program .................................... 2,334 17.1
Regulatory subtotal ......................................... 11,464 82.7
Diagnostic problems (Sick or dying plants) ...................... 1,427 10.2
Plant identification .................................................................... 422 3.0
Survey .......................................................................................... 362 2.6
Experim ental .............................................................................. 219 1.5
Total ....................................................................13,894 100.0

Cooperative diagnostic work: A total of 347 samples was
processed in cooperation with the Plant Pathology Section (joint
examination and diagnosis of disease problems).

Research Summary

The herbarium has continued to be expanded with the addi-
tion of another herbarium case and several important volumes of
taxonomic reference books. Two additional varieties, 'Floratine'
and 'Bitter Blue' St. Augustine grass were found in the host test-
ing program to be hosts of the grass cyst nematode, Heterodera
leuceilyma. This program is being discontinued to prevent the
danger of this serious pest of turf becoming established outside
the greenhouse at the Doyle Conner Building. The pseudo-root-
knot nematode of turf (Hypsoperine graminis) host testing pro-
gram has revealed these additional hosts: 'Myer' zoisia, Zoisia

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

tenuifolia, 'Pensacola' and 'Common' Bahia grass, and Pangola
grass. 'Bitter Blue' St. Augustine grass was shown to be a non-
host. No population of burrowing nematodes has yet been es-
tablished in Gainesville in that host testing program, and no new
hosts can be reported. Temperature control has been a serious
limiting factor. Tests to determine the concentration of sodium
hypochlorite necessary to give rapid disintegration of nematodes
adhering to equipment revealed that a dilution of 1:10 or
stronger of commercial chlorine bleach (5.25 per cent sodium hy-
pochlorite) would react in a reasonable length of time.
Many photographs and slides with data have been accumu-
lated on the subject of biological control involving fungi, proto-
zoa, and other small animals. A list of 576 hosts and 573 non-
hosts of the soybean cyst nematode has been compiled from
world literature. A method of placing plant roots and nematodes
together on agar under a cover slip was developed in order to ob-
serve nematode feeding under the microscope. Descriptions of
nine genera and 183 species have been added to the Nematology
Section's taxonomic files, currently covering 96.2 per cent of all
plant parasitic nematode species. The following are newly re-
ported hosts of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae:
Pityrogramma triangularis, P. chrysophylla, Hibiscus rosa-sinen-
sis, and Vitex negundo. Viola odorata is a newly reported host
of Meloidogyne javanica. Attempts to establish populations of
the wild strain of Tylenchulus semipenetrans from grass onto
citrus have been unsuccessful.


The workload this biennium has decreased slightly, but not
enough to be noticeable. It is anticipated, however, on the basis
of programs currently under way that considerable increases in
workload will occur in the coming biennium and beyond. Two
survey programs have been added recently, the soybean cyst pro-
gram and the golden nematode of potato survey. It is antici-
pated that these programs will produce a sizeable increase in our
workload. Investigations continue to be drastically curtailed be-
cause sample diagnosis occupies most of the time of all person-
nel. Additional personnel have been requested, but until such
are added to the staff, little improvement in the situation can be
expected. In spite of the heavy load of samples, we always man-
age to process them and send out reports in a minimal time. One
hope for the new biennium is to add additional personnel in order

Division of Plant Industry

to make better use of our new facilities and to accomplish some
of the projects we currently have neither the time nor the per-
sonnel to handle.


