Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00002
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001511744
oclc - 01242950
notis - AHC4712
lccn - sn 86001883
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report - Division of Plant Industry

Full Text






el)m









DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY


38th

BIENNIAL
REPORT






July 1, 1988 June 30, 1990


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES
BOB CRAWFORD, COMMISSIONER
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
RICHARD GASKALLA, DIRECTOR

Post Office Box 147100
Gainesville, Florida 32614-7100












FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AND CONSUMER SERVICES

DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY


Plant Industry Technical Council

Roy Vandergrift, Jr., Chairman (Vegetable) ........................ Canal Point
Joseph Welker, Vice-Chairman (Horticulture) .................... Jacksonville
Bill Shearman (Apiary).......................................................... Wimauma
John W. Hornbuckle (Citrus) ...... ................. Belleair Beach
Leonard Coward (Commercial Flower).............................. Punta Gorda
Richard Mims (Citrus) ............................................. Orlando
Ed Holt (Citizen-at-Large) .................................................. Jacksonville
Elliot Maguire (Forestry) ...................................... Green Cove Springs
Michael Hunt (Tropical Fruit) ........................... Homestead
Owen W. "Sonny" Conner, III (Foliage) .................................. Mt. Dora
Thomas Latta (Turfgrass) .............................................. Deerfield Beach


Administrative Staff

R. D. Gaskalla, Director ............................ Gainesville
C. C. Riherd, Assistant Director.............................................. Gainesville
D. L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development ........................ Gainesville
H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology .................................... Gainesville
L. P. Cutts, Chief of Apiary Inspection .................................. Gainesville
R. A. Clark, Chief of Plant Inspection ................... Gainesville
R. J. Griffith, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control .......... Winter Haven
T. S. Schubert, Chief of Plant Pathology .............................. Gainesville
J. H. O'Bannon, Chief of Nematology ..................................Gainesville
C. O. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration................ Winter Haven











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Report of the Division Director ........................................ .. 5
Personnel.......................................................... ...... 8
Fiscal ............................................. ...... ......................... 16
Training ................................... ..... ...................... 19
Library ................................... ................ ............. 20
Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility ............................... ... 21
Commodity Irradiation ......................................... ......... 22
Office of Systematic Botany .......................................... 23
Technical Assistance ................................... ..... .. 24
Bureau of Apiary Inspection .............................................. 26
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration ............................ 27
Bureau of Entomology..................................... .......... 30
Bureau of Methods Development ...................................... 43
Bureau of Nematology ................................... .......... 49
Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control ........................ 59
Bureau of Plant Inspection ............................................ 68
Bureau of Plant Pathology ...................................... .......... 80










ISSN 0071-5948
















Gainesville, Florida


Honorable Bob Crawford, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
The Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0810


Dear Commissioner:

I am pleased to present herewith the 1988-90 Biennial Report
for the Division of Plant Industry.

Respectfully,



Richard D. Gaskalla, Director
Division of Plant Industry






Division of Plant Industry


REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR
Richard D. Gaskalla











Created to safeguard Florida's agricultural interests, the Division of
Plant Industry (DPI) is responsible for detecting, intercepting, identifying
and controlling plant pests which could pose serious threats to agricultural
and horticultural interests and to native plants within the state. To
fulfill this responsibility, the DPI administers biometric surveys and
other regulatory programs including inspections and certifications of
nurseries and stock dealers, special certifications, and control and
eradication programs.
Compared to the previous biennium, there were relatively few changes
among key personnel during this two-year span.
In February 1989, Interim Bureau Chief Don Harris became the
permanent chief of the Bureau of Methods Development, and Bureau of
Plant Inspection Region I Administrator, Reed E. Burns was promoted
to biological scientist III, Bureau of Methods Development.
Agricultural Products Specialist John McLeod was selected in June
1989 as the new Region I administrator for the Bureau of Plant Inspection.
Region II Administrator W. Pat Henderson retired in May 1990, and
Agricultural Products Supervisor Terry Kipp was promoted to fill the
position.
Biological Scientist IV Burrell Smittle was selected to head the recently
constructed Florida Agricultural Commodities Irradiation Facility, located
next to headquarters in Gainesville. Installation of the linear accelerator
has begun, and the facility is expected to be online in mid-1991.
Construction was also completed on another facility at headquarters
during the biennium. The Phase II Biocontrol Facility was designed to
extend DPI's capabilities for providing secure conditions for introducing
biological control agents into the country.
Florida's ninth Mediterranean fruit fly eradication campaign began
on April 16, 1990, with the discovery of a single male Medfly, Ceratitis
capitata, trapped in Miami Springs, Dade County, adjacent to the Miami






