FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Bob Crawford, Commissioner
rsi 3 l99od
rsity of Florida
July 1, 1990 June 30, 1992
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES
Bob Crawford, Commissioner
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Richard Gaskalla, Director
POST OFFICE BOX 147100
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32614-7100
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
PLANT INDUSTRY TECHNICAL COUNCIL
Mr. Ken Jorgensen, Chairman (Vegetable) ................................ Zellwood
Joseph Welker, Vice Chairman (Horticulture) ....................... Jacksonville
Dr. Thomas Latta (Turfgrass) ............................................ Deerfield Beach
Michael O. Hunt (Tropical Fruit)............................................... Homestead
Ed Holt (Member-at-Large).................................................... Jacksonville
John Hornbuckle (Citrus)................................................... Belleair Beach
Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower) ................................. Punta Gorda
Elliot Maguire (Forestry) ........................................ Green Cove Springs
Richard Mimms (Citrus) ............................................................... Orlando
Owen W. Conner, III (Foliage).................................................... Mt. Dora
Bill Sherman (Apiary)............................................................... Wimauma
Richard D. Gaskalla, Secretary ................................................ Gainesville
R.D. Gaskalla, Director........................................................... Gainesville
C.C. Riherd, Assistant Director ................................................ Gainesville
D.L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development ............................ Gainesville
H.A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology ....................................... Gainesville
L.P. Cutts, Chief of Apiary...................................................... Gainesville
L.H. Hebb, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control................. Winter Haven
R.A. Clark, Chief of Plant Inspection ...................................... Gainesville
T.S. Schubert, Chief of Plant Pathology ................................. Gainesville
C.C. Riherd, Acting Chief of Nematology ................................. Gainesville
C.O. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration .................... Winter Haven
PI-94G-06 ISSN 0071-5948
I REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR
Mandate of the Division ................................... ................ ........ .... 1
Summary of Activities ................................................. ................... 1
Offices ........................................................ ............................ 4
Division Director Personnel Fiscal Library Technical Assist-
ance Training Coordinator Botany Maintenance Caribbean
Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility Commodity Irradiation
Bureaus ........................................................................... .......... 8
Methods Development Entomology Nematology Plant
Pathology Apiary Inspection Pest Eradication and Control -
Citrus Budwood Registration Plant Inspection
Awards and Special Recognition .................................... ............ 15
Budget Information ................................................ ................ 16
Em ployee Training ..................................... ......................................... 18
Legislation ............................................................................ 20
II PROGRAMS, PROJECTS AND SURVEYS
Eradication and Control ................................... ............................ 24
Banana Rasp Snail Black Parlatoria Scale American
Grasshopper Citrus Canker Eradication Project Boll Weevil
Eradication Program Wild Red Rice
Biological Control ................................................ .............. ... 29
Florida Biological Control Laboratory Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass
Rearing Facility Integrated Management of Caribbean Fruit Fly -
Citrus Blackfly Sweetpotato Whitefly Sugarcane Lacebug -
Commercial Nematode and Fungal Biological Control Agent Testing
Biological Control Utilizing Fungi Mites
Research ......................................................... ................... 35
Florida Linear Accelerator Research Center Medfly Genetic
Studies Benlate DF Damage Assessment Citrus Damage Task
Force Control of American Grasshopper Nosema locustae
Field Trial for American Grasshopper Control Fixing and
Staining Techniques Host Status of some Ornamental Palms
and a Cycad to the Reniform Nematode Native Hosts of Coffee
Lesion Nematode A Nematode Parasite of Fig Florets and the
Fig Pollinator Wasp Description of New Nematode Species -
Pasteuria sp. Parasitizing Trophonema okamotoi- Control of
Root-knot Nematodes with Periwinkle
Regulatory ................................... .......................................... 41
Mediterranean Fruit Fly Melon Thrips Metamasius Weevil-
Tobacco Veinal Necrosis Strain of Potato Virus Y (PVYN )-
Plant Pest Detection ......................................... ........... ... 44
African Honeybee Giant Grasshopper Oak Wilt and Oak
Leaf Scorch Survey and Collection in Foreign Countries -
Imported Plant Material Survey Cabbage Palms Citrus
and Citrus Environ Survey
III CERTIFICATIONS, INSPECTIONS,
SAMPLES PROCESSED, IDENTIFICATIONS
Nursery and Beekeeping Data ..................................... ........... ... 48
Inspections Non-citrus Nursery Certification Postentry
Quarantine Imported Fire Ant Certification Apiary Inspection
Samples Processed........................................... .......................... 55
Perm its ........................................................................... ............. 65
New Pest Records...................................................................... 66
IV PUBLIC/INDUSTRY SERVICES
Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants ........................................... 68
Public Awareness and Education .................................. .............. 69
"Plan Bee" Displays Medfly Public Information -
Other Educational Contributions
Committees, Councils and Workshops............................................. 70
Internal Committees External Committees and Councils -
Citrus Budwood Registration......................................... ............ ... 73
Citrus Tristeza Virus Foundation Groves Increase Blocks -
Production Trends New Releases
Citrus Tree Survey .............................................. .......................... 77
Caribbean Fruit Fly-free Protocol ....................................... .......... .. 78
Other Industry-related Services ......................................... ........... .. 82
Guidelines for Compost Sanitation Imported Fire Ant -
Fumigation Spreading Decline
Biological Collections................................................ ..................... 84
Florida State Collection of Arthropods Herbarium Florida
State Collection of Nematodes Florida Collection of Plant
The Florida Citrus Arboretum ........................................... ........... ... 87
Division Library................................................ ..................... 88
APPEND IX A .................................................................................... 90
APPENDIX B ................................................................................. 97
Honorable Bob Crawford, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0810
I am pleased to present herewith the 1990-92 Biennial Report
for the Division of Plant Industry.
Richard D. Gaskalla, Director
Division of Plant Industry
REPORT OF THE
MANDATE OF THE
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
The Division of Plant Industry (DPI) is one of 11 divisions within the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS). DPI
is the regulatory agency responsible for protecting Florida's native and
commercially grown plants from harmful pests and diseases. The division
is also responsible for protecting Florida's apiary industry. The statutory
authority for the division is contained in Chapters 570, 581, 586, and 593,
SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
The major change in this biennium occurred when newly elected
Commissioner of Agriculture Bob Crawford took office in January 1990.
Subsequent changes in the structure of the department placed DPI within
the group of divisions reporting to Deputy Commissioner for Agricultural
Services Carl Carpenter.
Other major reorganization changes affecting DPI will take effect on
July 1, 1992, and will include combining the bureaus of Plant Inspection
and Apiary Inspection and the expansion of the Bureau of Methods
Development to that of Bureau of Methods Development and Biological
Control. The bureaus of Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology,
along with the Office of Systematic Botany, will be combined into a single
Among those retiring during the biennium were: Dr. Kenneth Langdon,
head of the Office of Systematic Botany, who retired in April 1991 with 28
years of service; Dr. Howard Weems, entomologist and long-time curator
of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, who retired in February
1991 after 38 years with the department; and Biological Administrator
Commissioner Bob Crawford
and Assistant Commissioner
visit nematology laboratory
during tour of DPI.
Ralph Brown, head of the Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility, who retired
in June 1991 after 29 years of service.
This biennium saw DPI wrap up a major fruit fly eradication program
and undertake or continue several other programs involving potentially
serious agricultural pests.
The 1990 Mediterranean fruit fly eradication project in three Miami
communities was successfully concluded in August 1990; the intensive
survey following the discovery of one Medfly in Port Everglades, Broward
County, in April 1990 found no additional flies and was concluded in July
1990. A single Medfly was discovered in Altamont Springs, near Orlando,
the following spring. This discovery was followed by three months of
extensive trapping, but no further flies were found.
The USDA deregulated citrus bacterial spot in September 1990, and
we have seen steady progress toward the eradication of the Asian strain
of citrus canker in Florida. There were four incidences of the Asian strain
during the biennium, one of which was in the Pumphouse Grove in
Highlands County, a completely new location quite removed from areas
of previous infestations. The entire grove was eventually destroyed and
will qualify for replanting in mid-1993. There were three finds of Asian
strain in areas of Manatee County that had been previously infested.
Citrus trees at two of these locations were completely destroyed and, at
the third location, extensive portions of the grove were destroyed and
Thrips palmi, melon thrips, a pest of considerable economic signifi-
cance to Florida growers, was discovered onBidens pelosa, a weed, in the
Homestead area in January 1991. Eradication was not attempted since
subsequent surveys indicated the pest was widespread in the Homestead
area. Left unchecked, melon thrips could damage and reduce yields of
many Florida crops, including peppers, potatoes, cowpeas, soybeans,
cotton, cucurbits, as well as several varieties of flowers and ornamental
plants. There is no known biological control for this thrips, and approved
chemical controls are only about 80 percent effective. By the end of the
biennium, the thrips had been found in 10 counties, either in open fields
or in nursery stock, and scientists are seeking a viable biological control
agent and testing chemicals for managing this pest.
In early June 1991, the division began receiving reports of a heavy
infestation of the American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana, in the
Dade City area of Pasco County. After confirming the infestation, a survey
began immediately and, in mid-June, Commissioner Crawford launched a
control program utilizing the divisions of Plant Industry and Forestry.
The program combined ground applications of malathion ULV with mow-
ing and disking of pine plantings and fallow fields. The first year's efforts
made significant headway into the problem and by the end of the bien-
nium, the problem appeared to be well in hand.
Another grasshopper problem surfaced in February 1992 when a
Plantation housewife discovered and killed the first Tropidacris cristata
cristata ever found in Florida. Averaging about six inches in length and
with a wingspan of more than eight inches, this is one of the world's
largest grasshoppers and is capable of considerable agricultural damage.
By the end of June, three more had been found in the Plantation area, and
one other was turned in that apparently had been collected at Miami
International Airport. Intensive surveys yielded no other specimens and
no clue whatever as to where they came from and how they arrived in
Florida averted another potentially serious agricultural problem when
vacationing Plant Protection Specialist Steve Beidler discovered giant
African land snails, Archachatina marginata, also known as the banana
rasp snail, being sold in a pet store in Tallahassee. Steve interrupted his
vacation to identify the snail, obtain a stop-sale order and confiscate the
snails. By the time the snails were tracked back to their source, it was
discovered that thousands had been shipped illegally from Nigeria through
JFK International Airport and distributed throughout the nation.
DPI has been evaluating many samples of plants suspected of having
been damaged by contaminated Benlate DF and equivalent DuPont fun-
gicides. DuPont recalled all stocks of Benlate DF in March, 1991, after
widespread reports of damage suggesting herbicide injury to a broad
spectrum of plants treated with the fungicide. Dr. Tim Schubert, Chief of
DPI's Bureau of Plant Pathology, was appointed in mid-1992 as chairman
of the Benlate Plant Effects Committee, established by Commissioner
Crawford to investigate the problem.
The discovery of the necrotic strain of potato virus Y during the fall
of 1990 in seed potatoes from Prince Edward Island, Canada, alerted
southeastern potato-growing states to the problem. While the virus is not
especially harmful to potatoes themselves, it causes major damage to
other crops, such as tobacco, when transmitted by aphids. Since the
possibility existed that virus-infected seed potatoes may have been planted
in Florida before the problem was known to exist in Canada, a survey of
Florida potato fields was conducted in the fall of 1991 and spring of 1992.
There was a single positive find in the Homestead area, and further
surveys are planned.
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
OFFICES AND BUREAUS
During this biennium, the division had eight bureaus: Plant Inspec-
tion, Apiary Inspection, Methods Development, Entomology, Plant Pa-
thology, Nematology, Pest Eradication and Control, and Citrus Budwood
Registration. With the next biennium, the three technical bureaus and
the Office of Systematic Botany will be combined into one Bureau of
Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology. The two inspection bu-
reaus will become a single Bureau of Plant and Apiary Inspection, and the
Bureau of Methods Development will expand to the Bureau of Methods
Development and Biological Control.
Administrative offices included: Library, Maintenance, Fiscal, Techni-
cal Assistance, Training Coordinator, Personnel, the Caribbean Fruit Fly
Mass Rearing Facility, Botany, and Commodity Irradiation.
As of June 30, 1992, DPI had an allocation of 271 Full Time Equivalent
(FTE) salaried positions. Personnel in those positions at that date are
listed under their offices and bureaus. Of the 271 FTE salaried positions,
six positions were vacant on this date. The division also employed approxi-
mately 154 FTE Other Personal Services (OPS) employees as of June 30,
1992, in the following division projects: Citrus Canker Project (78), Car-
ibbean Fruit Fly Protocol (23), Fumigation Operations (5), Imported Fire
Ant Certification (12), Black Parlatoria Scale Project (1), Potato Virus Y
Necrotic Survey (2), Sterile Fly Release Program (4), Parasite Rearing
Project (7), Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility (12), African Bee
Inspection (8), Administration (1), and the Grasshopper Project (1).
Office of the Division Director
The division director, under the supervision of the Commissioner of
Agriculture and the deputy commissioner for industry services, directs,
coordinates and enforces all division activities and statutory responsibili-
ties. The director is responsible for carrying out the goals and objectives
of the division and for coordinating division activities with other divisions,
various state agencies, the federal government and the agricultural
industry. The director serves as a member of the Southern Plant Board
and the National Plant Board.
The assistant division director coordinates various division program
activities, serves as the division safety coordinator, reviews and evaluates
permits for research activity involving plant pests, coordinates division
rule making and provides other supervision where needed in the absence
of or as directed by the director.
Richard D. Gaskalla, Director
Constance C. Riherd, Assistant Director
Sandra R. Roberts, Administrative Assistant II
Treasa L. McLean, Administrative Assistant II
Robert L. Leonard, Administrative Assistant I
Jeanne B. McAllister, Administrative Secretary
Grace J. Jones, Switchboard Operator II
The Personnel Office coordinates division recruitment, hiring, pay-
roll, employee benefits and other personnel activities.
Kelly E. Shipman, Personnel Technician III
Terry A. Green, Personnel Technician I
All matters relating to the division budget, purchasing, leasing and
other fiscal activities are the responsibility of the Fiscal Office.
Douglas G. Hadlock, Accounting Services Supervisor I
Merceta Ambrose, Accountant II
Sally J. Ashe, Senior Clerk
Anna J. Williams, Clerk Typist Specialist
The Library maintains a specialized research collection, obtains books,
periodicals and other materials pertinent to the division's activities and
provides information and assistance to anyone using the collection.
Beverly L. Pope, Library Services Supervisor
Alice R. Sanders, Library Technical Assistant II
This office assists the division in producing, printing and distributing
information about pests and diseases of plants and honeybees, as well as
division programs and activities. The Office of Technical Assistance also
provides writing, photographic, graphic, editing and publishing services,
as well as information to the public, the media and other government
agencies on a daily basis and during emergency programs.
Phyllis P. Habeck, Public Information Director
Maeve McConnell, Information Specialist III
John J. Corkery, Publications Production Specialist II
Jeffrey W. Lotz, Information Specialist II
Loyola E. Volpe, Senior Clerk
The Office of the Training Coordinator is responsible for coordinating
the training of new plant protection specialists, for safety training, and for
training activities associated with emergency eradication or control pro-
grams, Right-to-Know and other programs.
Ernest M. Collins, Jr., Research & Training Specialist
The Office of Systematic Botany is a service support unit primarily
assisting other division bureaus by providing plant identifications and
related services. This office is also involved in projects related to the
preservation of threatened and endangered plant species.