K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

For many years the Division of Plant Industry has been with-
out adequate physical facilities. This (except for greenhouses
which are in the planning stage) has now been remedied with the
completion of the Doyle Conner Building which was occupied in
January 1968.
Much time and planning went into designing the Nematology
Section. As a result we now have adequate space for our current
operations and room for expansion. Abundant storage space
was planned and incorporated into the Section's part of the
building. It is anticipated that the storage space will be ad-
equate for many years to come.
A generous laboratory was included which features three soil
processing sinks, one of which is used exclusively for burrowing
nematode sample processing to reduce the possibility of contami-
nation. There is also a separate sink for dishwashing. Another
special feature is under-counter mobile storage carts in which
soil samples are stored, and then are carted to the processing
area as needed. These have proven very worthwhile.
A technician's and special equipment room was also provided.
In it are housed the cytological equipment including a microtome,
paraffin oven, and slide warmer, as well as other special equip-
ment such as a desk calculator. The room is situated out of
the main traffic area so that the special types of work done there
can progress undisturbed by general laboratory activities.
A reprint room is provided where the reprints of publications
by members of the Section are housed. This room also houses the
periodicals and books specific to this Section as well as our file of
reprints of articles on nematological subjects. A table and chairs
are provided for use by various personnel and visitors (including
University of Florida faculty and students) who use these ma-
terials for study.
A herbarium room has been provided to house the herbarium
cabinets with specimens and the plant taxonomic reference
works, and to provide work space for plant identification.
Each of the technical personnel now has his own separate

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

office with laboratory counter space included. These are well
equipped and greatly enhance working conditions.
Cyst nematode processing requires specialized equipment and
techniques (Fig. 1) much of which was procured during the bi-
ennium. Specialized drying racks are also required for cyst
sample storage, and these were built into the new storeroom fa-
Satisfactory disposal of contaminated soil after processing is
a perennial problem with regulatory nematology laboratories.
This problem has been solved by the use of cattle watering tanks
(Fig. 2) in which the soil is fumigated with methyl bromide.

Fig. 1. Processing soybean cyst nematode samples using a Fenwick can
imported from Holland.

Division of Plant Industry

Fig. 2. Cattle watering tanks used to store and fumigate soil residues
from regulatory samples. In the foreground is a full tank under methyl
bromide fumigation.

Covers were added which could be sealed on top of the tanks,
then the methyl bromide is applied through a one-hole rubber
stopper in a hole in the cover. The soil is thus sterilized and can
then be safely dumped wherever convenient without danger of
nematode contamination.
We can now point with pride to our new facilities and say to
those we serve that, with these new and improved facilities, we
can now serve them even better than we have been able to in the

R. P. ESSER, Nematologist
Two Division of Plant Industry specialist trainee classes were
conducted during the biennium. Laboratory sessions from the
Entomology, Nematology, Biology, and Soils Departments of the
University of Florida were held in the laboratory. Lectures were
given in the Soils and Entomology-Nematology Departments of
the University by R. P. Esser. The Advanced Biology Class of
Gainesville High spent an afternoon at the laboratory. Several
foreign visitors, two from Puerto Rico and one from Turkey,

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

spent several days in the Section learning methods and tech-
niques. One representative of Armour Chemical and Agricul-
tural Company spent a week in the laboratory learning nematode
identification procedures. Instruction in specialized nematode
identification was given to the Section staff by Professor Gerald
Thorne from Madison, Wisconsin, and Bruce Hopper from
Canada who spent several days at the laboratory. A general-
ized slide talk comprising over 80 slides was prepared for
plant specialists' use in the field. This talk entitled "Plant Nem-
atodes" accompanied by a descriptive mimeograph has been
shown in many parts of Florida, California, and Portugal.


Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) Survey

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

In the summer of 1967, Dr. V. G. Perry (University of Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station) received samples from
soybean fields in Escambia County in west Florida. Soybean cyst
nematode, Heterodera glycines, was recovered and identified
from these samples from two properties. As a result of this
finding, an extensive survey was initiated by the Division of
Plant Industry to determine the extent of this infestation. Flor-
ida Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension Service per-
sonnel, USDA personnel, and Division of Plant Industry person-
nel cooperated in the project.
Survey teams collected and submitted to the Nematology Sec-
tion a total of 211 samples from suspect fields. These samples
were processed and examined, and three additional infestations
were found. This brought the total known infestations to five,
all in Escambia County north of Pensacola.
A state quarantine paralleling the USDA quarantine has
been placed on these infested properties. This is an attempt to
halt the spread of this pest into additional fields and areas.
Additional surveys are being conducted to determine more
precisely the extent of the infestation.
Symptoms in these infested areas were typical of those in
other infested areas and consisted of stunted plant growth (Fig.
3), lighter leaf color, and reduced yield (Fig. 4). This stunting
and reduction in yield was very dramatic in some areas. Fe-

