• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Report of the division directo...
 Apiary inspection section
 Citrus budwood registration...
 Entomology section
 Methods development section
 Nematology section
 Plant inspection section
 Plant pathology section
 Special programs section
 Staff publications
 Personnel














Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00004
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry
The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1964-1966
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01242950
alephbibnum - 001511744
lccn - sn 86001883
notis - AHC4712
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report - Division of Plant Industry

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Letter of transmittal
        Page i
        Page ii
    Report of the division director
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Apiary inspection section
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Citrus budwood registration section
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Entomology section
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 66
        Page 67
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        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Methods development section
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Nematology section
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
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        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Plant inspection section
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Plant pathology section
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
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        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Special programs section
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
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        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Staff publications
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Personnel
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
Full Text



Division of Plant Industry
Twenty-Sixth


L REPORT


June 30, 1966


0 0


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Doyle Conner, Commissioner











Division of Plant Industry

Twenty-Sixth

Biennial Report

July 1, 1964-June 30, 1966


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DOYLE CONNER, Commissioner

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
HALWIN L. JONES, Director



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
Florida Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32601













PLANT INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE


Member

Vernon Conner
P. 0. Box 183
Mount Dora, Florida

Colin English, Sr.
Lewis State Bank Building
Tallahassee, Florida

W. R. "Bill" McMullen
3422 Jean Circle
Tampa, Florida

N. Curtis Peterson, Jr.
225 New Auburndale Road
Lakeland, Florida

Stuart Simpson
P. 0. Box 160
Monticello, Florida

Foster Shi Smith
905 West Madison Street
Starke, Florida

Felix H. Uzzell
Route 1, Box 57
Sebring, Florida

Roy Vandegrift, Jr.
Star Route, Box 13-E
Canal Point, Florida


Industry Represented

Citrus



Citizen-at-Large


Citrus


Ornamental
Horticulture


Seed


Forestry


Apiary


Vegetable










FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Doyle Conner, Commissioner.....--....-----.--------....--............-. Tallahassee
W. Joe Brown Executive Assistant -------............................... Tallahassee
Harold H. Hoffman, Assistant Commissioner..............------Tallahassee
Chester F. Blakemore,
Executive Director of Personnel ..........................Tallahassee
Robert E. Hancock,
Acting Chief, Information Section...----------..................... Tallahassee



DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY

Administrative Staff

Halwin L. Jones, Division Director ................................-------------Gainesville
Paul E. Frierson, Assistant Director...........................-----------Gainesville
Vernon W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer............................. Gainesville
Robert L. Meeker, Information Officer............ ....----.......Gainesville
G. Doniford Bridges,
Chief, Citrus Budwood Section......................---------Winter Haven
Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section .......... Gainesville
Gerald G. Norman,
Chief, Methods Development Section ................------Winter Haven
Philip M. Packard, Chief, Apiary Section.................... -------Gainesville
Charles Poucher,
Chief, Special Programs Section----------...................... Winter Haven
Carter P. Seymour,
Chief, Plant Pathology Section --------------........................... Gainesville
Charles E. Shepard,
Chief, Plant Inspection Section--------...........---...............------Gainesville
(Unfilled), Chief, Nematology Section........------........----......Gainesville














TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR ........--....---....--.....--.- ....1..---...... 1

Fiscal ................................. ---...... .... .... .............. .... .. -- -.. ........ 4

Grades and Standards --.... ........................................... .....-- ......... 11

Information and Education ................................----------------------.......... 12

A PIARY INSPECTION SECTION ..-................ .......................... ...........-----. ... 17

CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION SECTION ------------............ ----------....--............--.- 22

E NTOMOLOGY SECTION ................................................... .........................--- -...--------.. 30

METHODS DEVELOPMENT SECTION ........................ -....... ................-...... 78

N EMATOLOGY SECTION -----................. .......--. ...... ..... ......--...................---....-......-- ---...... 84

PLANT INSPECTION SECTION .................--............................................................. 110

Fruit and Vegetable Certification ..................--..................................... 117

Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey .......----.......................................... 119

Imported Fire Ant and White Fringed Beetle Programs ............... 120

Port Inspection and Enforcement of Foreign Plant Quarantines.... 121

Turf Grass Certification Program -.................................................... 123

PLANT PATHOLOGY SECTION ..........-------------...........---..........------ ...----- --------- 126

SPECIAL PROGRAM S SECTION .... ..-.................................................................... 157

Fruit Fly Detection Program ..................................--.... .......................... 157

Personnel Training Program .......... ................---- ...............------... 167

Spreading Decline Program ..........................--- ---------...............--------. 170

STAFF PUBLICATIONS ------------.............. --..----------.....--....----.-----.........-.. 179

PERSONNEL .................................--...........................................................................---------- 184


















Gainesville, Florida


Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

Sir: I have the honor to present herewith my report for the
biennium ending June 30, 1966.

Respectfully,


HALWIN L. JONES, Director
Division of Plant Industry













Report of the Division Director

Incidents of major importance during the 1964-66 biennium
include the investigation of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha
suspense (Loew) ; an eradication attempt against the imported
fire ant, Solenopis saerissima richteri Forel; and a vast expan-
sion in control measures against spreading decline, caused by the
burrowing nematode, Radepholus similis (Cobb) Thorne.
The broad areas of responsibility assigned the Plant Inspec-
tion Section have been subdivided into three additional sections:
Citrus Budwood Registration, Methods Development and Special
Programs Sections.
Plans have been drawn for a 33,000-square-foot DPI head-
quarters building to be constructed on the University of Florida
campus. Construction is expected to begin in the fall of 1966,
with occupancy scheduled for the fall of 1967.
Division apiary inspectors examined a record 369,663 colonies
in 11,513 apiaries, finding only 3,046 colonies in 985 apiaries in-
fected with American foulbrood. The section issued 270 permits
for 55,545 colonies to move into Florida from out of state, and
Florida beekeepers were issued 1,466 moving permits and 147
certificates of inspection.
Thorough inspection services provided by Apiary Section per-
sonnel are credited with playing a major role in helping Florida
remain the third largest honey-producing state in the nation.
Under the Citrus Budwood Registration Program, 5.5 million
registered nursery trees were grown from 51,746 scion sources by
513 participants during the biennium.
A new "validation" plan provides authenticated plantings of
new citrus varieties released by the University of Florida Citrus
Experiment Station and the USDA Horticultural Field Station at
Orlando. Virus status for each new selection is being established
by the Citrus Budwood Registration Section, using standard
virus test procedures. Growers are assured of proper handling
and authentic variety designation by a voluntary system of
controls.
A special nursery block was established for psorosis testing
when it became apparent that psorosis virus was transmitted
from infected Carrizo citrange parents to their seedling progeny.
Inoculations have been made and usable results are expected by
April 1967. Final determinations are scheduled for April 1968.







Division of Plant Industry


Division entomologists made 19,702 identifications during
the biennium.
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods, a valuable Divi-
sion responsibility, contains 312,009 pinned specimens, 10,695
vials of specimens in alcohol, and 20,212 insect and mite slides.
Life history and vector studies are being conducted on a
whitefly, Aleurodicus disperses R., in connection with lethal yel-
lowing on coconut palms in the Key West-Stock Island area.
The Cuban May beetle, a pest of ornamentals in Dade County,
has continued to spread. Life history and control studies on the
beetle are being made by University of Florida entomologists.
The new Methods Development Section is responsible for the
development of improvement of methods, procedures and techni-
ques to increase the efficiency of Division operations.
The need for improved pest detection methods in agricultural
areas has long been recognized and is especially true of citrus
surveys and grove inspections where great numbers of trees are
scattered over large portions of the state.
Several thousand photographs were taken according to syste-
matic plan. The pictures demonstrate that infrared photography
can reveal the presence of both fungal and viral diseases in grove
trees, in some cases before disease reaction is apparent to the
trained eye.
Infrared color photography, at its present state of develop-
ment, can be of great assistance in disease detection, but its po-
tential is yet to be tapped.
The Nematology Section processed and diagnosed a record
14,698 samples during the biennium. Joint examination and diag-
nosis of 528 samples were made in cooperation with the Plant
Pathology Section.
Nematode surveys involving 281 samples were made in the
field. Surveys of ornamentals were conducted to locate test
plants for nematocide trials in the highway beautification pro-
gram.
Inoculation tests involving healthy coconut palm trees and
nematodes associated with lethal yellowing-affected trees have
proven negative. The project to determine the cause of lethal
yellowing continues at the Key West site.
Host testing was continued with the pseudo-root-knot nema-
tode of turf. The burrowing nematode host testing program
proved three new hosts and indicated seven plants as non-hosts.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Florida nursery stock under inspection increased seven per
cent from 360,659,130 plants in 1962-64 to 387,332,842 recorded
at the end of the biennium. Increases were noted in citrus, or-
namental and general plant classes.
The number of nurseries under inspection increased three per
cent from 4,867 to 5,018 during the same period.
A total 429 acres and 3,864,475 plants were quarantined dur-
ing the period in an effort to protect industry and the public from
injurious plant pests.
Fiscal 1965-66 was the end of the first five-year citrus survey
period. Grove inspection and citrus survey work were combined,
providing a systematic method of accomplishing the two jobs at
a minimum cost to the state. Aerial photography was being evalu-
ated as an aid to citrus survey during the second year of the bi-
ennium.
Imported fire ant treatment was extended to more than 1.2
million acres during the biennium. Landowner participation ac-
counted for 445,534 acres under treatment. The state and federal
agencies joined forces to treat some 787,680 acres on a matching
cost basis. Eradication of the imported fire ant was attempted on
450,000 acres in an isolated area around Orlando. Preliminary
results indicated success within the treated area at the close of
the period.
Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants, Part II, Palms and
Trees, was published and mailed to all nurseries and stock deal-
ers. The 210-page book contains some 300 photographs and ex-
planations relating to grades and standards of palms and trees.
Sales of "blue tag" certified turfgrass increased 90 per cent
over the previous biennium, from 5.4 million square feet to more
than 10 million square feet in 1964-66.
Activities of the Plant Pathology Section during the biennium
include a record 8,465 specimens processed.
Surveys were conducted to determine the cause of decline in
some of North Florida's young peach orchards and evaluate the
Ascochyta ray blight disease of chrysanthemum plantings.
Tristeza, exocortis and psorosis indexing for the citrus bud-
wood registration program and diagnosing diseases of citrus, or-
chids, bromeliads, and fruit and nut crops were conducted at the
Winter Haven laboratory.
The new Special Programs Section operates the fruit fly de-
tection network, directs the training school for new employees,
administrates the spreading decline program, and participates







Division of Plant Industry


with the other sections in control and eradication programs. The
section, in cooperation with the USDA's Plant Pest Control Divi-
sion, operates about 14,500 fruit fly traps in 47 Florida counties.
A major problem during the biennium was the Caribbean
fruit fly, although it was not declared a pest to Florida agricul-
ture. Seven South Florida counties were infested in 1965 and
the fly wintered over to infest 13 counties by the end of the bi-
ennium. Virtually all dooryard host fruit in South Florida was
infested in 1966, but no commercial crops were damaged.
The 1965 Florida Legislature appropriated extra funds to
carry on the fight against spreading decline of citrus, caused by
the burrowing nematode. During the biennium, some 1,291 acres
were pushed and treated, the only known method of eliminating
the pest. The Division's buffer program, the only known method
of burrowing nematode containment, has been expanded to in-
clude 221 linear miles in 305 buffers, protecting 1,099 healthy
properties from 845 infested ones.
Three training classes were graduated during the biennium,
bringing to 17 the number of classes completing the 16-week
course since its inception in 1958.

FISCAL OFFICE
V. W. VILLENEUVE, Fiscal Officer

RESOURCES
A complete summary of funds available for the Division's use
during 1964-65, 1965-66 and 1966-67 as appropriated by the Flor-
ida Legislature, and subject to release by the State Budget
Commission, is contained in Tables 1 and 2.

EXPENDITURES
Table 3 contains complete (actual and estimated) budgeted
expenditures covering the 1965-67 biennium from all funds.

BUDGET REQUESTS
The Division Director presents in Table 4 the estimates he
believes necessary to carry out the Division's activities in a satis-
factory manner during the 1967-69 biennium. Careful consider-
ation has been given to expanded program activities as well as
increased costs involved in moving into the new Doyle Conner
headquarters building in Gainesville.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Table 1. 1964-65 Appropriations & Expenditures


1964-65 1964-65
Balance Appropri- Total Expendi-
Forward nations Available tures

General Revenue
General Activities


Salaries ..............$ 19,505
Other Personal
Services .......... 1.500


Expenses .-.........
Operating
Capital Outlay
Apiarian
Indemnities ....


18,201

6,026

*4,996


Total ..............$ 50,228


Restricted
Spreading Decline
Salaries .............$...
Other Personal
Services ..........
Expenses ............
Operating
Capital Outlay

Total ................ $


$ 865,964

8,500
204,470

23,160

7,500

$ 1,109,594


4,183 $ 49,920

500 2,000
40,878 241,420

687 5,500

46,248 $ 298,840


$ 885,469 $ 857,718

10,000 8,223
222,671 213,068


29,186

12,496

$ 1,159,822



$ 54,103

2,500
282,298

6,187

$ 345,088


29,186

12,496

$ 1,120,691



$ 46,443

2,000
281,179

5,842

$ 335,464


Fire Ant Control
(Lump Sum) ..........$ 82,940
Emergency
Med-Fly Trapping
(Lump Sum) ........ $
Total
General Revenue $ 179,416

Trust Funds
Nursery


Inspection Fees $ 16,988 $ 142,177
Fire Ant Control $ 13,322 $ 26,631

Total Trust Funds $ 30,310 $ 168,808


GRAND TOTAL-
ALL FUNDS ....$ 209,726


$ 102,000 $ 184,940 $ 184,932


$ 21,960 $ 21,960 $ 21,365

$ 1,532,394 $ 1,711,810 $ 1,662,452


$ 159,165
$ 39,953

$ 199,118


$ 124,426
$ 22,487

$ 146,913


$ 1,701,202 $ 1,910,928 $ 1,809,365


*From Deficiency Fund








Division of Plant Industry


Table 2. 1965-67 Appropriations
1965-66 1966-67 Total


General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries ................................ $ 970,728
Other Personal Services ...... 11,950
Expenses ................................ 251,845
Operating Capital Outlay .... 26,561
Apiarian Indemnities .......... 10,000
Total .............................. $ 1,271,084
Spreading Decline
Salaries .................................. $ 53,390
Other Personal Services ...... 1,500
Expenses ................................ 357,920
Operating Capital Outlay .... 22,050
Total .....--........................... $ 434,860
Fire Ant Control
Salaries ..................................$ 25,705
Expenses ................................ 150,450
Operating Capital Outlay... 500
Total ................................ $ 176,655
Capital Outlay-Buildings
Doyle Conner Building-
Gainesville ............-.-
Total General Revenue ............
Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees
Salaries ..................................$ 44,305
Expenses ................................ 30,237
Operating Capital Outlay.... 1,623
Total ................................ $ 76,165
Fire Ant Control
Expenses ................................$ 32,928
Expanded Citrus Nursery
Certification
Salaries ..................................$ 44,622
Expenses ................................ 16,000
Operating Capital Outlay.... 12,680
Total .............................. $ 73,302
Emergency Caribbean Fruit
Fly Eradication
Salaries ........................... ......$ 141,345
Expenses ................... ...... 692,655
Operating Capital Outlay.... 16,000
Total ............ .............$ 850,000
Total Trust Funds ..................
Total-All Funds ..................


$ 999,672
11,950
256,415
31,450
10,000
$ 1,309,487

$ 55,023
1,500
357,920
3,850
$ 418,293

$ 27,555
150,450
750
$ 178,755


$ 1,970,400
23,900
508,260
58,011
20,000
$ 2,580,571

$ 108,413
3,000
715,840
25,900
$ 853,153

$ 53,260
300,900
1,250
$ 355,410


$ 840,000
$ 4,629,134


$ 45,740 $ 90,045
33,965 64,202
4,075 5,698
$ 83,780 $ 159,945

27,500 $ 60,428


$ 69,624
7,074

$ 76,698


..................


...................


$ 114,246
23,074
12,680
$ 150,000


$ 141,345
692,655
16,000
$ 850,000
$ 1,220,373
$ 5,849,507





Table 3. Expenditures

Other Operating
Personal Apiary Capital
1965-66 Actual Salaries Services Expenses Indemn Outlay Total


General Revenue
General Activities
Administrative .............. -----------------.......................$ 71,160
Information & Education ........... 14,830
Special Programs ................................ 9,780
Fruit Fly Survey ............................ 89,553
Technical Committee .................... ............
Entom ology ............................................ 81,281
Library ............... .. .. ........... 3,515
Plant Pathology ..........................--. 66,053
Nematology .-------...................................... 43,253
Apiary Inspection ................................ 58,408
Apiarian Indemnities .....................
General Expenses .........---........ -.....-........
Plant Inspection ................................... -------------------400,660
Citrus Crop Estimate .................... 52,785
Citrus Budwood Registration ............ 51,014
Methods Development ....... ..............
Total ...............-.......................... $ 942,292
Spreading Decline ...............................--.....$ 51,377
Fire Ant Control ..............--------------..................$ 23,195
Capital Outlay-Building
Total General Revenue
Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees ........................$ 44,305
Fire A nt Control ........................................ ... ................
Citrus Nursery Certification ................$ 44,623
Caribbean Fruit Fly Eradication ........$ 9,191
Total Trust Funds
Total All Funds


$ 20


1,960

863

1,217
940


6,000


670

$ 11,670
$ 1,405



$------


$ --------.----
$ ------------------
$ ------------------
$ ------------------


$ 5,152
8,394

18,728
115
9,147
2,420
13,885
2,609
20,906

55,154
67,813
3,747
14,907
10,031
$ 233,008
$ 317,379
$ 149,968




$ 29,908
$ 32,928
$ 14,497
$ 20,888


$ -------------
$..................
...................
....................













'$ 9,688
................
....................
................ -
..................
............. ....
....................
9,688
................ ..
................
............... ...
........... I -
....................
$ 9,688

$ -------------


$ 194
892

11,321

1,117
1,538
1,926
327
1,513


1,811

3,085

$ 23,724
$ 20,834
$------------


$ ................. $ 1,623
$ ........-.......... $........-----..-........
$ .................. $ 12,680
$.................. $ ..................


$ 76,526
24,116
9,780
121,562
115
92,408
7,473
83,081
47,129
80,827
9,688
61,154
470,284
56,532
69,676
10,031
$ 1,220,382
$ 390,995
$ 173,163
$ 25,295
$ 1,809,835


$ 75,836
$ 32,928
$ 71,800
$ 30,079
$ 210,643
$ 2,020,478





Table 3. Expenditures (Continued)
Other Operating
Personal Apiary Capital
1966-67 Estimated Salaries Services Expenses Indemn Outlay Total


General Revenue
General Activities
Administrative .......................... $
Information & Education ..............
Special Program s ................................
Fruit Fly Survey ................. ........
Technical Committee ...............
Entom ology .... ... .......................... .....
Library .................. .......- ..........
Plant Pathology ....................................
N em atology ................ ..............
Apiary Inspection ................................
Apiarian Indemnities ................ .
General Expenses .................... ........
Plant Inspection ................ ........ ...
Citrus Crop Estimate ................
Citrus Budwood Registration ............
Methods Development ....................


58,212 $ 200
30,271 ....................


20,115
77,515

80,133
9,930
87,454
49,242
60,862
$.................

418,265
54,910
52,763


Total .......................................... $ 999,672
Spreading Decline ................................ $ 54,968
Fire Ant Control .....................................$ 26,622
Capital Outlay-Building
Total General Revenue
Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees ......................$ 45,740
Fire A nt Control ..... ... ............................ ..................
Citrus Nursery Certification ..............$ 69,624
Total Trust Funds
Total All Funds


1,500

1,500
1,200



6,500
200

850

$ 11,950
$ 1,500
$ ------




$....---..----
$ -.... ... ....
$ - -
$ .. . . . .


$ 5,150 $................ $ 5,400 $ 68,962
15,675 .................... ................ 45,946
.................... ............................... ......... 20,115
34,600 .................. 8,000 120,115
500 ................. ................. 500
10,300 ................... 3,050 94,983
2,300 .................... 2,500 14,730
13,150 .................. 3,000 105,104
5,400 .................... 250 56,092
22,250 .................... 8,000 91,112
..-...-..- .. 10,000 .................... 10,000
54,800 .................... ...... 61,300
68,200 .................... 750 487,415
-.-- ........ ........... ... .................... 54,910
13,965 ................... 250 67,828
10,125 .................... 250 10,375
$ 256,415 $ 10,000 $ 31,450 $ 1,309,487
$ 357,920 $.................. $ 4,950 $ 419,338
$ 155,139 $.................. $ .................. $ 181,761
$ 814,705
$ 2,725,291


$ 33,465
$ 27,500
$ 7,074


$..................
$..................
$..................