Nancy C. Coile, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Carlos R. Artaud, Biological Scientist II
The Maintenance Office services and maintains division facilities,
provides greenhouse and landscaping maintenance, as well as custodial
James S. Estep, Facilities Services Manager II
Keary N. Doke, Maintenance Mechanic
David M. Harvey, Maintenance Mechanic
Hugh L. Walker, Maintenance Mechanic
Mary J. Echols, Nursery/Landscape Supervisor
Theodore 'Glen' Barrett, Groundskeeper
Mark W. Blake, Groundskeeper
Marion C. Johnson, Custodial Supervisor II
Rosa L. Alexander, Custodial Worker
George A. Brown, Custodial Worker
Mary E. Danzy, Custodial Worker
Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility
The Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility is used in the devel-
opment of a sterile fly program to suppress this pest of citrus and other
Reed E. Burns, Biological Administrator II
Suzanne Fraser, Biological Scientist II
Julie Pocklington, Biological Scientist II
Bernard Green, Laboratory Technician IV
Stephen A. Hildebrandt, Laboratory Technician IV
Piyachai Chaiboonruang, Laboratory Technician III
Steven C. Gillis, Laboratory Technician III
Richard E. Harvey, Laboratory Technician III
Robert A. Ross, Laboratory Technician III
Gregory A. Brown, Agricultural Technician III
Peter C. Hirst, Agricultural Technician III
Myrna G. Stenberg, Agricultural Technician III
Agricultural Technician III*
Sandra E. Riddling, Senior Clerk
The Office of Commodity Irradiation operates the Florida Linear
Accelerator Research Facility which utilizes a GE-CGR linear accelerator
as a radiation source. The facility is designed for research and demonstra-
tion purposes and is also used to sterilize the flies produced in the
Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility.
Burrell J. Smittle, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Bureau of Methods Development
The Bureau of Methods Development oversees chemical control
methods, biological control activities, sterile insect technique, quality
control, environmental concerns, restricted pesticide training and licens-
ing, hazardous waste storage and disposal, adapting research of other
agencies and modifying equipment to meet division needs.
Don L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development
Ru Nguyen, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Jose D. Diaz, Biological Scientist III
Mary Jo Hayes, Ph.D., Biological Scientist III
Arleen B. Kaufmann, Biological Scientist II
Justin E. Emerson, Agricultural Technician III
Kevin A. Heard, Agricultural Technician III
Douglas W. Lawrence, Agricultural Technician III
Gerald B. McElroy, Agricultural Technician III
Robert H. Murdock, Agricultural Technician III
Norma A. McGinn, Administrative Secretary
Bureau of Entomology
Arthropod identification services are just one of the responsibilities of
the Bureau of Entomology. This bureau also conducts limited investiga-
tions of certain economic insect problems, builds and maintains the
arthropod reference and research collection (the Florida State Collection
ofArthropods), conducts taxonomic investigations, supervises the security
of the Biological Control Laboratories and develops the taxonomic and
biological control literature to support these areas of responsibility.
Harold A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology
G. B. Edwards, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Avas B. Hamon, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
John B. Heppner, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Frank W. Mead, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Lionel A. Stange, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Gary J. Steck, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Michael C. Thomas, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Limhuot Nong, Ph.D., Biological Scientist III
Brenda M. Beck, Laboratory Technician IV
Ladonia Fields, Laboratory Technician IV
Charles C. Hernandez, Laboratory Technician IV
Ernestine S. Ostanik, Laboratory Technician IV
Robert S. Weston, Laboratory Technician IV
James R. Wiley, Laboratory Technician IV
Brenda S. Moore, Administrative Secretary
Charlotte J. Campana, Senior Clerk
Evelyn M. Estes, Senior Clerk
Michelle M. Faniola, Senior Clerk
Pamela M. Meister, Senior Clerk
Bureau of Nematology
The Bureau of Nematology conducts the diagnostic analyses of soil
and root samples for the identification of phytoparasitic nematodes in-
volved in regulatory programs, pest detection surveys and phytoparasitic
nematode plant problems. This bureau maintains a comprehensive taxo-
nomic filing system and a collection of nematode specimens and is
responsible for investigations of methods of control, eradication and
spread of nematode pests.
Constance C. Riherd, Acting Chief of Nematology
Robert P. Esser, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Renato N. Inserra, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Paul S. Lehman, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Carol R. Cochran, Laboratory Technician IV
David R. Cott, Laboratory Technician IV
Zell Smith III, Laboratory Technician IV
Pamela C. Zwerski, Administrative Secretary
Brenda J. Lovelace, Senior Clerk
Bureau of Plant Pathology
The Bureau of Plant Pathology provides plant disease diagnostic
services for the division including: diagnosing the causes of all manner of
plant diseases; indexing seeds, budwood and crops for endemic and exotic
plant disease pathogens; investigating the control, management and/or
containment of plant diseases of regulatory importance; and surveying for
and responding to new plant disease threats to Florida agriculture.
Timothy S. Schubert, Ph.D., Chief of Plant Pathology
Lawrence G. Brown, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Nabih E. El-Gholl, Biological Scientist IV
John J. McRitchie, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
John W. Miller, Ph.D., Biological Scientist IV
Lisa L. Breman, Biological Scientist III
Robert M. Leahy, Biological Scientist III
Mark W. Ford, Laboratory Technician IV
Sarah E. Walker, Laboratory Technician IV
Ora B. Lawson, Laboratory Technician III
Judy M. Mattes, Administrative Secretary
Cynthia A. Edwards, Senior Word Processing Systems Operator
Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Florida's honeybee industry depends upon the Bureau of Apiary
Inspection for preventing the introduction, dissemination and establish-
ment of honeybee diseases and pests and unwanted races of honeybees,
such as African honeybee.
Laurence P. Cutts, Chief of Apiary Inspection
Thomas B. Dowda III, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector Supervisor
Richard L. Dunaway, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector Supervisor
John L. Bastianelli, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
Stephen H. Beaty, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
Jerry A. Crews, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
James R. Hall, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
Ashraff Hosein, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
D. Fred Howard, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
Warren R. Johnson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
William I. Langston, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
M. Cecil Morgan, Agr. & Cons. Protection Inspector
Cathy A. DeWeese, Administrative Secretary
Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control
DPI has two bureaus located in Winter Haven. One of them, the
Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control, responds to the introduction of
plant pests and diseases of economic significance as determined by the
department for the purpose of regulating the movement of or initiating
control/eradication measures against such pests.
Leon H. Hebb, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control
Kenneth L. Bailey, Assistant Chief
Sam E. Simpson, Biological Scientist III
Jimmy F. Ward, Biological Scientist II
A. C. McAulay Jr., Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Ralph L. Smith, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Jack D. Toole, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Sharon B. Garrett, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Homer A. Mercer, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Robert S. Rice, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Randolph E. Thompson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist*
Carl F. Shultz, Automotive Equipment Mechanic II
Jack H. Hammond, Automotive Equipment Mechanic I
James D. Hill, Safety Specialist
Jessie M. Harris, Agricultural Technician III
Thomas W. McLeod, Agricultural Technician III
John A. Roser, Agricultural Technician II
Johnny D. Seay, Agricultural Technician II
Joe Smith, Agricultural Technician II
Donald W. Weiser, Agricultural Technician II
Florence L. Roberts, Administrative Secretary
Tina L. Cribbs, Senior Clerk
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration
The Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration, also in Winter Haven,
manages the Florida Citrus Budwood Registration Program which assists
growers and nurserymen in the production of horticulturally superior
citrus nursery stock that is apparently free of certain virus and other
graft-transmissible diseases. Bureau personnel select horticulturally sound,
high-yielding citrus trees for screening. Biological and seriological testing
is used to detect graft-transmissible diseases detrimental to tree perfor-
mance. The bureau also maintains six greenhouses, two foundation
groves of the best citrus-producing budlines, and the Florida Arbore-
Charles O. Youtsey, Chief of Citrus Budwood Registration
Michael C. Kesinger, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Nuoc Van Dang, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Fred D. Gebhard, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Charles A. Thornhill, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Frank J. Rosenthal, Laboratory Technician IV
Travis B. Carter, Laboratory Technician III
Johnny J. Yates, Nursery/Landscape Supervisor
Willie C. Brokenburr, Agricultural Technician III
Ann A. Hoag, Agricultural Technician III
George W. Johnson, Agricultural Technician III
Robert E. Miller, Agricultural Technician III
Julia B. Wiggins, Administrative Secretary
Donna A. Hutchinson, Senior Word Processing Systems Operator
Vicki A. Fisher, Secretary Specialist
Donna P. Stewart, Secretary Specialist
Bureau of Plant Inspection
The Bureau of Plant Inspection is responsible for conducting surveys
for the early detection of plant pests and diseases which pose a serious
threat to Florida agriculture or native plant life. The bureau enforces
Florida statutes and departmental rules pertaining to the movement of
plants and plant products. This bureau inspects plants and plant products
imported into Florida; certifies plants and plant products for domestic and
foreign export; conducts pest surveys; and is responsible for plant disease
and pest detection within the state.
Richard A. Clark, Chief of Plant Inspection
Daniel C. Phelps, Assistant Chief
Paul L. Hornby, Certification Specialist
Calie C. Jenkins, Certification Specialist
Debra S. Chalot, Agr. & Cons. Protection Regional Supervisor
Terry L. Kipp, Agr. & Cons. Protection Regional Supervisor
John W. McLeod, Agr. & Cons. Protection Regional Supervisor
Raymond T. Buchholz, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
L. J. Chambliss, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Dennis C. Clinton, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Anthony N. Capitano, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Hugh W. Collins Jr., Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Kenneth L. Hibbard, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Edwin H. Hill, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Ralph E. Muekeley, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
W. Jack Shirley, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
G. Terry Smith, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
Harlo E. von Wald, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist Supervisor
John H. Banta, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Joseph S. Beckwith, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Stephen P. Beidler, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James E. Bennett, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Debora A. Bivins, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Stephen A. Bohnstedt, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
William S. Brewton, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Matthew W. Brodie, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Rita J. Carpenter, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Willie L. Casady, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
B. Marie Clark, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Bonnie L. Coy, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Kathleen E. Dady, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Lynda F. Davis, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Robert W. Dudley, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Roberto Erb, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Thomas S. Everett, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Jack T. Felty, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Claudia A. Ferguson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Dewey E. Fisk, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Peter E. Forkgen, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Willio L. Francillon, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Samuel A. Fuller, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Alan J. Gambill, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Karen L. Garrett-Kraus, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Harmon L. Gillis, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Walter W. Golden, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Donna M. Gruber, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James 'Keith' Harris, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Alan R. Haynes, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Clyde K. Hickman, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Danee A. Hoover, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Lynn D. Howerton, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Cindy S. Kamelhair, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Brenda S. Kosiba, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Lisa Lanza, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Donna M. Leone, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Cheryl L. Lichkai, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James E. Lindsay, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Louis T. Lodyga, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Emil J. Manzo, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Susan Marsicano, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Steven B. Mathews, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Louise S. Maynard, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Floyd J. McHenry, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James E. McKee, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Randall N. Mescher, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
David C. Mitchell, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
David M. Mooney, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Harry L. Morrison, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Christine M. Murphy, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Carl E. Nelson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Maria E. Peacock, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Kenneth R. Penzing, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Tom L. Phillips, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Flewellyn W. Podris, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Donald R. Robbins, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
William L. Robinson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Mark L. Runnals, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Theresa L. Rust, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Thomas L. Salisbury, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
William R. Schirmer, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Bret D. Seligman, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Scott Shea, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
E. Ray Simmons, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James W. Sims, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Helen A. Smith, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Larry W. Smith, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
W. W. Smith, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Ellen J. Tannehill, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Grace E. Thompson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James P. Turnbull, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Frank Urso, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Karolynne M. Vanyo, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Dana M. Venrick, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Howard L. Wallace, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
James J. Walukiewicz, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Alan L. Waters, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Karen J. Watson, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Charles H. Webb Jr., Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Lydia C. White, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Jimmie R. Wigelsworth, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Tracy L. Wright, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
W. Elmer Wynn, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Janet L. Young, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Lynn E. Zellers, Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist
Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist*
Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist*
Agr. & Cons. Protection Specialist*
Robert T. Lawton, Agricultural Technician III
Veloria A. Kelly, Word Processing Systems Operator Supervisor
Glenda J. Anderson, Senior Word Processing Systems Operator
Janet K. Miller, Word Processing Systems Operator
Elizabeth L. Roberts, Administrative Secretary
Barbara G. Bale, Senior Clerk
Phyllis C. Chang, Senior Clerk
Jacque L. Farmer, Senior Clerk
Terry L. Hatch, Senior Clerk
Crystal L. Watson, Senior Clerk
Jeannette L. Brown, Secretary Specialist
* position vacant as of June 30, 1992
AWARDS AND SPECIAL RECOGNITION
Davis Productivity Awards are presented annually by Florida Taxwatch
Inc. in recognition of efficiency or ideas within state government that save
taxpayers' money. The division received a 1990 Davis Productivity Award
for the 1990 Miami Mediterranean Fruit Fly Eradication Project. The
citation was based on eradication being achieved in four months at a cost
of $1.7 million compared to California's 18-month, $58 million program.
Eradication in Florida was achieved for 4.5 percent of California's cost and
in 75 percent less time.
The Medfly project was also selected by the USDA Animal and Plant
Health Plant Inspection Service and by the USDA, overall, for a 1990
Superior Service Award.
Division Director Richard Gaskalla was the 1990 recipient of the
Entomological Society of America's Distinguished Achievement Award in
DPI's highest honor, Employee of the Year, was awarded in 1990 to
G. Terry Smith, agricultural products specialist supervisor, Citrus Tree
Survey, Bureau of Plant Inspection.
The division's Outstanding Service Awards were presented in 1990 to:
Peter Forkgen, Doug Hadlock, Don Harris, Jessie Harris, Paul Hornby,
Cindy Kamelhair, Robert Leahy, Brian McElroy, Don Robbins and Charles
Citations of Special Recognition were awarded in 1990 to: Matthew
Brodie, Reed Burns, Ernest Collins, Roberto Erb, Hedgel Floyd, Keith
Harris, Jack Hammond, Edwin Hill, Maeve McConnell, Kator Merritt,
Randolph Thompson and Vernon Vandiver.
FISCAL YEARS 1990/91 and 1991/92
The reduction in total expenditures from fiscal year 1990/91 to fiscal
year 1991/92 was only $436,095. However, there were some significant
differences in Bureau/Activity and fund totals (Table 1) that bear mention.
One main reason for the differences was a shortfall in General
Revenue funds that eliminated four permanent positions and shifted
funding of $600,000 appropriated expenses. Instead of coming from Gen-
eral Revenue, the expenses were paid from the DPI's own trust funds.
Another major difference resulted from the necessity to redirect the
division's efforts to different eradication programs. The shift in emphasis
was evident in a number of areas. The Black Parlatoria Scale Project,
Medfly Eradication Project and the Citrus Canker Eradication Project
were either reduced or terminated this biennium, and the sales of
imported fire ant bait declined considerably. On the other hand, the
Grasshopper Control Project began in 1991 and continued in 1992, as did
the Citrus Fumigation Program at Wahneta.
The other major shift in funding totals, from Citrus Canker Eradica-
tion Trust Fund to Contracts and Grants Trust Fund, was caused by the
more than $500,000 contribution by the USDA to assist with citrus canker
eradication and to launch the first year of a two-year cooperative survey
for the potato virus Y-necrotic (PVYN) strain.
Table 1 Division of Plant Industry Expenditures
FY 1990/91 and 1991/92
Bureau/Activity FY 90/91 FY91/92
T.A.-Maintenance-Training $2,112,475 1,863,697
Sterile Fly Lab 710,953 723,726
Irradiator Facility 18,997
Citrus Canker Judgement 629,255
EDB Litigation Expenses 552,820
Total Administrative Services 3,376,248 3,235,675
Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection
Plant Inspection 3,633,943 3,652,451
Citrus Tree Survey 177,205 210,921
Fruit Fly Protocol 521,587 784,324
Imported Fire Ant Certification 175,549 192,947
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections 4,508,284 4,840,643
Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 717,670 836,513
Bio-Control Laboratory 37,841 55,626
Bureau of Plant Pathology 503,414 500,169
Bureau of Nematology 446,221 389,205
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 563,418 568,072
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 509,895 540,675
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 678,858 682,590
Black Parlatoria Scale 174,389 57,985
Citrus Fumigation 366,289
Imported Fire Ant 967,568 534,890
(Includes $147,830 transfer to IFAS each fiscal year)
Bureau of Methods Development 323,216 342,157
Apiary Indemnities 29,796 35,798
Citrus Canker Eradication 2,164,551 1,983,110
Transfer to Citrus Canker from General Revenue 878,434
Medfly 1990 (Plant Pest/Disease) 43,175
Medfly 1991 (Plant Pest/Disease) 17,832 19,600
Boll Weevil Eradication 981,473 1,067,286
Sterile Fly/Parasite Release Agreement 159,448 146,719
Grasshopper Control (Plant Pest/Disease) 333,214
Potato Virus Y Necrotic (PVYN) 102,920
Endangered Species 6,500
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 9,197,199 8,569,318
Division Total 17,081,731 16,645,636
Division Total by Fund:
General Revenue 10,202,761 9,817,070
Imported Fire Ant Trust Fund 967,568 636,101
Florida Citrus Canker Trust Fund 500,000
Plant Industry Trust Fund 2,982,547 3,802,895
Contracts & Grants Trust 264,304 927,794
Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 2,164,551 1,461,776
Division Total 17,081,731 16,645,636
Primary training for new agricultural products specialists continued.