Division of Plant Industry

males of H. glycines could be seen attached to roots of infested
plants (Fig. 5) when these roots were removed from the soil. A

Fig. 3. Healthy soybean plants (left); stunted, soybean cyst nematode
infested plants (right).

Fig. 4. Pod yield from three healthy soybean plants (left) and from
three soybean cyst nematode infested plants (right).

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

hand lens or other magnification was helpful in seeing them,
though with difficulty they could be seen with the unaided eye.

Fig. 5. A young white soybean cyst nematode female and egg mass on
lower part of the soybean root. An older darker female with an egg mass
on the upper part of the soybean root.

Golden Nematode (Heterodera rostochiensis) Survey

R. P. ESSER, Nematologist
The golden nematode was detected in Steuben County, New
York, on December 2, 1967. Prior to this date potatoes were
shipped from this infested area to some north Florida potato
growing areas. It was essential, therefore, to survey the potato
growing areas in north Florida to determine if the golden nema-
tode might have become established in Florida. Division of Plant
Industry personnel in cooperation with USDA personnel sur-
veyed and sampled north Florida potato fields for golden nema-
tode in June 1968. One hundred of the samples were processed
at the Gainesville laboratory and found negative for the pest.
Future checks of north Florida potato fields for this pest are
planned in the next biennium.

Cactus Cyst Nematode (Heterodera cacti) Survey

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist
In the fall of 1967 specimens of Christmas cactus, Zygocactus

Division of Plant Industry

truncatus, from the Apopka area were received exhibiting symp-
toms of wilting and reddening of the tops typical of root damage.
Examination revealed abundant cysts of Heterodera cacti on the
roots. This was the first report in the Division of Plant Industry
records of the occurrence of this pest in Florida.
An investigation was initiated to determine the extent of dis-
tribution of this pest in the state. Four nurseries in the Apopka
area which grew cactus (including the one originally found in-
fested) were checked, and all four were infested. Inspectors
were requested to sample cactus, especially Zygocactus sp., in the
nurseries growing cactus in their areas. Numerous samples
were submitted, but none were found infested from outside the
Apopka area.
Hosts found infested in this study were Zygocactus truncatus
(most heavily infested) and Mammillaria bocasana, both pre-
viously reported as hosts; and Leuchtenbergia principles and
Schlumbergera gaertneri 'Makoyana,' both newly reported hosts.
A search of world literature revealed 74 host species (including
the two new reports). All but two of these are in the family
Cactaceae, with the two exceptions in the family Euphorbiaceae.
Dr. John O'Bannon, USDA, Orlando, agreed to include the
cactus cyst nematode in tests he was conducting with experi-
mental nematocides. He found several nematocides which gave
excellent control of cyst nematodes on the cactus plants.
The nurseries involved have since been treated to eliminate
this pest, and it is hoped that with continued proper nursery
sanitation procedures, recurrence of a severe problem involving
this nematode in these nurseries can be prevented.


R. P. ESSER, Nematologist

A total of 2,077 turf samples was examined for nematodes.
Of this total, 1,987 or 95.7 per cent of the samples passed turf
certification requirements, while 90 turf samples or 4.3 per cent
failed. Table 2 shows the nematodes responsible for samples
failing to meet turf certification requirements.
Table 2 shows that pseudo-root-knot nematode of turf is re-
sponsible for more failures than any other nematode. This af-
firms the prediction made in the 1960-62 Division of Plant Indus-
try Biennial Report "that this could be the most serious pest of
turf in Florida."