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


International Airport. By May 21, a total of 23 Medflies had been trapped
on 21 residential properties in Miami Springs, Virginia Gardens and a
small section of Hialeah. The control phase of the program continued
through June, and intensified trapping will continue through July. If no
additional Medflies are detected, eradication will be officially declared
on Aug. 3, 1990.
On April 24, a single unmated female Medfly was found in a trap
at Port Everglades, Broward County, triggering yet another intensive
survey in south Florida. Division resources, particularly personnel and
equipment, were thinly stretched during this period of overlapping
programs. Fortunately, an eradication effort in Broward County had
not proven necessary by the end of the biennium, June 30, as there had
been no further Medfly detections. Intensive surveying will continue
until July 24, a period approximating three Medfly life cycles.
Other special programs continued through the biennium, including
the Black Parlatoria Scale Project in Miami, the tri-state Boll Weevil
Eradication Program, and the ongoing Citrus Canker Program.
On Mar. 28, 1990, the USDA proposed a rule change which would
essentially deregulate the nursery strains of citrus canker while tightening
regulations regarding the Asian strain.
A delimiting survey and eradication program for the noxious weed,
wild red rice, Oryza rufipogon, began in a four-acre area near the Royal
Palm Visitor Center at Everglades National Park, and subsequent surveys
have indicated that control methods are effectively eliminating the problem.
The migration of the African bee from Mexico into Texas continued
to be of concern. Florida has the most active state program in the nation
to prevent any accidental introduction of this pest, and DPI's Apiary
Bureau continues to monitor more than 200 bait hives located at 13
deepwater ports statewide.
African bees were detected in Florida twice during this biennium.
A queenless swarm was found on a container at the Omni Terminal in
Miami in May 1989, and a large swarm was discovered on a container
at Port Everglades in February 1990. Both swarms, the fifth and sixth
detected in Florida, were destroyed.
Registration of beekeepers became mandatory in 1989, and once the
majority of commercial beekeepers had complied, efforts shifted to register
sideline and hobbyist beekeepers.
A cooperative research project with USDA-ARS and IFAS for mass
rearing and releases of the Caribbean fruit fly parasite, Diachasmimorpha
longicaudata, began with the acquisition of facilities and investigation of
cage design and rearing procedures. DPI's primary role in this project
has been mass rearing the parasite, although that role will expand with
upcoming releases.






Division of Plant Industry


The Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol, a body of regulations which allows
fresh Florida citrus to be certified free of the Caribbean fruit fly and
shipped without the use of post-harvest fumigants to select foreign and
domestic markets, continued to be one of DPI's most successful programs.
During the biennium, the program grew to include 250 participants
with 1,095 designated areas in 15 counties.
A new 20-acre Foundation grove was completed on the Southwest
Florida Research and Education Center at Immokalee, a location relatively
secure from severe freezes. This new grove represents the best cultivars
available and, beginning in 1992, will provide registered budwood to
growers throughout southwest Florida.
In 1989, at the invitation of the USDA, the division provided assistance
to the California Medfly Project by loaning the services of five experienced
inspectors on a 30-day rotational basis, as well as assigning a DPI
agricultural products supervisor to review and critique the survey portion
of that eradication program. In addition, and also at the request of the
USDA, Plant Inspection Bureau Chief Richard Clark reviewed and critiqued
the project in its entirety.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


PERSONNEL
June 1, 1990


Administration
Richard D. Gaskalla
Constance C. Riherd
Ernest M. Collins, Jr.
Sandra R. Roberts
Mary R. Creekmore
Jeanne B. McAllister

Personnel
Kelly E. Shipman
Terry A. Green

Fiscal
Douglas G. Hadlock
Merceta Ambrose
Joan B. Halliday
Sally J. Ashe
Anna J. Williams

Library
Beverly L. Pope
Alice R. Sanders

Technical Assistance
Phyllis P. Habeck
Maeve McConnell
John J. Corkery
Jeffrey W. Lotz
Janet K. Miller
Grace J. Jones

Botany
Kenneth R. Langdon
Carlos R. Artaud


Director
Assistant Director
Education & Training Specialist
Administrative Assistant I
Executive Secretary
Administrative Secretary


Personnel Technician II
Personnel Aide


Accountant IV
Accountant I
Fiscal Assistant II
Secretary Specialist
Clerk Typist


Librarian II
Library Technical Assistant I


Public Information Supervisor
Information Specialist III
Publications Production Specialist II
Photographer II
Secretary Specialist
Clerk Typist


Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist II






Division of Plant Industry


Maintenance
Henry J. Coyer
Lambert F. Sweat
Keary N. Doke
David M. Harvey
Hugh L. Walker
Mary J. Echols
Theodore G. Barrett
Mark W. Blake
Millard M. Waldorff
Marion C. Johnson
Rosa L. Alexander
George A. Brown
Mary E. Danzy

Sterile Fly Laboratory
Ralph E. Brown
Burrell J. Smittle
Suzanne Fraser
Mary Jo Hayes
Marc C. Minno
Julie Pocklington
David R. Cott
Steven C. Gillis
Bernard Green
J. Barry Miller
Richard E. Harvey
Stephen A. Hildebrandt
Lloyd H. O'Quinn
James W. Perkins, Jr.
Joey C. Rolling
Bruce M. Saunders

Bureau of
Methods Development
Don L. Harris
Reed E. Burns
Ru Nguyen
Jose D. Diaz
Arleen B. Kaufmann
Kevin A. Heard
Douglas W. Lawrence
Gerald B. McElroy


Facilities Services Manager I
Cabinet Maker
Maintenance Mechanic
Maintenance Mechanic
Maintenance Mechanic
Nursery/Landscape Supervisor
Groundskeeper
Groundskeeper
Groundskeeper
Custodial Supervisor I
Custodial Worker
Custodial Worker
Custodial Worker


Biological Administrator I
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist II
Biological Scientist II
Biological Scientist II
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician II
Laboratory Technician II
Laboratory Technician II
Laboratory Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II



Chief
Biological Scientist III
Biological Scientist III
Biological Scientist II
Biological Scientist II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Robert H. Murdock
Ken V. Wood
Norma A. McGinn

Bureau of Entomology
Harold A. Denmark
Glavis B. Edwards
Avas B. Hamon
John B. Heppner
Frank W. Mead
Lionel A. Stange
Michael C. Thomas
Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Amy I. Baker
Brenda M. Beck
A. Ladonia Fields
Ernestine S. Ostanik
Robert S. Weston
James R. Wiley
Brenda S. Crowe
Charlotte J. Burkett
Michelle M. Faniola
Lynda L. Johns
Pamela M. Meister

Bureau of Nematology
John H. O'Bannon
Robert P. Esser
Renato N. Inserra
Paul S. Lehman
Carol R. Cochran
Jeffrey A. Simmons
Zell Smith, III
Pamela C. Zwerski
Brenda J. Lovelace

Bureau of Plant Pathology
Timothy S. Schubert
Lawrence G. Brown
Nabih E. El-Gholl
John J. McRitchie
John W. Miller
Tyre J. Proffer


Agricultural Technician I
Agricultural Technician II
Secretary Specialist


Chief
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Administrative Secretary
Secretary Specialist
Secretary Specialist
Secretary Specialist
Secretary Specialist


Chief
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Administrative Secretary
Clerk Typist Specialist


Chief
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV
Biological Scientist IV






Division of Plant Industry


Lisa L. Breman
Robert M. Leahy
Catherine Milatos
Sarah E. Walker
Ora B. Lawson
Judy M. Mattes
Cynthia A. Edwards

Bureau of
Apiary Inspection
Laurence P. Cutts
Thomas B. Dowda, III
Richard L. Dunaway
John L. Bastianelli
Stephen H. Beaty
Jerry A. Crews
James R. Hall
Ashraff Hosein
D. Fred Howard
William I. Langston
Melvin C. Morgan
Cathy A. DeWeese

Bureau of Pest
Eradication and Control
Robert J. Griffith
Leon H. Hebb
Sam E. Simpson
Jimmy F. Ward
Edwin H. Hill
A.C. McAulay, Jr.
Ralph L. Smith
Jack D. Toole
Matthew W. Brodie
Sharon B. Garrett
Homer A. Mercer
Robert S. Rice
Randolph E. Thompson
Carl F. Shultz
Jack H. Hammond
Florence L. Roberts
Jessie M. Harris
Thomas W. McLeod


Biological Scientist II
Biological Scientist II
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician III
Administrative Secretary
Word Processing Systems Operator



Chief
Agricultural Inspection Supervisor
Agricultural Inspection Supervisor
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Agricultural Inspector
Administrative Secretary



Chief
Assistant Chief
Biological Scientist III
Biological Scientist II
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Automotive Equipment Mechanic II
Automotive Equipment Mechanic I
Administrative Secretary
Agricultural Technician III
Agricultural Technician III