$ 4,075

$..................
$ ------------------


$ 83,280
$ 27,500
$ 76,698
$ 187,478
$ 2,912,769





Table 4. Requests

Other Retire. Operating
Personal Apiary and SS Capital
1967-68 Estimated Salaries Services Expenses Indemn Matching Outlay Total


General Revenue
General Activities
Administrative ................................ $ 75,888
Information & Education ......... 26,146
Library .................... .............. 13,445
Technical Committee ............... .........
Entomology ................... ............... 93,025
Plant Pathology ........................... 100,804
Nem atology ..................................... 58,380
Apiary Inspection ............................ 65,309
Apiarian Indemnities .................. .....-......
General Expense ...... ..................
Plant Inspection .................. .......... 511,880
Citrus Crop Estimate ............. 58,695
Special Programs ......................... 31,764
Fruit Fly Survey ..................... 84,764
Citrus Budwood Registration ........ 63,502
M ethods Development ..................... ..................
Total ..................................... $ 1,183,602
Spreading Decline .....................-......... $ 58,338
Fire Ant Control .................................. $ 28,462
Capital Outlay-Building
Total General Revenue
Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees .................$ 52,044
Fire A nt Control .................... .......$..................
Total Trust Fund
Total All Funds


$ 200


1,000
1,500
1,500



82,367
700

500

1,000

$ 88,767
$ 1,500
$ 1,000


$ 7,800
21,550
3,050
500
21,800
19,700
5,050
23,300

95,250
80,900

1,200
34,200
19,650
10,000
$ 343,950
$ 528,170
$ 684,350


$.................







10,000







$ 10,000
....................
....................
..............
.............
............... .....
....................
10,000
..................
.......... -.........
.. ... ........
....................
............... .
....................
....................
$ 10,000
$ ------------------
$ .------------------


$ 5,299
2,000
1,072

6,897
7,527
4,183
5,394


40,802
4,930
2,472
7,120
5,131

$ 92,827
$ 4,900
$ 2,391


$ 250
2,831
4,337

10,085
19,674
4,450
2,200


9,805
3,600

11,100
6,515
50
$ 74,897
$ 22,400
$ 17,200


$.................. $ 23,500 $............... $ 4,001 $ 2,500
$ .................. $ 21,000 $.................. $................. $ .............


$ 89,437
52,527
21,904
500
132,807
149,205
73,563
96,203
10,000
177,617
644,087
67,225
35,936
137,184
95,798
10,050
$ 1,794,043
$ 615,308
$ 733,403
$ 153,930
$ 3,296,684

$ 82,045
$ 21,000
$ 103,045
$ 3,399,729






Table 4. Requests

Other Retire. Operating
Personal Apiary and SS Capital
1968-69 Estimated Salaries Services Expenses Indemn Matching Outlay Total


General Revenue
General Activities
Administrative ........................--
Information & Education ..........


79,152
27,152


Library .................................... 14,079
Technical Committee ................... --...........
Entomology ............................ 96,275
Plant Pathology ....................... 104,884
Nematology ................................ 60,822
Apiary Inspection ...................... 68,256
Apiarian Indemnities ............... ......
General Expense ................... .............--
Plant Inspection ............................ 536,397
Citrus Crop Estimate ................ 61,258
Special Programs ..................... 33,360
Fruit Fly Survey ........................ 88,496
Citrus Budwood Registration ........ 66,685
M ethods Development .................... .................
Total ..................................... $ 1,236,816
Spreading Decline ........--................$ 60,529
Fire Ant Control .................................. $ 29,442
Total General Revenue
Trust Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees .............. $ 54,623
Fire Ant Control ............................. $..................
Total Trust Fund
Total All Funds


$ 200


......1,000
1,500
1,500



91,055
700


500
1,000

$ 97,455
$ 1,500
$ 1,000


$ 7,800
19,550
2,850
500
20,050
20,300
4,350
23,900

80,900
81,550

1,050
33,450
19,650
10,000
$ 325,900
$ 531,574
$ 698,150


$.................







10,000
....................
....................
.................

....................
....................




$ 10,000
...................

....................
....................
....................
....................
$ 10,000

$..........
-----------------..


$ 5,676
2,124
1,158

7,407
8,111
4,471
5,886


44,152
5,391
2,663
7,788
5,604

$ 100,431
$ 5,327
$ 2,591


$ 3,400
200
2,724

7,715
11,660
2,950
3,675


8,611
3,600

11,100
2,400
50
$ 58,085
$ 9,000
$ 1,050


$.................. $ 21,500 $............... $ 4,305 $ 500
$.................. $ 11,500 $............... $............... $..................


$ 96,228
49,026
20,811
500
132,447
146,455
74,093
101,717
10,000
171,955
671,410
70,249
37,073
141,334
95,339
10,050
$ 1,828,687
$ 607,930
$ 732,233
$ 3,168,850

$ 80,928
$ 11,500
$ 92,428
$ 3,261,278







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


GRADES AND STANDARDS PROGRAM

CHARLES S. BUSH, Supervising Inspector

The third grading book, Grades and Standards for Nursery
Plants, Part II, was mailed to all nurseries and stock dealers in
May 1965. This 210-page book, with 300 photographs relating to
palms and trees, filled an important gap in Florida ornamental
plant grades.
The grades and standards program was extensively promoted
during the biennium by personal appearances as guest speaker
at Ocala Jr. College Short Course; Ornamental Horticulture
Class, University of Florida; Imperial Rose Society in Lakeland;
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association in Ft. Myers; an-
nual convention Associated Landscape Contractors of America,
Inc. in Tampa; Executive Club annual Christmas Breakfast in Ft
Lauderdale; and Central Florida Chapter of the Florida Nursery-
men and Growers Association in Orlando.
A guest appearance on the Bert Livingston, Florida Gardener
TV show on Channel 8 in Tampa with full page coverage in the
following Sunday Tampa Tribune brought 2,000 requests for the
latest grades and standards book on palms and trees. Three pro-
grams were taped by WUFT-TV, University of Florida Exten-
sion Service, and distributed statewide. A 30-minute program
was broadcast from WFLA-TV in Tampa. Two 30-minute radio
broadcasts from WSUN St. Petersburg were made discussing
with Gil Whitton, Pinellas County Agricultural Agent, orna-
mental plant quality and the most desirable landscaping trees
for various locations in Florida.
Exhibits displaying the grades of plants and the vast differ-
ence in quality were shown at the Federated Garden Club Flower
Show in Tampa, Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
Trade Show in Clearwater, and "Everybody's Flower Show" in
Daytona Beach.
The highway beautification program has required extensive
cooperation with the State Road Department, instructing SRD
personnel in grading ornamental plants for use along the high-
ways. The use of grades in bidding assures the state agency and
taxpayers of the lowest possible price for the grade desired.
There were six reinspections for grade in different parts of
the State. All were amicably settled.







Division of Plant Industry


Monographs on 44 species of trees have been written for the
Native Trees and Plants for Florida Landscaping and 80 photo-
graphs have been made for the illustrations. This manuscript,
together with the manuscript and photographs of the co-author,
Mrs. Julia Morton of the University of Miami, will be released to
the Florida Department of Agriculture on August 1, 1966.
A new grades and standards three-page, fold leaflet on orna-
mentals has been prepared for general distribution to the public.
Work on the grading book pertaining to foliage and miscella-
neous plants has ceased. Foliage growers voted to reject grading
of foliage plants at this time, and a resolution was directed to the
Commissioner of Agriculture commending the grading program
for ornamental plants but requesting suspension of work on fo-
liage plants at this time. This work will not be resumed until re-
quested by the industry involved.

INFORMATION AND EDUCATION

ROBERT E. HANCOCK, Information Officer

Information and Education Office personnel were responsible
for publications; news releases; feature articles; a quarterly tab-
loid newspaper (News Bulletin) ; a monthly house organ (Report-
er) ; still, motion picture, and studio photography; darkroom and
laboratory; layout and design; visual aids; exhibits; public re-
lations; printing; and other duties assigned by the Division Di-
rector.
Publications Committee
The information officer served as chairman. Members were
Paul E. Frierson, assistant director; Harold A. Denmark, chief
entomologist; Carter P. Seymour, chief plant pathologist; Dr.
Kenneth R. Langdon, nematologist; Mrs. Myra Harscheid, li-
brarian; and Mrs. Gayle Warren, plant quarentine clerk. In Au-
gust 1965, Mrs. Harschied was replaced by Mrs. Margaret Rhine
and Mrs. Warren was replaced by Mrs. Carroll Gunsaulies.
Committee members reviewed and edited the following major
publications which were published by the Division during the bi-
ennium:
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Area, Vol. 1,
Lepidoptera of Florida. By C. P. Kimball.
Illustrated Key to Caterpillars on Corn. By G. W. Dekle.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Serious Diseases of Citrus Foreign to Florida. By L. C. Knorr.
Grades and standards for Nursery Plants, Part II, Palms and
Trees. By C. S. Bush.
Florida Armored Scale Insects. By G. W. Dekle.
Orchid Diseases. By H. C. Burnett.
Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, Vol. 2,
The Widow Spiders of Florida. By John D. McCrone and
Karl J. Stone.
Arthropods of Florida, Vol. 3, Florida Armored Scale Insects.
By G. W. Dekle.
Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report of the Division of Plant In-
dustry.
Circulars prepared monthly by the technical sections and all
manuscripts authored by staff members for non-Division publi-
cations were reviewed by Committee members.

Reporter
The monthly house organ was distributed to all active and re-
tired Division personnel. Items in the Reporter dealt with Depart-
ment and Division policy, professional activities of the staff, and
sidelights on the social and private lives of the staff.

News Bulletin
Rules and regulations and articles on programs administered
by the Division were carried in this tabloid-size newspaper pub-
lished quarterly. It had a controlled circulation of 10,000, includ-
ing nurserymen, stock dealers, supermarkets, citrus growers,
state and federal agricultural officials, libraries in a number of
countries, and newspapers, magazines, and radio and television
stations in Florida.

News Releases
Articles dealing with various activities and programs admin-
istered by the Division were prepared and distributed to Florida
communications media.

Still Photography
Photographs of personnel and activities of Division-adminis-
tered programs were taken in the field and in the studio for pub-
lication in the News Bulletin, Reporter, Tri-ology, technical cir-







Division of Plant Industry


culars, leaflets and other Division publications, and for distribu-
tion to state-wide communications media.
Services rendered included color and black and white still
photography, special micro-photography, processing, printing,
retouching, and oil coloring.
The photo lab processed 1,971 sheets of 4 x 5 and 278 rolls of
black and white film (12 to 36 exposures per roll). Color film
processed by outside firms included 191 rolls of 35mm and 20
4 x 5 sheets.
A working agreement between the Division and the Florida
State Museum required that a Division photographer or photo-
graphic technician devote one 8-hour day each week to the mu-
seum in exchange for use of the darkroom and other photograph-
ic equipment.
Art Work
Design, art work, and construction were provided for port-
able exhibits in the fields of apiary, turf-grass, orchid disease,
imported fire ant, grades and standards, and permanent exhibits
installed in the Museum of Science and History at Miami.
Cartoons were drawn for the monthly house organ, Reporter,
and for five Spreading Decline Program envelope "stuffers."
Maps, charts, graphs, signs, posters, and other visual aids
were prepared as requested by Division sections and other agen-
cies involved in programs administered by the Division. Items
sent to the news media were complimented with art work such as
maps and graphs.
Design and layout assistance was rendered to the authors of
Division publications.

Motion Picture Photography
Film clips and documentary work dominated the limited
amount of motion picture photography accomplished during the
biennium.
Division activities included the filming of an imported fire ant
control program in Lake, Orange, Sumter, and Volusia Counties;
sequences were shot for an Apiary Section film to be completed
during the next biennium; a 4-minute film on nursery plant in-
spection was produced for television; the Division's investigation
of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in the







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Miami area in the summer of 1965 was documented; and the
caribfly sterilization process was filmed at the USDA's tempo-
rary laboratory at Opa Locka.

Exhibits
The theme, "Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants" was
featured at the Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
trade show, Clearwater; Florida Federation of Garden Cubs,
Tampa; and Everybody's Flower Show, Daytona Beach.
Apiary exhibits were provided for the beekeepers' annual
short course at Lake Alfred, and the annual Florida State Bee-
keepers Association, Tampa.
Orchid disease exhibits were shown at the Florida West Coast
Orchid Society Show, Tampa (1965 and 1966) ; the Central Flor-
ida Orchid Show, Orlando; the Agricultural Legislative Day, Tal-
lahassee; the National Phytopathology meeting, Miami; the
South Florida Orchid Society Show, Miami; the Ridge Orchid So-
ciety Show, Winter Haven; and at county fairs in Orlando, Ft.
Pierce and Stuart.
A turf-grass certification display was shown at the annual
Florida Turf-Grass Association Conference, Ft. Lauderdale
(1965 and 1966) ; and at Everybody's Flower Show, Daytona
Beach.
An infrared aerial photography exhibit was displayed at the
Citrus Exposition, Winter Haven; Agricultural Legislative Day,
Tallahassee; and the St. Lucie County Fair, Ft. Pierce. The ex-
hibit is now one of the permanent Division displays at the Dade
County Museum of Science and Natural History, Miami, along
with exhibits on Widow Spiders of Florida, Butterflies of the Mi-
ami Area, Life Cycle of the Cecropia Moth, and the Mediterra-
nean Fruit Fly. The Methods Development Section has since con-
structed a new infrared exhibit which is on permanent display at
the Citrus Exposition Hall, Winter Haven.
A live fire ant display was exhibited at the annual Farm-City
Week show in Orlando.

Agricultural Relations
The information officer appeared on WTVT-TV, Tampa, in
October 1965 with an imported fire ant presentation. He ar-
ranged the taping of four five-minute segments with Chief Ento-
mologist Harold Denmark for the same station in March 1966.







16 Division of Plant Industry

A series of nine TV shows in the spring of 1966 on the Tom
Gillis RFD Show, WFLA-TV, Tampa, featured "Resume of Re-
sponsibilities of the Florida Department of Agriculture and the
Division of Plant Industry," with the information officer; "Plant
Pathology," with Carter P. Seymour, chief plant pathologist;
"Grades and Standards," with Charles S. Bush, nursery grades
supervisor; "Aerial Color Infrared," with Gerald G. Norman,
chief, Methods Development; "Imported Fire Ant," with Ralph
E. Brown, supervising inspector; "Problems with Nematodes,"
with Robert P. Esser, nematologist; "Spreading Decline," with
Charles Poucher, chief, Special Programs; "Ornamental Nursery
Inspection," with Lester B. Hill, regional supervisor; and "Cit-
rus Budwood," with G. Don Bridges, chief, Citrus Budwood
Registration.









Apiary Inspection Section


PHILIP M. PACKARD, Chief Apiary Inspector

The primary purpose of the Apiary Inspection Section is
the detection and elimination of honeybee colonies infected with
a disease known as American foulbrood. To accomplish this, api-
ary inspectors are constantly examining the brood of the hun-
dreds of thousands of honeybee colonies located in Florida. Dur-
ing the past 47 years this tedious and time-consuming task has,
to a great extent, protected the state's high-ranking honey in-
dustry from serious outbreaks of disease. In addition to the in-
spection of native honeybee colonies, apiary inspectors constant-
ly search for bee diseases which might be brought into Florida
by migratory beekeepers. Apiary inspectors not only examine
the colonies of the larger outfits, both migratory and stationary,
but continue to inspect the colonies of the backyard hobbyist
whose colonies when infected offer a potential threat to the colo-
nies of the larger operators. The cost of this complete inspec-
tion procedure runs high, but it certainly pays off in the long
run. The elimination of a few infected colonies often prevents
disease outbreaks on a larger scale. Informing small beekeepers
of the advantages of using disease-preventive chemicals certain-
ly continues to be a necessary activity of the Apiary Inspection
Section.

American Foulbrood
American foulbrood is caused by bacteria (Bacillus larvae)
which develop and multiply within the body of the bee larvae.
Introduction into the hive is in the form of spores located in hon-
ey, on combs, and in used beekeeping equipment which has been'
exposed to a previously established source of infection. In many
instances, the beekeeper's careless handling of brood combs
spreads the disease. Some of the spores become mixed with the
brood food given to the larvae and germinate within their bodies.
After the cells have been sealed the larvae soon die and the bac-
teria turn into spores. Attempts by the colony to clean out this
diseased material result in the spores being spread throughout
the hive, more larvae being infected, and in due course the colo-
ny dies out. The weakened or dead colony then becomes a source
of infection as bees from other colonies rob it of its spore-laden







Division of Plant Industry


honey. This means almost certain disaster for the robber colony.
Apiary inspectors look for symptoms of sunken brood and per-
forated cappings of sealed brood. In the final stage the disease
produces a foul odor, thereby deriving the name of "foulbrood."

Resume

The number of colonies examined during the biennium was
the largest during any corresponding period in the history of api-
ay inspection service. The apiary inspectors examined 369,663
colonies in 11,513 apiaries; 3,049 colonies in 985 apiaries were
found to be infected with American foulbrood; 270 permits for
55,545 colonies of out-of-state bees to move into Florida and 227
special moving permits for moving from point to point within the
state were issued; 1,466 moving permits and 147 certificates of
inspection were issued to Florida beekeepers. The sum of $21,-
366.50 was paid to Florida beekeepers in compensation for bees
and equipment destroyed because of American foulbrood. The
total operating cost of the Section was $149,059.71, or approxi-
mately 40.4 per colony inspection.

APIARY INSPECTIONS

1964-1965 1965-1966
Apiaries inspected .................. ......... 5,680 5,833
Colonies inspected ................ ..................... 179,861 189,802
Counties inspected ........................... ....... 62 60
Apiaries infected with AFB .................... 500 485
Colonies infected with AFB ..................... 1,709 1,340
AFB colonies destroyed ......................... 1,706 1,340
Apiaries with new infections of AFB ...... 322 364

Honey Certification Program
In 1965, 164 drums of tupelo honey were sampled; 41 com-
posite samples were delivered to the food laboratory for analysis
and certification. Only two samples failed to certify as tupelo
honey.
In 1966, 178 drums of tupelo honey were sampled; 45 com-
posite samples were delivered for analysis and certification.
Moisture content of samples ranged from 16.8 per cent to 18.3
per cent with an average of 17.5 per cent. All samples certified
as tupelo honey.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report 19

Road Guard Report

Monthly reports from the Road Guard Stations indicate the following
movement of honeybees and used beekeeping equipment through the
stations:
1964-1965 1965-1966
Resident
Colonies coming in ............ ............ 25,684 21,539
Supers com ing in .................................... 41,731 51,382
*Colonies going out ................. .......... 16,193 13,740
*Supers going out ................................... 40,977 30,743
Non-resident
Colonies com ing in .................................... 20,769 16,801
Supers com ing in ...................................... 21,034 27,229
*Colonies going out ................................. 13,325 16,558
*Supers going out ................................ 17,602 14,836
*Not all colonies and supers going out were recorded.

Diseased Larval Examination

In 1965, 89 smears of honeybee larvae were examined by the
Chief Apiary Inspector to determine which pathogen caused the
death of the larva; in 1966, 102 smears were examined. These
smears were sent in by the apiary inspectors and beekeepers
when questionable material was found.

Ethylene Oxide Fumigation Project

Hives infected with American foulbrood were supplied to the
University of Florida Experiment Station to investigate the
possibility of using ethylene oxide gas to sterilize diseased bee
equipment for re-use. The experiments have been only partially
successful in reducing the bacteria count. More tests will be con-
ducted in an effort to obtain 100 per cent sterilization by this
method.
Meetings
The following meetings were attended by the Chief Apiary Inspector:
August 20 through August 22, 1964-Beekeepers Institute, Lake
Placid. Erected bee disease display and gave speech.
October 6 and October 7, 1964-Southern Beekeepers Federation,
Chattanooga, Tennessee.
October 16, 1964-Road Guard Personnel, White Springs. Gave talk
on bees moving in and out of Florida.
October 19 and October 20, 1964-Florida State Beekeepers Associa-
tion, Tampa. Gave annual report of Apiary Inspection Section
activities.