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Table 2. Nematodes responsible for turf
samples failing certification requirements.

Nematode Times caused turf Per cent turf
sample failure samples failed
Hypsoperine graminis (Pseudo-root-knot 35 38.8
nematode of turf)
Criconemoides (Ring nematode) 23 25.6
Helicotylenchus (Spiral nematode) 18 20.0
Belonolaimus (Sting nematode) 3 3.3
Dolichodorus (Awl nematode) 3 3.3
Tylenchorhynchus (Stunt nematode) 3 3.3
Hemicycliophora (Sheath nematode) 2 2.2
Hemicriconemoides (Sheathoid nematode) 1 1.1
Pratylenchus (Lesion nematode) 1 1.1
Trichodorus (Stubby root nematode) 1 1.1

R. P. ESSER, Nematologist

In the two previous bienniums less than 600 caladium sam-
ples were examined. In this biennium a total of 2,526 caladium
samples were examined, leading all single crop diagnostic cate-
gories. Table 3 shows the nematodes found associated with
Table 3. Nematodes recovered from caladium samples

Nematodes Times Per cent of
found total samples
Meloidogynze (Root-knot nematode) 1,175 46.52
Criconemoides (Ring nematode) 272 10.77
Tylenchorhynchus (Stunt nematode) 152 6.02
Helicotylenchus (Spiral nematode) 146 5.78
Heterodera (Cyst nematode) 12 .48
Trichodorus (Stubby root nematode) 11 .44
Pratylenchus (Lesion nematode) 6 .24
Cacopaurus (Sessile nematode) 5 .20
Meloidodera (Cystoid nematode) 5 .20
Paratylenchus (Pin nematode) 4 .16
Hemicriconemoides (Sheathoid nematode) 2 .08
Hemicycliophora (Sheath nematode) 2 .08
Scutellonema (Spiral nematode) 2 .08
Xiphinema (Dagger nematode) 2 .08
Aphelenchoides (Foliar nematode) 1 .04
Criconema (Spine nematode) 1 .04
Dolichodorus (Awl nematode) 1 .04
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Citrus nematode) 1 .04

Table 3 shows that almost half of all caladium samples ex-
amined were infested with root-knot nematode. Burrowing
nematode, the prime reason for taking the samples, was not de-

Division of Plant Industry


J. B. MACGOWAN, Nematologist

After more than six years of continuous activity serving the
Apopka area and surrounding counties, the Reniform Nematode
Program, in June 1967 discontinued operations from its mobile
laboratory located on the shores of Lake Apopka.
From March 1961 to June 1967, 15,848 samples were proc-
essed and examined. Of these, 35 samples representing nine
properties were found infested with the reniform nematode.
Throughout that period the activities of the laboratory have
been a valuable extension of the regulatory investigations of the
Nematology Section. In addition to the reniform nematode, many
other plant parasitic nematodes came under survey and investi-
gation. Other nematodes of regulatory importance within or
outside Florida were surveyed and reported.
Current biennium: The mobile laboratory which housed the
operations of the Reniform Nematode Program was active only
during one year of the biennium. For the second year of the bi-
ennium these operations were centralized in Gainesville, and
amalgamated with the other activities of the Nematology Section
working with the new and expanded facilities housed in the
Doyle Conner Building.
During its last year of operation the primary objective of the
program had been the evaluation of nematode infestations, in
particular reniform nematode infestations, of plants grown in the
Apopka area bound for out-of-state shipment. To meet this ob-
jective the mobile laboratory in Apopka (Fig. 6A) was equipped
to handle and process large numbers of soil samples (Fig. 6B).
The program was successful in satisfying its primary objective
and in meeting many secondary requirements.
Among them were:
1. Sampling ornamental nurseries for burrowing nema-
tode certification.
2. Sampling for citrus nursery site approval.
3. Examining gardenias and caladium bulbs whenever
root-knot certification was required.
4. Miscellaneous examinations where nurserymen had
disease problems and nematode trouble was suspected.
5. Assistance with sanitation and chemical control prob-
6. Accumulation of nematode host and distribution data.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Fig. 6. Operations of the Reniform Nematode Program in the mobile
laboratory near Apopka.