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


James G. Jones
John A. Roser
Johnny D. Seay
Donald W. Weiser
Mildred L. Olson


Bureau of Citrus
Budwood Registration
Charles O. Youtsey
Michael C. Kesinger
Nuoc Van Dang
Fred D. Gebhard
Charles A. Thomhill
Frank J. Rosenthal
Travis B. Carter
Johnny J. Yates
Julia B. Wiggins
Hedgel M. Floyd
Ann A. Hoag
George W. Johnson
Robert E. Miller
Mark A. McGee
Donna S. Hutchinson
Vicki A. Fisher
Donna P. Stewart


Bureau of Plant Inspection
Richard A. Clark
Daniel C. Phelps
Debra S. Chalot
Terry L. Kipp
John W. McLeod
Paul L. Hornby
Raymond T. Buchholz
L. J. Chambliss
Dennis C. Clinton
Hugh W. Collins, Jr.
Kenneth L. Hibbard
Calie C. Jenkins
William M. Keen
Ralph E. Muekeley


Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Agricultural Technician II
Clerk Typist Specialist




Chief
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Laboratory Technician IV
Laboratory Technician II
Nursery/Landscape Supervisor
Administrative Secretary
Agricultural Technician III
Agricultural Technician III
Agricultural Technician III
Agricultural Technician III
Agricultural Technician II
Word Processing Systems Operator
Clerk Typist Specialist
Clerk Typist Specialist



Chief
Assistant Chief
Agricultural Inspection Administrator
Agricultural Inspection Administrator
Agricultural Inspection Administrator
Certification Specialist
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor






Division of Plant Industry


W. Jack Shirley
G. Terry Smith
David A. Storch
Harlo E. von Wald
Anne F. Weathers
Q. Guy Anglin
Arlynn C. Baker
John H. Banta
Joseph S. Beckwith
Stephen P. Beidler
James E. Bennett
William A. Birch
Debora A. Bivins
William S. Brewton
V. G. Brown
Anthony N. Capitano
B. Marie Clark
Gwen A. Corbitt
Kathleen E. Dady
Lynda F. Davis
Robert W. Dudley
Roberto Erb
Thomas S. Everett
Jack T. Felty
Peter E. Forkgen
Willio L. Francillon
Samuel A. Fuller
Alan J. Gambill
John E. Giles
Harmon L. Gillis
John F. Gilmore
Walter W. Golden
Donna M. Gruber
Daniel C. Hall
James K. Harris
Alan R. Haynes
Clyde K. Hickman
Danee A. Hoover
Lynn D. Howerton
John M. Hughes
Cindy S. Kamelhair
Brenda S. Kosiba
Charles E. Kouns


Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Supervisor
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Lisa A. Lanza
Ronald G. Lee
Donna M. Leone
Cheryl L. Lichkai
James E. Lindsay
Jack C. McCluskie
Floyd J. McHenry
Susan Marsicano
Louise S. Maynard
Randall N. Mescher
David M. Mooney
Cecil L. Morgan
Harry L. Morrison
Christine M. Murphy
Carl E. Nelson
Maria E. Peacock
Tom L. Phillips
Flewellyn W. Podris
Wallace J. Poole
Angela Y. Richmer
Donald R. Robbins
William L. Robinson
Theresa L. Rust
William R. Schirmer
E. Ray Simmons
James W. Sims
Helen A. Smith
Larry W. Smith
W. W. Smith
Irvine D. Smyth
Ellen J. Tannehill
Grace E. Thompson
David A. Tillberg
Frank D. Urso
Timothy S. Vawryk
Dana M. Venrick
Howard L. Wallace
James J. Walukiewicz
Alan L. Waters
Karen J. Watson
Charles H. Webb, Jr.
Matthew W. Wittek
Tracy L. Wright


Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist






Division of Plant Industry


W. Elmer Wynn
Lynn E. Zellers
Tangela D. Du Pree

Elizabeth L. Roberts
Veloria A. Kelly

Jean H. Wilson
Glenda J. Anderson
Robert T. Lawton
Barbara G. Bale
Phyllis C. Chang
Jacque L. Farmer
Terry L. Harris
Christina L. Boyette


Agricultural Products Specialist
Agricultural Products Specialist
Word Processing Systems
Operator Supervisor
Administrative Secretary
Senior Word Processing
Systems Operator
Senior Clerk
Word Processing Systems Operator
Agricultural Technician II
Secretary Specialist
Secretary Specialist
Secretary Specialist
Secretary Specialist
Clerk Typist Specialist







Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


FISCAL OFFICE
Douglas G. Hadlock, Fiscal Officer

Tables I III, respectively, depict the actual budget expenditures for FY
1989-90, estimated budget expenditures for FY 1989/90 and the requested
legislative appropriations for FY 1991/92