During the biennium, four classes containing a total of 35 specialists
received five weeks of basic training in entomology, plant pathology,
nematology and botany, along with skills in regulatory procedures and
Quarterly area workshops and semi-annual regional workshops were
conducted for the ongoing training of field personnel.
Bureau of Methods Development personnel continued to provide
training and testing for division employees for Restricted Use Pesticide
Licenses; to coordinate applications for Continuing Education Units (CEU)
for those with these licenses; to provide record keeping for Right-To-Know
and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) files; and to satisfy compliance
and reporting requirements of the Superfund Amendments and Reautho-
rization Act (SARA), Title III, and Community Right-to-Know Law.
Computer training for employees continued to have a high priority.
During the biennium, 33 employees attended 46 basic and/or advanced
WordPerfect classes; 20 employees received Sperrylink training; and two
employees received training in SMART II.
Dr. John Miller, Bureau of Plant Pathology, was trained in the USDA
apiary laboratory in Beltsville, MD, to do laboratory identification of
American foulbrood and European foulbrood bacteria in support of the
field identification made by inspectors from the Bureau of Apiary Inspec-
tion. During the biennium, more than 500 verification samples were
The Entomology Bureau initiated an annual workshop to improve
fruit fly identification skills ofUSDA and DPI personnel. Both agencies are
responsible for year-round monitoring of fruit fly traps and commodities
in areas at high risk for accidental introduction of exotic pests. These
areas include seaports, airports and major production areas for citrus and
other susceptible fruits and vegetables.
Increased emphasis was placed on safety training in an effort to
reduce the number of injuries to employees and to meet the requirements
of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the
Florida Department of Labor. All field employees and some office staff
received cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and American Red
Cross first-aid training. New first-aid kits were installed in all division
vehicles. Safety training to prevent back injuries was taught to division
employees, and back belts were issued to those employees most at risk for
work-related back injuries. Safety training was also developed and is now
required for personnel operating forklift equipment.
Right-to-Know seminars were held annually, as Florida statutes re-
quire that employees be informed about access to information regarding
any chemicals to which they might be exposed in the workplace.
Research and Training Specialist Ernest Collins acquired training in
emergency response operations in order to develop a "HAZMAT" (hazard-
ous material) team within the division, as required by OSHA. This team
would be trained and equipped to respond quickly to any small chemical
A training package was developed for employees whose positions
require a commercial driver's license. Thirteen employees passed both
written and skills tests by the April 1, 1992, deadline imposed by the
federal government and the Florida Department of Highway Safety and
Motor Vehicles. Some of those employees were required to pass additional
tests for transporting hazardous materials.
Since the duties of DPI's field personnel sometimes expose them to
tick-infested areas, a seminar on Lyme disease was developed and con-
ducted in conjunction with the Division of Forestry.
hissing cockroach, a
nuisance pest illegally
introduced into Florida.
LEGISLATION 1990 -1992
CH 90-155 (HB 2163) Effective 10/1/90. Amended Chapter 581, to
provide authority for the division to regulate the introduction of arthropods
such as exotic scorpions, spiders, tarantulas, roaches, etc., which could be
considered nuisance pests; provides authority to declare such pests a
nuisance, to enact quarantines against their movement and to control
them if necessary.
CH 91-294 (SB 1400) Effective 10/1/91. Amended Section 581.131, F.S.,
increasing the maximum annual registration fee for nurserymen from
$400 to $460; repealed Section 581.185(5) and (6), F.S., deleting the
Regulated Plant Index from the Statute; and amended 581.185, F.S.,
authorizing the department to establish and maintain the Regulated Plant
Index by rule.
CH 91-21 (HB 1341) Effective 10/1/91. This Act amended Section 586.11,
F.S., deleting the requirement that honeybees be inspected in the state
of origin within 60 days immediately preceding the date of shipment or
movement into Florida. The proposed changes will facilitate the orderly
interstate movement of bees into Florida for crop pollination and honey
production and is consistent with the requirements of other states.
CH 91-75 (HB 389) Effective 7/1/91. This Act amended Section 581.192
revising the amount of excise tax to $1.50 on commercial sale or distribu-
tion of citrus nursery stock and amended Section 581.193 revising the
amount of excise tax to 20 cents per plant on the sale or distribution of
citrus nursery stock to any commercial citrus fruit producer; provided for
interest assessment on unpaid excise tax; and provided for the allocation
of the excise tax. Also amended Section 601.282, F.S., revising the
amount of the excise tax to $.0879 on each standard-packed box of citrus
CH 92-147 (HB 1903) Effective 7/1/92. This Act amended Section 581.131
to provide for notice of plant nursery registration renewal and to provide
a late penalty of $10 or 20 percent, whichever is greater. If the registra-
tion has not been renewed or the fee paid within 31 days of the renewal
date, the department shall stop sale or stop movement on all nursery
stock until the certificate of registration has been renewed.
Amended Sections 581.011 and 581.031 and created 581.145 to define
aquatic plant and noxious aquatic plant; provided additional powers and
duties to the department with respect to the importation, transportation,
cultivation, collection, and possession of such plants; provided for quaran-
tine, inspection, and stop-sale notices; required registration of aquatic
Amended Section 586.045 pertaining to honeybees and provided for a
registration fee not to exceed $100 to beekeepers, and provided for a $10
late filing fee.
CH 92-153 (SB 64) Effective 4/9/92. Amended Section 581.186 revising
the terms of the members of the Endangered Plant Advisory Council;
provided for filling vacancies; limited the use of the Regulated Plant Index
solely for the purposes specified in Section 581.185 and may not be used
for regulatory purposes by other agencies.
CH 92-23 (SB 456) Effective 3/16/92. Amended Section 593.114 relating
to the Florida Boll Weevil Eradication Law establishing a maximum
assessment rate of $35 per acre per year and establishing the per-acre
assessments for the 1987-1991 growing seasons.
5B-2 Florida Nursery Stock and Certification Fees Effective 5/17/
92. These rule amendments increased the fees in each category for
nursery stock with a maximum of $460; established a fee schedule
determined by planted acreage for vegetable transplants, bulbs, corms and
tubers with a maximum of $460; increased fees for special inspections and
established fees for grades and standards regrading inspections.
5B-3 Out-Of-State Nursery Stock Effective 3/16/92. Rule Chapter 5B-
3 was amended to provide more detailed guidelines to regulate the
movement of nursery stock into Florida thereby insuring that nursery
stock entering the state meets the necessary certification requirements.
These guidelines will more effectively prevent the introduction and dis-
semination of plant pests into Florida through the movement of uncertified
5B-14 White-Fringed Beetle Repealed 6/17/91. Rule 5B-14 was re-
pealed because of the spread of the beetle throughout the state. Damage
from white-fringed beetle is being controlled through cultural practices
and classical pest control strategies.
5B-26 Oak Wilt Disease Effective 10/18/90. These rule amendments
strengthened regulations prohibiting entry of hosts of oak wilt disease.
Prohibited entry of the oak wilt organism, host plants and other regulated
articles, especially firewood with bark and unpeeled lumber, into Florida
from other states except by master permit issued by the department or
by certificate issued by an authorized representative of the infested state
stating that the regulated articles (firewood and lumber) have been
5B-31 Premium Quality Citrus Nursery Stock Repealed 9/2/91.
Rule Chapter 5B-31 was repealed due to the total lack of nursery tree
production under this voluntary program.
5B-40 Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Effective 12/3/91.
Rule Chapter 5B-40 was amended to add the Regulated Plant Index which
was removed from Chapter 581, Florida Statutes, by the 1991 Session of
5B-48 Citrus Budwood Registration Effective 6/17/91. Rule Chapter
5B-48 was amended to establish procedures for the shoot-tip grafting of
parent tree candidates by the department for the elimination of harmful
virus and virus-like organisms and made such plant material available to
all interested parties; established a process for disposition of registered
scion or nursery trees found infected with injurious isolates of citrus
tristeza virus; added definitions for clone and increase blocks; and pro-
vided procedures for establishing increase blocks.
5B-49 Citrus Canker Effective 3/21/91. Rule Chapter 5B-49 was
amended to make it compatible with the current federal citrus canker
regulations. Revisions included newly defined regulated or quarantined
and survey areas; established procedures to prevent the spread of the
Asian strain citrus canker within the State of Florida and excluded the
disease known as the nursery strain or citrus bacterial spot; changes in
the conditions under which regulated articles may be moved intrastate;
and the adoption of a revised Florida Citrus Canker Action Plan.
5B-52 Boll Weevil Eradication Effective 12/24/90. The amendments
to Rule Chapter 5B-52 changed the boll weevil eradication per-acre annual
assessments as follows: $35 for 1990 with 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994 per-
acre assessments to be $20 per acre. Thereafter, as long as a containment
program is necessary, containment costs will be $10 per acre.
5B-53 The Varroa Mite Effective 8/30/90. Because the varroa mite had
spread throughout the entire state of Florida, making the eradication of
this pest impractical, Rule Chapter 5B-53 was amended to make regula-
tions less restrictive and allow greater flexibility in the certification of
regulated articles infested with varroa mite now that more effective
chemical controls are available.
PROGRAMS. PROJECTS AND
ERADICATION AND CONTROL
Banana Rasp Snail, Archachatina marginata
In March 1992, the discovery of giant land snails for sale in Florida pet
stores triggered memories of the giant land snail infestation that rasped
up Florida vegetation in 1969. At that time, it was the giant African snail,
Achatina fulica, which was finally eradicated in 1975 at a cost of $700,000.
This time, a near relative,
Archachatina marginata, was
the focus of national atten-
After Plant Protection
Specialist Steve Beidler dis-
covered three snails in a Tal-
lahassee pet store, the source
was traced to a Gibsonton-
based importer who still had
nine snails in stock. The de-
partment issued a stop-sale
order on the snails and confis-
cated all the illegal specimens
from the distributor and other
pet stores that possessed
In tracking the snails, the
USDA found that hundreds
had been brought in illegally
from Nigeria through JFK In-
ternational Airport and distrib-
There have been no addi- Plant Protection Specialist Steve Beidler with
tional finds in Florida since banana rasp snail.
April, which provides some
optimism that the snails have been stopped in their tracks due to quick
action and widespread media coverage.
In Nigeria, the snails are a commercial source of food, usually sold
when they are young. However, the snails live an average of five years
with a possible 10-year life span. Young snails feed on tender leaves as well
as dead and decaying ones; older snails prefer ripe fruit such as mangos
and bananas. Although hermaphroditic, the snails apparently must mate
to lay viable eggs, producing about eight eggs per clutch, four times a year.
The snails usually attain 5 inches in length, although giant 7-inch spec-
imens are known and can weigh more than a pound.
Black Parlatoria Scale, Parlatoria ziziphi
Since black Parlatoria scale was detected in the Miami area in
October 1985, many surveys have been completed and, in this biennium,
a new approach was taken in the quest for effective control of this pest.
After a reassessment by representatives of FDACS, the University of
Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), the USDA and
members of the citrus industry, a decision was made to move away from
eradication and toward biological control. Researchers continue seeking
the most effective parasite to assist in this control; no control activities
have been conducted since April 1991.
Detection surveys have continued to monitor the spread of this scale.
During this biennium, 149,903 properties were inspected; of these, 1,468
were found infested.
Although the American grasshop-
per, Schistocerca americana, is estab-
lished in Florida and throughout the
eastern United States, its population
exploded in areas of Pasco, Hernando
and Hillsborough counties in spring
On June 2, 1991, Commissioner
Bob Crawford outlined a program com-
mitting the divisions of Plant Industry
and Forestry (DOF) to an all-out effort
to control the infestation.
Field tests determined that the
most effective treatment for this pest
was applications of 91% or 95% mala-
Commissioner Bob Crawford launches grasshopper control project.
thion ULV, and the most effective means of application was by truck-
mounted mist blowers, 21 of which were loaned to the control program by
While these treatments had little effect on adult grasshoppers be-
cause of their hard exoskeletons and ability to fly, the spray applications
were effective in knocking down populations of nymphs, particularly those
newly emerging or in early stages of development.
After the initial spray treatments, applications were scheduled to
coincide as closely as possible with the emergence of the second genera-
tion in late summer or early fall.
As a supplement to the spray activities, the DOF, along with some of
the landowners, cultivated land known to be heavily infested with grass-
This joint effort proved quite successful. From July 17, 1991, through
June 30, 1992, a total of 548 applications were received from landowners
requesting evaluations of their properties to determine if there was a need
for treatment; of those, 486 applicant's properties did require treatment.
Altogether, 193,427 acres were surveyed, resulting in the treatment of
103,475 acres. At the same time, a total of 13,459 acres was cultivated by
DOF, and an additional 4,603 acres were cultivated by landowners.
The properties were treated with malathion at a rate of 12 ounces per
acre. The total amount of material used was 9,700.8 gallons.
The success of this program was attributed to quick, decisive action
on the part of the department and the high level of cooperation among the
agencies, landowners and local officials involved.
Citrus Canker Eradication Project
Citrus Bacterial Spot
In September 1990, the nursery strain of citrus canker, now referred
to as citrus bacterial spot (CBS), Xanthomonas campestris pv. citrumelo,
was totally deregulated since it was found not to be a threat to the citrus
industry. The disease has continuously been found in various nurseries
but has been of little consequence, except in one central Florida nursery
where the outbreak has since been reduced to a low level using a variety
of cultural and chemical methods.
Nine citrus nurseries were found infested with weakly or moderately
aggressive strains of CBS during the summer of 1990. In keeping with
policy developed in early 1990, no regulatory or control action was taken
except to inform property owners involved that the USDA regulations
were still in effect and prohibited interstate fresh-fruit movement.
Once the USDA completely deregulated CBS in 1990, Florida fruit
produced outside the established A-strain quarantine area could once
again be shipped to citrus-producing states. California, Arizona and Texas
immediately placed restrictions on Florida fresh fruit, accepting only fruit
that had been surface-treated with an approved bactericide, sodium o-
phenyl phenate (SOPP) or sodium hypochlorite. By January 1991, Califor-
nia, Texas and Arizona had dropped the treatment requirements.
Citrus Canker Asian Strain
The Citrus Canker Project has steadily progressed toward eradication
of citrus canker Asian strain, Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri.
The Asian-strain eradication effort was primarily to regulate move-
ment of fruit and plant material in areas under federal quarantine and to
survey citrus properties for disease and certification of citrus crops for
harvesting. Federal quarantine rules required that all citrus properties,
including residences, within the quarantine areas and mandated survey
areas in Manatee and Highlands counties, must have been inspected once
annually during the period May 1 through Dec. 31. Groves producing fruit
for fresh shipment must have been inspected within 30 days prior to
harvest. Fruit produced within the quarantine area could be processed
into products other than fresh fruit or treated with sodium hypochlorite
or SOPP and shipped from Florida, under federal limited permit, to
noncitrus-producing areas only. All vehicles, equipment and personnel
entering grove properties within the quarantine area were required to be
disinfected upon leaving any citrus property, and all fruit loads were
required to be tarped.