20 Division of Plant Industry

November 16, 1964-Georgia State Beekeepers Association, Waycross,
Georgia. Gave speech on honey certification program.
January 24 and January 25, 1965-Apiary Inspectors of America,
Atlanta, Georgia. Served as Program Chairman.
January 26 and January 27, 1965-American Beekeepers Federation,
Atlanta, Georgia. Gave speech on honey certification program.
July 29 through July 31, 1965-Beekeepers Institute, Cherry Lake.
Gave speech.
October 1, 1965-Road Guard Personnel, White Springs. Gave speech.
October 5 and October 6, 1965-Southern States Beekeeping Federa-
tion, Tampa. Gave speech.
October 7 to October 9, 1965-Florida State Beekeepers Association,
Miami. Gave apiary report.
November 2, 1965-Georgia State Beekeepers Association, Waycross,
Georgia. Gave speech.
January 24 and January 25, 1966-Apiary Inspectors of America,
Chattanooga, Tennessee. Served as President.
January 26 through January 28, 1966-American Beekeepers Federa-
tion, Chattanooga, Tennessee.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Yearly Summary of Apiary Inspection Work


Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Apiaries Colonies American American
Year Ending Inspected Inspected Foulbrood Foulbrood


June 30, 1928................. 1,248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929................. 1,297 32,442 21 85
June 30, 1930............. ... 2,273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931................. 2,374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932................... 2,744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933................. 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934.................. 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935................. 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936................. 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937.................... 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938................. 3,451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 .............. 3,371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940 ................. 3,414 76,851 61 234
June 30, 1941................. 3,711 81,950 80 371
June 30, 1942................... 3,671 83,354 106 698
June 30, 1943................... 3,347 80,823 100 524
June 30, 1944................. 2,646 73,649 106 456
June 30, 1945................... 2,371 69,262 105 379
June 30, 1946 .............. 2,265 71,161 138 959
June 30, 1947................. 2,464 87,674 104 683
June 30, 1948 ................. 3,266 98,147 100 391
June 30, 1949................. 3,710 105,678 130 406
June 30, 1950................. 3,082 105,296 175 369
June 30, 1951 ............. 2,872 95,405 237 772
June 30, 1952............... 2,836 88,206 232 578
June 30, 1953 .................. 3,259 92,267 449 1,366
June 30, 1954.................... 5,102 135,168 683 2,158
June 30, 1955.................... 5,885 157,388 524 1,421
June 30, 1956 .............. 6,168 176,616 460 1,180
June 30, 1957.................... 5,813 162,885 490 1,121
June 30, 1958................. 4,932 159,692 457 1,623
June 30, 1959.................... 5,123 153,677 454 1,329
June 30, 1960................. 5,056 149,227 438 1,422
June 30, 1961 ................. 4,991 152,288 319 1,271
June 30, 1962 ................. 5,693 173,538 341 1,053
June 30, 1963.................... 5,497 169,411 416 1,546
June 30, 1964.................... 5,230 166,641 481 1,614
June 30, 1965 .................. 5,680 179,861 500 1,709
June 30, 1966................... 5,833 189,802 485 1,340








Citrus Budwood Registration Section
G. D. BRIDGES, Chief

Administrative functions continue to expand. Within two
years, over 5.5 million registered nursery trees were grown from
51,746 scion sources by 513 participants. Record nursery tree
production for the first 12 months, 3,464,585 trees, leveled off
in the latter half of the biennium to a more normal 2.2 million.
Table 1 reflects some interesting trends in variety preference.
In addition to normal administrative responsibilities, four
major project areas dominated the period. Combined, they pro-
duced a massive virus indexing effort that greatly exceeded re-
quirements of any comparable interval in the section's history.
Large scale application of the recently developed rapid in-
dexing procedure for exocortis virus, using selected seedlings of
citron (Citrus Medica Linn.), has presented a continuing chal-
lenge to the ingenuity and physical capabilities of the entire sec-
tion. Early results, now becoming apparent, indicate the estab-
lishment of an adequate basis for virus determinations, and
presage a probable modification of official indexing procedures.
Increasing horticultural data on registered parent 'clones
constituted the second major objective of the biennium. While
this aim is not new, it is critical; and will receive added empha-
sis as virus indexing problems diminish. The increasing rate of
tristeza infection at the Budwood Foundation Grove required re-
moval of 67 trees during the two years, and hampered the accu-
mulation of horticultural information from this source. Observa-
tions made in older scion groves contributed useful information
and facilitated elimination of individual tree variants. A cooper-
ative project initiated with the Citrus Experiment Station at
Lake Alfred will compare 21 registered grapefruit clones of five
varieties. Other similar projects are also under way.
A major contribution to scientific knowledge of citrus viruses
resulted directly from the section's activities when it became ap-
parent that psorosis virus was transmitted from infected Car-
rizo citrange parents to their seedling progeny. More than 1,000
questionable seed source trees of this variety existed in the
state. Greenhouse indexing results for these Carrizo trees ap-
pear unreliable; therefore, in order to secure accurate psorosis
determinations, a special nursery block was established and
inoculations made. Usable results are expected by April 1967,
and final determinations are scheduled for April 1968.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


The obvious necessity for confirming virus freedom in all
seedling trees used for seed or budwood required institution of
standard virus tests on more than 500 nucellar trees in the Bud-
wood Foundation Grove. These tests alone occupy approximately
two acres of test nursery.
The final major project undertaken in this period is called
"Validation." Essentially the plan provides authenticated plant-
ings of new citrus varieties released by the University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station and the USDA Horticultural Field
Station at Orlando. Virus status for each new selection is being
established by the Division, using standard long term virus test
procedures. Growers are assured of proper handling and authen-
tic variety designation by a voluntary system of controls. Nearly
100 of the state's leading citrus nurserymen are presently co-
operating.
Virus Test Plot Changes
Faced with the necessity for expansion, more effective use
of field personnel was successfully sought in several ways. The
addition of rotary hoe and fertilizer spreader attachments for
the nursery tractor has greatly facilitated nursery management.
A new permanent irrigation system at the Winter Haven test
plot saves valuable time and has improved growing conditions.
The irrigation system and a fertilizer schedule promoting vigor-
ous growth are believed largely responsible for increased exo-
cortis symptom expression on Poncirus trifoliata index plants.
In test plots at the Foundation Grove site, rearrangement
of plants and spacings in two additional nursery blocks totaling
three and one-half acres has brought indexing for psorosis,
xyloporosis, and exocortis together in one location. The new ar-
rangement reduces the required number of nursery markers by
50 per cent, and will ultimately provide more growing area for
the exocortis tests on trifoliate indicators as index plants are
removed at the completion of the shorter virus tests.
Additional nursery blocks were established to allow complete
virus indexing of Foundation nucellar selections and to accom-
modate new candidates entering the program. The new nursery
area also provides space for exocortis indexing using a sensitive
citron clone.
Exocortis Indexing
Exocortis test records for the oldest group of parent candi-
dates, budded principally during 1955 and 1956, reveal that 255







Division of Plant Industry


of the 603 original tests still show no scaling on Poncirus trifoli-
ata. The Child's color test has been applied to these trees and re-
sults indicate 31 per cent exocortis infection among symptomless
plants. The time required for symptom expression on trifoliate
rootstocks has never been accurately determined. In addition,
growth response in many instances appeared to indicate various
degrees of stunting. In the light of this conflicting information,
it was evident that present test results were inconclusive.
The citron indexing procedure was adapted to our conditions
from a technique developed by research workers in California
to obtain a more rapid indication of exocortis infection. (Fig. 1
and 2) The California work reports several instances of apparent
exocortis spread in the greenhouse, and suggests that an insect
vector may be involved. In the last quarter of the biennium,
exocortis-free citron plants in large containers were placed at
random in the 1955-56 test block in efforts to find evidence of
natural field spread of exocortis in Florida.
In November 1964, all known exocortis infected test trees
(225) in trifoliate block two were removed, and one-half of the
remaining symptomless trees moved from each nursery row to
a 121/ by 9 foot grove setting to gain additional growing space.
Trifoliate test block two, which contained 716 exocortis tests
representing candidates accepted from 1957 to 1960, had pro-
duced only 31.4 per cent positive determinations by November
1964.
Early in 1965 these trees were topworked with a citron indi-
cator. After five months, over 35 per cent of the previously
symptomless trees were showing exocortis infection, while less
than eight per cent of the trifoliate understocks developed posi-
tive symptoms. Citron buds have also been placed in test trees
representing each candidate under test in nurseries at the Foun-
dation grove location.
Psorosis Indexing
In 1964, personnel from the Budwood Section established
that psorosis virus had been transmitted through seed in a regis-
tered scion grove planting on Carrizo citrange rootstock.
It was found that two of four seed source trees of Carrizo
at the USDA Hiawassee farm were psorosis infected. It was then
apparent that the seed and budwood distributions made from
these sources could result in psorosis infected plants. If future
industry seed sources were to be protected, indexing would have








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Fig. 1
Healthy growth
of citron
Exocortis trial
Trifoliate block 2
Row 13
Budded 8/7/64
Photo taken 8/13/65




















Fig. 2
Citron reaction
to exocortis
Exocortis trial
Trifoliate block
two, iow 13
Budded 8/7/64
Photo 8/13/65
Yellow stem;
longitudinal
splits; gumming
and necrosis at
nodes; dead leaves
persistent; leaf
SLA. epinasty.







Division of Plant Industry


to be carried out on the 1,069 trees already in the hands of grow-
ers. Seeking quick results, greenhouse indexing was attempted
initially. A new technique described by Sinclair and Elsaid in
Louisiana was used. This application proved unreliable, and
greenhouse conditions were unfavorable for typical psorosis
leaf symptom expression. As a result, these tests are being re-
peated in the Winter Haven test plot, using methods proved
effective by 13 years experience.
Two seedling Carrizo trees in the Foundation seed source
planting, and two budded plants, Carrizo rootstock with psorosis-
free scion buds in a Foundation Grove performance trial, were
found to be carrying psorosis. All were infected through seed
transmission These infected trees are being indexed for xylop-
orosis and exocortis to determine whether those viruses are
also present.
Validation of New Citrus Varieties
A new project called "Validation," separate but closely align-
ed with budwood registration has been undertaken by the
Budwood Section this biennium. Office work has increased con-
siderably due to the additional records required. New rootstock
varieties Milam, Estes lemon, and Ridge Pineapple were
released to the industry in 1960 jointly by the University of
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and the USDA. Also in 1960,
the new hybrid tangerine varieties-Robinson, Lee and Os-
ceola-were distributed by the USDA Horticultural Station.
Grower propagations from these releases were, in many in-
stances, not recorded accurately and identity was sometimes
questionable. In addition, virus indexing, other than tristeza,
had not been initiated on this newly released material.
Where possible, propagations already in the hands of growers
were identified by teams of personnel from the Budwood office
and the releasing agency. During this period of investigation,
it was discovered that an undetermined number of 133 budded
plants of the rootstock varieties had been propagated on Carrizo
citrange rootstocks. Due to possible seed transmission of psoro-
sis virus, all of the budded plants found in the hands of growers
were indexed for psorosis or eliminated from validated plant-
ings. Two of these bud source plants were found psorosis in-
fected through indexing.
Material thus authenticated, and that of subsequent releases
of Page, Nova, Robinson, Osceola and Lee now qualify for "Vali-







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


dated Source Plantings" made under the Division's supervision.
Cooperators in the validation project total 98, and 69 validated
source plantings have been made to date. The research agencies
and the Division have developed procedures whereby varieties
scheduled for future release will begin virus indexing prior to
distribution. These measures assure the industry of a continu-
ing supply of clean and authentic propagative material of new
varieties.
Budwood Foundation Grove
The problem of tristeza infection, aphid-vectored from sur-
rounding groves, has increased substantially in the Division's
Foundation Grove during this biennium. Semi-annual tests con-
ducted during the period by the Pathology Section resulted in
the removal of 67 trees infected with tristeza. To minimize
this infection, systemic insecticides are now being used in a
newly acquired high pressure sprayer. With proper timing and
the use of sprays having long residual effects, aphid populations
can now be kept at a low level. As further protection against loss
from tristeza among the 320 nucellar selections, three and one-
half acres in an isolated location at the Range Cattle Station near
Ona were acquired through the director of the state's agricul-
tural experiment stations. In this grove each clone will be grown
on two rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata and Carrizo citrange.
Planting is scheduled for early 1968.
During the annual evaluation of Foundation selections, when
horticultural response is observed on five rootstocks, a Duncan
grapefruit clone and a Queen Pineapple orange were judged to
be off-type and were removed. A sour orange selection in the
seed source block was found to be atypical and will be replaced.
Nucellar seedling selections of Dancy tangerine, Orlando tange-
lo, pineapple orange, and red grapefruit are fruiting quite well
and appear to be overcoming juvenile characteristics. One Foun-
dation nucellar Valencia clone in a scion planting now five years
old is fruiting very well and appears promising.
Observations of Hughes nucellar Valencia selections show
that several clones are outstanding, and hold promise for fu-
ture propagations. Nurserymen and growers are being en-
couraged to keep accurate production records on registered
clones so that outstanding selections can be recognized.
A study using 21 Foundation grapefruit selections has been
undertaken by A. P. Pieringer at the Citrus Experiment Station.







28 Division of Plant Industry

The experiment is designed to compare horticultural values,
yield records, etc., and should provide valuable data on five
varieties of grapefruit. Similar information is now being accumu-
lated in trials of 34 registered Valencia clones planted in the Ft.
Pierce area. At the Citrus Experiment Station's Indian River
Field Laboratory, Mortimer Cohen currently has recorded in-
formation on tree vigor, fruit quality and fruit production for
two years. These comparisons become increasingly significant
each year.
Horticultural evaluation of registered parent clones, includ-
ing Foundation selections, is a continuing function of the Bud-
wood Section. Further innovations must be found to keep pace
with industry needs in this area.

Training
Instruction in virus diseases and budwood registration pro-
cedures was conducted for Division training classes and citrus
classes from the University of Florida, Florida Southern College,
and Polk Junior College.
Thirty-seven foreign visitors representing 16 countries were
conducted through the test facilities by Section personnel.

Trips and Talks
G. D. Bridges traveled to California and Arizona in April 1965 to con-
fer with budwood certification officials and research workers on virus index-
ing techniques and budwood program procedures.
The following talks were made during this report period:
Bridges, G. D. Oct. 1964-"A Progress Report on Exocortis Indexing"
Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association
-- Dec. 1964-"Rootstocks and Virus Diseases"
Groveland Citrus Seminar
-- April 1965-"Validated Sources for New Citrus Varieties"
Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association
-- June 1965-"Safer Groves Through Validated Trees"
South Florida Citrus Institute
-- July 1965-"New Virus Indexing Techniques Being In-
vestigated by the Division of Plant Industry"
Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association
-- Aug. 1965-"Validation of Scion and Rootstock Varieties"
Citrus Institute, Camp McQuarrie
-- Sept. 1965-"Citrus Virology" International Minerals and
Chemicals Corporation Workshop
-- June 1966-"Program Discussion" TV Channel 8 RFD-
WFLA TV-Tampa
Youtsey, C. 0. Feb. 1966-"Citrus Budwood Registration Program"
Apopka Rotary Club







Table 1. Registered Nursery Tree Production of Selected Varieties-July 1 thru June 30:


1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66


Duncan ......................... ....... 7,438 2,029 6,585 13,895 25,596 43,323

Marsh ................. .............. 55,216 20,635 65,433 245,360 493,714 452,090

Ruby Red ............................ 4,311 1,445 13,810 42,498 116,372 100,264 .

Thompson Pink ......................... ............ 2,235 3,491 1,098 28,974 12,561 43,439 "

Hamlin ............................ ................... 521,246 657,654 355,510 757,789 665,435 319,130

Pineapple ............................ .................. 227,616 410,203 236,038 274,178 388,550 243,681

Valencia ................... .............. 460,971 594,151 517,938 1,020,840 843,536 337,202

Navel .......................................... .......... 18,882 13,366 24,542 43,668 35,113 66,922

Queen .................................................... 26,525 118,592 137,030 167,706 178,312 163,540

Temple .......................... .................... 39,464 41,358 65,806 132,591 109,524 121,183

Minneola Ta. ........................................... 3,143 1,849 6,983 15,737 8,075 15,412

Orlando Ta. .................... ..................... 65,756 72,065 80,264 274,904 179,954 134,832









Entomology Section


H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist

The Entomology Section is charged by Chapter 581.031, Sub-
Section 22-23 of the Florida Statutes with the responsibility for
the continued housing, care, and development of the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) and to publish findings
based on this collection.
The Entomology Section of the Division of Plant Industry
(DPI) has the responsibility for the identification of arthropods
(insects, mites, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, millipedes, sow-
bugs, etc.). This service, originally developed to meet the needs
of the Division of Plant Industry, has been extended to serve
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, the
University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service, the Florida
Forestry Service, private industry, and the general public in
Florida. This arthropod identification service is provided also
for the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in
connection with foreign pest detection, the cooperative economic
insect survey, and all special surveys made independently by
the Division of Plant Industry personnel and cooperatively with
the USDA Plant Pest Control Division. The extensive arthropod
collection and research library developed and maintained by the
Entomology Section for the Division of Plant Industry are made
available to university faculty and students for taxonomic re-
search.
To further increase the close cooperation between the univer-
sity and DPI, the five staff entomologists of the DPI are being
extended courtesy staff appointments through the Department
of Entomology of the University of Florida. H. V. Weems, Jr.
and H. A. Denmark have served for the past several years as
assistant curators in arthropods, and R. E. Woodruff as a re-
search associate with the Florida State Museum.
PUBLICATIONS: With the development of the arthropod
collection comes the responsibility for publishing data such as
the descriptions of new species, life histories, distribution, food
habits, and economic importance of certain species, identifica-
tion keys, annotated faunal lists, and findings of special surveys.
The Division of Plant Industry publishes information pertaining
to arthropods in circulars, leaflets, wall charts, biennial reports,







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


bulletins, and the Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land
Areas series which is published irregularly.
IDENTIFICATIONS: Identifications of the various arthro-
pod groups are made by five full time entomologists. The en-
tomologists and the groups for which they are responsible are
as follows:
G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs, and all immature stages.
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.
F. W. Mead: Adult Lepidoptera; Diptera, suborder Nematocera: ex-
amples-midges, sandflies, mosquitos, craneflies, gall midges, etc.;
Hemiptera; Homoptera: Psyllidae, plus suborder Auchenorhyncha,
examples of which are leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittlebugs, tree-
hoppers, and cicadas.
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult higher Diptera (suborder Brachycera), white-
flies, Hymenoptera, Arachnida (except Acarina), and miscellaneous
smaller arthropod groups.
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthroptera.
Special acknowledgment is due Dr. L. A. Hetrick, Depart-
ment of Entomology, University of Florida, for the routine iden-
tification of termites.
During the biennium 45,509 pinned and labeled specimens,
2,712 slide mounts, 3,395 vials of alcohol specimens, 6,248 paper-
ed or envelope specimens, and 257 unmounted insects were added
to the collection. The Florida State Collection of Arthropods
now totals approximately 312,000 pinned and labeled specimens,
housed in 1,100 insect boxes and 792 cabinet drawers; 20,212
slide mounts; 10,695 vials containing several thousand immature
and adult arthropods, housed in eight utility cabinets; and 6,248
papered or envelope specimens added to the several thousand
specimens already stored in this manner; and an undetermined
quantity of surplus specimens housed in pill boxes.
From July 1, 1964, to June 30, 1965, a total of 10,375 arthro-
pod samples were received, processed, and identified. From
July 1, 1965, to June 30, 1966, a total of 12,731 arthropod sam-
ples were received, processed, and identified for a grand total of
19,702. In addition to the above sample, several hundred identi-
fications were made for out-of-state organizations in return for
specimens retained for the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods.
AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY: Areas of responsibilities
have been designated as follows: Dr. H. V. Weems is the head
curator and is responsible for the over-all development of the







Division of Plant Industry


arthropod collections. Through the instigation of Dr. Weems
and approval of the Commissioner, a collaborator program was
initiated in the last biennium. The 40 collaborators, who serve
without pay, are making significant contributions to our know-
ledge of the arthropod fauna of Florida and neighboring areas.
Dr. Weems and Dr. Dale H. Habeck, University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, have submitted a proposal for
a cooperative library development between the DPI and the Uni-
versity of Florida Entomology Department. This proposal is de-
signed to eliminate costly and unnecessary duplication, fill exist-
ing gaps in present holdings, and promote acquisition of other
literature not available in the Gainesville area. The Division of
Plant Industry Library will be the primary repository for the
taxonomic, identification, and general zoogeographic literature,
while the Hume Library will be the primary repository for all
other subject areas. R. E. Woodruff is now in charge of the
library development program for the DPI and will work with
Dr. Habeck.
F. W. Mead is the survey entomologist for the state. The
Cooperative Economic Insect Report (CEIR) has been a joint
effort between the USDA and the DPI for the past 12 years.
Weekly reports of insect activities are forwarded to Washington
where all state reports are combined and published in the CEIR.
Monthly reports are combined with the other reports of the DPI
technical sections and published as Tri-ology Technical Report.
G. W. Dekle works closely with the University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Extension Service on eco-
nomic insect problems.