Table 1. Expenditures-FY 1989/90

Bureau/Activity Total Expenditures

Administrative Services
Director-Fiscal-Personnel-Maintenance
Technical Assistance-Training-Sterile Fly Lab $ 2,642,242
Total Administrative Service 2,642,242
Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection
Plant Inspection 3,400,869
Citrus Tree Survey 195,166
Imported Fire Ant Certification 204,606
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections 3,800,641

Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 718,515
Bio-Control Laboratory 25,014
Bureau of Plant Pathology 495,560
Bureau of Nematology 439,335
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 367,928
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 476,472
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 663,425
Spreading Decline 149,703
Fruit Fly Protocol 495,720
Imported Fire Ant 600,728
Bureau of Methods Development 308,285
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities 25,078
Citrus Canker Eradication 2,644,334
Transfer to Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 2,883,330
Medfly 1990 477,472
Plant Pest & Disease Control Act. 26,632
Boll Weevil Eradication 893,608
Sterile Fly/Parasite Release Agreement 114,533
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 11,805,672

Division Total 18,248,555

Division Total by Fund: General Revenue 10,401,991
Imported Fire Ant Trust 600,728
Florida Citrus Canker Trust 2,000,000
Plant Industry Trust 2,282,363
Contracts & Grants Trust 319,139
Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 2,644,334

Division Total $18,248,555







Division of Plant Industry


Table 2. Estimated Expenditures FY 1990/91

BureaulActivity Total Expenditures

Administrative Services
Director-Fiscal-Personnel-Maintenance
Technical Assistance-Training-Sterile Fly Lab $3,391,953
Total Administrative Services $3,391,953


Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection
Plant Inspection 3,296,625
Citrus Tree Survey 200,896
Fruit Fly Protocol 574,514
Imported Fire Ant Certification 202,000
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspection 4,274,035

Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 907,824
Bio-Control Laboratory 51,056
Bureau of Plant Pathology 538,995
Bureau of Nematology 438,349
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 579,161
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 526,155
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 672,364
Black Parlatoria Scale 200,000
Imported Fire Ant 1,161,958
Bureau of Methods Development 495,653
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities 36,000
Citrus Canker Eradication 2,908,669
Transfer to Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 1,450,000
Medfly 1990 30,912
Plant Pest & Disease Control Act 269,088
Boll Weevil Eradication 1,000,000
Sterile Fly/Parasite Release Agreement 100,000
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 11,366,184

Division Total 19,032,172


Division Total by Fund:
General Revenue 10,890,098
Imported Fire Ant Trust 1,161,958
Florida Citrus Canker Trust 500,000
Plant Industry Trust 3,115,702
Contracts & Grants Trust 455,745
Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 2,908,669

Division Total $19,032,172







Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Table 3. Requested Expenditures FY 1991/92

Bureau/Activity Total Expenditures

Administrative Services
Director-Fiscal-Personnel-Maintenance
Technical Assistance-Training-Sterile Fly Lab $4,192,408
Total Administrative Service 4,192,408

Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection 3,962,678
Citrus Tree Survey 229,287
Fruit Fly Protocol 931,921
Imported Fire Ant Certification 202,772
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections 5,326,658

Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 1,162,354
Bio-Control Laboratory 221,684
Bureau of Plant Pathology 556,543
Bureau of Nematology 570,431
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 977,758
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 690,542
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 1,139,963
Black Parlatoria Scale 368,191
Imported Fire Ant 1,069,079
Bureau of Methods Development 768,747
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnitites 36,000
Citrus Canker Eradication 2,486,427
Transfer to Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 1,200,000
Plant Pest & Disease Control Act 300,000
Boll Weevil Eradication 800,000
Sterile Fly/Parasite Release Agreement 100,000
Endangered Species Agreement 152,121
Beagle Brigade Agreement 100,000
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 12,699,840


Division Total 22,218,906


Division Total by Fund
General Revenue Fund 16,184,304
Imported Fire Ant Trust Fund 1,069.079
Florida Citrus Canker Trust Fund 200,000
Plant Industry Trust Fund 1,824,203
Contracts & Grants Trust 454,893
Citrus Canker Eradication Trust Fund 2,486,427


Division Total 22,218,906






Division of Plant Industry


OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Ernest M. Collins, Education and Training Specialist