A new detection on Oct. 12, 1990, in the Smoak Groves Inc. Pumphouse
Grove at Lake Placid resulted in a second federal Asian-strain quarantine
area in Highlands County. Continued detections of disease in the
Pumphouse Grove resulted in voluntary destruction of the entire 398-acre
grove by July 1991. Fallow for one year, this grove now qualifies for
replanting. The Highlands County area will qualify for release from
quarantine on June 21, 1993.
Destroying canker-infected and exposed citrus
In Manatee County, citrus canker has been contained in the quaran-
tine area with fewer and fewer detections, restricted to the vicinity of the
Cemetery Grove found heavily infested in November 1988.
Further detections of citrus canker in the Manatee Fruit Company
property and the Cemetery Grove resulted in voluntary destruction of
extensive exposed portions of the Manatee Fruit Company Grove and the
complete destruction of the Cemetery Grove. New detections within
the established Manatee quarantine area were in the Chinaman Block on
Jan. 23, 1991, the Sun Hing Farms on Feb. 15, 1991, and the J.B. Cadwell
residence on Jan. 13, 1992. These infestations were all within one-quarter
mile of the Cemetery Grove and are believed to have been caused by
natural spread from that property. Owners elected to destroy all citrus
host plants (48 trees) in the Sun Hing Farms and all 47 acres (5,316 trees)
in the Chinaman Grove. Control measures at the J.B. Cadwell residence
were limited to destruction of the infected tree and cutting back of
Pending changes in USDA regulations will drop mandated surveys in
northwest Sarasota County and reduce surveys in Hillsborough and
Manatee counties. If there are no further detections of disease, this area
will qualify for release from federal quarantine on Jan. 18, 1994.
During this period, Citrus Canker Project personnel conducted tree-
by-tree inspections in more than 62,000 acres of commercial citrus,
309,000 residential properties, 4,055 acres of woods containing 17,000 feral
trees and plant-by-plant inspections in 1,184 nursery/stockdealer inspec-
tions. In addition, 590 packinghouses, juice processors, scale operators,
retail fruit outlets, harvesters, fruit dealers and lawn maintenance busi-
nesses were certified to operate in the quarantine area or deal in fruit
produced in the area.
The Bureau of Plant Inspection conducted 12,865 citrus canker in-
spections of nurseries and stock dealers in 1,806 citrus inventory blocks
and outlets. All inspections were negative for the disease.
Boll Weevil Eradication Program
At the start of the 1992 growing season, there were 304 commercial
cotton growers in the state, 43 new growers over the 1991 growing season
and a 2,000-acre increase in planted cotton.
As of June 30, 1992, Florida's 50,000 acres of planted cotton were
reported to be 98 percent free of the cotton boll weevil.
Due to the eradication effort, there has been a 75 percent reduction
in the amount of pesticides applied to cotton.
Wild Red Rice, Oryza rufipogon
Between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 1992, there were 22 surveys for
wild red rice, Oryza rufipogon, in the Everglades National Park; 97 plants
were detected and destroyed with the herbicide Rodeo .
With the significant decrease in the number of plants found with each
succeeding survey, it is believed that eradication in this area of Florida is
Public concern over exposure to chemicals and protection of the
environment has greatly emphasized the need for alternatives to chemical
controls. The Citrus Blackfly, Citrus Whitefly and the Citrus Snow Scale
Parasite Programs, among others, have demonstrated the advantages of
utilizing natural enemies for control of some plant pests.
The Division of Plant Industry recognizes the need to pursue classical
forms of biological control, as well as other alternatives to chemical
controls, such as sterile insect technique, augmentative and inundative
parasite releases and integration of various control measures. During this
and the previous biennium, a considerable amount of division resources
and personnel have been committed to these efforts. The following are
highlights ofbiocontrol programs and activities during the past biennium.
Florida Biological Control Laboratory
The Florida Biological Control Laboratory (FBCL) is a biological
control research unit of the division. It contains two quarantine facilities
and operates in close cooperation with the USDA/ARS and IFAS.
The primary responsibility of the laboratory is enforcing the quaran-
tine procedures and regulations governing the receipt, handling and
releases of introduced foreign species of arthropods and other organisms.
This, together with the role of the Entomology Bureau Chief as chairman
of the Arthropod and Arthropod Pathogen Introduction Committee, fur-
ther assures the continuity of DPI's regulatory responsibilities.
During the biennium, the FBCL has received 120 shipments of
biological control organisms and exported 101 shipments (Appendix A,
Tables A-1 and A-2). Primary research projects concerned the biological
control of the introduced aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Schinus
terebinthifolius, and the pest insects Bemisia tabaci, Parlatoria ziziphi,
Thrips palmi, Leptodictya tabida and Stomoxys nigra.
Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility
The Caribbean Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility continued to improve
and refine techniques for the efficient and economic production of the
Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, during the biennium. Approxi-
mately 1.5 billion Caribflies were produced for an average of more than
16.5 million flies per week, and about 315 million Caribfly larvae were
collected for exposure to the Caribfly parasitic wasp, Diachasmimorpha
longicaudata. Approximately 61 million sterile flies were shipped for
release as part of the Integrated Management of Caribbean Fruit Fly
Standardized procedures have been developed for critical areas of
production resulting in increased efficiency and time savings. Research
will continue on all aspects of rearing with emphasis placed on diet
materials and larvae collection to increase the production return.
The quality of Caribbean fruit flies mass-produced in the facility
continued to be evaluated. Several standardized quality control tests were
continuing, including those for egg hatch, percent emergence, flightability,
sex ratio and mating propensity.
Integrated Management of Caribbean Fruit Fly
Currently, citrus fruit shipped from Florida to other citrus-producing
states and some foreign countries require certification that the fruit is free
of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense. Fruit certification is accom-
plished by methyl bromide fumigation, cold treatment or the Caribbean
Fruit Fly-free Protocol.
The division and the Bureau of Methods Development have initiated
research to develop supplemental means of certification by suppression or
reduction ofCaribfly populations. It is intended that these means eventu-
ally be incorporated into the Caribfly-free Protocol.
Sterile Caribbean fruit fly release studies were conducted by the
Methods Development Bureau from January 1988 until June 1990. Re-
leases were suspended after suppression of Caribfly had been demon-
strated in the LaBelle area of Hendry County; however, it was believed
that more data was needed before the technique could be incorporated
into the CFF Protocol.
Biological Scientist III Jose
Diaz releases sterile
Caribflies in LaBelle.
A program to evaluate releases of the parasitic wasp,Diachasmimorpha
longicaudata, in conjunction with sterile fly releases, was initiated in June
1990 as a cooperative project with USDA/ARS and IFAS.
Initial activities centered around setting up a laboratory and establish-
ing a colony. In January 1991, releases of parasites began in Clewiston,
Hendry County, and combinations of parasites and sterile flies were
released on Key Biscayne, Dade County.
Through June 1992, approximately 26.5 million parasites were re-
leased in Clewiston. On Key Biscayne, about 38.5 million sterile Caribflies
were released through June 1991, and more than 15.6 million parasites
were released through June 1992.
Preliminary results of these releases indicate suppression of Carib-
bean fruit fly was being achieved with combination releases of sterile flies
and parasites as well as releases of parasites alone. The division will
continue the program through FY 1993 with continuation and completion
of ongoing experiments, data analysis and technology transfer to action
agencies and industry from project cooperators.
Since shipments of the Caribfly parasite, D. longicaudata, were re-
duced in the summer of 1991, excess parasites from the rearing laboratory
were available for use elsewhere. From June 24, 1991, through Oct. 18,
1991, approximately 5 million parasites were shipped to Ft. Pierce and
released by Caribfly-free Protocol workers in areas near the St. Lucie-
Martin County line that have been trouble spots in past years for that
Citrus Blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi
A citrus blackfly parasite colony is maintained at the Doyle Conner
Building complex in Gainesville to provide parasites for suppression of
new citrus blackfly outbreaks or for infestations that are not sufficiently
populated with parasites. These parasites,Amitus hesperidum andEncarsia
opulenta, are reared for releases at "hot spots" around the state, primarily
in dooryard citrus in urban areas.
Recent outbreaks in commercial citrus groves isolated from urban
areas in several counties have increased the demand for releases of
parasites. Reported outbreaks have occurred in Polk, Hendry, Palm
Beach, Martin, St. Lucie, Manatee, Hillsborough and Sarasota counties.
These infestations have increased rapidly due to the absence of the
parasites and require large numbers of parasites to control the blackflies.
During FY 1990/91, growers with infested citrus have been advised to
regulate their spray programs to maximize the parasites present in the
groves. Thousands of laboratory-reared and field-collected parasites have
been introduced into commercial citrus groves to suppress citrus blackfly
populations in Martin, Palm Beach, St. Lucie and Manatee counties.
In cooperation with Dr. David Hall, U.S. Sugar Corporation, about
20,000 parasites, Amitus hesperidum, were released in a citrus blackfly-
infested orange grove in Hendry County in late 1989 and early 1990. By
November 1990, the parasite had suppressed the citrus blackfly infesta-
tion. In January 1991, only a few trees had citrus blackfly present. Two
plant nurseries in the Orlando area have been identified as infested;
however, previous sales to growers and homeowners in the area have
occurred that will no doubt spread the blackfly in the central Florida area
and increase the demand for parasites.
Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
In recent years, sweetpotato whitefly populations have increased
rapidly in Florida, severely affecting several crops and ornamentals. This
whitefly has become resistant to most chemicals formerly used for con-
In August 1990, a sweetpotato whitefly parasite, Amitus sp., was
introduced for rearing in the division quarantine laboratory. In December
1990, it was approved for release. Initial releases totaling about 4,900
parasites were made in Alachua, Dade, Collier, Hillsborough, Orange,
Okeechobee and Manatee counties.
In early 1991, several hundred thousand parasites were reared in
Gainesville on hibiscus plants, and more than 300,000 parasites were
released in the counties previously listed, as well as Palm Beach and Polk
After the initial introduction and release of theAmitus, two Encarsia
spp. from India and Guatemala and twoEretmocerus spp. from Guatemala
and Sudan were reared and cleared for releases.
Since the beginning of FY 1991/92, more than 130,000 Encarsia spp.
and Eretmocerus spp. have been released, primarily in the areas of
Ruskin, Apopka, New Smyrna Beach and Homestead.
These parasites have also been shipped to the USDA/APHIS/PPQ
Mission Biological Control Laboratory, Mission, Texas, to Texas A & M
University and to researchers in Arizona and Israel.
This project has been a cooperative effort with IFAS and USDA/ARS.
Sugarcane Lacebug, Leptodyctia tabida
After the sugarcane lacebug,Leptodyctia tabida, was found in Florida
in July 1990, it was decided to attempt introduction of an egg parasite,
Erythmelus sp., from Venezuela and Costa Rica. In recent years, attempts
at introduction into Hawaii to control the same pest had failed.
In May 1991, suspected parasitized eggs from Venezuela were turned
over to the Bureau of Methods Development by IFAS. Ninety-two
Erythmelus parasites emerged from the eggs. A few parasites from the
first laboratory generation were shipped to the U.S. Sugar Corporation for
release. However, no parasites were produced from the second generation
in the laboratory.
Commercial Nematode and Fungal
Biological Control Agent Testing
During the biennium, commercial producers sent a number of live
masses of nematodes, such as Steinenema and Heterorhabditis, to the
Bureau of Nematology for analysis prior to shipment into Florida.
Florida law demands that certain conditions be met before biological
control products can be sold or shipped into the state. The criteria utilized
were: viability (alive and active, very few dead); purity (monospecific); and
identification (genus and species correctness). In order to meet this
obligation, it was necessary to study the nematodes submitted for analysis
and develop identification schemes to deal with the species.
Four lots of product to be used in biological control of nematodes in
Florida were submitted for evaluation on four different dates. Each lot was
purported to contain three species of biological control fungi. All four lots
were contaminated with bacteria and non-nematophagus fungi, and all
four lots were found devoid of biological control fungi.
These test results might assist Florida growers who otherwise might
purchase and use, with no effect, these biological control agents lacking
the control factors.
Biological Control Utilizing Fungi
Numerous populations of nematodes containing diseased nematodes
have been placed on water agar and studied for days, weeks and months
to obtain biological control interaction data. Eighteen publications have
evolved from these studies, three in this biennium. Several fungal para-
sites of nematodes, such asHaptoglossa zoospora, Dactylaria gracilis and
Monacrosporium eudermata have been found in Florida for the first time.
Two Florida populations of Dactyella megalospora and Monocrosporium
ellipsosporum have been placed in the "American Type Culture Collection"
at Rockville, Md.
A colony of mites, Lasioseius subterraneus, was utilized in nematode
interactions involved in a study of biological control of nematodes. The
colony was maintained for several months subsisting on a variety of
nematodes including citrus and ring nematodes.
Florida Linear Accelerator Research Center
In 1987, FDACS and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) signed a
cooperative agreement to build an agricultural commodities irradiation
facility in Florida. Assistant Commissioner Martha Rhodes coordinated
FDACS' activities with the federal government and other interested
parties in securing this facility for the State of Florida.
Plans called for the facility to be constructed adjacent to the Caribbean
Fruit Fly Mass Rearing Facility. Methods Development Bureau Chief
Ralph E. Brown was assigned as department project representative. On
Aug. 1, 1989, Dr. Burrell J. Smittle began as manager of the research
The conceptual design for the irradiator utilized cesium-137 as the
irradiation source, which resulted in considerable concern among
Florida Linear Accelerator Research Center
Gainesville residents. After General Electric Co. bought CGR-MeV, a
French company that manufactured linear accelerators, the design was
changed to utilize this new technology, and public opposition to the facility
Plans were revised to accommodate the linear accelerator, and site
preparation began Dec. 11, 1989. The project was delayed three months
for preparation of an environmental assessment, and actual construction
began April 1990.
Total federal funding for the project through DOE is $5.4 million. An
additional $0.5 million and the building site were made available through
the State of Florida.
The facility consists of approximately 13,500 square feet, of which
7,000 square feet is research and support area, and 6,500 square feet
comprise labyrinth, irradiation rooms and accelerator equipment areas.
The irradiation area is covered with an earthen berm for shielding
The linear accelerator is located on the main-floor level where a 2.5-
meter horn producing 5 MeV x-rays can treat large cartons or pallet loads
of commodities. The lower level has a one-meter horn producing 10 MeV
electrons to treat shallow layers of commodities. Automated conveying
systems will transport commodities on both levels. The research and
support area is divided into areas for treated and untreated commodities;
each area is equipped with refrigerators and freezers to store commodi-
The building is almost completed, and the linear accelerator is in-
stalled and under final testing. Delays occurred when the focusing magnet
and X-ray target were returned to France for modifications. During start-
up tests, preliminary irradiation tests were conducted with Caribbean
fruit flies and blueberries. Testing and verification should be completed in
Medfly Genetic Studies
The Entomology Bureau is collaborating in a research project with
the USDA, Pennsylvania State University and the California Department
of Food & Agriculture to develop means to determine geographical
sources of fruit fly pests entering the United States.
Researchers are analyzing variation in DNA sequences among Medi-
terranean fruit fly populations from South and Central America, Hawaii,
Australia, Africa and the Mediterranean region to determine whether
these insects carry distinct genetic markers unique to the various areas.
A geographical database of genetic markers is under development.
When pest fruit flies are discovered in Florida or other fruit- and
vegetable-growing states, their genetic makeup can be analyzed, then
compared to the database to reveal the flies' origin. This knowledge will
enable regulatory officials to focus their interdiction efforts more effi-
ciently to prevent entry of infested cargo or baggage through U.S. ports,
airports and border crossings.
Benlate DF Damage Assessment
An investigation was launched into suspected chemical phytotoxicity
from the DuPont fungicides Benlate DF, Tersan 1991DF and other
equivalents. Hundreds of cases of suspected phytotoxicity have been
referred to the Bureau of Plant Pathology for complete diagnostic evalu-
DuPont recalled all stocks of Benlate DF* in March 1991 after wide-
spread reports of damage suggesting herbicide injury to a broad spectrum
of plants treated with the fungicide. The damage syndrome is proving to
be quite variable, seasonal and long-lasting, and it is apparent that many
segments of Florida agriculture have been adversely affected.