EUROPEAN BROWN SNAIL, HELIX ASPERA MULLERR)

H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist

Two infestations of the European brown snail have been
eradicated from Florida. The first infestation was found at a
nursery in Bradenton in December 1963 on a shipment of potted
Italian cypress, Cupressus sempervirens glauca, from California.
Live snails were hand collected and destroyed. The potted
plants were drenched and the soil surface in nursery treated
with Zectran at the rate of three pounds of 25 per cent WP to
100 gallons of water. The plants were fumigated in February
1964 with methyl bromide at two pounds per 1,000 cubic feet for







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


two hours at 80 F. No damage was observed to the plants by
either treatment.
The second infestation was found at a home in Fort Lauder-
dale in August 1964. Alternate treatments of the infested area
began in September 1964 using Zectran 25 per cent WP at three
pounds per 100 gallons of water applied at the rate of one gallon
to each 150 square feet, and Metaldehyde 15 per cent dust at the
rate of two pounds per 1,000 square feet. Twelve treatments
were made at weekly intervals and then at one month intervals
until 24 months had elapsed from the first treatment.
No live snails have been found since September 1964. The
two year treatment was based on the period of two years to
complete a life cycle. The European brown snail is considered
eradicated from Florida.


LEATHERLEAF FERN BORER

G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist

The leatherleaf fern borer, Undulambia polystichalis Capps1
(Lepidoptera, Pyraustidae) was observed by C. R. Roberts,
plant specialist of the Division of Plant Industry, to be num-
erous on leatherleaf fern in the Pierson, Florida, area in Septem-
ber 1965 (Fig. 1).















Fig. 1. Leatherleaf fern borer larva feeding in petiole of frond. (X 12)

1 This new species of Pyraustidae was described by Hahn W. Capps in
the Florida Entomologist 48 (3) :155-157, September 1965.







Division of Plant Industry


Dr. L. C. Kuitert, entomologist of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, who was interested in testing additional in-
secticides for control of this pest, was notified. Arrangements
were made by Roberts to establish test plots on infested prop-
erty at Pierson, Florida, in cooperation with the Department of
Entomology, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.


Fig. 2. Leatherleaf fern borer injury to frond. Left: tunneled tip of
frond usually breaks off. Right: arrow points to exit hole for adult moth;
this is made by larva before pupating. Larva pupates an inch or two below
hole. (Photo by L. C. Kuitert)







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Five chemicals were included in the test, and these were ap-
plied to replicated plots at dosages recommended by the manu-
facturer. The plots were evaluated every two weeks until term-
inated on December 7, 1965. Thiodan 24 per cent emulsifiable
concentrate at one quart to 100 gallons of water continued to
give the best control.
Economic populations of the leatherleaf fern borer were re-
ported in Florida during 1965 from Seville, Pierson, DeLand,
and Orange City.


ROOT MEALYBUGS

G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist

Several root mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) reported in recent
years from Florida have been given careful attention during the
period July 1964 through June 1966.

A Root Mealybug on Foliage Plants
Halwin L. Jones, Division director, approved the necessary
safety precautions for a study of a root mealybug, Rhizoecus
americanus (Hambleton), in the Gainesville area. Harold A.
Denmark, chief entomologist, outlined the following require-
ments to be met by the Department of Entomology, College of
Agriculture at the University of Florida:
1. Screen the greenhouse with fine mesh copper wire or plas-
tic screen.
2. Provide screen cages to be used inside the greenhouse
for potted plants infested with mealybugs.
3. Dispose of all potted soil known to be infested in a large
container located inside the greenhouse. The soil should
be treated to insure the kill of all mealybugs.
A serious study on the life history and habits of the root
mealybug, Rhizoecus americanus (Hambleton), a subterranean
species, was conducted by Mario R. Hernandez Paz, graduate
student, Department of Entomology, University of Florida (Fig.
3). This study was carried out over a period of one year (April
1964 to April 1965). This mealybug has been found in green-
houses at Fern Park and Altamonte Springs feeding on the roots
of foliage plants.








Division of Plant Industry


Fig. 3. Dieffenbachia picta Schott. growing in observation cage, infested
with Rhizoecus americanus (Hambleton). The leaves in foreground show
tip and margins with symptoms apparently provoked by feeding of mealy-
bugs. Inset: nymph feeding on root (X 28.5). (Photos by Mario R. Her-
nandez Paz)







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Hernandez reported the life cycle as follows:
Egg Stage .......................... 8-10 days
Nymphal Stage ................. 22- 24 days
Adult Stage ...............-- 20- 26 days
Life Cycle (egg to egg) .... 42- 50 days
Life Span ............................. 50 60 days
Hernandez also reported Dieffenbachia plants subject to
mealybug attack showed yellow and brown scorching on the mar-
gin of leaves (Fig. 3). Uninfested plants did not show the mar-
ginal leaf scorch.
Rhizoecus americanus (Hambleton) was transferred by Her-
nandez from the roots of Dieffenbachia sp. to the roots of Pep-
eromia sp. and Nephthytis sp. The mealybugs fed and repro-
duced on the new hosts.
Following the completion of this study all plants, soil, and
pots were steam treated before being disposed of as prescribed
by the Division.


Fig. 4. Roots of potted plant infested with root mealybug, Geococcus
coffeae (Green). Inset: arrow points to root mealybug (natural size).







Division of Plant Industry


Fig. 5. Anal lobes of adult female, Geococcus coffeae (Green) (X 270).

A Root Mealybug on Citrus

The root mealybug, Geococcus coffeae (Green) (Fig. 4 & 5),
known to have occurred on the roots and in the soil of green-
house plant beds at Altamonte Springs, Apopka, Lockhart, Or-
lando, Oviedo, and Zellwood, and eradicated, was found on citrus
in a greenhouse at Winter Haven in September 1965.
The infestation at Winter Haven was found by C. 0. Youtsey,
supervisor, Citrus Budwood Section, on the roots of container-
grown citrus in a greenhouse. Youtsey also collected the mealy-
bug on the roots of Chinese box orange, Severinia buxifolia
Ten., adjacent to the greenhouse. The infestation on the Chi-
nese box orange is evidence that this mealybug is capable of
infesting plants outside greenhouses in Florida.
Control tests were established by Dr. L. C. Kuitert, ento-
mologist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station at Gaines-
ville, in cooperation with Division entomologists. Kuitert found
the liquid concentrates, Meta-Systox R 25.4 per cent or Di-Syston
67.5 per cent (a highly toxic insecticide that is not recommended
for residential areas) effective as drenches when used at dos-
ages of one quart to 100 gallons of water.
The recommended drench was applied at two-week intervals
over a period of eight weeks. On citrus the insecticide can be
used only on non-bearing, container-grown, and liner seedlings.
Plants must be watered well between treatments.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


The drenches have been tested on citrus only; therefore,
plant injury may result if the drenches are applied to other
known hosts. Eradication of this mealybug from the Winter
Haven greenhouse will be accomplished through the use of me-
thyl bromide. Methyl bromide at four pounds per 1,000 cubic
feet for two hours at 70 to 75 F is effective against all stages
of this root mealybug. Plant injury can be expected with the
above dosage of methyl bromide.

Pritchard Mealybug on African Violet
Pritchard mealybug, Rhizoecus pritchardi McKenzie, was col-
lected by J. R. McFarlin and C. E. Bingaman on African violet,
Saintpaulia sp., at Largo in April 1966. This mealybug was
found in a private collection on the roots and in the soil of
potted African violet plants. Pritchard mealybug has been re-
ported on Saintpaulia sp. from California by the California De-
partment of Agriculture. The economic importance of this spe-
cies is unknown.


RED WAX SCALE
G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist

Red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (formerly called
pink wax scale), was found in a West Palm Beach County nur-
sery by Chief Plant Inspector Charles E. Shepard and Plant Spe-
cialist Ray A. Long during a routine nursery inspection on March
10, 1966 (Fig. 6).
An intensive survey of the infested nursery was made during
the week March 14 through March 18. Long was assisted with
the plant inspection by Plant Specialists R. W. Swanson, C.K.
Hickman, R. H. Kendrick, E. W. Campbell, W. J. Mullikin, M. L.
Messec, D.C. Clinton, and J.W. Shirah.
A total of 275 plants were found infested by the survey team.
Most of the plants infested were species of Aglaonema. Long
reported infestations of red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens
(Maskell), found on the following plants: Aglaonema maranti-
folium 'TRICOLOR', A. pictum Kunth., A. pseudobraceatum, A.
roebelinii, A. treubii Engl., Anthurium sp., Aralia elegantissima
Hort., Asplenium nidus L. (bird nest fern), Hedra sp., Ixora sp.,
Medinilla sp., Chamaedorea elegans Mart. (Neanthebella palm),







Division of Plant Industry


Philodendron pertusum Kunth. & Bouche, Pteris sp. (fern), and
Paltonium lanceolatum Presl. (ribbon fern).
The leaves were stripped from all infested plants and destroy-
ed by burning. The remaining Aglaonema canes and plant parts
were sprayed with Dimethoate (Cygon) 2E at two pints to 100
gallons of water. All plant beds throughout the nursery were
sprayed with Cygon. In addition to the Cygon treatment, the
owner used a 10 per cent Parathion Aerosol in the greenhouses.
A survey in June was supervised by Long. This survey was
a close inspection of all known hosts of red wax scale found in
this nursery. Several Aglaonema plants were found with live
scale and the nursery again was sprayed with Cygon. Plans
were made to inspect the nursery in July.
The cleanup program for red wax scale in the Boynton Beach
area has required repeated applications of the systemic insecti-
cide Dimethoate (Cygon). Plant Specialist Ray Long observed
injury to the following plants sprayed with Cygon 2E at a dosage
of two pints per 100 gallons of water: banjo fig, Ficis pandurata
Sander, a fern, Polystichum sp., and an orchid, Neomoorea ir-
rorata Rolfe.


Fig. 6. Adult female and nymphs of red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens
Maskell, on bird nest fern, Asplenium nidus L. (X 3).







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


CITRUS SNOW SCALE

G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist

Citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri (Comstock), is apparently
confined to Citrus spp. in Florida (Fig. 7). It is most difficult
for plant specialists to detect light infestations on nursery stock,
particularly when the developing male is absent. As a result,
citrus snow scale has been inadvertently distributed in the state.
Dr. R. F. Brooks, entomologist at the Citrus Experiment Station
in Lake Alfred, is convinced that many snow scale crawlers are
carried each year on the clothing and gear of fruit pickers as
they leave infested groves.
An intensive survey of all citrus producing counties in Florida
was initiated in 1964 when citrus snow scale was reported from
the new citrus plantings in St. Lucie and Indian River Counties.
Live scale has been found in Baker, Brevard, Broward, DeSoto,
Duval, Hillsborough, Indian River, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Martin,
Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Seminole, St.
Lucie and Volusia Counties.


Fig. 7. Citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri (Comstock) (X 10). Infesta-
tion on trunk of grove tree. Straight arrow points to female; curved arrow
points to male.







Division of Plant Industry


A test block of citrus nursery trees has been established at
Lake Alfred in cooperation with the Citrus Experiment Station.
The nursery trees will receive various treatments by Dr. Brooks
to learn more about the control of citrus snow scale in citrus
nurseries in Florida.

AGLAONEMA SCALE
G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist

Aglaonema scale, Temnaspidiotus excisus (Green) (Fig. 8),
has become established in greenhouses at several localities in
Florida. Aglaonema tip cuttings imported from Puerto Rico are
probably responsible for the introduction of this armored scale
into Florida.
The scale has been found on the following hosts in Florida:
Aglaonema spp., Dieffenbachia sp., Hoya carnosa R. Br. (wax
plant), Nepthytis sp., and Peperomia obtusifolia.















Fig. 8. Aglaonema scale, Temnaspidiotus excisus (Green), on Agla-
onema sp. (natural size).

Aglaonema scale will not become a serious pest to foliage
plants when propagators follow a regular spray program. Three
applications at one month intervals of Dimethoate (Cygon) 267E
(emulsifiable) or Meta-Systox R 25.4 per cent LC (liquid con-
centrate) at one quart per 100 gallons of water gave satisfactory
control in tests conducted by Dr. L. C. Kuitert, entomologist,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT
SURVEY PROGRAM
F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

The Division of Plant Industry is the cooperative state agen-
cy under contract with the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Plant Pest Control Division, Survey and Detection Operations,
to prepare weekly survey reports and annual summaries of eco-
nomic insect conditions in Florida. These reports are sent to the
national USDA office in Hyattsville, Maryland; the regional of-
fice at Gulfport, Mississippi; and the state headquarters at Win-
ter Haven, Florida. Highlights in the weekly reports and annual
summaries from Florida and the other states are published by
the USDA in the weekly Cooperative Economic Insect Report
(CEIR). The Division of Plant Industry distributes the Tri-
ology Technical Report each month to summarize the more sig-
nificant insects, plant pathogens, and nematodes found around
the State of Florida. Most of this information results from the
processing and determination of samples sent to the DPI during
the proceeding month. The author, as survey entomologist, is
responsible for assembling the entomology portion of Tri-ology
each month and editing the entire publication once every three
months. Information is received from many sources, but the
most consistent general source is from the DPI office in Gaines-
ville, which acts as the state clearing house as well as the focal
point for technical services to DPI men around the state. DPI
entomologists determine several thousand insects each year that
are submitted to them for identification by government and pri-
vate persons throughout Florida. Fast and accurate determina-
tions are usually possible because DPI houses the valuable
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, a strong entomological
library, and good optical equipment. Much important informa-
tion is obtained from state experiment station and extension per-
sonnel and from USDA workers. The regularly, appearing re-
ports on citrus insects and mites by Dr. W. A. Simanton of the
University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station are especially
valuable. All of these reports help, in varying degrees, to ful-
fill the objectives of the survey and detection program. These
objectives are:
(1) To assist agricultural workers by supplying current in-







Division of Plant Industry


formation on insect activity so that crops can be more
adequately protected from insect attacks.
(2) To aid and assure more prompt detection of newly in-
troduced insect pests.
(3) To determine losses caused by insects.
(4) To maintain records on the occurrence of economic in-
sects.
(5) To aid manufacturers and suppliers of insecticides and
control equipment to determine areas of urgent need for
supplies and equipment.
(6) To develop a workable insect pest forecasting service.
(This effort must fall primarily on experiment station
workers who can concentrate their efforts on one or a few
crops such as citrus or tobacco, for example.)


REVISION OF OLIARUS (HOMOPTERA: CIXIIDAE)
IN NORTH AMERICA, NORTH OF MEXICO

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

Plant hoppers of the genus Oliarus (Fig. 9) are often called
waxhoppers because of the waxy secretions of the nymphs and
adults. The last revision of North American forms was by E.
D. Ball in 1934. Since that time several new species have been
described, usually without accompanying illustrations. A new re-
vision of the genus, with good illustrations, is greatly needed.
The writer has assembled several thousand specimens on loan
from 26 museums and has prepared several hundred line draw-
ings to illustrate the species involved. Appreciation is extended
to Mrs. Phyllis Pake Habeck who has been very helpful in the
final preparation of these drawings. Considerable work remains
before the revision can be concluded.
Not much is known about the habits of waxhoppers, particu-
larly the immature stages. Nymphs, and to a certain extent
the adults, are subterranean where some species are known to
feed on roots. There are at least ten species of Oliarus in Flor-
ida. Some of these species are a part of the wide ranging fauna
of the eastern United States but others are distinctly associated
with neotropical elements. Two species are essentially endemic







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


to Florida. Oliarids are good indicators of ecological situations
and are helpful in zoogeographic studies.















Fig. 9. A waxhopper, Oliarus
littoralis Ball, which is moderately
common along the Florida coastline
where grassy tidal flats exist.
Drawing by Dr. J. S. Caldwell.
Loaned through the courtesy of Dr.
James P. Kramer, Insect Identifi-
cation and Parasite Introduction
Research Branch, USDA, c/o U. S.
National Museum, Washington, D.
C. 20560.








YAUPON PSYLLID, METAPHALARA
ILICIS (ASHMEAD)

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

Life history investigations were continued on this jumping
plantlouse that causes leaf galls on yaupon, Ilex vomitoria Ait.
(Fig. 10). Yaupon is a small, native tree commonly sold by
nurseries for landscaping purposes in the northern half of Flor-
ida and in other southeastern states from North Carolina to
Texas. The writer has yet to find psyllid galls on the special
dwarf varieties of Ilex vomitoria. Appreciation is extended to







Division of Plant Industry


Prof. L. A. Hetrick, Department of Entomology, University of
Florida, who first called the writer's attention to this problem,
and to Miss Louise M. Russell, Insect Identification and Parasite
Introduction Research Branch, USDA, Washington, D.C., who
made the determination in 1962 from material sent to her by the
writer.


Fig. 10. Yaupon, Ilex vomitoria, showing berries, normal leaves, and
galls formed from stunted, cupped leaves that result from the feeding of
the yaupon psyllid, Metaphalara ilicis (Ashmead).

LEAFHOPPER DAMAGE TO LEATHERLEAF FERN

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

Leatherleaf fern, Polystichum adiantiforme, often develops
pale spots on the foliage in commercial ferneries where the in-
secticide program is inadequate. The affected ferns are either
downgraded or become a complete loss to the grower. The white
spots develop every place a tiny, black leafhopper stops to feed.
The feeding of one leafhopper can result in the appearance of
several white, necrotic spots one day later. This leafhopper pest
belongs to the genus Eupteryx; members of the genus also feed
on wild ferns. Figure 11 illustrates typical clusters of necrotic
spots on portions of a fern frond. The writer is cooperating with







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Dr. D. H. Habeck, Department of Entomology, University of
Florida, on investigations of this problem.


Fig. 11. Necrotic white spots on leatherleaf fern caused by feeding
activities of the leafhopper, Eupteryx sp.

NOTES ON THE YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUITO, AEDES
AEGYPTI (L.) IN THE DRY TORTUGAS, FLORIDA

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

The writer is one of the Division of Plant Industry entomolo-
gists engaged in the long range project on terrestrial arthropods
in the Dry Tortugas. Considerable work remains to be done
before this survey is ready for publication. In the meantime
the federal government has started a cooperative project with
public health agencies in the southern states, including Florida,
to eradicate the yellow-fever mosquito from the United States.
In view of the eradication campaign currently under way in Flor-
ida, the writer believes he should present information on an
Aedes aegypti breeding place he discovered in the Dry Tortugas
during January 1962. This habitat consisted of some outdoor,
shallow, concrete tanks at the old Carnegie Marine Laboratory
ruins on the north end of Loggerhead Key (Fig. 12). The tanks
were fairly well concealed under a sea-grape tree, Coccoloba uvi-







Division of Plant Industry


fera, with fallen sea-grape leaves forming the principal debris in
the tanks. Considerable organic ooze was at the bottom of the
water. This habitat is close enough to the Gulf of Mexico to re-
ceive salt spray during times of heavy winds and wave action.
U. S. Coast Guard personnel were located approximately one-
quarter mile away but they had no complaints about mosquito
biting at the time of the visit in January 1962. The black salt-
marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.), sometimes is
blown in from land masses and other islands, and becomes a
temporary nuisance on the Dry Tortugas Islands, but little breed-
ing is done on the islands themselves. In 1961 the writer and a
caretaker examined 30 cisterns in the ruins of Ft. Jefferson on
Garden Key in the Tortugas, and found them dry. The care-
taker applies oil to any of the old cisterns that might collect
water. It is a matter of record that three yellow-fever epidemics
occurred at Ft. Jefferson: 1862, 1867, and 1873. In 1867, 38
lives were lost despite the heroic efforts of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd
and others. No yellow-fever epidemics have occurred in the Uni-
ted States for over half a century.


Fig. 12. Breeding place of the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti,
in abandoned cement tanks of the Carnegie Marine Laboratory ruins, north
end of Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas Islands, January 1962.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


RED BAY PSYLLID, TRIOZA MAGNOLIAE (ASHMEAD)

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

Some additional information was obtained on this psyllid that
is a gallmaker on the leaves of red bay, Persea borbonia. A
typical gall and nymphs are shown in Figures 13 and 14, respec-
tively. In DPI Entomology Circular No. 14, July 1963, the writ-
er was not sure if this psyllid had more than one brood per year.
He knows now that this species is multi-brooded.













Fig. 13. Gall on leaf of Persea bor- Fig. 14. Nymphs of red
bonia caused by feeding of red bay bay psyllid are exposed in cut
psyllid, Trizoa magnoliae. Such a gall open gall. Bits of debris, wax
usually contains several nymphs, particles, and "honey dew"
are characteristic of the in-
terior.

"SHARPSHOOTER" LEAFHOPPERS IN FLORIDA

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

The writer is continuing to accumulate a certain amount of
distributional and host data on leafhoppers in Florida, especially
the large "sharpshooter" species found in the tribe Proconiini.
Figure 15 is a picture by the writer of a live adult Homalodisca
coagulata (Say) on an apple leaf at night. This species, in the
tribe Proconiini, is a proven vector of the viruses that cause
phony peach disease and Pierce's disease of grapes. Another
species of Homalodisca, called insolita (Walker), seems to have
invaded northern Florida within the last 15 years or so. It is
steadily increasing its range into the southern half of the penin-
sula. Several other species of sharpshooters are recorded in
Florida and have the known potential to transmit plant viruses.