Division of Plant Industry

7. Assistance with plant inspection activities such as
spring flush or bud-cutting when emergency required.
8. Examining soil samples from sources other than or-
namental and citrus plants when nematode certifica-
tion such as clay pits, peat pits, sand mines, and worm
farms was required (Fig. 6C).
At times the disposal of waste soil residue presented peculiar
problems. There was the ever present problem of possible nema-
tode contamination of the soil at or near authorized county dump-
ing areas. Residues from wormbeds and caladium samples
with their attendant noxious odors were also a constant nuisance.
A series of sanitation tests was run whereby soil residues
were sealed in large heavy duty plastic bags to which an all pur-
pose disinfectant and nematocide had been added in an attempt
to suppress odors and prevent nematode infestations of the land
at authorized dumping areas.
It was found that 250 ml of commercial formalin stirred into
4 gallons of wet residue soil and sealed in a heavy duty plastic
bag would effectively kill all plant parasitic nematodes within 24
With this practice, residue soil could be easily transported
free from unpleasant odor to authorized dumping areas and de-
posited safely without fear of contaminating public land.
Routine lots of non-objectional residue soil were regularly
disposed of in a cattle watering tank (Fig. 6D) which was es-
pecially modified to permit air tight fumigation of the soil before
removal to authorized public dumping areas.
The total number of samples processed and examined by the
Reniform Program during the biennium was 2,334, taken from
94 properties (Table 4).
Considering nematodes of regulatory importance, root-knot
(Meloidogyne) headed the list in being most frequently recov-
ered. A total of 802 samples were positive for root-knot nema-
tode, representing 52 properties.
In decreasing order, total numbers of samples which were
positive for regulatory nematodes follow: sting nematode, citrus
nematode, burrowing nematode, and reniform nematode.
On a more general scale, Table 5 shows the frequency of
plant parasitic nematode recovery. Leading the list is the desig-
nation "none" with 1,076 samples. Almost half of the samples
processed and examined had no plant parasitic nematodes. This

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

speaks well for the sanitation practices of many of the growers
in the Apopka area.
As mentioned earlier, root-knot nematodes were the most
frequently recovered. The sessile nematode (Cacopaurus) was
the least frequently recovered.
No plant parasitic nematodes were recovered from 11 of the
properties sampled. Sixteen properties yielded only one genus
and 16 yielded two genera. Table 6 demonstrates that as the

Table 4. Diagnostic work summary during the biennium.
Total samples processed and examined ........................................................2,334
Total properties sam pled ................................................................................... 94
Nematodes in regulatory programs:
a) Samples infested with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne) ........802
Properties infested with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne) ...... 52
b) Samples infested with sting nematode (Belonolaimus) ................ 50
Properties infested with sting nematode (Belonolaimus) .............. 18
c) Samples infested with citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semi-
penetrans) ................................................................................................ 44
Properties infested with citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semi-
penetrans) ................................................................................................ 5
d) Samples infested with burrowing nematode (Radopholus
sim ilis) ...................................................................................................... 34
Properties infested with burrowing nematode (Radopholus
sim ilis) ...................................................................................................... 10
e) Samples infested with reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reni-
form is) .........-............-.................. ---- ........................ ............................. 3
Properties infested with reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reni-
form is) ............................................................ ................... ... ............. 2