DuPont enlisted the assistance of plant disease clinics, extension
specialists and agricultural consultants throughout the state to examine
suspected damaged plants in an effort to provide fair settlement for
The Pesticide Review Council convened a special Benlate DF Plant
Effects Project Team in the summer of 1992 in an attempt to direct the
efforts of the scientific community to discover the causes of the enigmatic
and unprecedented syndrome associated with the use of the fungicide.
Plant Pathology Bureau Chief Dr. Tim Schubert was appointed chairman
of the Project Team.
Citrus Damage Task Force
The Citrus Damage Task Force was established in March 1992 by the
Division of Environmental Regulation, with representation from the
Bureau of Plant Pathology, to investigate abiotic damage to citrus groves
southwest of the Tampa-St. Petersburg metropolitan area in Hillsborough,
Manatee and Hardee counties. The task force is investigating possible
causes of the damage, including air pollution.
Control of American Grasshopper,
In June 1991, the division began a full-scale testing program in search
of an effective chemical, as well as an effective means of delivery, to
combat the American grasshopper. As many as 15 different chemicals
were tested, ranging from malathion 91% ULV to diatomaceous earth.
The most effective of these chemicals was found to be malathion 91%
Several methods of application were tested over approximately two
months, with aerial applications proving the least effective. Truck-mount-
ed mist sprayers provided the best ground coverage, resulting in a higher
kill ratio. The USDA and the Boll Weevil Federation loaned DPI 21
sprayer-equipped vehicles which have been used throughout the program.
Nosema locustae Field Trial for
American Grasshopper Control
In addition to the other pesticides tested for grasshopper control,
Nosema locustae, a naturally occurring protozoan which attacks grasshop-
pers, was tested. This "biological" control agent, formulated on a bran bait,
was applied to a 13-acre field in Hernando County near the Pasco County
The test, conducted in cooperation with the manufacturer's represen-
tative for Semaspore, the brand name of the product, began on Aug. 7,
1991, and ended on Oct. 31, 1991. Grasshopper populations were sampled
and counted weekly.
After baseline sampling was completed, the first treatment was ap-
plied on Sept. 11, 1991, and was timed to coincide with large numbers of
nymphs in the field. The product failed to reduce the grasshopper popu-
lation in this field test and also failed in laboratory tests conducted by the
Bureau of Methods Development and by the manufacturer.
Fixing and Staining Techniques
The effect of iodine on killing and muscle relaxation in nematodes was
studied utilizing 30 genera of nematodes. A method using iodine in the
permanent fixation process was also developed. This method was used
with positive results to locate bacteria (Xenorhabdus) used in biological
control of insects. Bacteria inside the nematode were delineated. Detec-
tion of such bacteria may be an important tool in the assay of biological
control using nematodes as a vector.
Host Status of some Ornamental Palms
and a Cycad to the Reniform Nematode
The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is important to
ornamental growers in Florida because of restrictions imposed by Arizona
and California on ornamental shipments infested with this parasite. This
nematode is the most frequent cause of failure of South Florida palms to
meet the import certification requirements in these states.
One of the goals of the Bureau of Nematology is to provide palm
growers with nonchemical control methods to manage this nematode to
meet certification requirements. To reach this goal, a study was initiated
in collaboration with IFAS on the host status of ornamental palms to the
The results of this study showed thatBismarckia nobilis, Chamaerops
humilis, Coccothrinax sp., Neodypsis decaryi, Phoenix roebellenii,
Ptychosperma elegans, Ravenea rivularis, Syagrus romanzoffiana and
Cycas revoluta were not hosts of that nematode. Nematode infection and
reproduction was detected only on Washingtonia robusta.
At the end of the experiment, soil nematode density increased twofold
from the initial density on W. robusta. Residual nematode densities
persisted at detectable levels in soil with all other plants determined to be
nonhosts to R. reniformis. These residual densities persisted and re-
mained infective for 16 months, increasing rapidly when a susceptible
host, Vigna unguiculata, was planted in the soil removed from the non-
host palms. The long survival of this nematode complicates any efforts to
eradicate this pest by starving it through depriving it of host plants.
Good sanitation practices are the primary means of managing this
nematode in nurseries. This study is still in progress by evaluating, under
greenhouse conditions, the host status of additional palm species to other
populations ofR. reniformis and the effect of cultural practices under field
conditions on the nematode densities.
Native Hosts of Coffee Lesion Nematode,
The Bureau of Nematology is responsible for the site approval
certification for citrus nurseries. Land destined for use as citrus nurseries
should be free of nematode pests attacking citrus (citrus nematode, coffee
lesion nematode and burrowing nematode). More accurate identification
methods for the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, have de-
creased the incidences of this nematode being mistaken for a similar wild
race of nematode. Therefore, the number of certification failures due to
T. semipenetrans has decreased. However, several sites in uncultivated
lands still do not meet certification requirements because of infestations
by the coffee lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae.
The bureau has initiated a collaborative study with IFAS, Lake Alfred,
to better define the taxonomical status of P. coffeae population occurring
in these lands and to determine their hosts and their capability to infect
citrus. Preliminary results indicate that the nematode infects aster,Aster
elliottii, (Columbia County) and pop ash, Fraxinus caroliniana, (Taylor
Populations of lesion nematodes with morphological characteristics
similar to those of P. coffeae were also found on grasses such as Bahia,
Paspalum notatum; Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon, (Hardee County);
and unidentified wire grass (Hillsborough County). All these plants occur
commonly in uncultivated lands of Florida.
Schistonchus caprifici, a Nematode Parasite of Fig
Florets and the Fig Pollinator Wasp, Blastophaga psenes
DPI and the Agricultural Nematology Institute at Bari, Italy, com-
pleted a cooperative investigation on the biology of the nematode
The results showed that S. caprifici is able to infect and reproduce on
the fig pollinator wasp, Blastophaga psenes, and also on the tissues of fig
inflorescences. The biology ofS. caprifici is similar in some aspects to that
of the red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, that parasitizes
both a weevil and coconut palms.
Description of New Nematode Species
Two new species of ring nematodes, Mesocriconema ornicauda and
Ogma floridense, were described from uncultivated habitats in Columbia
and Taylor counties, respectively. The morphological study of these new
species was conducted in collaboration with the Agricultural Nematology
Institute in Bari, Italy.
Pasteuria penetrans Parasitizing Trophonema okamotoi
DPI and IFAS conducted a joint study to determine the biology of a
bacterium, Pasteuria penetrans, parasitizing a tylenchulid nematode,
Trophonema okamotoi, in uncultivated lands of Florida. During this study,
the ability of this P. penetrans population to infect the citrus nematode,
Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and other plant parasitic nematodes of Florida's
cultivated lands was also tested.
Results of this study indicated that this P. penetrans population is a
specific parasite of Trophonema okamotoi and does not parasitize
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita,
Pratylenchus brachyurus or Tylenchulus semipenetrans.
Control of Root-knot Nematodes with Periwinkle
In recent years, homeowners in Florida have lost their options to
control nematodes chemically. A recent report from India indicates that
periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus, is antagonistic to root-knot nema-
todes. Investigations have been initiated to determine if periwinkle
reduces nematode populations.
Initial results indicate that periwinkle serves as a trap crop, since
juvenile root-knot nematodes penetrate the roots and do not develop to
maturity, and that periwinkle can be useful to homeowners in manag-
ing nematode problems in gardens and flower beds.
Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata
On May 16, 1991, a single male Mediterranean fruit fly was discov-
ered in a Jackson trap located on a residential property in Altamonte
In accordance with the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Emergency Pro-
gram Action Plan, fruit fly detection efforts were immediately intensi-
fied in an 81-square-mile area surrounding the find. Pending the detec-
tion of any additional Medflies, this intensified trapping continued for a
minimum of 90 days--approximately three life cycles of the Medfly--
whereupon the number of traps tended was reduced to a detection
density of 10 traps per square mile.
This program was successfully concluded on Aug. 14, 1991.
Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi
The new Continental United States record of melon thrips, Thrips
palmi, was of major significance.
First discovered in the Homestead area on Bidens pilosa, a weed,
this thrips is an oriental species already established in Hawaii and
several Caribbean islands.
It is a difficult species to control and causes economic damage to
eggplant, pepper, tobacco, cucumber, watermelon, cantaloupe, pump-
kin, soybean, cowpea, chrysanthemum, dahlia, sweet potato and a
number of weeds. Feeding damage appears as silvering or bronzing of
leaves, stunted leaves and terminals, and deformed fruit.
Figure 1 THRIPS PALMI DISTRIBUTION IN FLORIDA
Situations where found as of June 15, 1992
Data provided by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, DPI. Maps
produced by the Coorperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) Program. T.A. Austin.
After intensive surveys, Thrips palmi is now known from Broward,
Collier, Dade, Hendry, Martin, Okeechobee, Orange, Palm Beach,
Pinellas and St. Lucie counties (Figure 1).
IFAS and DPI staff are searching for a viable biological control
agent and testing chemicals for management of this thrips.
Metamasius Weevil, Metamasius callizona
The weevilMetamasius callizona, native to Mexico and south through
Guatemala and western Panama, was first found in Florida at a Ft.
Lauderdale bromeliad nursery in November 1989. This weevil is a
serious pest of both cultivated and wild bromeliads, particularly those
in the genus Tillandsia. A pest alert was issued to all agricultural
products specialists. M. callizona has been found in scattered locales in
Broward, Palm Beach, Lee and Dade counties. Dr. Howard Frank,
IFAS, has established a viable colony and is seeking a biological control
agent for the weevil.
Tobacco Veinal Necrosis Strain of Potato Virus Y (PVYN)
Florida entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDA to
survey for PVYN because Florida potato growers traditionally import a
large number of seed potatoes from Canada, where PVYN had recently
been detected. If PVYN had already been introduced into Florida, early
detection of this virus would allow the department to take informed,
proactive steps to maintain Florida markets in the face of possible
regulatory actions. The USDA contributed $140,000 for the survey.
More than 45,000 acres were surveyed, which accounts for more
than 90 percent of the potato production in Florida. The survey
processed 11,720 samples for
PVYN and six other impor-
tant viruses of potatoes. Only
one sample was found to have
a virus similar to PVYN. Re-
search continues at the Uni-
versity of Florida to deter-
mine the relationship of this
virus to PVYN. The survey
will be repeated in 1992-93
with more extensive sam-
pling planned for the area
that yielded the PVYN-like vi-
rus last season.
Varroa Mite, Varroa
Varroa mites continued
to devastate untreated hon-
eybee colonies. However, Plant Protection Specialist
most beekeepers have Theresa Rust, PVYN survey.
adopted an effective treatment program and are not experiencing any
damage from this pest.
DPI no longer surveys for varroa mite since the state is now
considered generally infested. Certification is accomplished by treat-
ment, a post-treatment and a 6-month post-treatment inspection.
PLANT PEST DETECTION
African Honeybee, Apis mellifera scutellata
The African honeybee (AHB) entered the United States during this
biennium. One swarm was discovered in the Rio Grande Valley, Texas,
in October 1990. More than 500 swarms were detected in Texas in 1991.
AHB migration during this time was more to the west than to the east.
There have been no interceptions in Florida during the past two years.
With the migration of AHB, the division has intensified its bait-hive
program to include a trap line along the Perdido River, Florida's
western border with Alabama, and another along I-10 between Pensacola
and Tallahassee. With these trap lines and the bait hives placed at 13
deepwater ports, DPI and the USDA/APHIS now jointly maintain and
monitor nearly 500 bait hives in Florida.
African honeybee bait hive.
Giant Grasshopper, Tropidacris cristata cristata
A Plantation, Florida, woman couldn't believe her eyes when she
found a nearly six-inch grasshopper in her carport in February 1992.
Armed with a broom, she bashed the creature senseless and took it, in
a glass jar, to the University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale research
UF personnel sent a photocopy of the specimen to DPI's Florida
State Collection of Arthropods in Gainesville. The grasshopper was
identified as a species of Tropidacris, a genus native to the American
tropics and containing some of the world's largest grasshoppers. The
identification was later fine-tuned to Tropidacris cristata cristata, a
grasshopper found from northern South America to Costa Rica, and
known to cause agricultural damage in its native habitat.
SropiOacnrs cGsTara crisrara
A week after the first find, a second specimen was discovered in the
parking lot of a Plantation convenience store. In May, a third specimen
was collected in a car lot; a fourth turned up in June. All the grasshop-
pers were adult females and were collected within a several-square-mile
area in Plantation.
Intensive surveys by DPI personnel yielded no new specimens.
However, publicity surrounding the spectacular insect prompted a Fort
Myers man to send in a specimen he said had been collected at Miami
International Airport in March. There have been no new specimens
since the fifth turned up. Exactly where the grasshoppers came from
and how they arrived in South Florida remains a mystery.
Oak Wilt and Oak Leaf Scorch
The divisions of Plant Industry and Forestry began a joint survey to
identify any occurrence in Florida of oak wilt caused by Ceratocystis
fagacearum and oak leaf scorch caused by the xylem-limited bacteria
Xylella fastidiosa. Preliminary assessment of the diagnostic techniques
to be employed in the survey is underway.
Survey and Collection in Foreign Countries
Survey and collection of organisms (arthropods, mollusks, nema-
todes, plant pathogens) in foreign countries are critical activities for
expanding our knowledge and understanding exotic species. The sam-
pling and studying of non-indigenous organisms enables DPI scientists
to identify exotic organisms intercepted or detected entering Florida.
Central America, South America and Asia are key areas of concern to
Florida agriculture and it is to those areas that division scientists are
most likely to travel.
When traveling abroad, DPI scientists work closely with their
regulatory counterparts in the host countries to maximize survey and
collection goals. On a survey and collection trip, DPI scientists typically
garner thousands of specimens for intensive study here in Florida.
These specimens are invaluable for comparison with organisms col-
lected at Florida ports of entry, nurseries and even urban backyards.
Successful interception and identification of these organisms signifi-
cantly reduce the risk of an exotic pest becoming established in Florida.
Imported Plant Material Survey
Each year, approximately 250 million bare-rooted plants and cut-
tings are imported into Florida from foreign sources, primarily from
Central America. In cooperation with plant protection specialists in
Central Florida, division nematologists surveyed imported plant propa-
gative materials for plant parasitic nematodes.
Most of the 69 shipments of plants surveyed were free of plant
parasitic nematodes; however, nematodes were detected in two ship-
ments. Although only a small percentage of imported plant cuttings
were found to be contaminated with plant parasitic nematodes, the
detection of burrowing nematode in one shipment is of special concern
to many Florida nurseries, since plant shipments to California, Louisi-
ana and Texas, as well as Japan and EEC countries, must be certified
free of the burrowing nematode.
The survey is being continued to obtain additional data to more
accurately assess the potential for contamination of certified nurseries
that import plant propagative material.
Cabbage Palms, Sabal palmetto
In April 1991, the Division of Forestry began receiving reports that
hundreds of thousands of cabbage palms, Sabal palmetto, were dying in
coastal salt marshes along Florida's Gulf Coast. Efforts began to deter-
mine the cause of the dramatic decline in these populations of the state
Early investigations by teams of pathologists, nematologists and
entomologists suggest an environmental disturbance or alteration, not
diseases or pests, is primarily responsible. Currently, estuary and
coastal ecologists at the University of Florida are writing grant propos-
als to begin study of this problem.
As a result of these investigations, an abundant population of an
undescribed species of Bursaphelenchus was extracted, and the identi-
fication of this nematode was confirmed by the USDA. The
Bursaphelenchus population was associated with a population of
Aphelenchoides species. Because aphelenchoidid nematodes can develop
on fungi, plants or insects, the ability of these two species to feed and
reproduce on fungi isolated from the declining palmetto trees was
investigated. From inoculation studies conducted on fungi cultures, it
was ascertained that both these Bursaphelenchus and Aphelenchoides
from cabbage palm were able to feed and reproduce on cultures of
Botrytis sp., Ganoderma zonatum and Trichoderma sp. The ability of
these two nematodes to parasitize palm tissues is not known.
The distribution of these Bursaphelenchus and Aphelenchoides in
the area with declining palmetto trees needs further investigation.