Division of Plant Industry


~p~ij A


Fig. 15. A "sharpshooter" leafhopper, Homalodisca coagulata (Say),
one of the species capable of transmitting such virus diseases as phony
peach disease and Pierce's disease of grapes.


THE BLACKBERRY PSYLLID
F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

The blackberry psyllid, sometimes called the bramble flea
louse, belongs to the Homoptera: Psyllidae, and has the scien-
tific name of Trioza tripunctata (Fitch). Nearly all the avail-
able literature on this psyllid has come from the northern states,
particularly the definitive work by Dr. Alvah Peterson in New
Jersey (N.J. Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 378, 1923,
32 pages). A few cases of blackberry damage by this psyllid
in northern Florida have been determined by the writer in recent
years. With increased plantings of improved blackberry vari-
eties in Florida, growers should be aware of the symptoms pro-
duced by the attacks of this psyllid. Figures 16-17 show the


Fig. 16. Partially malformed blackberry leaves resulting from feeding
by the blackberry psyllid.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


severe stunting and curling of the leaves. Early in the season,
injured leaves are much darker green than normal tissue. New
shoots, instead of developing the usual several feet, may be curl-
ed like a watch spring, stunted in growth, and not over one or
two feet long. Adults may also attack new fruit spurs bearing
fruit buds. The psyllids stunt the growth of the fruit buds, and
the injured fruit shoots never bear normal, well developed ber-
ries according to Dr. Peterson. Adults overwinter on an alter-
nate host of some type of conifer. Blackberries close to coni-
fers are the most likely to be infested. Increasing the distance
of the patch from the conifers decreases the chance of infesta-
tion. Dr. Peterson found no psyllid damage to blackberries when
the patches were a mile or more from conifers. Malathion is
one of the insecticides recommended for use on blackberries. It
can be applied as needed up to one day from harvest at the
dosage recommended for aphids. To be effective against psyl-
lids, the material must be applied in spring at the first sign of
feeding by adults, before the malformation of the plant tissue
becomes pronounced. Later in the season, feeding by nymphs
will cause additional distortion and stunting. The nymphs hide
and feed under the curled tissue. The protection thus afforded
makes it difficult for natural enemies or insecticide particles to
reach the nymphs.


Fig. 17. Severe malformation to blackberry tissue resulting from the
feeding of the blackberry psyllid, Trioza tripunctata (Fitch).







Division of Plant Industry


FLATID PLANTHOPPERS IN FLORIDA

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

More than the usual number of inquiries were received dur-
ing the spring of 1966 about the cause of a white, flocculent
material on the stems of plants such as gardenia, azalea, Chinese

















Fig. 18. Nymph of Ormenaria
rufifascia (Wlk.), a flatid plant-
hopper common on the fan-leaved
palms of peninsula Florida.











holly, camellia, and magnolia. This material is the waxy secre-
tion of flatid planthopper nymphs (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea:
Flatidae), not mealybugs as casual observers sometimes mis-
takenly believe. These nymphs are rather flat and pale green.
They have silky filaments of wax loosely attached to them. Fig-
ure 18 shows these filaments on a palm-infesting flatid named







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Ormenaria rufifascia (Walker). The species on the woody orna-
mentals commonly are Metacalfa pruinosa (Say); Ormenoides


Fig. 19. Young leaf of sea-grape, Coccoloba uvifera, with one adult of
Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) on the mid-rib, and the other paler, adults being
Ormenoides venusta (Melichar). Photograph taken in the field by the
writer on Jupiter Island, Martin County, June 20, 1965.

venusta (Melichar), and Anormenis septentrionalis (Spinola).
Not much is known about the economic importance of these
planthoppers, but it seems probable that the damage caused by
them is usually negligible. The cottony material enclosing the
nymphs on the stems appears worse than it really is. Unre-
moved, this unsightly wax could impair the sale of affected
plants located in nurseries and retail outlets. The writer is ac-
cumulating information about flatids in Florida for a proposed
publication.







Division of Plant Industry


A NEST-MAKING PSYLLID, EUPHALERUS NIDIFEX
SCHWARZ (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE)
F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

This is one of the most interesting homopterous insects in
Florida. Each nymph spins its own protective nest or granular
enclosure on young shoots and leaves of Piscidia communis
(Blake) Harms, a tropical plant called the Florida fishpoison-
tree or Jamaica dogwood. A nymph feeds by inserting its beak
through the broad base of the nest into the adjacent plant tis-
sue, thereby obtaining nourishment and completing its develop-
ment within the nest. E. nidifex was described in 1904 by E. A.
Schwarz from material collected at Key West. Figure 20 shows
a cluster of nests in which the mature nymphs have forced their
way out, leaving holes in the tips of old nests or cases.


















Fig. 20. A nest-making psyllid, Euphalerus widifex Schwarz, showing
evacuated nests and a cast nymphal skin. Host plant: Jamaica dogwood.

A letter from Dr. F. C. Craighead, Box 825, Homestead,
Florida, on August 30, 1965, gave information on the economic
importance of this psyllid. He noted there was serious killing of
new growth on Jamaica dogwood, particularly plants growing in
the Flamingo area of Everglades National Park. He also men-
tioned this psyllid was prevalent in the Florida Keys, especially
Key Largo.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


MAJOR COLLECTIONS INCORPORATED IN THE

FLORIDA STATE COLLECTION OF ARTHROPODS

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

*Mrs. Elisabeth C. & Mr. William M. Beck (biologists, Bureau of Entomol-
ogy, Florida State Board of Health, P. 0. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida)
Pinned male paratype and slide of genitalia and casts of Chironomus
(Cryptochironomns) hirtalatus Beck and Beck, slide mounted male para-
type of Trichocladius robacki Beck and Beck (both new species described
in the September 1965 issue of the Florida Entomologist), and alcohol
preserved adults, cast pupal skins, and cast larval skins of Lauterborni-
ella varipennis (1 female), Chironomus fulvipilus (1 male), Chicotopus
bicinctus (1 male, 1 female), Polypedilum trigonus (1 male, 1 female),
and Ablabesmyia peleensis (1 male, 1 female) ; 60 slides of mounted and
determined Culicoides, representing 9 species.
*Dr. Lewis Berner (chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
A private collection of Ephemeroptera, complete with data labels, con-
sisting of 452 pinned specimens, 569 envelopes and 34 triangles with
specimens, several boxes of unmounted specimens, 2,362 vials and 25 jars
of specimens, and 31 types of specimens-2 holotypes and 29 paratype's.
This research collection, primarily of North American Ephemeroptera,
is part of a larger collection developed by Dr. Berner over much of a life-
time. It represents approximately one-fifth of his private collection.
Additional portions of this collection will be donated over a period of
several years.
*Dr. Franklin S. Blanton (Department of Entomology, University of Flor-
ida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
A collection of Asilidae which he made while in Panama, consisting of
104 specimens which represent 22 species of robber flies; 140 quarts of
insects preserved in alcohol collected with blacklight traps in Mexico and
Central America during 1964. Dr. Blanton also turned over to the Flor-
ida collection a student insect collection made by Mrs. Sathena (nee
Clark) Cabler while she was at the University of Florida. This collec-
tion, totaling 233 Florida specimens, consisted of 2 Lepidoptera, 3 Der-
maptera, 5 Odonata, 39 Hymenoptera, 17 Orthoptera, 5 Neuroptera, 7
Homoptera, 33 Hemiptera, 31 Diptera, and 91 Coleoptera.
*Dr. Thomas W. Donnelly (Department of Geology, Rice University, Hous-
ton, Texas 77001)
A private collection of Odonata, complete with data labels, consisting of
7 holotypes, 29 paratypes, and 150 determined specimens in envelopes.
*Mr. Byrd K. Dozier (32 Corydon Drive, Miami Springs, Florida 33166)
24 unmounted insects collected in Virginia during the summer of 1964
(consisting of 18 Syrphidae, 3 other Diptera, 2 Hymenoptera, and 1
Coleoptera) ; 190 pinned and labelled specimens, mostly from Miami and
the Florida Keys, but including 56 specimens from Bimini.

Dr. Richard H. Foote (Smithsonian Institution, U. S. National Museum,
Washington, D. C. 20560)
13 specimens of Anastrepha, including 7 paratypes, representing 4 species
of Anastrepha new to our collection. The donation also included 1 female








Division of Plant Industry


of Anastrepha lathana Stone, 3 females (including 2 paratypes) and 1
male paratype of A. zuelaniae Stone, 2 male paratypes and 2 female
paratypes of A. limae Stone, and 3 females and 1 male of A. chiclayae
Greene. (an exchange)
*Mr. Stanley V. Fuller (Box 81, Cassadaga, Florida 32706)
A private collection consisting of 1,200 pinned, labelled, and identified
Lepidoptera and a four-volume set of books entitled "Universal Botanist
and Nurseryman" by Richard Weston. The collection was made by Mr.
Fuller at his time and expense while he was not working for the Division
of Plant Industry.
*Mr. Harry 0. Hilton (P. 0. Box 144, Shalimar, Florida 32579)
1,779 pinned, labelled arthropods collected by Mr. Hilton in Florida and
Mexico including 1,629 neatly spread Lepidoptera. Mr. Hilton also cleaned
and respread several boxes of Mexican Lepidoptera collected and donated
by Ing. Daniel Rabago, Sumidero, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. Further,
he prepared for the Florida State Collection of Arthropods several hun-
dred Lepidoptera collected in Mexico by Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., and Mr.
R. E. Woodruff.
Dr. Marianna M. Loginova (Zoological Institute, Academy of Science, Len-
ingrad, USSR)
80 Psyllidae, representing 30 species and 14 genera, including 17 para-
types representing 7 species.
*Mr. John W. McReynolds (P. 0. Box 182, Nevada, Missouri 64772)
538 pinned, labelled insects (331 Coleoptera, 96 Diptera, 6 Lepidoptera,
8 Neuroptera, 58 Hymenoptera, 25 Hemiptera, 5 Homoptera, 5 Orthop-
tera, 2 Trichoptera, and 1 Plecoptera).
Dr. Norman Marston (Department of Entomology, Kansas State Univer-
sity, Manhattan, Kansas 66504)
241 Bombyliidae representing 101 species most of them new to our collec-
tion in exchange for a comparable amount of Syrphidae from Dr. Weems'
personal collection; 6 slide-mounted Scatopsidae (Diptera)-4 slides of
Swammerdamella pusilla (Walker) and 2 slides of S. obtusa Cook. Dr.
Marston joined the staff of the Department of Entomology of the Uni-
versity of Wyoming on June 1, 1966.
Mr. James F. Matta (Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601) (graduate student)
290 pinned, labelled, determined Tabanidae representing 45 species and
sub-species, 5 of which are new to the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods.
Mr. Frank W. Mead (Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
2,116 pinned and labelled insects collected by Mr. Mead primarily in
Florida, Ohio, and North Carolina.
Mr. Frank J. Moore (Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
41 specimens representing 17 species of Cleridae, Buprestidae, Eucnem-
idae and Elateridae, through Ohio State University Insect Museum; 41
pinned, labelled and identified Coleoptera, representing 17 species (in-
cluding 7 specimens of the cereal leaf bettle, Oulema melanopa L.), and
4 pinned, labelled adults of an unidentified species of Hippoboscidae
from scarlet tanger from the Ohio State University Museum; 38 speci-








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


mens of Elateridae and Buprestidae, representing 3 species; 41 pinned
Scarabaeidae from Ohio, several hundred unmounted adults of beetles,
Monarthrum spp. and a cecropia moth larva.

*Dr. Martin H. Muma (associate entomologist, University of Florida Citrus
Experiment Station, P. 0. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850)
82 vials and 11 jars of scorpions and scorpion relatives, including sev-
eral species of scorpions new to our collection; 375 miscellaneous ento-
mological reprints and bulletins.

Dr. Chad M. Murvosh (Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601) (graduate student)
A private collection of insects and other arthropods, totaling approxi-
mately 5,000 foreign arthropods in alcohol.
*Dr. Dennis R. Paulson (Department of Zoology, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 27515)
345 pinned, mostly labelled insects from the U. S., Costa Rica, Mexico,
and Morocco; 45 papered Coleoptera from Morocco; 39 vials and bottles
containing approximately 300 insects preserved in alcohol.
Ing. Daniel Rabago (superintendent of Planta de la Cerveceria Mocte-
zuma, Barranca de Metlac, Sumidero, Estado de Veracruz, Mexico (near
Fortin de las Flores))
223 pinned insects collected by Dr. Rabago at or near his home at the
Planta de la Cerveceria Moctezuma, consisting of 207 spread Lepidoptera,
5 Coleoptera, 5 Orthoptera, 3 Hemiptera, 1 Homoptera, 1 Neuroptera,
and 1 Pedipalpida.
Dr. George W. Rawson (3306 Turner Lane, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20015
and 603 Faulkner Street, New Smyrna Beach, Florida 32069)
208 pinned spread Mexican Lepidoptera (butterflies and skippers) col-
lected in 1965; 104 pinned spread Lepidoptera collected in Torreya State
Park, Florida.
*Mr. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr. (11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida
33012)
Several dozen vials containing hundreds of miscellaneous insects collect-
ed in Florida and Kansas, many of them reared (notably, Florida Agromy-
zidae).
United States National Museum (Washington, D. C. 20560)
Six pinned, labelled, identified adult flies from North America, repre-
senting five families of flies (H.elcomyza mirabilis Melander Helcomy-
zidae; Curtonot um helvum Loew, Curtonotidae; Acartophthalmus nigrin-
us Zetterstedt, Acartophthalmidae; Aulacigaster leucopeza Meigen, Aula-
cigasteridae; two adults of Cryptochaetum iceryae (Williston), Crypto-
chaetidae, and one slide mount of a larva and a pupa of Deuterophlebia
shasta, Deuterophlebidae, each species representing a family new to the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods. The Florida collection now con-
tains representatives of 96 families of North American Diptera and
lacks representatives of nine families. Four of the six families repre-
sented in this donation (Curtonotidae, Acartophthalmidae, Aulacigasteri-
dae, and Cryptochaetidae) from the USNM are known from a single
North American species each. Another (Deuterophlebidae) is known
from North America by only three species. Four of the families which
are lacking in the Florida collection (Nymphomyiidae, Pachyneuridae,
Hyperoscelidae, Pelecorhynchidae) are known from North America by a








Division of Plant Industry


single species each, and another (Hilarimorphidae) is known from the
U. S. by only three species, all quite rare.
Seventeen pinned, labelled, identified 'adult Hymenoptera from North
America, representing nine families new to the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods. These are as follows: 1 female, 1 male of Xyela minor
(Nort.), Xyelidae; 1 female, 1 male of Xiphydria maculata Say, Xiphy-
driidae; 1 female, 1 male of Orussus occidentalis (Cresson), Orussidae;
1 female, 1 male of Ooctonus aphrophorae Milliron, Mymaridae; 1 female,
1 male of Thysanus niger (Ashmead), Thysanidae; 1 female of Helorus
paradoxus (Prov.), Heloridae; 1 female, 1 male of Orthogonalos pul-
chella (Cresson), Trigonalidae; 1 female of Cleptes provancheri Aar., 1
male paratype of Mesitiopterus floridensis Krombein, and 1 male para-
type of Adelphe anisomorphae Krombein, Cleptidae; 1 female of Sierol-
omorpha canadensis (Provancher), Sierolomorphidae. Heloridae is
known from North America by a single species; several other families
represented in this donation are quite rare. The Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods now contains representatives of 66 families of Hymen-
optera known from North America, lacking representatives of seven
families. Of the seven families lacking, three (Syntexidae, Vanhornii-
dae, and Sclerogibbidae) are known from a single species in North
America, one (Roproniidae) is known from only three species in North
America).

Dr. Gilbert P. Waldbauer (Department of Entomology, University of Illin-
ois, Urbana, Illinois 61803)
480 pinned, labelled, and identified Syrphidae (part of an exchange of
syrphids).

Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. and Family (Division of Plant Industry, Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida
32601)
13,096 pinned, labelled insects consisting of 1,117 specimens collected in
Florida (not on state time), 2,427 specimens collected in North Carolina,
and 9,552 specimens collected in Mexico during 1963 and 1965; 49 vials
of arthropods collected in Mexico.

*Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. (associate professor, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
33 unmounted insects collected in California in 1958 and Jamaica in
1960 (consisting of 1 Lepidoptera, 11 Coleoptera, 1 Homoptera, 19 He-
miptera, and 1 Diptera) ; a private collection of Odonata, complete with
data labels, consisting of 5 holotypes, 33 paratypes, and 5,000 determined
specimens in envelopes.

Dr. Richard E. White (United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.
20560)
741 pinned, labelled insects collected by Dr. White in Kentucky, consist-
ing of 615 Coleoptera, 55 Diptera, 42 Hymenoptera, 11 Hemiptera, 7
Homoptera, 2 Mecoptera, 6 Trichoptera, 2 Plecoptera, and 1 Neuroptera.

Mr. Robert E. Woodruff (Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
140 quarts (an estimated 1,000 specimens per quart) which were taken
in Mexico and Central America during the spring and summer of 1964
in blacklight traps; 2,719 specimens complete with data labels, collected
while Mr. Woodruff was on annual leave and donated to the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


*Mr. Charles F. Zeiger (U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville
District, 575 Riverside Avenue, Jacksonville, Florida 32205)
2,353 pinned, labelled insects collected in Florida and 901 specimens col-
lected in Mexico, including 587 neatly spread Lepidoptera.


Other Contributions to the Collection

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

Dr. Donald J. Borror (Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio
State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
1 pinned, labelled specimen of Diastatidae, species undetermined. This
fly is our first representative of the rarely collected family, Diastatidae.
*Mr. Don Byrne (4527 Fountainbleu Road, Tampa, Florida 33614)
350 envelopes of insects collected by Mr. Byrne in Mexico.
Dr. Robert C. Bullock (Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Flor-
ida 33450)
15 tachinid flies with reared host data.
Mr. Leon Cambre (U. S. Forest Service, Zone 2, F. I. & D. C. Unit, P. 0.
Box 1077, Macon, Georgia 31208)
55 Coleoptera (27 Cerambycidae of 15 species mostly new to collection),
6 Cleridae, 7 Buprestidae, 15 Scarabaeidae), mostly collected in Georgia
and Mississippi.
Mrs. Joan Chapin (curator of the insect collection, Department of Ento-
mology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803)
One paratype female of a horsefly new to our collection-Tabanus wil-
soni Pechuman.
Mr. Neil Chernoff (Department of Zoology, University of Miami, Miami,
Florida 33146)
59 pinned Scarabaeidae, mostly from Mexico and Central America.
Mr. Charles T. Collins (Department of Zoology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
115 specimens, mostly Scarabaeidae, from Trinidae, B. W. I., preserved
in alcohol; 60 vials of miscellaneous arthropods from Trinidad, Mexico,
and Michigan.
Dr. Helen V. Crouse (Institute of Molecular Biophysics, The Florida State
University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306)
Three slide-mounts of Sciaridae and six vials containing approximately
360 Sciaridae, representing four species.
Dr. Ralph W. Dawson (Department of Zoology, Washington State Univer-
sity, Pullman, Washington 99163)
45 pinned, labelled Scarabaeidae with genitalia extracted, collected by
Dr. Dawson in Minnesota.
Dr. J. C. Dickinson (director, Florida State Museum, Seagle Building,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
Ten adult Cicadidae in alcohol collected by Dr. Dickinson in October 1965
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








60 Division of Plant Industry

Mr. James R. Gifford (Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, Florida
33438)
Approximately 150 unmounted specimens of the West Indian Sugarcane
Planthopper, Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westwood) (Homoptera: Del-
phacidae). Some of these specimens are parasitized with Hymenoptera
and Strepsiptera.
Dr. Carter R. Gilbert (assistant curator, Florida State Museum, Flint
Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
8 Orthoptera, 1 Coleoptera, 2 Cicadidae, 3 Isoptera, from Tortuguero,
Costa Rica.
Mr. Eugene V. Gourley (Department of Zoology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
29 vials of alcohol-preserved specimens, mostly Coleoptera, from gopher
tortoise burrows.
Commodore Vernon F. "Jimmy" Grant (307 Interbay Avenue, Warrington,
Florida 32507)
46 pinned, labelled and mostly identified Lepidoptera, including our first
specimen of the gaurae sphinx moth, Proserpiius gaurae (Abbot &
Smith).
*Dr. Dale Habeck (assistant entomologist, Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
Approximately 100 Hawaiian waxhoppers (Homoptera: Cixiidae); two
rarely collected Florida insects, a notonectid and a tachinid (reared).
Dr. Fred C. Harmston (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, P. 0. Box 1097, Greeley, Colorado 80632)
31 pinned, labelled Diptera (29 Syrphidae, 1 Conopidae, 1 Otitidae) and
59 pinned, labelled Syrphidae collected in the northwestern United States.
Prof. Leon W. Hepner (Mississippi State University, Department of Zoolo-
gy and Entomology, State College, Mississippi 39762)
8 corn leafhoppers, Dalbulus maidis (Del. & Wol.) (Homoptera: Cica-
dellidae).
Dr. Jon L. Herring (Pago Pago, American Samoa)
2 kissing bugs, Triatoma spp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)
*Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick (professor, Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601)
One tangle-veined fly, Neorhynchocephalus volaticus (Williston), collect-
ed in Gainesville by an entomology student.
*Mrs. Shirley Hills (Route 4, Box 114, Pensacola, Florida 32504)
85 neatly spread, pinned, and labelled identified Lepidoptera, 2 Coleop-
tera, and 2 Diptera.