Table 5. Frequency of plant parasitic recovery

Nematode genera
None found
Meloidogyne (Root-knot nematode)
Helicotylenchus (Spiral nematode)
Criconemoides (Ring nematode)
Trichodorus (Stubby-root nematode)
Xiphinema (Dagger nematode)
Pratylenchus (Lesion nematode)
Hopolaimus (Lance nematode)
Hemicycliophora (Sheath nematode)
Hemicriconemoides (Sheathoid nematode)
Tylenchorhynchus (Stunt nematode)
Belonolaimus (Sting nematode)
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Citrus nematode)
Radopholus similis (Burrowing nematode)
Scutellonema (Spiral nematode)
Dolichodorus (Awl nematode)
Paratylenchus (Pin nematode)
Tylenchulus floridensis
Meloidodera (Cystoid nematode)
Criconema (Spine nematode)
Rotylenchulus reniformis (Reniform nematode)
Cacopaurus (Sessile nematode)

Number of samples positive

Division of Plant Industry

number of genera recovered from any single property increases,
the number of properties from which that number was recovered
diminishes. The greatest number of different genera recovered
from any one property was 14 and only one property yielded this

Table 6. Number of plant parasitic genera found among properties sampled
Number of genera Frequency of occurrence
by property
0 11
1 16
2 16
3 9
4 6
5 7
6 9
7 8
8 2
9 2
10 3
11 3
12 1
14 1


Plant Identification

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

K. R. Langdon of the Nematology Section continues to serve
the Division as botanist (Fig. 7) in addition to his normal duties
as a nematologist. Four hundred twenty-two specimens were
identified during the biennium, primarily for Division of Plant
Industry personnel, but also for personnel of the USDA and
other organizations, and for some individuals.
A separate room has been provided in the Doyle Conner
Building to house the herbarium. One additional herbarium
cabinet has been obtained to help house the collection of refer-
ence plant specimens. The botanical and taxonomic books now
total approximately 95 volumes plus additional bulletins and
similar works useful in identifications. A number of other im-
portant and rare works are still needed.
The herbarium now contains over 200 identified and mounted
reference specimens plus about that many more awaiting mount-

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Fig. 7. Nematologist K. R. Langdon identifies plant specimens.

ing. This work has progressed slowly because of the higher
priority which some other projects must take. It is hoped that
eventually this collection will contain most of the unusual plants
encountered in the nursery trade as well as many of the more
common ones and many of the native plants. These specimens
are useful for comparison in identification and study.

Grass Cyst Nematode (Heterodera leuceilyma) Host
Testing Program

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

A program has been in progress involving testing of various
turf grasses as possible hosts of the grass cyst nematode, Heter-
odera leuceilyma. This program has been fought with difficul-
ties from the beginning. Some of these have been overcome and
some results obtained. Four hosts and one non-host were re-
ported in the preceding biennium. Two additional varieties,
'Floratine' and 'Bitter Blue' St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum
secundatum), were found during this biennium to be hosts.

Division of Plant Industry

Probably the most serious problem in conducting these tests
has been that of high greenhouse temperatures, resulting from
inadequate summer cooling, reducing populations of the nema-
tode. The only successful tests were those set up in the early
spring. In tests set up at other times the nematodes either
failed to survive, or else survived only on excellent hosts. Re-
production during the summer even on excellent hosts was very
No plans are being made to pursue this project at the new
greenhouse to be built at the Doyle Conner Building. The pri-
mary factor in bringing about the decision to discontinue this
project was the possibility of the nematode becoming established
outside the greenhouse. The distribution of this nematode is
very limited in Florida to date, and since it is such a serious pest
of turf, it was felt that every effort should be made to prevent
further spread.
The known hosts in these studies to date are Zoisia japonica,
Emerald zoisia, T-328 Bermuda grass, and three varieties of St.
Augustine grass, 'Common,' 'Bitter Blue,' and 'Floratine.' Cen-
tipede grass is the only non-host established to date (two nega-
tive tests).