Citrus and Citrus Environ Survey
Data were compiled from the 11-year phytoparasitic nematode
survey of Florida citrus groves and environs. A total of 2,314 soil and
root samples were diagnosed, yielding 628 new associations between
plants sampled and phytoparasitic nematodes detected. Four
phytoparasitic nematodes were detected in Florida for the first time.
Burrowing nematode was not found in any citrus plantings but was
detected five times in citrus grove environs. The absence of burrowing
nematode in the citrus survey is a tribute to the burrowing nematode
control program. Results of this survey are being prepared in a bulletin
NURSERY AND BEEKEEPING DATA
The Bureau of Plant Inspection is responsible for conducting surveys
and inspections for the early detection of plant pests and diseases which
pose a serious threat to Florida agriculture and for enforcing Florida
Statutes and departmental rules pertaining to the movement of plants and
Effective May 18, 1992, Rule 5B-2, Florida Administrative Code, was
amended, whereby aquatic plants, annual plants, vegetable transplants,
bulbs and corms were included in the definition of nursery stock. For-
merly, these plant materials were exempt from all nursery registration
Inspection activities for the Bureau of Plant Inspection for the bien-
nium are summarized in Tables 2 6.
Table 2 A Three-Year Comparison of Nursery Data
1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
No. of plant inspection districts 74 74 74
No. of nurseries in state 7,304 7,438 7,542
Total no. of inspections of nursery stock 20,951 21,391 21,388
Total acreage of nurseries in state 35,284.12 41,706.50 40,157.27
Total amount of nursery
stock in state 566,592,606 457,813,248 423,697,456
Includes seedling trees grown for reforestation.
Table 3 Number of Nurseries under Inspection
Type 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
Citrus 243 234 215
Citrus and ornamental 93 105 105
Citrus and other fruits and nuts 0 0 0
Citrus, ornamental and other fruits & nuts 28 34 36
Ornamental 5,758 5,915 6,038
Ornamental and other fruits and nuts 969 948 964
Other fruit and nuts 94 84 72
Native plants 68 73 67
Native plants and ornamental 45 42 31
Native plants, ornamental and citrus 1 0 1
Native, ornamental and other fruits & nuts 5 3 6
Native plants, citrus, ornamental and
other fruits & nuts 0 0 1
TOTALS 7,304 7,438 7,536
Table 4 Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock, a Three-Year Comparison
1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
Kind of Stock Acres Plants Acres Plants Acres Plants
Lemons & limes
Seedlings, in seed beds
Seedlings, lined out
Other fruits and nuts
(Citrus and Noncitrus)
Trees for Reforestation
Table 5 Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected
(Not Included as Nursery Stock): July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1992
1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
Variety Growers Acres Plants Growers Acres Plants Growers Acres Plants
or Bulbs or Bulbs or Bulbs
Cabbage 8 765.61 29,248,500 5 372.05 19,058,986 10 408.92 101,583,426
Caladium bulbs 28 1,061.00 65,396,000 20 1,027.00 61,620,000 20 1,153.00 67,815,000
Cut fern 78 2,501.25 568,220,000 86 3,849.00 580,812,000 75 3,291.00 411,891,428
Misc. vegetables 14 36.30 39,011,900 9 19.34 30,065,240 20 38.25 41,835,995
Peppers 11 43.63 35,324,750 9 13.74 24,419,671 9 13.50 27,298,875
Tobacco 2 11.12 14,063,000 4 18.57 97,993,000 2 7.69 56,630,000
Tomato 11 59.44 45,099,649 11 32.00 55,257,299 11 16.00 26,685,972
TOTALS 152 4,478.35 796,363,799 144 5,331.70 869,226,196 147 4,928.36 733,740,696
Table 6 Export Certification
Items Certified 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
Aquatic plants 14,824,381 1,547,347 1,540,016
Bulbs 4,814,637 3,356,624 3,380,515
Bromeliads & orchids 860,959 221,254 230,729
Citrus & other fruit plants 189,522 116,716 57,575
Fruits & vegetables
(bxs., Ibs., qts., & bags) 13,149,726 16,057,439 35,909,784
Miscellaneous commodities 5,722,995 3,213,778 86,889,475
Miscellaneous plants 46,400,926 61,120,380 113,070,967
(units, Ibs., cartons, & bags) 1,885,079 938,463 1,096,308
Tropical foliage plants 38,749,145 38,806,009 20,358,415
TOTAL ITEMS CERTIFIED 126,597,370 125,378,010 262,533,784
Export Certificates Issued 1,831 2,427 3,123
Export Certificates Issued 15,562 16,927 18,014
TOTAL CERTIFICATES ISSUED 17,393 19,354 21,137
Non-citrus Nursery Certification:
Citrus Nursery Site and Soil Pit Selection
Burrowing nematode (BN), the cause of spreading decline in citrus,
was not detected in any citrus nursery during the 1990-92 biennium.
According to Bureau of Plant Inspection records, BN has not been de-
tected in a citrus nursery since 1969.
A summary of the program's activities during the 1990-92 biennium
is represented in Tables 7 and 8.
Table 7 Burrowing Nematode Site Approval: Citrus and Pits
Year Nematode Total New Citrus Citrus No. of Nematode Number of Nematode No. of
Approved Approved Sites Sites Sites Approved New Pits Appr. Pits Pits
Citrus Nsrys Sites Approved Disapproved Re-Eval. Pits Approved Re-Eval. Disappr.
No. Acres No. No. Acres No. Acres No. Acres No. Acres No. Acres
1989-90 589 3813.90 908 30 75.00 21 32.56 354 258 5732.28 5 131.50 80 2307.92 15
1990-91 544 3687.00 860 103 123.69 137 421.45 1181 269 6204.79 19 369.26 166 4562.25 21
1991-92 461 3361.91 755 27 50.41 137 375.10 958 257 6404.46 23 937.00 226 4828.24 38
Table 8 Burrowing Nematode Certification: Non-Citrus
Year New Nursery Existing Nsry Existing Nem. Request Nem. Cert. Existing Nsry *Total Cert.
Approved New Acres Nurseries Disapproved Re-Evaluated Disapproved Nurseries
No. Acres Acreage No. Acres No. Acres Number No. Acres No. Acres
1989-90 31 318.56 13.15 590 5260.03 0 0.00 200 12 148.60 609 5450.14
1990-91 102 3046.74 107.38 685 9111.13 1 10.00 744 73 297.89 714 11967.36
1991-92 56 390.13 153.40 689 11967.26 2 1.30 611 57 487.75 707 12022.95
* New Nurseries Approved + Existing Nursery/New Acreage + Existing Nurseries Existing Nurseries Disapproved =Total Certified Nurseries
Plants entering the United States are the responsibility of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. They fit into one of four categories; refused
entry, unconditional entry, departmental permit, and postentry quaran-
During postentry quarantine, the plants are placed on the owner's
property and allowed to grow, with periodic inspections, for a period of six
months to two years after which they are released, if they are pest-free.
Postentry quarantine is aimed at detection of any exotic pests which may
manifest themselves during the growth of the plants. If any exotic pests
are detected during the quarantine period, the plants are destroyed.
Detailed information regarding postentry quarantine may be found in
Table 9 Postentry Quarantine
1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
Plants Released from Postentry Quarantine:
Inspections made to release plants 62 36 13
Plants released that were dead
and destroyed 2,113 1,677 551
Plants released that were alive 2,117 4,295 43
Total plants released 4,230 5,972 594
Plants Remaining Under Postentry Quarantine:
Inspections of plants remaining
under quarantine 85 72 60
Plants dead and destroyed 5,065 6,062 5,839
Plants that were alive (free from pests)
and remain under quarantine 4,478 3,310 3,307
TOTAL INSPECTIONS PERFORMED 147 108 73
TOTAL NUMBER OF PLANTS
UNDER QUARANTINE 13,773 15,344 9,740
Imported Fire Ant Certification
As of June 30, 1992, there were 1,490 nurseries and stock dealers
under compliance agreement for Imported Fire Ant (IFA) certification
purposes. During the biennium, the Bureau of Plant Inspection was
involved with the IFA activities summarized in Table 10.
Table 10 Imported Fire Ant Inspections, Violations,
1989-90 1990-91 1991-92
Number of Nurseries and
Stockdealers under compliance 1,577 1,495 1,490
Number of visits to regulated establishments: 4,120 3,953 4,360
Number of soil samples taken for IFA: 23 169 178
Number of IFA violations: 11 11 12
During the biennium, the Bureau of Apiary Inspection inspected
126,787 colonies from a total of 421,250 colonies in 7,805 apiaries. This is
85,829 colonies less than the previous biennium, a reduction due to
increased attention to efforts related to the African bee, including the
mandatory registration of all beekeepers.
There were 2,281 colonies from 644 apiaries destroyed because of
American foulbrood disease. Compensation of $43,225 was paid.
In support of the division's regulatory function, DPI entomologists
processed 20,470 samples, of which 9,558 were regulatory identifications
(Figure 2). These samples consisted of 357,720 specimens of which 232,938
were of regulatory significance (Figure 3).
The Bureau of Plant Pathology processed 14,825 samples for routine
disease diagnosis and 29,640 samples for citrus canker/citrus bacterial
spot (Figure 4).
A total of 38,601 samples was diagnosed for nematodes and other
invertebrates by the Nematology Bureau (Figure 5); of these, 32,322 were
for certification (Figures 6 and 7), and only 301 (0.93%) of these samples
failed to meet certification requirements (Table 11).
The Office of Systematic Botany identified 13,209 specimens during
the biennium from a variety of sources (Figure 8 and Table 12).
Figure 2 Number of samples processed by
the Bureau of Entomology from 1980-1992
J Number of
10 15 20 25 30 35
OF SAMPLES (IN THOUSANDS)
*Indicates one UF taxonomist and/or one Bureau of Methods
Development taxonomist and/or one Bureau of Entomology
technician involved in identification workload. Number of as-
terisks equals number of additional people involved in identi-
fications. Numbers in parentheses indicate number of taxono-
mists and/or pathologists during that biennium.
Figure 3 Number of specimens processed by
the Bureau of Entomology from 1980-1992
J Number of
J Number of
232,938 I (8)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
NUMBER OF SPECIMENS (IN THOUSANDS)
*Indicates one UF taxonomist and/or one Bureau of Methods
Development taxonomist and/or one Bureau of Entomology technician
involved in identification workload. Number of asterisks equals
number of additional people involved in identifications. Numbers in
parentheses indicate number of taxonomists during that biennium.
Figure 4 Number of samples processed by
the Bureau of Plant Pathology from 1980-1992
J Number of
0 5 10 15
I I I I
NUMBER OF SAMPLES (IN THOUSANDS)
Numbers in parentheses indicate number of plant
pathologists during that biennium.
Figure 5 Number of samples processed by the Bureau
of Nematology from 1980-1992
J Number of
_32,322 I (3)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
NUMBER OF SAMPLES (IN THOUSANDS)
Numbers in parentheses indicate number of nematologists during
Figure 6 Regulatory samples processed by the
Bureau of Nematology from 1990-1992.
AZ, TX, LA, EEC
Site & Pit Approval
J Number of
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
NUMBER OF SAMPLES (IN THOUSANDS)
Figure 7 Survey and investigation
samples processed by the Bureau
of Nematology from 1990-1992.
Imported Plant Mat.
J Number of
I I I I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
NUMBER OF SAMPLES (IN THOUSANDS)
Table 11 Samples that failed regulatory certification
during the biennium
CAUSED THE FAILURE
Arizona Rotylenchulus reniformis 131
California Belonolaimus sp. 8
Dolichodorus sp. 3
Radopholus similis 9
Rotylenchulus reniformis 37
Texas Radopholus similis 8
Arizona and California Rotylenchulus reniformis 13
Louisiana and Texas Radopholus similis 2
European Economic Community, Radopholus similis
Radopholus similis 9
Louisiana and Texas
Pit Tylenchulus semipenetrans 42
Radopholus similis 1
Premovement (Citrus) Tylenchulus semipenetrans 30
Site (Citrus) Tylenchulus semipenetrans 9
Pratylenchus coffeae 14
0.93% of total regulatory samples failed to meet certification requirements.
Figure 8 Number of samples processed by the
Office of Systematic Botany from 1980-1992
I Number of
1980-82 1(2) J NRegulatory
1990-92 13,209 1(2)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
NUMBER OF SAMPLES (IN THOUSANDS)
Number of samples processed for analysis by the Office of
Systematic Botany during the last 12 years. Numbers in paren-
theses indicate number of botanists during that biennium.
Table 12 Source of plant specimens examined by
Office of Systematic Botany, 1990-1992
ORIGIN OF SAMPLES
SAMPLE JULY-DEC 90
JAN-DEC 91 JAN-JUNE 92
Pathology 1,617 4,303 2,426 8,346
Entomology 168 1,125 1,869 3,162
Nematology 18 43 6 67
Inspection 6 15 3 24
BioControl 28 17 2 47
IFAS 0 16 0 16
Visitor 24 113 21 158
Letter 8 8 11 27
Other 6 12 72 90
Report forms 269 630 373 1,272
SUBTOTAL 2,144 6,282 4,783
GRAND TOTAL 13,209
Table 13 PPQ-526 Permit Applications 1990-1992
Microplasma-like organism 1
Applications denied 1
Organism Producer Permit Program
In 1990, the Florida Legislature amended the Florida statutes to
prohibit introduction or release of arthropods except under special permit.
The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, through
the Division of Plant Industry, is the sole issuing agency for such special
With the increasing prominence of biological control, this permit
program assures Florida consumers of correctly identified biological con-
trol agents. Many of these are used in integrated pest management (IPM)
programs of various agricultural operations.
These permits are issued to scientists and other professional individu-
als and companies producing biocontrol agents for release within Florida.
During the biennium, a total of 261 permit applications for exotic
organisms were considered (Table 13), and recommendations were for-
warded by the assistant division director to the USDA/APHIS-PPQ regard-
ing issuance of the PPQ-526 permit which allows the importation of live
plant pests and noxious weeds.
In March 1992, USDA/APHIS-PPQ authorized the DPI Plant Disease
Quarantine Lab to begin receiving foreign and out-of-state plant samples
for disease diagnosis on a pre-approved permit basis. This authorization
was sought in order to provide diagnostic services for Florida agricultural
enterprises with foreign operations and to encourage unregulated "under-
ground" foreign plant disease sample movement into more convenient
and safer legitimate channels. In addition, safe and controlled access to
plant disease samples from neighboring geographical areas gives Florida
plant pathologists a better idea of the threats lurking nearby.
NEW PEST RECORDS
Identifications of importance included 65 new county distribution
records, four new state records, three new Continental USA records and
one new Western Hemisphere record. Other new records ofProba distant,
a plant bug; Amycle vernalis, a fulgorid planthopper; and Organothrips
indicus, a thrips, are not considered of economic importance at this time.
Thirty-five plant-associated microorganisms were detected for the
first time on any host in Florida; one was reported for the first time in the
United States, and 685 new host associations were documented for
organisms already known to be present in the state.
New insects, mites, nematodes, and fungi detected for the first time
in Florida between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 1992, are listed in Table 14.