Dr. R. Holdsworth (Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio State
University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
6 larvae and 1 pupa of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (L.).
Dr. Maurice T. James (Department of Zoology, Washington State Univer-
sity, Pullman, Washington 99163)
7 stratiomyid flies, representing 3 species new to our collection.

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Mr. Jay B. Karren (Department of Entomology, University of Kansas,
Lawrence, Kansas 66045)
21 specimens of Chrysomelidae, representing 3 species new to the Florida
collection.
Prof. Josef N. Knull (curator of the museum, Department of Zoology &
Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)
24 specimens of 17 species of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Elateridae
-most of them new to our collection.
Dr. J. P. Kramer (Division of Insects, U. S. National Museum, Washing-
ton, D. C. 20560)
28 waxhoppers (Homoptera: Cixiidae) and 6 delphacids (Delphacidae),
comprising 3 species and 3 paratypes.
Dr. James E. Lloyd (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 14851)
11 pinned, labelled Syrphidae; 25 pinned, labelled insects, including 22
syrphid flies; 76 mounted, labelled, and identified Lampyridae (Coleop-
tera), representing 19 species of Photinus. (Dr. Lloyd will join the teach-
ing staff of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of
Florida on September 1, 1966.)
Mr. Alfred S. Mills (Plant Inspection House, P. 0. Box 606, Miami, Flor-
ida 33101)
Several dozen vials of foreign insects, mostly ants, collected at the Miami
Plant Inspection Station.
Mr. Cyrus Nicholson (entomologist, Division of Animal Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Sebring, Florida 33870)
13 vials of Florida ticks representing 9 species identified to species and
7 vials of Diptera larvae, representing 8 Florida species identified to
genus or species.
Mr. Charles W. and Mrs. Lois O'Brien (Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, California 94720)
162 Scarabaeidae in alcohol from Arizona and California; 30 pinned,
labelled Syrphidae.
Dr. J. M. Ossorio (2008 North Lakeview Drive, Cottage 2, Sebring, Flor-
ida 33870)
94 insects, consisting of 17 pinned Coleoptera and the following un-
pinned: 8 Coleoptera, 58 Diptera, 3 Hymenoptera, 3 Homoptera, 3 Hemip-
tera, 1 Plecoptera, 1 Neuroptera, all collected in Maryland by Ossorio; 23
vials of miscellaneous beetles, 2 earwigs, and several Diptera from Texas.
*Mr. John W. Patton (Plant Quarantine Division, Agr. Res. Service, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, P. 0. Box 266, Tampa, Florida 33601)
Several dozen vials containing hundreds of insects collected in Florida
and Tennessee.
Mr. Stewart B. Peck (Department of Biology, Northwestern University,
Evanston, Illinois 60201)
260 Scarabaeidae in alcohol from Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Tennessee,
North Carolina, and Alabama.
*Mr. William J. Platt, III (Cornell Research, Division Biological Sciences,
G. E. Building #3, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850)
24 vials of centipedes.

*Collaborators of the Florida State collection of Arthropods.








Division of Plant Industry


Dr. John E. Porter (U. S. Public Health Service, Quarantine Station,
Miami Beach, Florida 33139)
1 vial micro-Trichoptera and 113 pinned, labelled insects, mostly collected
by Dr. Porter on Fisher Island, Miami, Florida.

Prof. H. J. Reinhard (Department of Entomology, Texas A & M College,
College Station, Texas 77843)
56 Tachinidae, including 2 paratypes; 2 pinned, labelled adults of Metopia
argyrocephala (Meigen) Diptera: Sarcophagidae.

Miss Louise M. Russell (Section of Insect Identification, U. S. National
Museum, Washington, D. C. 20250)
5 jumping plant lice (Homoptera: Psyllidae) comprising 3 species not
known for the United States, but pests in other countries (in exchange).
Consisted of a citrus psylla, Spanioza erythreae (Del Guercio), another
citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and an avocado psylla, Trioza
anceps Tuthill.

Mr. Joe Schuh (4039 Shasta Way, Klamath Falls, Oregon 97601)
16 Scarabaeidae (Pleocoma spp.) representing 2 rare species from Ore-
gon; 5 bottles of beetles from light traps in Oregon, representing several
hundred specimens.

*Mr. Karl J. Stone (Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
17 Coleoptera (among beetles were an undescribed cerambycid from the
Keys, a northern-most record of a rare cerambycid, an undescribed helo-
did, and other rare specimens); 6 Orthoptera, 16 Hemiptera, 8 Diptera,
and 6 Homoptera.

*Mr. Dade W. Thornton (3226 N.W. 11th Court, Miami, Florida 33137)
An assortment of approximately 50 unmounted Coleoptera, Hemiptera,
Homoptera, and Orthoptera collected at light at Pifias Bay, Panama, in
April 1965.

Mr. Mac A. Tidwell (Department of Entomology, Louisiana State Univer-
sity, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803)
139 pinned, labelled Syrphidae collected by Mr. Tidwell.

Dr. J. R. Vockeroth (Insect Systematics & Biology Control Unit, Entomol-
ogy Division, Science Service Building, Department of Agriculture, Ot-
tawa, Ontario, Canada)
1 male Sphaerophoria menthastri L. and 1 male Platycheirus inversus Ide
(Family Syrphidae).

Mr. William Glenn Weaver, Jr. (Florida State Museum, Seagle Building,
Gainesville, Florida 32601)
2 blacklight trap collections from Brownsville, Texas.

Dr. Willis W. Wirth (Division of Insect Detection & Identification, Room
202F, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560).
63 slide mounts of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), representing
7 species (an exchange).


*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


COLLABORATORS OF THE FLORIDA STATE
COLLECTION OF ARTHROPODS

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

Forty collaborators, officially appointed by Florida Commis-
sioner of Agriculture Doyle Conner, are supporting the further
development of the state collection. These collaborators, who
serve without pay, are making significant contributions to our
knowledge of the arthropod fauna of Florida and neighboring
areas and are publishing many of their findings in the Florida
Entomologist, in monthly circulars published by the Division of
Plant Industry as a part of Tri-ology, in the Arthropods of
Florida and Neighboring Land Areas series published by the
Division of Plant Industry, and in other publication outlets.

The following is a list of officially appointed collaborators of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, effective June 30, 1966:

Dr. Richard M. Baranowski, assistant entomologist, University of Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, 18905 S.W. 280th Street, Route 1,
Homestead, Florida 33030. (Hemiptera, especially of Florida)
Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck, biologist, Bureau of Entomology, Florida State
Board of Health, P. 0. Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201. (Insects of
public health importance, especially adult Chironomidae and Cerato-
pogonidae)
Mr. William M. Beck, Jr., biologist, Florida State Board of Health, P. 0.
Box 210, Jacksonville, Florida 32201. (Ecology and taxonomy of insects
of public health importance, especially of immatures in relation to pollu-
tion of water resources)
Dr. Lewis Berner, chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Ephemeroptera of North Ameri-
ca, especially the southeastern United States) Dr. Berner is currently
the Chairman of the University of Florida Library Committee.
Dr. Fred C. Bishopp, No. 309 River Tower Apts., 600 River Tower Drive,
Alexandria, Virginia 22307. (Insects in general)
Dr. Franklin S. Blanton, professor, Department of Entomology, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Insects of public health import-
ance, especially Ceratopogonidae of Middle America)
Mr. Don Bryne, 4527 Fountainbleu Road, Tampa, Florida 33614. (Current
address: Route 5, Box 249-B, Suwannee Lab, Lake City, Florida 32055)
(Exotic insects and other arthropods, especially Lepidoptera)
Dr. Thomas W. Donnelly, Department of Geology, Rice University, Hous-
ton, Texas 77001. (Odonata of the world, especially of Latin America
and the West Indies)








64 Division of Plant Industry

Mr. Byrd K. Dozier, 32 Corydon Drive, Miami Springs, Florida 33166.
(Coleoptera of North America and the West Indies, especially Bupresti-
dae)
Dr. William G. Eden, chairman, Department of Entomology, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Entomology in general; adminis-
tration)
Mr. Stanley V. Fuller, Box 81, Cassadaga, Florida 32706. (Lepidoptera,
especially of Florida)

Mr. William G. Genung, assistant entomologist, University of Florida Ever-
glades Experiment Station, P. 0. Drawer A, Belle Glade, Florida 33430.
(Forage crop and truck crop insects, especially of southern Florida)

Dr. Dale H. Habeck, assistant entomologist, Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Ecology and taxono-
my of Nitidulidae and immature Lepidoptera of North America)

Mr. Edwin I. Hazard, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1600 S. W. 23rd Drive, Gainesville,
Florida 32601. (Coleoptera, especially Chrysomelidae, and Culicidae)

Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick, professor, Department of Entomology, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Forest insects and wood
products-infesting insects, especially Isoptera)

Mrs. William H. (Shirley) Hills, Route 4, Box 114, Pensacola, Florida
32504. (Lepidoptera of the southeastern United States, especially of
northwestern Florida)

Mr. Harry Hilton, P. 0. Box 144, Shalimar, Florida 32579. (Lepidoptera
of the southeastern United States and Mexico; insect photography)

Dr. Roland F. Hussey, professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Hemiptera of the West-
ern Hemisphere) Dr. Hussey is currently the editor of the Annals of
the Entomological Society of America.

Dr. E. G. Kelsheimer, entomologist, University of Florida Gulf Coast
Experiment Station, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, Florida
33507. (Truck crop, forage crop, and cut flower insects of southern
Florida)

Mr. Charles P. Kimball, 7340 Point of Rocks Road, Sarasota, Florida
33581 (winter address), West Barnstable, Massachusetts 02668 (summer
address). (Lepidoptera of eastern North America, especially of Florida)

Mr. Harold L. "Verne" King, P. 0. Box 1171, Sarasota, Florida 33578.
(Lepidoptera of North and Central America and the West Indies, es-
pecially Lycaenidae)

Dr. Louis C. Kuitert, entomologist, Department of Entomology, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Aquatic Hemiptera of North
America; tobacco, peach, truck crop, and ornamental insects of Florida)

Mr. John W. McReynolds, P. 0. Box 182, Nevada, Missouri 64772. (In-
sects in general, especially Carabidae and Cicadidae)








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Dr. Edward L. Mockford, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois
State Normal University, Normal, Illinois 61761. (Psocoptera of the
world, especially of the New World)

Dr. Martin H. Muma, associate entomologist, University of Florida Citrus
Experiment Station, P. 0. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850. (Aca-
rina; Aranaeida; Solpugida; Scorpionida, and related groups of arach-
nids; biological control, especially of citrus pests)

Mr. Dudley A. Palmer, instructor, Ornamental Horticulture Department,
Junior College of Broward County, 3600 S. W. 70th Avenue (Davie
Road), Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314. (Insects in general, especially
of Florida)

Mr. John W. Patton, Plant Quarantine Division, Agricultural Research
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, P. 0. Box 266, Tampa, Florida
33601. (Insects in general, especially of Florida and the Appalachian
Plateau)

Dr. Dennis R. Paulson, Organization for Tropical Studies, Apartado 16,
Ciudad Universitaria, Costa Rica, Central America. (Odonata of North
and Central America; Coleoptera of North and Central America)

Mr. Don E. Payne, director, N. E. Duval County Mosquito Control Dis-
trict, 1321 Eastport Road, Route 2, Box 1240, Jacksonville, Florida
32218. (Insects in general, especially Florida insects of public health
importance)

Mr. William J. Platt, III, Division of Biological Science, G. E. Bldg. No. 3,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850. (Lepidoptera of North
America, especially of Florida; ecology of the millipedes and centipedes
of Florida)

Mr. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., 11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida
33012. (Leaf-, stem-, and seed-mining Diptera and Lepidoptera of
Florida, especially Agromyzidae, and their parasites)

Mr. Karl J. Stone, research associate, Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Aranaeida, especially of
Florida; arthropods in relation to biological control)

Mr. William B. Tappan, assistant entomologist, University of Florida
North Florida Experiment Station, P. 0. Box 470, Quincy, Florida 32351.
(Insects in general, especially of tobacco)

Mr. Dade W. Thornton, 3226 N. W. 11th Court, Miami, Florida 33137.
(Coleoptera of North and Central America and the West Indies;
photography)

Dr. Thomas J. Walker, associate professor, Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Orthoptera of North
America, especially Gryllidae, Oecanthinae; insect sounds) Dr. Walker is
currently editor of the Florida Entomologist.

Dr. Howard K. Wallace, chairman, Department of Zoology, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Araneida, especially Lycosidae and
Salticidae of the eastern United States)







Division of Plant Industry


Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr., associate professor, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. (Odonata,
adults and nymphs, of the New World)
Dr. John W. Wilson, entomologist-in-charge, University of Florida Central
Florida Experiment Station, P. 0. Box 909, Sanford, Florida 32771.
(Truck crop insects)
Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger, entomologist, University of Florida Sub-Tropical
Experiment Station, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead,
Florida 33030. (Truck crop, ornamentals, and tropical fruit insects;
insect dispersion)
Mr. Charles F. Zeiger, 3751 Sommers Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205.
(Lepidoptera of North and Central America)


LEAF, STEM, AND SEED MINERS OF FLORIDA

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

Carl E. Stegmaier, U. S. Department of Agriculture worker
stationed in Miami, is conducting extensive hearings from host
plants and is publishing the results of his studies as a series of
papers in the Florida Entomologist. Kenneth A. Spencer of
London, England, is identifying the Agromyzidae. Dr. Weems
is coordinating this project, and several entomologists of the Uni-
versity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station are cooper-
ating on this study by collecting and sending material to Steg-
maier for rearing. This project is designed to determine what
species of Agromyzidae occur in Florida, what host or hosts
each attacks, what parts of the host are affected, something of
the life history and economic importance of each species, and
what parasites are associated with each species.


SYRPHIDAE OF THE SOUTHERN ESCARPMENTS
OF THE APPALACHIAN PLATEAU

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

A taxonomic and ecological study of the Syrphidae (Diptera)
of the southern escarpments of the Appalachian Plateau, finan-
ced by a National Science Foundation research grant administer-
ed by the Highlands (North Carolina) Biological Station, was
begun in the spring of 1964. This was an outgrowth of many
years of insect collecting, especially for syrphid flies, in western
North Carolina northward into West Virginia and southeastern







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Ohio. An eleven-day trip was made to western North Carolina
during April 19-26, 1964, and a three-week trip to this area was
made during June 27-July 19, 1964, with the Highlands Biologi-
cal Station serving as base of operations. Additional trips will
be made at other times of the year in order to ascertain seasonal
occurrence and abundance of the species which occur in this area
and their habitat relationships. Findings eventually will be pub-
lished. In some respects this is an extension of doctoral studies
on "The syrphid flies of Southeastern United States (Diptera,
Syrphidae)" and is a part of coordinated research being car-
ried on by various investigators on the plants and animals of the
southern escarpments of the Appalachians.

TAXONOMY AND ECOLOGY OF THE SYRPHIDAE
OF MEXICO, ESPECIALLY VOLUCELLINAE
H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

A long-range study of the Syrphidae of Mexico was initiated
during the spring of 1965 (April 17-May 30) by a six-week trip
to Mexico, supported by the DPI and a research grant from the
American Philosophical Society. An exploratory trip through
much of Mexico was made during August 4-September 9, 1963,
largely at the expense of the investigator, while traveling with
fellow entomologist Frank Lee of the University of Florida.
Others making all or part of the 1965 field trip were: Dr.
George W. Rawson, lepidopterist from New Smyrna Beach, Flor-
ida, and Chevy Chase, Maryland; Harry 0. Hilton, lepidopterist
and photographer from Shalimar, Florida; Charles F. Zeiger,
lepidopterist from Jacksonville, Florida, and his wife, Jo Ann;
Ernest M. Collins, Jr., Division of Plant Industry photographer
and information specialist then stationed at Winter Haven, and
his wife, Gayle; Dr. J. Wallace Boyes, chairman of the Depart-
ment of Genetics at McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Dr.
Gilbert P. Waldbauer, syrphid specialist and professor in the De-
partment of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois;
and the investigator's wife, Camilla.
Relatively little is known of the natural history, or even the
geographical distribution, of the syrphid flies of Mexico. The
remarkably diverse habitats of this large land mass, serving
as it does as a connecting link between the distinctly different
Nearctic fauna of North America and the Neotropical fauna of







Division of Plant Industry


Central and South America, is certain to contain a much greater
number of syrphid species than is currently known. A series of
field trips carried out over several years at different seasons
of the year will be designed to sample various geographic re-
gions and habitats within Mexico. A thorough search will be
made in university, museum, and private collections in Mexico
and North America to locate, borrow, and study as many Mexi-
can Syrphidae as possible. An extensive review of the literature
is in progress.


SURVEY OF THE TERRESTRIAL ARTHROPODS
OF THE DRY TORTUGAS ISLANDS
H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

A good account of the comprehensive survey of the terres-
trial arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands, which was initi-
ated in May 1961, was given in the 24th Biennial Report of the
Division of Plant Industry (p. 91). As indicated in that report,
primary objectives of the survey are to determine what species
of terrestrial arthropods occur on the Tortugas, learn something
of their seasonal distribution and abundance, determine some-
thing about the relationship of each species to its macro and
micro-habitats, arrive at some conclusions as to the origins of
the species of arthropods found there, and consider what oppor-
tunities the Tortugas present as "stepping stones" to the United
States for arthropod pests from Cuba, Mexico, Central and South
America.
Four trips made by various members of the staff research
team (Weems, Denmark, Mead, and Woodruff) and associates
were mentioned briefly in the 24th Biennial Report. A fifth trip
was made from July 7-19 by H. A. Denmark, Dr. Weems, Staff
Photographer E. M. Collins, Jr., Lepidopterist Dr. George W.
Rawson of New Smyrna Beach, and Coleopterist Dr. Charles A.
Triplehorn, curator of insects, Department of Zoology and Ento-
mology, Ohio State University. No further trips were to be
made until material already collected could be prepared for stu-
dy, identified by specialists, and catalogued and the apparent
gaps in the data gathered could be ascertained. This work has
progressed slowly, an extensive review of the literature has been
made, and a considerable amount of data has been gathered
from which an illustrated bulletin is being prepared.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


ARTHROPODS OF FLORIDA AND NEIGHBORING
LAND AREAS

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

A new series of irregularly appearing publications on the
arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas--other south-
eastern states, the West Indies (Bahamas, Greater and Lesser
Antilles), and the land areas in and around the Gulf of Mexico
and the Caribbean Sea-was initiated in 1965 with the publi-
cation of the Lepidoptera of Florida by C. P. Kimball. Two
other publications in this series appeared during 1965-The Wid-
ow Spiders of Florida by John D. McCrone and Karl J. Stone,
and Florida Armored Scale Insects by G. Wallace Dekle. Sev-
eral other manuscripts for publication in this series are in vary-
ing stages of preparation.
Emphasis in this series is on taxonomy, ecology, biology, and
zoogeography of insects and other arthropods. The files and
preserved specimens of the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods provide a basis for many of the records.
SPECIAL PROJECTS
H. A. Denmark, chief entomologist
(1) Eriophyidae of Florida. Plant damage will be illustrated with the
mites.
(2) Phytoseiidae of Florida. This is a joint project with Dr. Martin H.
Muma.
R. E. Woodruff, entomologist
(1) Review of the genus Euparixia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with
description of a new species from leaf-cutting ant nests in Louisiana
(in cooperation with 0. L. Cartwright, U. S. National Museum).
(2) Review of the genus Polyphylla (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the
Eastern United States.
(3) The Scarabaeidae of Florida. To be used as a Ph.D. dissertation at
the University of Florida. Approximately 10,000 specimens of this
family have been mounted, labeled and incorporated into the col-
lection during the biennium.
(4) Screening blacklight collections from various localities in Florida
and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Many rare species have been taken
in these samples as well as several new species. One new species of
Aphodius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) will be described shortly.
(5) Survey of the terrestrial arthropods of the Dry Tortugas in cooper-
ation with other Division of Plant Industry entomologists and in
collaboration with the National Park Service. Most progress has
been made in processing previous collections and distributing cer-
tain groups to specialists for study.