Training classes for new agricultural products specialists were resumed
on a regularly scheduled basis for the first time since the Citrus Canker
eradication program began in 1984. Four training classes for new
agricultural products specialists were completed during this biennium.
A total of 31 new employees successfully completed five weeks of primary
training in the plant regulatory requirements of the division. Training
for each class comprised two weeks at headquarters in Gainesville and
one week in Apopka, Winter Haven and Miami, respectively.
The placement of 1/2-inch video cassette recorders and monitors in
each Bureau of Plant Inspection Regional Office and in the Bureau of
Pest Eradication and Control in Winter Haven has enabled the division
to utilize video training tapes. To this end, a three-part video training
unit was completed on fruit fly trapping procedures and is now available
in each of the Bureau of Plant Inspection's three regional offices. In
addition, a 10-minute videotape titled "Imported Fire Ants: Certification
and Proper Treatments" was completed for use by division field personnel
and members of the nursery industry; this instructional tape has seen
wide use. The training specialist acted as the liaison between the division
and the department's video production unit.
During April, May and June 1990, the training office was assigned
duties with the emergency Mediterranean fruit fly eradication program
in Dade County. In addition to conducting training in program orientation
and fruit fly trapping, the training specialist was also assigned the duties
of safety officer for the project. Those duties included the acquisition
of safety equipment, oversight of safety procedures during operations,
instructing new employees in defensive driving skills and conducting
safety checks of all equipment.
As mandated in Chapter 442 of the Florida Statutes, this office
continued the "right-to-know" training for division employees, which
includes the safe use of chemicals and pesticides.
Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training for employees began
during this biennium and, in the future, will be coupled with the American
Red Cross First Aid training.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


LIBRARY
Beverly Pope, Librarian









The DPI Library supports the activities of the division by maintaining
a specialized research collection of materials in the subject areas of
entomology, plant pathology, nematology, botany, apiculture, and related
topics. The library's staff also provide reference services and obtain
materials not held in the library via interlibrary loan.
The library is staffed by a librarian and a library technical assistant.
Librarian June B. Jacobson retired in July 1989, and Beverly Pope became
the new librarian in August 1989.
During the 1988-90 biennium, 498 items were cataloged, and 286
bound serial volumes were added to the collection. As of June 30, 1990,
the library held more than 13,500 bound volumes, with 430 active periodical
subscriptions and 782 periodical titles held. A total of 437 interlibrary
loan requests were filled for DPI personnel and research associates of
the FSCA. In addition, DPI library staff processed 110 requests from
other institutions needing our materials.
The Library Advisory Committee was reactivated in November 1989
to provide feedback on proposed changes in space utilization, periodicals
retention and other library projects. Projects begun during this biennium
included: withdrawing older issues of selected periodicals to gain needed
shelving space; inventorying the uncataloged backlog to facilitate decisions
about cataloging or discarding those items; and developing a proposal
to install compact shelving in the Library.
In the fall of 1989, the library began providing online database searching
as an additional service to DPI staff. By June 1990, a new microcomputer
was acquired to provide access to reference materials in CD-ROM format,
and to implement a project to add DPI Library's holdings into LUIS, the
statewide catalog of the State University System Libraries.






Division of Plant Industry


STERILE FLY MASS REARING FACILITY
Ralph Brown, Biological Administrator











The sterile fly mass rearing facility has been in operation since May
1987. In the interim, a colony of Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspense)
has been established which is capable of producing sufficient eggs for
a production of more than 20 million Caribflies per week.
The laboratory has been equipped, personnel trained and procedures
developed for mass rearing of A. suspense.
Currently, approximately 20 million flies are being produced with
an anticipated peak production of 35-50 million per week. The laboratory
is furnishing larvae for the rearing of parasitic wasps for the control of
A. suspense and sterilized flies for release in projects to investigate the
use of sterile males for suppression or elimination of A. suspense in
Florida. Based on results of investigations using this rearing facility,
programs to control A. suspense in Florida can be planned, and costs of
control or eradication programs can be projected.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


OFFICE OF COMMODITY IRRADIATION
Burrell J. Smittle, Biological Scientist IV







In 1987, FDACS and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) signed
a cooperative agreement to build an agricultural commodities irradiation
facility in Florida. Assistant Commissioner Martha Rhodes coordinated
FDACS activities with the federal government and other interested parties
in securing this facility for the state of Florida. The facility was planned
to be constructed adjacent to the Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility. Ralph
E. Brown was assigned the responsibility as department project
representative. On August 1, 1989, Dr. Burrell J. Smittle began as manager
of the irradiation facility under the Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility.
The conceptual design for the irradiator utilized cesium-137 as the
irradiation source which resulted in considerable concern among
Gainesville residents. After General Electric bought a French company,
CGR-MeV, that manufactured linear accelerators, the design was changed
to utilize this new technology, and public opposition to the facility rapidly
dissipated. Plans were revised to accommodate the linear accelerator
with site preparation beginning Dec. 11, 1989. The project was delayed
three months d: e to preparation of an environmental assessment with
actual construction beginning in April 1990. The total federal funding
for the project through DOE is $5.4 million. An additional $0.5 million
and the building site were made available through the State of Florida.
The facility consists of approximately 13,500 square feet of which
7,000 square feet is research and support area, and 6,500 square feet
consist of labyrinth, irradiation rooms and accelerator equipment areas.
The irradiation area will be covered with an earthen berm for shielding
purposes.
The linear accelerator is located on the main floor level where a 2.5-
meter horn producing 5 MeV x-rays can treat large cartons or pallet
loads of commodities. The lower level has a one-meter horn producing
10 MeV electrons to treat shallow layers of commodities. Automated
conveying systems will transport commodities on both levels. The research
and support area is divided into treated and untreated areas, each with
refrigerators and freezers to store commodities before and after irradiation.
The building is almost completed and the linear accelerator is being
installed. Installation and testing should be finished in March 1991.