Table 14 New insects, mites, nematodes, and fungi detected for the first time in Florida
between July 1, 1990 and June 30, 1992
HOST OR HABITAT
plant bug Proba distant Riviera Beach, Palm Beach weeds near docking area September 1990
planthopper Amycle vemalis Ocala National Forest, Marion mercury vapor light October 1990
thrips Thrips palmi Homestead, Dade Spanish needles (Bidens pilosa) January 1991
eriophyid mite Tegolophus perseaflorae Homestead, Dade avocado tree (Persea americana) May 1991
blowfly Chrysoma sp. prob. rufifacies Ocala, Marion human corpse July 1991
grasshopper Tropidacris cristata cristata Plantation, Broward carport February 1992
a plant-eating snail Caracolus marginellus var. Coconut Grove, Dade wooded area August 1991
banana rasp snail* Archachatina marginata Tallahassee, Leon pet store March 1992
nematode Paracriconema n. sp. Goodland, Collier unknown January 1990
nematode Xiphinema imitator Goodland, Collier unknown January 1990
nematode Lobocriconema aberrans Gainesville, Alachua American holly (llex opaca) July 1990
nematode Paratrichodorus anthurii Gainesville, Alachua live oak (Quercus virginiana) July 1990
nematode Xiphinema diffusum Gainersville, Alachua live oak August 1990
nematode Discocriconemella barbed Pompano Beach, Broward a velvetseed (Guettarda sp.) March 1991
nematode Mesocriconema omicauda n. sp. Ichetucknee River, Columbia riverbank, a panic 1991
nematode Ogma floridense' n. sp. Perry, Taylor (Liquidweet gumraflua) 1991
fungus Pleospora papaveracea Longwood, Seminole poppy (Papaver sp.) August 1991
fungus Asochyta anthistirae Gainesville, Alachua (Eremocloa ophiuroides) March 1992
PUBLIC AND INDUSTRY
GRADES AND STANDARDS
FOR NURSERY PLANTS
Since 1959, the Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants has pro-
vided the yardstick by which the quality of nursery plants in Florida may
be measured. However, there have been no revisions to this publication
since its initial appearance.
At the request of the Florida nursery industry, Commissioner of
Agriculture Doyle Conner reappointed the Florida Grades and Standards
Committee in 1990. The appointees were Thomas Yeager, Roy Rood,
Marvin Gross, Ken Green, Alvan Donnan, James Strain, Jim Blakeley,
Bryan Nelson, and Richard Clark, chairman.
The committee undertook a complete review of the Grades and
Standards for Nursery Plants. It was decided to revise and update the
manual to better reflect the market changes that have occurred over the
years, as well as the current needs of the industry.
Subcommittees were formed to handle each subsection of the manual:
palms, trees, shrubs and wetlands plants.
In addition to a revised and updated text, the manual will also contain
completely new photographs.
By the end of the biennium, the first draft of the new chapters had
been sent to committee members for review.
Among the many publications written or co-authored by DPI scien-
tists during this biennium, two of particular significance wereA Revision
of the Genus Typhlodromus Scheutan, Occasional Papers, Volume 7, May
1992, written by Entomology Bureau Chief Harold Denmark and A
Computer Ready Checklist of the Genera and Species of Phytoparasitic
Nematodes including a List of Mnemonically Coded Subject Categories,
written by Dr. Robert Esser. For a complete list of publications by
division scientists, refer to Appendix B.
DPI also provides information about division-related activities and
special programs, rule changes and other items of interest to industry
members, the general public and FDACS' employees. In addition to
previously cited publications, DPI also produces:
Tri-ology, a bimonthly summary of current, significant plant pest
and disease finds accompanied by bimonthly circulars describing
specific insect pests and/or diseases in detail.
Certified Nursery Directory, an annual listing of all registered
Biennial, a comprehensive report about the division prepared
every two years for the Commissioner of Agriculture as mandated
by the Legislature.
Plant Industry News Bulletin, a biannual magazine directed at
the industries DPI regulates.
Reporter, a bimonthly, in-house newsletter.
PUBLIC AWARENESS AND EDUCATION
The division makes every attempt within available resources to
inform the industries it serves, scientists, other government agencies and
the public about plant and apiary pest and disease problems, various
division programs, and changes in rules and regulations regarding plant
material and the movement of plant material. This information is dissemi-
nated through a variety of means, including books, magazines, newslet-
ters, brochures, news releases, informational videos and slide presenta-
During this biennium, the Office of Technical Assistance prepared
"Plan Bee," a lesson plan for grades 1-6 about honeybees and the apiary
industry. Approximately 300 lesson plans with accompanying 20-slide
presentations have been distributed statewide through the FDACS-spon-
scored "Agriculture in the Classroom" program. Copies of the lesson plan
have also been provided to individual beekeepers, beekeeping organiza-
tions, other state and federal agencies, apiary inspectors and other inter-
The Office of Technical Assistance also designs and maintains infor-
mational displays that are used for educational purposes at fairs, industry
conventions and other meetings. A new display, "The Enduring Honey-
bee," was created during the biennium. Another display, explaining the
Citrus Budwood Registration Program, was updated and rebuilt.
Medfly Public Information
During the 1990 Medfly Eradication Program, public interest in the
program threatened constantly to overwhelm the resources of informa-
tion personnel assigned to the program. Following the program, special
training was conducted for DPI volunteers interested in fielding calls from
the public on future Medfly programs.
Other Educational Contributions
Division scientists have conducted workshops and seminars for stu-
dents, colleagues and members of industry for many years and continued
to do so during this biennium. They also continued to serve on committees
that supervise the work of graduate students at the University of Florida.
Bureau of Plant Pathology personnel continued to teach the course,
"Plant Disease Diagnosis," to graduate students at the University of
Dr. Robert Esser of the Bureau of Nematology continued to teach
special nematology classes at the University of Florida.
COMMITTEES, COUNCILS AND WORKSHOPS
The Aquatics Committee was established in response to pending,
new division duties. As of July 1, 1992, DPI will inspect aquatic nurseries
that previously had been inspected for prohibited plants by the Depart-
ment of Natural Resources.
The Division Safety Committee has been very active during the
biennium. Its activities included: establishing clear-cut emergency re-
sponses for the Doyle Conner complex and the facility in Winter Haven;
developing controls and improved record keeping regarding the purchase
and storage of chemicals; instituting first-aid and CPR training for division
employees; establishing periodic inspections of exhaust systems on divi-
sion vehicles; developing a safety procedure manual; stocking and distrib-
uting new first-aid kits; and revising the nonsmoking policy. It is believed
that one result of increased safety awareness and training has been a
marked decrease in on-the-job injuries.
The Greenhouse Committee provides guidance and assistance to the
grounds staff at division headquarters in Gainesville.
The Plant Pathogen Introduction Committee is an advisory panel
that recommends specific policy to the assistant director relating to the
introduction and movement of plant pathogens in Florida for research
The Computer Oversight Committee was established to review and
prioritize the acquisition of microcomputer hardware and software and
related information-resources issues. During the biennium, four addition-
al work stations were added in the Bureau of Entomology, one of which
may be used as a file server once the bureau is networked.
The Library Advisory Committee provides input to the library in
developing goals and objectives, evaluating new technology and proposing
modifications of policies and services.
The Publications Committee ensures that scientific articles originat-
ing within or published by the division meet established criteria regarding
professional quality, accuracy and correct grammar. In addition to review-
ing circulars and other works routinely published by DPI, the committee
also reviewed articles which have appeared in such diverse journals as the
Canadian Journal of Botany, Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida, Florida Entomologist, Mycotaxon, and Nemotropica.
External Committees and Councils
The Plant Industry Technical Council is an advisory committee
created by the Florida Legislature under section 570.34, F.S. Appointed by
the Commissioner, the council is composed of industry representatives
who consult with and advise the Commissioner and the division director
about policies and issues related to their respective industries. Roy
The African Bee Task Force advises the department on issues
relating to the African honeybee and its impact on the apiary industry of
Florida. The task force also provides recommendations related to this
serious pest. Laurence Cutts, chairman.
The Black Parlatoria Scale Technical Advisory Committee, com-
posed of state and federal entomologists, representatives of regulatory
agencies and the citrus industry, advises the department on the urban
infestation of black Parlatoria scale, a serious pest of the citrus industry.
Leon Hebb, chairman.
The Caribbean Fruit Fly Technical Committee advises the depart-
ment on the management, control and suppression of the Caribbean fruit
fly, especially as it relates to the certification of Florida host materials.
The committee also investigates research needs related to the manage-
ment of this fruit fly. Connie Riherd, chairman.
The Citrus Budwood Registration and Introduction Advisory Com-
mittee provides technical oversight in the introduction of various types of
citrus budwood. Tom Thayer, chairman.
The Endangered Plant Advisory Council, established by Florida
Statute, makes recommendations to the department concerning the
protection of endangered flora within Florida. David Drylie, Jr., chairman.
The Florida Grades and Standards Committee oversees the revision
of the Grades and Standards forNursery Plants manual that is published
by DPI. Richard Clark, chairman.
The Honeybee Technical Council, established by Florida Statute,
considers and studies the field of beekeeping and is designed to advise,
consult, review and make recommendations on changes to Chapter 586,
Florida Statutes, and rules promulgated thereunder. The council also
suggests or recommends policies for the administration of Chapter 586.
Horace Bell, chairman.
The Joint State/Federal Citrus Canker Technical Advisory Commit-
tee recommends policy regarding the eradication of citrus canker. Art
The Lettuce Advisory Committee advises the department on seed-
borne lettuce mosiac virus and may investigate suspected violations of
required cultivation practices. Donald Sellers, chairman.
The Seed Potato Advisory Council advises the department on the
introduction of various types of new seed potatoes into Florida.
The Special Task Force on Citrus Canker provides the Joint State/
Federal Citrus Canker Technical Advisory Committee with recommenda-
tions, on a strict biological basis, regarding the eradication of citrus
canker. Richard Gaskalla, chairman.
The Special Task Force on Varroa Mite advises the department on
issues relating to varroa mite and provides recommendations for dealing
with this apiary pest. Laurence Cutts, chairman.
In February 1991, there were two workshops held for nurserymen,
stock dealers and brokers in West Palm Beach and Homestead about the
Imported Fire Ant regulations and treatments. A third workshop took
place in Palmetto in April 1991. Held by the Bureau of Plant Inspection,
in cooperation with the USDA/APHIS/PPQ, these workshops included a
review of regulations, approved treatments, environmental monitoring
and research being done on proposed future treatments. There was also
an opportunity for the more than 70 attendees to ask questions and voice
their concerns about the new regulations.
During January 1992, the Bureau of Plant Inspection conducted three
educational workshops on the new California nematode certification re-
quirements for nursery stock. The workshops reviewed the Master Per-
mit issued by California and the required compliance agreements. Held in
Apopka, Homestead and West Palm Beach, the three sessions were
attended by a total of 141 nurserymen, stock dealers and brokers.
CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION
The Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration, located in Winter Haven,
administers the Florida Citrus Budwood Registration Program. This
program is designed to assist growers and nurserymen in producing citrus
nursery stock free of major graft-transmissible diseases, true to varietal
type, and horticulturally superior in production and quality.
Table 15 Summary of Citrus Budwood Registration
Number of new participants 16 9
Number of active participants 200 202
Number of new scion groves 12 21
Number of scion trees planted 5,976 5,619
Number of scion trees (total) 42,253 53,848
Number of scion trees registered 4,586 5,221
Number of parent trees registered 23 1
Number of budeyes harvested 7,737,225 5,560,866
Number of registered nursery propagations 6,879,429 4,609,293
Fiscal year 1990/91 saw the second-highest registered tree production
since the program began in 1953. However, in the second half of the
biennium, registered tree production fell to only 4.6 million trees. This
reduction in nursery activity was a result of a surplus of nursery stock,
uncertainty for growers regarding the consequences of the North Ameri-
can Free Trade Agreement, increased foreign competition in the juice
market and prolonged delays by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
in establishing market standards for the popular Ambersweet citrus
Table 16 summarizes the testing of citrus trees for graft-transmissible
pathogens. Nineteen tests were discontinued in 1990-91 due to injury to
plants from the December 1989 freeze. New test plants were re-estab-
lished in 1990.
Table 16 Summary of Virus Testing
Psorosis Xyloporosis Exocortis Tristeza
Tests in progress 84 124 1,615
Tests completed 52 0 1,399 3,495
Tests discontinued 0 19 2
Tests in progress 92 144 1,775
Tests completed 31 22 2,069 5,610
Tests discontinued 1 1 7 --
Citrus Tristeza Virus
The increase in citrus tristeza virus (CTV) testing in 1991/92 was in
response to requests from nurserymen and growers who were concerned
about tree losses in their grove plantings and severe CTV isolates in those
registered scion trees being used for budwood. Through the use of strain-
specific assays that react with severe isolates of CTV, scion trees infected
with severe isolates can be identified and discontinued as sources of
In May 1991, a Citrus Tristeza Virus Workshop was held in Costa Rica
for research personnel from North and Central American countries.
Results of surveys to identify the virus and its principal aphid vector,
Toxoptera citricidus, were reported. T. citricidus, the brown citrus aphid,
has now been reported as far north as the Dominican Republic and is
present in Costa Rica. These reports served to heighten concern among
Florida citrus growers that the spread of T. citricidus to Florida may be
a reality within two to three years.
Strategies for reducing the impact of CTV and T. citricidus on the
Florida industry include use of mild-strain CTV protection through pre-
immunization of trees. To this end, 185 trees in the foundation grove
screenhouse have been inoculated with three mild strains of CTV. These
trees will serve as mother trees from which budwood can be distributed
to nurserymen for increase. As commercial nursery trees are planted by
the industry, they will serve as sources for further spread by aphids. The
wide distribution of mild CTV strains may reduce or slow the spread of
introduced CTV strains. Several large commercial growers began partici-
pating in this strategy during the biennium.
The use of registered, clean stock budwood is an important aspect of
any strategy to minimize the severe effects on the Florida citrus industry
that will occur with the introduction of this pest which is nearly always
accompanied by severe CTV outbreaks.
The bureau maintains a citrus foundation grove near Dundee, where
mother trees of the best selected citrus cultivars are maintained on a
variety of rootstocks. Trees are evaluated annually for yield and horticul-
tural excellence. A large percentage of the bureau activity this biennium
Foundation grove near Immokalee
was devoted to the re-establishment of trees damaged or killed during the
December 1989 freeze.
More than 3,769 trees have been propagated for replacement, and
1,029 have been planted during this biennium. More than 375,800 buds for
registered propagation were distributed from foundation grove trees. Fifty
trees held in an insect-protected screenhouse were tested in April 1991
using a recently developed technique for identifying specific proteins
thought to be a precursor of citrus blight disease. None of the identifying
proteins were detected.
A new foundation grove was established in 1989 at the Southwest
Florida Research and Education Center near Immokalee. During this
biennium, yield observations were made, and the first horticultural evalu-
ation was accomplished. Initial budwood distribution was made in 1992.
CTV is being monitored annually, and trees are being indexed for exocortis
viroid to detect any accidental spread of this bud-transmissible viroid.
In June 1991, a significant rule change became effective that pro-
vides guidelines to establish nursery "increase blocks." This will enable
nurserymen to rapidly multiply small quantities of budwood for the
propagation of large numbers of commercial citrus nursery trees. This
new procedure will provide nurserymen a means of rapidly increasing
limited supplies of newly released cultivars or other budwood in limited
Reports supplied by nurserymen to the bureau indicate a 5.4 per-
cent drop in propagation of Hamlin oranges in the last half of the
biennium, reflecting a downward trend in early oranges that began in
1989. Propagation of Valencia oranges was down slightly, but it remains
the leading variety grown in Florida. Flame grapefruit was the most
propagated grapefruit cultivar. Sunburst, Fallglo and Murcott were the
most popular tangerine types reported.
The most widely used rootstocks for all citrus plants were Swingle
citrumelo, Carrizo citrange, and Cleopatra mandarin.
The first release of the new Texas red grapefruit cultivar, Rio Red,
was distributed by the bureau in March 1991. Florida nurserymen
received more than 22,000 buds for propagation.
Oroblanco and Melogold, two low-acid pummelo hybrids from Cali-
fornia, were released from quarantine, and budwood distribution began
in May 1992. These two cultivars are similar to the Marsh grapefruit
cultivar but are slightly larger and have a lower acid content with less
Two Florida propagators were licensed to produce these cultivars
under patent agreements with the University of California. Other
applications are pending.
New selections of other cultivars are being tested and evaluated for
release to Florida growers.
CITRUS TREE SURVEY
Citrus Tree Survey (CTS) personnel again participated in the citrus
tree census, a cooperative effort between the Florida Agricultural
Statistics Reporting Service and the Bureau of Plant Inspection.
The citrus tree census is conducted during even-numbered years to
update the previous inventory. This updated statistical information on
citrus is used to evaluate Florida's potential citrus production.
First, aerial photographs are taken of all citrus-growing areas. Con-
tact prints are made from the negatives, and photo interpreters compare
the photos against those of the previous biennium. Changes or new
plantings are noted on a code sheet for field inspectors to investigate.