Division of Plant Industry


(6) Study of fossil insects from Trinidad, W. I. This project has re-
ceived little attention during the biennium. Additional collections of
modern species will be necessary for comparison, but a preliminary
report will be published shortly.
(7) Continued study of biology, ecology and distribution of Cuban May
beetle, Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin, in Miami.
(8) Study of the food habits of the burrowing owl in Florida in co-
operation with C. T. Collins, Department of Biology, University
of Florida. Numerous pellet samples, containing primarily dung
beetles, have been examined and a published report will appear
shortly.
(9) Designing and constructing a collapsible, portable ultraviolet light
trap. This design is more economical, lighter and easily transported
than commercial traps. They have been tested in Florida and on an
expedition to Mexico. The design will be made available to other
entomologists through publication.
(10) Supervision of the Division of Plant Industry Library. This arrange-
ment became effective in January 1966 and involves supervision of
personnel and library development.
(11) Processing of Mexican and Central American collections (primarily
black-light samples) from previous expeditions. This involves sort-
ing, mounting, labeling, studying and shipment to specialists. At
the present writing there remain over 100 quart jars of alcoholic
material to be processed.

F. W. Mead, entomologist
(1) Taxonomic cooperation with experiment station workers who are
investigating leafhoppers and planthoppers on pasture and cereal
grasses in Florida.
(2) Preparation of a checklist of psychodid flies in Florida.
(3) Weekly examination of insects caught in a blacklight trap at
Gainesville, so that counts of certain economic moths can be made,
and to screen this material for unusual insects.
(4) Systematic and photographic support was given to the special pub-
lication, The Lepidoptera of Florida by C. P. Kimball.

H. V. Weems, Jr., entomologist
(1) Preparation of a detailed proposal for the development of a com-
prehensive library in entomology and nematology through a co-
operative effort between the University of Florida and the Florida
Department of Agriculture. This work was done with Dr. D. H.
Habeck, Department of Entomology, University of Florida.
(2) Responsible for the insect vector phase of investigations of the
lethal yellows disease of coconut palms in the Key West-Stock
Island area, working as a member of a research team of Division
of Plant Industry entomologists, nematologists, plant pathologists,
and survey specialists headed by A. P. Martinez. One primary line
of investigation is related to a whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus
Russell, as a possible vector of the disease.
(3) Accumulation of material for an eventual illustrated bulletin on
fruit flies and related groups and the preparation of a chart on
fruit flies of major economic importance.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


(4) Preparation of a bulletin on the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods and the collaborator program which supports its development.
(5) Preparation of an illustrated bulletin on arthropod groups, primar-
ily pertaining to their identification, habitat relationships, seasonal
and geographic distribution, and techniques for collecting them,
with emphasis on Florida.
(6) Identification of Syrphidae for other individuals and institutions
as a part of the process of further building a research collection of
Syrphidae and a more thorough knowledge of this family of flies.
(7) Make occasional field trips to conduct special insect surveys, to
collect material for taxonomic study in special interest groups
(especially Syrphidae), and/or to make general collections for the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
(8) Conduct exchanges of reference material to make the Florida col-
lection more complete. A special continuing effort is being made to
obtain representatives of the principal arthropod pests occurring
in other parts of the world which constitute a potential threat to
Florida agriculture. This will materially aid staff specialists in
making more rapid, accurate, and complete identifications. It also
provides additional material for taxonomic research, display, and
teaching purposes.
(9) Examination of samples taken from light traps and several kinds of
baited traps located in various parts of Florida and from those
operated by collaborators in various foreign lands, notably the
Bahamas, the. West Indies, Mexico, and Central America. Valuable
material obtained from these traps is processed and added to the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, and some specimens of
special interest are noted in the Tri-ology Technical Report.
(10) Experimenting with designs for more effective Malaise traps and
field testing of these traps.
G. W. Dekle, entomologist
(1) Soft scale insects of Florida for publication.

JOB RELATED ACTIVITIES

H. A. Denmark, chief entomologist
(1) Assistant Curator in Arthropods, Florida State Museum, Univer-
sity of Florida.
(2) Member, Program Committee, Southeastern Branch of the Entomo-
logical Society of America, 1965.
(3) Member, Executive Committee, Southeastern Branch of the Entomo-
logital Society of America.
H. V. Weems, Jr., entomologist
(1) Assistant Curator in Arthropods, Florida State Museum, Univer-
sity of Florida.
(2) Member, Committee on the Common Names of Insects, Entomologi-
cal Society of America, 1964-65, 1965-66.
(3) Co-Chairman with G. W. Dekle, Graduate Fellowship Committee,
Florida Entomological Society, 1964-65, 1965-66.
(4) Member, Program Committee, Florida Entomological Society, 1965-
66.







Division of Plant Industry


R. E. Woodruff, entomologist
(1) Member, Program Committee, Florida Entomological Society, 1965.
(2) Member, Entomology in Action Committee, Florida Entomological
Society, 1966.
(3) President, Newell Entomological Society, University of Florida,
1964-65, 1965-66.
(4) Research Associate, Florida State Museum, University of Florida.
G. W. Dekle, entomologist
(1) Graduate Fellowship Committee, Department of Entomology, Uni-
versity of Florida, 1964-65, 1965-66.
(2) Professional Member, Florida Lychee Growers Association, 1964-
65, 1965-66.


LIBRARY

MRS. MYRA E. HARS.CHEID, Librarian (1964-65)
MRS. MARGARET P. RHINE, Librarian (1965-66)

The Division of Plant Industry Library is comprised of books,
journals and materials related specifically to meet the needs of
its State and University patrons.
Major plans are underway for continued effort to provide
better service to its users. These include:
(1) Expansion into separate quarters in a new complex of
buildings.
(2) Development of a comprehensive library in the fields
of entomology and nematology through cooperative effort
between the University of Florida and the Florida De-
partment of Agriculture.
(3) Search for a professionally trained librarian to organize,
plan, and direct acquisition, cataloging and reference in
the Division Library.

Special Projects
(1) Preparation of a world list of periodicals pertaining to
the subject: entomology. Titles are listed alphabetically
under name of country in which they were or are pub-
lished. Future acquisitions of those publications of spe-
cial interest may be obtained with the available finances.
Out of print catalogs are to be checked for availability of
purchase.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


(2) Preparation of a list of all publications of the Division of
Plant Industry (formerly: State Plant Board until 1961)
since its existence.


Future Projects Planned

(1) Continuation of the cataloging of material in the library.

(2) Revision and expansion of information on the Kardex
(periodicals check-in record).

Gifts
During the biennium gifts of library materials were received from H. A.
Denmark, P. E. Frierson, Stanley V. Fuller, F. W. Mead, Dr. W. C. Price,
Dr. G. F. Weber, and R. E. Woodruff.

Services
Reference questions answered and letters written 102
Translations of material in foreign languages 5
Interlibrary loan requests filled 10
Publications mailed 10,082
Hours devoted to correction of papers, etc. 122

Collection
Current size of library
Bound volumes (approx.) 4,481
Paper bulletin documents 18,355
Current periodicals received which includes: 263
97 paid subscriptions
121 gifts
36 exchanges
9 subscriptions through professional memberships
Added material
15 new subscriptions
289 new books, including 13 gifts

TRIPS AND MEETINGS
June 27-July 19, 1964: A field trip was made to western North Carolina by
H. V. Weems. He worked out of the Highlands Biological Station, High-
lands, N.C., on a National Science Foundation grant awarded through
the Highlands Biological Station.
July, August-September 6: R. E. Woodruff was in San Jose, Costa Rica,
participating in the Organization for Tropical Studies and collecting
specimens for the Florida State Collection of Arthropods reference
collections. Over 2,000 miles were traveled within Costa Rica.
July 14-17: The National Plant Board Meeting at Miami Beach was at-
tended by H. A. Denmark.
August 19-21: The Florida Association Soil & Water Conservation District
Supervisors Meeting at Lido Beach, attended by H. A. Denmark.








Division of Plant Industry


September 23-25: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Fort
Lauderdale, attended by H. A. Denmark, G. W. Dekle, F. W. Mead,
R. E. Woodruff, and H. V. Weems.
November 3-6: Florida Horticultural Society Annual Meeting, Miami
Beach, attended by H. A. Denmark.
November 26-December 2: Entomological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, attended by H. A. Denmark and
H. V. Weems. Before returning some time was spent at the Academy
of Natural Science in Philadelphia.
December 3-4: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Meeting, Talla-
hassee, attended by H. A. Denmark and F. W. Mead.
January 25-28, 1965: Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society
of America Annual Meeting, Little Rock, Arkansas, attended by H. A.
Denmark and G. W. Dekle.
February 3-5, 1965: Imported Fire Ant Regional Meeting sponsored by
Louisiana State University at Gulfport, Mississippi, was attended by
H. A. Denmark.
February 15-19: Subtropical Branch of the Florida Entomological Society
Meeting at Miami was attended by R. E. Woodruff, after which he stud-
ied the Cuban May beetle situation in the Miami area.
March 11-12: Southeastern Pecan Growers Association Meeting in Talla-
hassee was attended by G. W. Dekle.
April 13-14: Annual Entomologist and Pathologist Meeting at Bradenton,
attended by H. A. Denmark, F. W. Mead, and R. E. Woodruff.
April 17-May 30: Field trip to Mexico, heading up a party of 10 people,
was made by H. V. Weems.
April 29-30: Division of Plant Industry Section Heads Meeting in Largo,
attended by H. A. Denmark.
August 15-21: Visit to United States National Museum, Washington,
D.C., by F. W. Mead and R. E. Woodruff.
August 26: Tenth Annual Southern Forest Insect Work Conference in
Jacksonville, attended by H. A. Denmark.
September 22-24: Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Orlando,
Florida, attended by H. A. Denmark, F. W. Mead, and H. V. Weems.
November 2-5: Horticultural Society Annual Meeting, Miami Beach, at-
tended by H. A. Denmark.
November 28-December 2: Entomological Society of America Annual Meet-
ing, New Orleans, attended by H. A. Denmark, F. W. Mead, G. W. Dekle,
R. E. Woodruff and H. V. Weems.
December 2-3: Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Meeting, Talla-
hassee, attended by H. A. Denmark, G. W. Dekle, and R. E. Woodruff.
January 13, 1966: 19th Indian River Citrus Seminar, Ft. Pierce, attended
by H. A. Denmark.
January 20: 19th Annual Meeting, Southern Weed Conference, Jackson-
ville, attended by H. A. Denmark.
February 4-6: Field trip to Newport, Grand Bahama Island, B. W. I.,
was made by H. V. Weems.
April 28-29: Annual Workshop, University of Florida Experiment Station
Entomologists, Gainesville, attended by H. A. Denmark, G. W. Dekle,
F. W. Mead, R. E. Woodruff, and H. V. Weems.








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


June 12-August 1: Field trip to northwestern United States and the
Canadian Rockies. Visits were made to a number of colleges, universi-
ties, and museums, and taxonomic work on Syrphidae and several
other families of Diptera was conducted at Utah State, Rocky Mountain
Laboratory, University of Wyoming, Kansas State, and the University
of Kansas by H. V. Weems.

TALKS
H. A. Denmark:
May 1966: "Ornamental Insects," Gainesville Garden Club, Gainesville.
G. W. Dekle:
September 24, 1964: "Have We Met Our Objectives," presidential address,
47th Annual Meeting, Florida Entomological Society, Fort Lauder-
dale.
November 14: "Foreign Insects on Orchids," Florida Orchid Society
Annual Meeting, Gainesville.
December 3: "Orchid Insects Intercepted at Miami Port of Entry,"
Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference, Tallahassee.
January 15, 1965: "Insects on Ornamentals," Live Oak Garden Club,
Live Oak.
March 12, 1966: "Orchid Insects and Their Control," Ft. Pierce Orchid
Society, Ft. Pierce.
March 14: "Armored- and Soft Scales and Their Control," Mens Garden
Club, Gainesville, Flofida.
May 26: "Orchid Insects and Control," Ridge Orchid Society, Winter
Haven.
F. W. Mead:
September 1964: "Some galls of jumping plant lice in Florida," Florida
Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Fort Lauderdale.
December 1964: "Some galls of jumping plant lice in Florida," Florida
Department of Agriculture Annual Conference, Tallahassee.
September 1965: "Preliminary notes on Oliarus in Florida," Florida En-
tomological Society Annual Meeting, Orlando.
December 1965: "The true identity of the waxhopper Oliarus francis-
canus (Stal)," Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting,
New Orleans.
April 1966: "The Insect Survey in Florida," Annual Workshop, Univer-
sity of Florida Experiment Station Entomologists, Gainesville.
R. E. Woodruff:
October 1964: "Central American Excursion" with movies, Florida State
Museum Staff of Natural Science, Gainesville.
November 23: "Survey of the Terrestrial Arthropods of the Dry
Tortugas," Seminar to Department of Entomology, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
January 13, 1965: "Collecting Insects in Central America," Seminar to
Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
January 23: "An Entomological Excursion to Central America," Gaines-
ville Entomological Club, Gainesville.
February 12: "Mating Behavior in Beetles," Arthropod Behavior discus-
sion group, University of Florida, Gainesville.








Division of Plant Industry


February 18: "An Entomological Excursion to Central America," Sub-
tropical Branch, Florida Entomological Society, Miami.
December 3: "Cereal leaf beetle," Florida Department of Agriculture
Annual Conference, Tallahassee.
H. V. Weems:
September 1964: "Report on a proposed graduate research fellowship
in honor of the late William W. Warner," Florida Entomological So-
ciety Annual Meeting, Fort Lauderdale.
November 2: "The Florida State Collection of Arthropods," Semi-
nar to Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
December 1964: "Fruit flies and the arthropod identification service,"
Florida Department of Agriculture Annual Conference, Tallahassee.
March 1965: "The Florida State Collection of Arthropods and its fu-
ture," Gainesville Entomological Society, Gainesville.
September 23: "Historical review and current status of the Carib-
bean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), in Florida," Florida
Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Orlando.

EXHIBITS

Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Septem-
ber 1964:
(1) Some Florida psyllids. (F. W. Mead)
(2) Preservation of green color in plants. (F. W. Mead)
(3) The khapra beetle. (F. W. Mead)
(4) Leatherleaf fern leafhoppers. (F. W. Mead & D. H. Habeck)

Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Orlando, September 1965:
(1) Sample drawer of insects (Syrphidae) from the Florida State Col-
lection of Arthropods. (H. V. Weems)
(2) Entomological drawings. (R. E. Woodruff)
(3) Cecropia Moth life history. (Harry 0. Hilton)

Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville:
(1) Leatherleaf fern leafhoppers. (F. W. Mead & D. H. Habeck)
(2) Offset printing of entomological literature. (R. E. Woodruff)

Florida Union, University of Florida:
(1) Entomological drawings. (R. E. Woodruff)

Miami Museum of Natural History, Miami, Florida:
(1) Butterflies of the Miami area. (F. W. Mead)
(2) Mediterranean fruit fly (2). (Entomology staff)
(3) Monarch butterfly. (Harry 0. Hilton & F. W. Mead)
(4) Cecropia Moth life history. (Harry 0. Hilton)
(5) Widow spiders of Florida. (Karl J. Stone)

Junior Museum, Tallahassee, Florida:
(1) Insect exhibits. (H. V. Weems)

Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida:
(1) Glass-topped boxes of economic insects. (F. W. Mead)








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report 77

Awards
G. W. Dekle:
25-Year Service Award with the Florida Department of Agriculture,
December 1965.
H. V. Weems:
Elected in 1965 a Fellow in the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science.
F. W. Mead:
Elected in 1965 a Fellow in the Ohio Academy of Science.










Methods Development Section


GERALD G. NORMAN, Chief

This Section, created at the direction of the Commissioner
of Agriculture in August 1964, was the first of its kind within
the Department. As the name implies, its function is the de-
velopment or improvement of methods, procedures and tech-
niques to increase the efficiency of the Division's work.
The Section is housed in a rented office building in downtown
Winter Haven. Six hundred square feet of floor space is equal-
ly divided between an office and records area, and a photograph-
ic darkroom. The office area is furnished with surplus equip-
ment from the office of the Budwood Registration Section. The
darkroom is furnished almost entirely with surplus military
equipment.
Due to the increasing difficulty in securing qualified employ-
ees and the continuing growth of Florida agriculture, the Di-
vision's administrative personnel have long recognized the need
for improvement in present inspection methods. This is espe-
cially true of citrus surveys and grove inspections where vast
numbers of trees are scattered over large areas of the state.
Ideally, any new technique to accomplish this type of inspec-
tion should be automated or at least combine mechanization with
the efforts of trained inspectors. It should also provide docu-
mentary evidence that could be permanently stored for refer-
ence, be objective, rapid, and relatively inexpensive. Early in-
frared photographs taken by Division photographers showed
promise of fulfilling these requirements. Therefore, the Sec-
tion was assigned a specific project: that of exploration and
evaluation of aerial infrared photography as a means of detect-
ing pests in citrus trees.
Two important factors have influenced the investigation from
the beginning. The first was the lack of information or liter-
ature that could be followed in this particular application of
photography. The second was that no instrument was available
which would measure the infrared reflectance from trees as it
would be recorded photographically from the air. Therefore, it
was necessary for the project to establish all the fundamental in-
formation and basic data to determine the optimum photographic
balances for maximum detectability of disease in citrus trees.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Several thousand photographs have been taken, the exposure
of each based on a systematically organized plan. These pic-
tures demonstrate that aerial infrared photography can reveal
the presence of both fungal and viral diseases in grove trees, in
some cases before disease reaction is apparent to the trained eye.
When tree deterioration is sufficiently advanced, the photo-
graphy can also reveal the presence of burrowing nematode.
This is not true in trees infested for relatively short periods.
Infrared color photographs have also shown the presence of






















Fig. 1. The extremes in tools used in infrared photography include the
35mm camera and its accompanying film cartridge (left) and the huge
K17-B aerial camera with the 12-inch lens, which produces 9- by 9-inch
transparencies from the 75-foot film roll (right).

nests of imported fire ants in open fields and pastures. The
results of these trials to date are encouraging.
The Section has made photographic contributions to other
sections and other divisions of the Department. It has prepared
two exhibits relative to infrared photography. One of these is a
permanent display of the Florida Citrus Showcase in Winter
Haven.
One of the Section's photographs is included in the "Photo-
graphy in Industry" section of the Chicago Museum of Natural







80 Division of Plant Industry

Sciences. Technical discussions of the Section's work have been
presented before the Florida State Horticultural Society and the
American Society for Horticultural Science. The Section has
assisted the United States Forestry Service and the Georgia
Forestry Commission, Macon, Georgia, in starting similar pro-
jects.
INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY
The Florida Plant Act of 1915 established the State Plant
Board which later became the Division of Plant Industry. From
that time until today the Division's basic inspection tool has been
that of visual observation by trained men in the field. During
this half century the number of citrus trees in the state has
grown 700 per cent, with comparable increases in citrus nursery
stock, ornamental plants, and tropical fruits. Because of this
ever increasing workload, the need for improved inspection
methods has long been recognized. Since World War II, auto-
mated inspection techniques employing electronic devices, sens-
ing instruments, and photo-electric cells have taken over a great
deal of the inspection operations in industry. Some of these have
proven to be faster and more reliable than inspection based on
human vision. Recognizing the need for improved inspection
techniques and the availability of devices of possible application
for this purpose, the Division began exploratory trials of such
instruments in August 1964.

Preliminary Experimentation
The first tests were run with a bolometer especially cali-
brated to focus at 14 inches. This is an extremely sensitive
thermometer capable of measuring very small amounts of infra-
red radiation. The instrument revealed differences in the
amount of radiation from infected trees of Key Lime seedlings,
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing., and trees of the same
variety that had been inoculated with the virus of tristeza. No
difference in the amount of radiation between young trees grown
in burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne in-
fested soil and nematode-free trees could be detected.
In another test a Barnes T-4 scanning camera was also used
on both healthy and diseased grove trees. Because of the close
similarity of temperature of the soil, leaf surfaces and ambient
atmosphere under Florida conditions, this instrument was found
unsuitable for detecting differences in sick and healthy trees.







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Along with these trials, disease detection in field trees by means
of both black and white and color infrared aerial photography
was tried. Some of the resulting photographs were considered
sufficiently promising to justify continuance of this phase of the
studies. Cost estimates supplied by two Florida organizations
engaged in aerial photography showed that their charges for sur-
veys would be prohibitive. Furthermore, neither company had
any experience with or knowledge of special-purpose photogra-
phy in citrus groves. Because of the cost of having it done
commercially, a photographic unit was established in Winter Ha-
ven to continue exploration of this phase of the study and to
assemble the necessary material for processing aerial films. It
was also recognized at the time that if infrared photography
were developed to a high degree of effectiveness in locating dis-
eased grove trees, the savings in manpower would be tremen-
dous.
Equipment
Two aerial cameras were contributed to the infrared photo-
graphy project by the United States Department of Agriculture,
Plant Pest Control Division. These cameras are of World War
II vintage, producing a nine-inch square format on roll film
available in lengths from 75 to 280 feet. The Eastman Kodak
Company, also a cooperating agency, made contributions of the
latest infrared color film emulsions, filters, and technical infor-
mation. Two Exakta cameras with matching Biotar lenses grad-
uated in half-stops were later used when infrared color films
became available in 35mm size, reducing the costs of the experi-
ments considerably. Both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters
have been used in the photography. The best results to date
have been obtained from helicopters flying at altitudes below-
1,000 feet. Film processing was done in Winter Haven except
where duplicate lots of exposed film were sent to the Eastman
Kodak Company for mass-batch processing. This made possible
critical comparison of the effect of variability in processing of
the photographs. The Section's darkroom equipment includes a
Morse aerial roll film processing assembly, a roll film drier, and
a 20-inch-square contact printer.