Division of Plant Industry


OFFICE OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY
K. R. Langdon, Botanist









The Office of Systematic Botany is a service support unit primarily
aiding and assisting the other bureaus of the Division of Plant Industry
by providing plant identifications and related services. Services are also
provided for other local, state, and federal governmental agencies and
personnel and to individuals upon request.
The Office of Systematic Botany includes the Division of Plant Industry
Herbarium. Dr. K. R. Langdon serves as head of the office and as
curator of the herbarium. Mr. C. R. Artaud assists him.
The Division of Plant Industry Herbarium now houses over 6,600
sheets of pressed, dried, mounted, identified plant specimens. The seed
collection contains 1,357 vials of seed specimens. The herbarium also
houses approximately 600 packets of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts).
There were 9,169 plant specimens submitted for identification during
the biennium.
Other work handled by the Office of Systematic Botany includes
many hours spent reviewing host lists and checking plant lists to verify
or correct plant names for spelling, validity, synonymy, describers, etc.;
reviewing manuscripts as chairman of the Publications Committee; and
reviewing and making recommendations on applications to the Plant
Pathogen Introduction Committee. Translations of scientific literature
from Spanish, Portuguese and Latin to English and from English to
Spanish were provided for various division personnel. This office now
has a computer, and our records are being computerized. Dr. Langdon
serves as a member of the Cultivar Release Committee and also works
with the Endangered Plant Council in an advisory capacity.
The state of Florida has mandated that each county prepare a County
Comprehensive Development Plan. Among other things, their plans
contain lists of threatened and endangered species occurring in the county.
Dr. Langdon has reviewed these plant lists and made corrections and
additions as necessary.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


OFFICE OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
Phyllis Habeck, Public Information Supervisor










The major responsibility of the Technical Assistance Office (TAO) is
to assist the technical, regulatory and administrative bureaus in the
production and printing of general, technical and scientific information
about pests and diseases of plants and honeybees for distribution to our
field inspectors and supervisors, members of industry, scientists and the
general public. To accomplish this, the TAO provides the offices and
bureaus with: photographic services, including macro- and micro-
photography; biological illustrations and related graphics and writing;
and writing, editing and publishing services.
The TAO researched and wrote press releases, articles for industry
magazines, program updates, brochures, the division's annual report
and in-house newsletter, speeches and scripts for video and slide
presentations, as well as a quarterly bulletin distributed to inform industry
and other interested persons about pest control programs and regulations
governing the movement of plants and plant products and honeybees.
TAO personnel also responded to requests for information from the
media and the public, particularly during the 1990 Mediterranean fruit
fly eradication project in Dade County, where a temporary information
office was established and operated for two months, until the completion
of the control phase of the project.
Work also continued on the public awareness campaign on African
bees, although planning had to be scaled back due to the lack of available
funds. However, the TAO began designing an extensive lesson plan for
all elementary school grade levels, which will be targeted for use in the
"Ag in the Classroom" program.
The TAO also coordinated the planning, production and printing of
all division publications during this biennium, including 273 jobs printed
by the department print shop and commercial printing firms. These
included two volumes of The Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring
Land Areas series and two volumes of the Occasional Papers of the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods.