Using the photographs, special printouts and blueprints as a guide,
CTS inspectors during this biennium visited 12,484 citrus variety blocks
encompassing 445,288 acres in critical areas. They determined what
changes or new plantings had taken place, the variety of the block, the
number of trees and the reasons for whatever changes that occurred, such
as loss due to hurricane damage, freeze, etc.
In the process of these surveys, CTS personnel also surveyed for early
detection of harmful pests and diseases.
During the odd-numbered years, these inspectors also spend time
identifying young trees and new plantings.
CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLY-FREE PROTOCOL
Since its establishment in 1965, the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha
suspense, has been a pest of many tropical and subtropical Florida fruits
in the Miami area. Citrus fruit, while not a preferred host, may be
successfully attacked by Caribfly. The primary economic impact of the
Caribfly has been in quarantine restrictions imposed on Florida by domes-
tic and foreign export markets.
Although post-harvest treatments (fumigation) provided necessary
safeguards against this pest, they proved to be expensive and often caused
damage to the fruit. In the early 1980's, studies were initiated to develop
new procedures for certifying citrus fruit free of the Caribfly. Based upon
these initial studies and a better understanding of the Caribfly as it relates
to citrus, an acceptable certification procedure was established.
The Caribbean Fruit Fly-free Protocol, commonly called the "Caribfly
Protocol," is administered by DPI and the Division of Fruit and Vegetable
Inspection, in cooperation with the USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Bermuda, Japan,
California, Hawaii and Texas have accepted this fly-free certification
Current procedures for certifying citrus with the fly-free zone concept
require that the fruit come from specific Caribfly-controlled areas, or
"designated areas," in 16 citrus-producing counties in Florida approved for
shipment of fruit.
Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol Designated Areas
Shaded areas indicate
The total acres certified has significantly increased over the last six
years (Table 17). The 1991-92 citrus fruit season had 139,880 acres
certified in eligible citrus-producing counties (Table 18).
Table 17 Total Acres Certified 1986-1992
Fruit Designated Total Number of Number of
Season Areas Acres Counties Acres Certified
1986/87 162 48,600 2 16,500
1987/88 322 96,000 4 32,000
1988/89 744 223,200 7 62,020
1989/90 902 270,600 13 77,300
1990/91 1,095 328,500 15 114,240
1991/92 1,364 409,200 16 139,880
Table 18 Acres Certified 1991-1992
Early Season and Standard Certification by County
Early Season Standard Certification
Bait Negative Bait Negative
County Spray Trapping Spray Trapping Total
Brevard 200 0 0 0 200
Charlotte 40 300 0 300 640
Collier 280 0 680 0 960
DeSoto 0 0 0 0 0
Glades 0 0 0 0 0
Hardee 120 0 0 0 120
Hendry 2,560 0 1,200 0 3,760
Highlands 40 300 0 3,900 4,240
Indian River 9,400 13,800 7,800 18,000 49,000
Lee 160 0 160 0 320
Martin 2,360 600 3,800 600 7,360
Okeechobee 80 1,800 80 2,400 4,360
Palm Beach 0 0 200 0 200
Polk 0 0 0 0 0
Sarasota 0 0 0 600 600
St. Lucie 5,480 27,300 6,240 29,100 68,120
TOTALACRES 20,720 44,100 20,160 54,900 139,880
With the Caribfly Protocol, a safe and effective procedure has been
established to export citrus to areas requiring quarantine safeguards.
Currently, the largest importer of fresh Florida citrus fruit is Japan. Since
the beginning of the 1991-1992 shipping season, there has been a total of
11,047,666 4/5 bushel cartons of citrus fruit shipped to Japan (Tables 19
Table 19 Monthly Export of Fresh Citrus to Japan
1991-1992(4/5 Bushel Boxes)
Cold Cold Fly
Treatment Treatment Control
Month Short Term Long term Zone Total
09/91 0 0 200,962 200,962
10/91 0 0 1,030,213 1,030,213
11/91 0 0 1,071,461 1,071,461
12/91 0 0 646,057 646,057
01/92 19,053 186,837 1,529,878 1,835,768
02/92 144,565 407,049 2,280,917 2,832,531
03/92 99,348 361,010 2,396,582 2,856,940
04/92 22,869 88,560 462,305 573,734
STOTAL 285,835 1,043,456 9,618,375 11,047,666
Table 20 Export of Fresh Citrus to Japan
1986/1992 (4/5 Bushel Boxes)
Fresh Cold Cold Fly
Fruit Treatment Treatment Control
Season Short Term Long term Zone EDB Total
1986/87 1,530,366 1,643,968 926,076 4,999,988 9,100,398
1987/88 1,142,354 3,905,585 4,821,919 961,848 10,831,706
1988/89 2,291,669 4,571,525 6,185,147 0 13,048,341
1989/90 100,364 303,486 4,899,916 0 5,303,766
1990/91 1,626,865 1,071,805 8,813,266 0 11,511,936
1991/92 385,835 1,043,456 9,618,375 0 11,047,666
TOTAL 7,077,453 12,539,825 35,264,699 5,961,836 60,843,813
Table 21 Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol
Fly Catches (1989-1992)
Fly Catches 1989-90 10
OTHER INDUSTRY-RELATED SERVICES
Guidelines for Compost Sanitation
Composting plant debris, soil and solid wastes has become an impor-
tant commercial enterprise in the past few years as an economical means
of alleviating the garbage crisis. An increasing amount of the compost is
being sold as a potting media component for nursery mixes. During the
past year, division nematologists and agricultural products specialists
visited a number of large composting operations that wish to sell their
products to nurseries certified free of regulatory nematodes.
The process of aerobic biodegration produces heat in the decomposing
organic matter. Temperatures ranging from 50 C (1220 F) to 740 C (1650
F) and from 400 C (1040 F) to 700 C (1580 F) were measured at various
depths in the composting piles at two sites in Florida. Except for 104 F,
these temperatures are lethal to phytoparasitic nematodes and other
unwanted organisms. Phytoparasitic nematodes, including cysts, are killed
at warm temperatures of 460 C (1150 F) 550 C (1300 F) for 10 minutes of
direct exposure. The finished compost is, theoretically, free of these pests.
Unfortunately, in several commercial composting operations the mature
compost is subject to contamination by raw material added accidentally to
the finished product or by other sources such as water runoffor vehicular
or foot traffic from the dump site of the undecomposed material to the final
As a result of these investigations, the bureaus of Nematology and
Plant Inspection developed sanitation guidelines designed to prevent the
contamination of compost with nematodes. These guidelines will assist
companies that are taking steps to alleviate the garbage crisis and
improve the environment by recycling organic wastes.
Imported Fire Ant (IFA)
During the biennium, more than 300 soil samples for IFA-free certi-
fication of nursery stock were analyzed by gas chromatography. Follow-
up bioassays were conducted on all samples.
DPI continued to supply the public with a bait-type pesticide at a
reduced cost during this biennium. The amount ofAmdro sold was 119,243
pounds in 1-lb. bags and 108,600 pounds in 25-lb bags; there were also
22,575 pounds of Logic in 25-lb bags sold. The combined totals were
250,418 pounds. These sales amounted to more than $1.2 million. How-
ever, due to price increases, depletion of the Imported Fire Ant Trust
Fund and the necessity for statewide budget restraints, this program will
be discontinued after the current inventory has been depleted.
Certification requirements for some domestic and foreign markets
mandate that shipments of certain fresh Florida produce be fumigated
with methyl bromide. California, Hawaii, Texas and Japan require fumi-
gation of citrus fruit not qualifying under the Caribbean Fruit Fly-free
Protocol. All citrus fruit shipped to Arizona must be fumigated.
In this biennium, there were 7,191 shipments fumigated, represent-
ing 7,513,766 cartons of citrus. Recent modifications to the Wahneta
fumigation chambers have significantly increased the efficiency and treat-
ment capacity of the facility.
In spring 1991, 19 blueberry loads (4,688 flats) were fumigated in
Gainesville, and 16 loads (7,569 flats) were fumigated in 1992. An addi-
tional 11 loads (4,072 flats) in 1991 and 36 loads (8,700 flats) in 1992 were
fumigated and certificates issued by compliance agreement.
Fumigation of specimens, books, reprints, etc., for the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods continued at the Gainesville fumigation cham-
ber, as did fumigations for the Florida Museum of Natural History,
University of Florida.
During this period, there were 2,788 burrowing nematode,Radopholis
similus, samples collected from 170 properties. The nematology labora-
tory in Gainesville processed 2,299 of these samples, and the Winter
Haven laboratory processed 489. Real estate certification consisted of 864
acres, representing 14 properties. Other requests by growers included 43
suspicious areas and 11 delimiting areas; five nurseries were sampled to
assist the Bureau of Plant Inspection. Research sampling and requests by
growers to sample old buffers represented 97 properties; 28 properties
were found infested during this period, 24 of which were re-infested
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) is recognized
worldwide as an identification center and arthropod research resource. It
is our most important support resource for accurate and timely regula-
During the biennium, the FSCA received the following donations:
more than 230,657 insect specimens, 3,900 jars/vials, 2,217 microscope
slides, 3,525 books and 7,573 journals and reprints. Major donations came
from the late Dr. William Hovanitz of Santa Barbara, Calif., whose estate
donated 645 books valued at more than $20,000, and from Col. Lester
Lampert of Waynesville, N.C., who donated his entire Coleoptera collec-
tion estimated at more than 30,000 specimens, a library of 352 books, 964
journal issues, 200 reprints, several insect cabinets and other equipment,
including a Wild M5 microscope.
Research Associate Program of the FSCA
The members of this support organization are devoted both to the
study of the systematics of arthropods (insects, spiders, assorted aquatic
organisms, etc.) and to the support of the FSCA. They serve by donating
their time, expertise, specimens and library collections to the FSCA.
Individuals are appointed as research associates by the Commissioner of
Agriculture and serve as long as they maintain an interest in supporting
Associates cooperate with staffentomologists on many types ofprojects.
For example, studies in the systematics of arthropods contribute to our
knowledge of and ability to control agricultural, livestock and human
pests. Associates help document and describe beneficial organisms,
biodiversity, special resources of Florida and surrounding areas, and
ecological relations among plant, animal and human communities.
The Research Associate Program formally began in 1963. The pro-
gram has approximately 300 members throughout the United States and
15 foreign countries. Its membership includes numerous renowned scien-
tists, as well as many highly capable and industrious amateurs and
F The Florida State
SI Collection of Arthropods.
Research associates provide numerous benefits to the FSCA. They
have played a major role in the development of DPI's physical collections,
research files and library. Their total donations of specimens, scientific
publications and other library materials to the FSCA were valued, on
average, at more than $1.5 million per year for the period 1985-1988
Research associates also provide valuable service to the FSCA and the
State of Florida by making expert identifications, conducting geographic
distribution surveys ofarthropods in Florida, and publishing their findings
in both general interest and scientific journals. The entomology circulars,
Arthropods ofFlorida and Neighboring Land Areas series, and the Occa-
sional Papers of the Florida State Collection ofArthropods series provide
an outlet for publication of research findings by associates.
Arachnologist Dr. G. B. Edwards introduces
school children to Margarita the tarantula.
The FSCA hosted 70 tours of the collection and entomology facilities
during the biennium.
Participants in these tours ranged from preschool children to retired
professional persons. Most of the tour groups were from local schools,
including undergraduate classes from both the Department of Entomol-
ogy and Nematology and the Department of Zoology of the University of
Florida. The tours averaged 20 participants.
Other tours were arranged for state officials, the USDA and agricul-
tural representatives from Canada, Malaysia and South Africa. One tour
for irradiation short-course participants had representatives of numerous
The Division of Plant Industry Herbarium (PIHG, in Index
Herbariorum, a listing of herbaria of the world) houses more than 6,600
herbarium specimens for use in identification of plant species. The seed
collection contains 1,357 vials of specimens. Approximately 600 packets of
mosses and liverworts are also housed in the herbarium. Information
from herbarium specimens is in the process of being computerized which,
when complete, will allow more rapid organization of information.
Florida State Collection of Nematodes
The Nematology Bureau houses an ever-expanding collection of nema-
tode specimens which include: plant, invertebrate and vertebrate para-
sites; myceliophagous nematodes; marine and freshwater nematodes;
predacious nematodes; and free-living nematodes.
This collection of nearly 9,000 specimens includes DPI holotypes,
voucher specimens and paratypes from around the world. In addition to
specimens mounted on microscope slides and contained in vials, there is
also an exhibit collection that demonstrates plant damage and large
specimens. The nematode specimen and exhibit collections serve as a
reference source, taxonomic identification aid, education resource and
In the maintenance of nematology taxonomic files, several hundred
species were added during the biennium in a data retrieval mode. Two
taxonomic compendia were compiled and published: the genus
Hemicriconemoides (43 species) and the subfamily Paratylenchinae (148
Florida Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria
The Plant Pathology Bureau houses and maintains the Florida Col-
lection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. These bacteria are stored in a
mixture of 30 percent glycerol and 70 percent nutrient broth at -75o C. The
collection contains more than 650 total isolates from the plant pathogenic
genera Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and
Xanthomonas. It also comprises representatives of isolates from most, if
not all, outbreaks of Asian strain citrus canker,Xanthomonas campestris
pv. citri, and citrus bacterial spot, Xanthomonas campestris. Not only do
the isolates serve as reference cultures for regulatory programs, but most
are made available to research scientists and the general public, including
intermediate and high school students working on science projects.
THE FLORIDA CITRUS ARBORETUM
The Florida Citrus Arboretum in Winter Haven, maintained by the
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration, is a collection of more than 250
species of citrus or citrus relatives on 6.5 acres. It is used for horticultural
study, germplasm source and exhibition. The arboretum is a source of
information for researchers, students from universities, high schools and
vocational schools, master gardeners and others interested in citrus.
In fiscal year 1990-91, the arboretum was toured by 47 foreign visitors
representing 16 countries, as well as 52 international scientists attending
the 13th Workshop on Infrared Color Aerial Photography in the Plant
During fiscal year 1991-92, there were 194 visitors to the arboretum.
Among the 52 foreign visitors from 15 countries were 10 visitors from
Morocco and 14 representatives from the mid-Yangtze area of the People's
Republic of China, an area of new citrus development in that country.
Contingents of the Southern Fruit Fellowship and the Lake and
Orange County Citrus Growers also visited the arboretum, as did three
groups of Future Farmers of America who were interested in variety-
Library Services Supervisor Beverly Pope
The DPI Library maintains a specialized research collection of mate-
rials in entomology, plant pathology, nematology, botany, apiculture and
related topics. The library staff also provides, via interlibrary loan, refer-
ence services and obtains materials not held in the library.
During the biennium, 464 items were cataloged and 245 bound serial
volumes were added to the collection. As of June 30, 1992, the library held
more than 14,250 bound volumes, 387 active periodical subscriptions and
841 periodical titles. A total of 446 interlibrary loan requests were filled
for DPI personnel and research associates of the FSCA. In addition,
library staff processed 91 requests from other institutions needing our
A major project during this biennium was the expansion and rear-
rangement of the library to provide adequate space for the periodicals
collection. Offices formerly occupied by the Apiary Inspection Bureau
became the Library Annex which houses federal, state and foreign docu-
ments, selected periodical titles on display, and additional seating and
study space. Other aspects of this project included withdrawing back
issues of selected periodicals, cataloging or removing a backlog of old
uncataloged materials, and rearranging the periodicals room to gain
maximum use of the available space.
Other accomplishments during this period included the acquisition of
the AGRICOLA database in CD-ROM format, and the addition of holdings
information on the majority of the library's entomology periodicals to
LUIS, the online catalog of the State University Libraries.
Table A-1 Organisms Imported By Cooperating Agencies
Bagous n. sp. Z
Bagous n. sp.
Bagous sp.? affinis
Hydrellia n. sp.
PARASITE OR PREDATOR
Paraiotonchium n. sp.
In Muscidifurax raptor on
puparia of Musca domestic
SCALES AND WHITEFLIES
PARASITE OR PREDATOR
PARASITE OR PREDATOR