Bases of Investigation
In order for infrared photography to be effective in disease
detection, it is necessary that there be some difference between







Division of Plant Industry


infrared reflectance from healthy and diseased trees. Certain
wave lengths, or colors of light, are absorbed by the chloroplasts
for utilization in the photosynthetic process. These wave lengths
are primarily blue and red. Green light, on the other hand, is
almost entirely reflected by the chloroplasts. Infrared is re-
flected by the spongy mesophyll cells. The surface reflection
from the cuticle of the leaf is relatively unimportant in the
photography. When healthy leaves become diseased, the meso-
phyll cells loose their turgidity, causing an immediate loss of
reflectance from the leaves of the tree. Hence, the disease may
be revealed by infrared photographs much sooner than it can
be seen with the unaided eye.
For the purpose of this investigation it was assumed that
the principal diseases of citrus in Florida were footrot and
heartrot, both caused by invasion from fungi; the viruses tris-
teza, psorosis, xyloporosis and exocortis; and spreading decline,
caused by burrowing nematode Radopholus similis (Cobb)
Thorne.
As subjects for the photographic studies, five groves in the
Winter Haven area were selected, each containing one or more
of these diseases. Each of these sites was platted to determine
the number and location of each diseased tree. Nematode infest-
ed areas were platted on the basis of visual symptoms and later
platted by taking root samples from given areas so that the
precise degree of infestation could be determined for compari-
son with photographs.
In conventional photography, correct exposure can be de-
termined by light meters. Unfortunately, no device was avail-
able to measure the infrared reflectance from trees as it would
be recorded in infrared photographs from the air. In the ab-
sence of such an instrument, the spectral reflectance from
healthy and diseased foliage must be inferred. Since healthy
foliage has a much higher reflectance in the infrared region of
the spectrum than in the visible, it is logical to assume that the
greatest difference in reflectance between diseased and healthy
leaves is apt to occur in the infrared region.
Conventional color films contain three layers sensitive to the
blue, green, and red spectral regions respectively, and when
these films are developed, the resulting photographs will be com-
posed of colors which closely match those of the subject. Infra-
red color film however, is composed of three dye layers sensi-







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


tive to the green, red, and infrared. Dye layers of the film are
correlated with film sensitivities in such a way that green is
recorded as blue; red is recorded as green; and infrared is re-
corded as red. Thus, because of its high degree of reflectance,
healthy foliage will photograph as various shades of red, with a
tendency to a bluish or purplish cast depending on the intensity
of its green reflectance. As infrared reflectance is lost due to
disease progression, this color will change toward magenta, pur-
ple, or green, depending on the magnitude of the loss.
Color balance is dependent upon the saturation of color of
the object being photographed, the overall color balance of the
film itself, and the amount of light reaching the film. The color
of the object being photographed cannot be changed, but the
color balance can be modified by placing suitable filters over
the camera lens, and the amount of light reaching the film can
be controlled by the degree of exposure.
To determine the optimum color balance and exposure for
this (Eastman-Kodak Ektachrome 8443) film as it is used in
disease detection of citrus trees, a large number of photographs
have been made in which the exposure has been systematically
varied. Studies of these photographs have shown the optimum
region of color balance based on the amount of reflectance at the
time these photographs were made.
The filters used include the following: Wratten filters # 2A,
3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 18A, 21, 22, 23A, 25, 29, 34A, 55, 70, 88A, and
89B; Magenta # 05, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50; Blue 10B, and 20B;
Corning # 3966 and 9830; and Bausch and Lomb interference
filter # 47-42-57.
Several thousand combinations of filters are possible, any
one of which may be critical.
By the very nature of a project in which fundamental prem-
ises must be obtained by inference, and where a high degree of
variability is always present, success is dependent solely on trial
and error, patience and persistence. Infrared color photography
can presently fulfill some of the Division's needs. Whether it
will attain its potential remains to be seen.

Meetings Attended
1964 Florida State Horticultural Society-Miami
American Society for Horticultural Science-Kingston, Jamaica
1964 Florida State Horticultural Society-Miami










Nematology Section


K. R. LANGDON AND R. P. ESSER, Nematologists

SUMMARY OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

Diagnostic work: A total of 14,698 samples were processed
and diagnosed during the biennium (Table 1). This is a new
high for the section.

Table 1. Numbers of samples processed from each diagnostic
work category, including per cent of the total of each category

Number
samples Per cent
Diagnostic work category processed of total

Regulatory (Gainesville Laboratory) ........-- ..... .......... 6,605 44.9
Reniform nematode program (Apopka Laboratory) ........ 4,858 33.1
Diagnostic problems (Sick or dying plants) ................. 1,344 9.1
Survey (Gainesville Laboratory) ....................................... 539 3.7
Botanical identifications (Gainesville Labobratory) ....... 511 3.5
Burrowing nematode host testing
(Gainesville Laboratory) ...................... .... ...... .... 423 2.9
Experimental (Gainesville Laboratory) ................ 318 2.1
Cyst nematode survey (Gainesville Laboratory) ......... 100 .7

T otals ........................................................ .... .................... 14,698 100.0


Cooperative diagnostic work: A total of 528 samples were
processed in cooperation with the Plant Pathology Section (joint
examination and diagnosis).
Nematode surveys: A total of 281 survey samples were pro-
cessed. Many of these involved citrus nematode in wild habi-
tats. Surveys of ornamental plants were conducted to locate test
plants for the road beautification plant nematocide trials.

Research Summary
In order to facilitate plant identification a herbarium was
established and the botanical library expanded. Host testing
was continued with grass cyst nematode. Emerald zoisia, Zoisia
japonica, and Tifgreen Bermuda grass were found to be hosts
while common centipede grass was found to be a non-host in this







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


test. Inoculation tests involving healthy coconut palm trees and
nematodes associated with lethal yellowing affected trees have
proven negative. Host testing was continued with the Pseudo-
root-knot nematode of turf. Good hosts supporting heavy nema-
tode populations included: common St. Augustine grass, common
centipede grass, Tifgreen, Tifway, Tiflawn, and Everglades Ber-
muda grasses, African Bermuda grass, and Ugandi selection No.
1 (African Bermuda grass). Grass hosts supporting moderate
populations included: no-mow Bermuda grass, and Emerald zoi-
sia grass. Ormond Bermuda was a poor host and Floratine St.
Augustine grass appeared to be a non-host. The burrowing
nematode host testing program proved three new hosts and indi-
cated seven plants as non-hosts. This program was temporarily
suspended due to a mealybug eradication program at the Winter
Haven site involving the host testing tanks. Future host testing
will be done at Gainesville. Root-knot nematodes were eradi-
cated from tomato, but not from Ixora coccinea in dipping tests
using Zinophos.
Dying red oaks were investigated and Tylenchulus floridensis
was found closely associated with the dying trees. Investiga-
tions and histological studies were conducted in an attempt to
clarify this relationship. Investigations were conducted with
Aphelenchoides fragariae and with birds-nest fern and azalea.
Birds-nest fern showed symptoms 12 days after inoculation with
foliar nematode, and azalea showed symptoms 14 days following
inoculation. Tests using methyl bromide and Zinophos failed to
control foliar nematode on birds-nest fern. A grass, Andropogon
rhizomatus, was found as a new host of a wild population of
citrus nematode. This wild population of citrus nematode fail-
ed to infect citrus in preliminary tests. Histological studies were
made of burrowing, citrus, root-knot, and lesion nematodes in
plant tissue. Three nematodes were investigated in Florida pine
nurseries. Root-knot nematode was causing unusual root dam-
age in one-nursery, while stunt and awl nematodes were associ-
ated with dying and declining plants in another.

Outlook
The workload has increased considerably in the biennium,
and further increases are expected. Planned investigations in-
volving nematodes are becoming increasingly difficult because of
the long periods of time when sample diagnosis occupies the time







Division of Plant Industry


of all personnel. In March 1965 and March 1966 all travel by
the Section and all but extremely vital projects were officially
suspended until the workload was caught up. Despite the in-
creased workload the time it takes to complete samples and
send out reports is decreasing. A further decrease in this pro-
cessing time is a prime objective in the new biennium. The cost
per sample based on the total nematology budget is shown in
Table 2. Data in Table 2 indicates the increasing sample number
is keeping the cost per sample down despite the annual increases
in the budget.

Table 2. Average cost per sample from 1957 through 1966
based on the total Nematology Section Budget

Years Samples processed Annual budget Cost per sample

1957-1958 415 $22,511.00 $54.24
1958-1959 1,003 19,326.00 19.26
1959-1960 1,971 17,750.00 9.00
1960-1961 1,604 18,455.00 11.50
1961-1962 4,026 23,000.00 5.71
1962-1963 3,306 28,248.00 8.72
1963-1964 6,066 37,266.00 6.14
1964-1965 6,858 40,959.00 (estimated) 5.97
1965-1966 7,840 57,125.00 (estimated) 7.28


A rise in the budget and a slight rise in the cost per sample
is predicted in the new biennium.


SOYBEAN AND GOLDEN CYST NEMATODE SURVEY

F. S. DONALDSON, Nematologist

During the biennium a total of 100 cyst samples were ex-
amined. This completes the survey with a total of 898 cyst
samples being examined since 1959. No golden or soybean cyst
nematodes were found.
This survey was initiated in 1959 in conjunction with the
USDA to survey the state for these dangerous pests.
Soybean Cyst Nematode: Since the soybean cyst nematode
has been found in Mississippi the most immediate danger was
to the West Florida soybean crop. This area was sampled ex-
tensively. The soybean cyst nematode will infect snap beans,







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


adzuki beans, lespedeza, and common vetch, so some areas grow-
ing these crops were sampled in central and southern Florida.
Golden Nematode: The areas of potato production in Florida
were sampled for the Golden nematode. Golden nematode has
destroyed up to 85 per cent of the potato crop in some areas of
Long Island. This nematode pest will always be a serious threat
to Florida potato production. The area around Hastings was
sampled extensively with negative results.
At the beginning of this project there were a number of
samples in which an undescribed species of cyst nematode was
found. In 1962 this nematode was described as Heterodera
cyperi, the nut grass cyst nematode. A nut grass, Cyperus es-
culentus, is the only known host of this nematode.
Port of Entry Interceptions: Since the last biennium the
USDA Port Inspection Service has found Golden nematode,
Heterodera rostochinensis, in 20 shipments of cargo. The cargo
originated in England, Ireland, Holland, Germany, and Sweden.
The cargo where the finds were made consisted of soil from
autos, beets, rutabagas, potatoes, and celeriac.
These interceptions point up the importance of periodic sur-
veys as a means of early detection, should these pests become
established in Florida.


RENIFORM NEMATODE PROGRAM

J. B. MACGOWAN, Nematologist

The primary objective of the Reniform Nematode Survey is
and has been the evaluation of nematode infestations of plants
grown in the Apopka area bound for out-of-state shipment (Tab-
le 3). To meet this objective, the mobile laboratory in Apopka
is equipped to handle large numbers of soil samples primarily
from the Apopka area. Samples from Lake, Seminole, and Vo-
lusia Counties are also processed.
The laboratory is satisfactorily meeting its primary objective
and has met many secondary objectives.
Among them are:
1. Sampling ornamental nurseries for burrowing nematode certification.
2. Sampling for citrus nursery site approval.
3. Examining gardenias and caladium bulbs whenever root-knot certifi-
cation is required.







Division of Plant Industry


4. Miscellaneous examinations where nurserymen have disease problems
and nematode trouble is suspected.
5. Assistance with sanitation and chemical control problems.
6. Accumulation of nematode host and distribution data.
7. Assistance with plant inspection activities such as spring flush or
bud-cutting when emergency requires.
8. Examining soil samples from sources other than ornamental and
citrus plants when nematode certification is required, such as clay
pits, peat pits, sand mines, and worm farms.

Table 3. Diagnostic Work Summary 1964-1966


Total sam ples processed ................. .............. ......-- --- ........ ..................... 4,858
Total properties sampled* ....................--..-..-.................---------------------...........-----............... 172
Total number of sampling operations and properties examined**........ 248
Samples infested with sting nematode (Belonolaimus) .................... 139
Properties infested with sting nematode (Belonolaimus) ................ 40
Samples infested with burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis).. 54
Properties infested with burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) 14
Samples infested with citrus nematode
(Tylenchulus sem ipenetrans) ............................................................ 38
Properties infested with citrus nematode
(Tylenchulus semipenetrans) .................................. ..................--------... 10

*The figure 172 represents separately owned properties.
**The figure 248 represents the total number of separate areas from which
samples have been taken.

Results of examination during the biennium are tabulated in
Table 4. Root-knot, stubby root, spiral, ring, and lesion nema-
todes were found most frequently in that order. The number of
genera of plant parasitic nematodes found per property is listed
in Table 5. A single genus present was most frequently en-
countered. The most genera detected in a single property was
14.

TURF CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

A total of 950 turf samples were examined for nematodes.
Forty-two samples (4.4 per cent) failed to meet turf certifica-
tion requirements (Table 6). This is the lowest number of fail-
ures since the start of the program. Spiral nematodes occurred
in 804 samples, stubby root nematodes in 614, ring in 528, and
lesion nematodes in 317 of the 950 total samples (Table 7).








Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report


Table 4. Frequency of plant parasitic nematode recovery


Nematode Genera


Number of samples positive


Meloidogyne (root-knot nematode) ......................... 938
Trichodorus (stubby root nematode) ................................. 744
Helicotylenchus (spiral nematode) .......................-.......--.... 684
Criconemoides (ring nematode) ..............- .........-....... 599
Pratylenchus (lesion nematode) .............-. .-- ..-.....-........ 579
Hoplolaimus (lance nematode) .................. ................... 330
Tylenchorhynchus (stunt nematode) ................................. 203
Xiphinenma (dagger nematode) ..................................... 202
Hemicycliophora (sheath nematode) ..................... ............. 145
Belonolaimus (sting nematode) ............... .................... 139
Hemicriconemoides (sheathoid nematode) ......................... 117
Scutellonema (spiral nematode) ....................... .............. 96
M eloidodera (cystoid nematode) ............................................ 90
Radopholus similis (burrowing nematode) .................. 54
Paratylenchus (pin nematode) ..... ............. 54
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus nematode) .................... 38
Dolichodorus (awl nematode) .................. .. ...--- ...........- 19
Cacopaurus (sessile nem atode) ................ .......-- ......... ........ 10
Aphelenchoides (foliar nematode) ....................... ............ 9
Criconema (spine nematode) .................................. .......... 5
Ditylenchus (no common name) ..... .........-- ............... 4
Tylenchulus floridensis (no common name) ........................ 2



Table 5. Number of plant parasitic genera found among properties
sampled

Number of Genera Frequency of occurrence

0 54
1 56
2 23
3 28
4 17
5 16
6 7
7 10
8 7
9 8
10 10
11 5
12 4
13 1
14 1








90 Division of Plant Industry



Table 6. Turf grass samples that passed or failed
the turf certification program

Total Number Number Per cent Per cent
Samples Passed Failed Passed Failed

Stenotaphrum secundatum ........449 430 19 95.8 4.2
Eremochloa ophiuroides ............181 170 11 93.9 6.1
Cynodon dactylon ......................139 129 10 92.8 7.2
Zoisia sp .......... ......................168 166 2 98.8 1.2
Turf grass ...............................- 13 13 0 100 0
Totals 1964-1966 ..................--950 908 42 95.6 4.4


1962-1964 ................. ..978 699 279 71.5 28.5




Table 7. Plant parasitic nematode
occurrence on turf grasses in the turf certification program

Stenotaphrum Eremochloa Cynodon Zoisia Turf Total
secundatum ophiuroides dactylon sp. grass occurrence

Belonolaimus ....... 0 18 7 10 0 35
Cacopaurus .............. 22 13 7 12 0 54
Criconemoides ........113 157 96 151 11 528
Dolichodorus ....... 4 1 4 8 0 17
Helicotylenchus ......436 134 102 120 12 804
Hemicriconemoides 11 4 27 6 0 48
Hemicycliophora .... 3 51 16 11 0 81
Heterodera ............ 0 1 0 0 0 1
Hoplolaimus ............ 3 4 11 5 0 23
Longidorus ............. 0 0 2 0 0 2
Meloidogyne ......... 14 10 20 63 0 107
Paratylenchus ........163 3 0 2 1 169
Pratylenchus .......... 10 143 26 137 1 317
Rotylenchulus ........ 0 1 0 0 0 1
Scutellonema ....... 4 2 8 0 0 14
Sphaeronema .......... 0 1 0 0 0 1
Trichodorus .............261 132 93 119 9 614
Tylenchorhynchus .. 29 17 50 42 3 141
Xiphinema ........... 19 45 7 12 0 83
Hypsoperine ......... 5 4 19 38 0 66


Total ....................1097 741 495 736 37 3106







Twenty-Sixth Biennial Report 91

CALADIUM SURVEY

A total of 519 samples were examined for burrowing nema-
tode during the biennium. No burrowing nematodes were de-
tected. Nematodes detected in the caladium survey are shown
in Table 8.
Table 8. Nematodes associated with
caladium and occurrence of each per 519 samples

Nematodes Found Times found per 519 examinations

M eloidogyne............. .................................... 189
Criconemoides................ ........................ 70
H elicotylenchus........-......... ..... ............ 53
Cacopaurus............... ......................... 32
Tylenchorhynchus........................ ............. 29
Heterodera cyperi.................. .................... 24
H emicriconemoides........ ..................... 4........ 4
Hoplolaimus............... ................ ........ 1
Trichodorus............ .............. ................. 1
Sphaeronem a....................................................... 1


Table 8 shows as did the survey in the last biennium that
root-knot nematode is the nematode most frequently associated
with caladium. The only nematode in this report not detected
in the last biennium is Sphaeronema sp.

Education
Three Division of Plant Industry inspector trainee classes
were conducted during the biennium. Laboratory sessions from
the Entomology, Biology, and Soils Departments of the Univer-.
sity of Florida were conducted at the laboratory. Lectures were
given in the Soils and Entomology Departments of the Univer-
sity by R. P. Esser.

ROOT-KNOT AND CROWN GALL ASSOCIATION

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

An experiment started during the preceding biennium and
terminated the latter portion of the present biennium involved
a suspected complex of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incog-
nita) and crown gall bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens).







Division of Plant Industry


The two had been found associated repeatedly on various hosts,
but experimental evidence as to their casual relationship was
lacking. This experiment was designed to elucidate this rela-
tionship; however, difficulties in obtaining infection by the bac-
teria, even on known susceptible hosts, drastically limited the
amount of information obtainable from this experiment.
Plants tested were Okinawa peach (Prunus persica), bleed-
ing heart vine (Clerodendrum thompsoniae), begonia (Begonia
coccinea 'Dielytra'), Kalanchoe rosei, Rutgers tomato (Lycoper-
sicon esculentum), and Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudo-cap-
sicum). Plants were grown together in each of four soil boxes
to which different treatments were applied. These treatments
were: 1) Control (no treatment). 2) Crown gall bacteria only.
3) Root-knot nematodes only. 4) Root-knot nematodes plus
crown gall bacteria.
Treatment 2 (crown gall only) became contaminated with
root-knot nematodes during the course of the experiment and
had to be replaced. After removal of the plants from the con-
taminated treatment, one of five Okinawa peach trees was found
infected with crown gall. No other plants showed symptoms.
This treatment was re-established in sterilized soil and in-
fested both by pouring on a young culture of the bacteria and
by direct inoculation of Begonia coccinea. On removal of the
plants (including Okinawa peach) the only plant found with
crown gall symptoms was the begonia which had been inoculated
directly.
Treatment 1 (check) showed no galls of any type. Treat-
ment 3 (nematodes only) showed typical root-knot symptoms on
begonia, tomato, and Jerusalem cherry. Okinawa peach, Kalan-
choe rosei, and Clerodendrum thompsoniae were unaffected.
Treatment 4 (nematodes plus bacteria) proved interesting.
All root-knot nematode susceptible plants showed typical root-
knot symptoms. Clerodendrum thompsoniae and Kalanchoe rosei
were unaffected. Okinawa peach, on the other hand, had large
galls of typical crown gall on the roots of four out of five plants
tested.
Okinawa peach is reported to be resistant to root-knot nema-
todes and to crown gall bacteria. In this experiment Okinawa
peach has proven to be resistant to Meloidogyne incognita. In-
vestigators report that the nematodes enter the roots, but do not
cause galls and soon die. With this in mind, the following hy-




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