Pseudo-Root-Knot Nematode (Hypsoperine graminis)
Host Testing Program

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

The host testing program involving the pseudo-root-knot
nematode of turf (Hypsoperine graminis) has been continued
during this biennium. Previously 13 grasses had been shown to
be hosts, one of which ('Ormond' Bermuda grass) was a resistant
host. One grass, 'Floratine' St. Augustine grass, was shown to
be a non-host.
During the present biennium the following grasses were es-
tablished as hosts: 'Myer' Zoisia (Z-52) (Zoisia japonica), a very
good host; Zoisia tenuifolia, a host supporting moderate repro-
duction; and 'Pensacola' and 'Common' Bahia grass (Paspalum
notatum) and Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens), poor hosts
supporting very little reproduction. 'Bitter Blue' St. Augustine
grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) was shown to be a non-host.

Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report

Burrowing Nematode (Radopholus similis) Host Testing

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

At the close of the last biennium attempts were being made
to establish burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) popula-
tions in host testing tanks. So far the nematode has not sur-
vived in these tanks for any extended period of time.
The most recent attempt to establish a population has been
in a cattle watering tank filled with soil especially for this pur-
pose. The bulb of a recording thermograph was inserted six
inches deep in the soil near the center of the tank to record the
soil temperature. It was hoped that this large mass of soil
would reduce temperature fluctuations. Table 7 gives the
monthly averages of the daily minimum and daily maximum
temperatures as well as the monthly extremes of the daily mini-
mum and daily maximum soil temperatures for a one year period
from May 1967 through April 1968.
The optimum temperature for reproduction of R. similis (ac-
cording to E. P. DuCharme) is 75F (24C) and the optimum
temperature range is 68 to 80F (20 to 26.5C). At tempera-
tures outside this range, reproduction is drastically curtailed or
halted entirely. The limits for reproduction are 54F (12C)
and 88F (31C). At temperatures at or beyond these limits
the nematode populations decrease. The temperature in the
test tank often was outside the optimum range, and at times
was around the extreme limits for the nematode. For instance,
during the period between January 4 and March 10, 1968, the
temperature stayed continuously below the optimum range and
often fell below the minimum limit. Also in May 1967, the tem-
perature rose to 87F which is critical for the nematode. These
temperature variations were the result of inadequate tempera-
ture controls in the plastic greenhouse where this test was set
up. A glass greenhouse was available, but cooling there was in-
adequate, resulting in even higher summer temperatures and
fatal results on R. similis populations in other previous attempts.
The current hope for correcting this situation lies in the pro-
posed greenhouse complex to be built at the Doyle Conner
Building. One of the small greenhouses for the Nematology Sec-
tion hopefully will be adequately heated and air conditioned so

Division of Plant Industry

that year-round optimum temperatures can be maintained. Once
this is accomplished, then burrowing nematode host testing can
be resumed.

Table 7. Average, highest, and lowest daily minimum and maximum soil
temperatures* in the burrowing nematode host testing tank for each month
during a one year period.
Average Average Lowest Highest Lowest Highest
Minimum Maximum Minimum Minimum Maximum Maximum
May 71.4 78.6 63.0 78.0 67.5 87.0
June 75.7 80.9 72.0 79.0 77.0 83.0
July 76.2 80.9 74.0 79.0 76.0 84.0
Aug. 76.8 81.3 73.0 79.5 75.5 84.5
Sept. 73.3 78.4 61.5 77.5 68.0 83.0
Oct. 67.1 72.6 57.0 72.5 60.5 77.0
Nov. 62.6 67.7 55.5 72.5 61.0 75.5
Dec. 62.7 66.8 55.0 69.5 60.0 72.5
Jan. 57.7 62.5 48.5 66.0 52.0 69.5
Feb. 56.2 61.4 50.5 64.0 56.5 68.0
Mar. 62.1 68.6 54.0 67.0 58.5 74.5
Apr. 69.3 74.5 65.0 74.5 70.0 79.5
*Daily temperatures were recorded to the nearest half degree.

R. P. ESSER, Nematologist

Tests were initiated to determine the correct dilution of


C 0


Fig. 8. A burrowing nematode female after 1 1/2 minutes in undiluted
sodium hypochlorite solution. Almost half the body has disintegrated.




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