Division of Plant Industry


During this biennium, TAO personnel collaborated with members
of the Florida Endangered Plant Advisory Council to produce "The
Wildflowers of Florida," a full-color, map-size brochure which proved
to be very popular with the general public and various organizations
and agencies.
This office designs and builds displays and exhibits to be used to
educate industry, scientists and the general public about DPI programs
and responsibilities. One new display, "Florida's Native Plants," was
created during the biennium and has been in great demand for fairs,
expositions and other gatherings throughout the state.
The TAO prepared camera-ready copy for all printing requests
submitted by the bureaus and offices, including designing, laying out
and illustrating scientific and technical books, articles for professional
journals, booklets, pamphlets, brochures, training manuals, the monthly
technical circulars and survey update (Triology), and business forms.
Morphologically accurate renderings of living and preserved organisms
such as insects, nematodes, fungi and bacteria were prepared for use by
the technical bureaus in identifications and publications. The staff artist
also assisted the Medfly Project with maps, brochures and signs. During
the 1988-90 biennium, the artist completed approximately 450 job requests.
TAO photographic services were provided for use in the identification
of biological specimens and disease symptoms, the training of technical
and field personnel and the preparation of technical, scientific and historical
printed matter and audiovisual material. Biological specimens such as
arthropods, nematodes, plant pathogens and plant materials as well as
symptoms, damage to plants and plant products and related cultural
and environmental conditions were photographed in the studio and in
the field. In addition, a photographic record of all division regulatory
programs and activities, including emergency programs such as the 1990
Medfly eradication project, conferences, important meetings and official
events was maintained for training and historical purposes and for use
in publications produced by the division. During the 1988-90 biennium,
the photography section processed 683 jobs.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


BUREAU OF APIARY INSPECTION
Laurence P. Cutts, Chief








Varroa mites were discovered in the fall of 1987, and efforts to
control this pest have been the major emphasis of the Apiary Bureau
this biennium.
Certification and treatment procedures have changed with changing
technologies. Bureau personnel have been involved in cooperative research
with the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research
Service (USDA/ARS); the University of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), Nor-Am Corporation and Zoecon
Corporation on numerous projects involving varroa mites.
Beekeeper registration is a new program for Florida that began January
1, 1989. The registration number assigned by the Apiary Bureau must
be branded or imprinted on the brood nest of each colony for identification.
This replaced the permit formerly required for foulbrood certification.
There are an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 commercial, sideline and hobbyist
beekeepers currently in the state of Florida.
The African bee has continued its migration through Mexico. However,
the December 1989 freeze eliminated the spring forage and prevented
swarming, effectively halting the migration for 1990. These bees are
expected to arrive in Texas in the spring of 1991.
One small, queenless African swarm was found on a container at
the Omni Terminal in Miami in May 1989, and a large swarm was found
on a container at Port Everglades in February 1990. These were the fifth
and sixth swarms destroyed in Florida. The Apiary Bureau has three
lines of defense to guard against the accidental introduction of African
bees at Florida ports: reporting by ships' crews or dock workers; the
use of bait hives; and close monitoring of managed and known feral
colonies around the ports.
From July 1, 1988, through June 30, 1990, there were 208,394 colonies
inspected from a total of 507,079 colonies located in 7,938 apiaries. There
were 86,713 colonies found infested with varroa mites. An additional
337 apiaries had 2,684 colonies found infected with American foulbrood
disease; all were destroyed. A total of $39,797.73 in compensation was
paid for these destroyed colonies.






Division of Plant Industry


BUREAU OF CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION
Charles O. Youtsey, Chief








The objectives of the Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration are to
assist Florida nurserymen and growers in producing citrus nursery trees
that are believed to be horticulturally sound and free of detrimental
virus or other recognizable bud-transmissible diseases. Participation in
the program is voluntary on the part of nurserymen and growers.
An average of 214 active participants produced a record 12.3 million
registered citrus nursery trees during this biennium. Budwood Bureau
personnel witnessed the planting of 14,196 new scion trees planted by
participants during this period, bringing the total registered scion plantings
to more than 50,000 trees supplying registered citrus-propagating material
to the Florida industry.
As a result of the severe freezes of the 1980s, the Florida citrus
industry is undergoing a rapid evolution in grove planting. The
replacement of freeze-damaged, diseased and senile trees with young,
vigorous, horticulturally superior trees (16.2 million planted during this
biennium) will result in increased fruit production and longer tree life
statewide.
Bureau records show that Hamlin and Valencia oranges and Ruby
Red and Marsh seedless grapefruit continue to be the leading citrus
varieties propagated. Swingle citrumelo, Carrizo citrange, and Cleopatra
mandarin have been the leading rootstocks for all propagations during
the last two-year period. The once popular sour orange rootstock has
fallen to less than 2 percent of the rootstocks used because of tree losses
from citrus tristeza disease.
The major freeze of December 23-25, 1989, caused major tree losses
to the citrus budwood foundation grove located near Dundee, Florida.
Approximately 35 acres were so severely damaged the trees were removed
for replacement. Trees budded on Smooth Flat Seville and Cleopatra
mandarin rootstocks survived with the least cold injury. More than 250
trees were planted as replacements for trees lost to citrus blight or cold
injury from previous years events. The process of tree removal has
resulted in major damage to irrigation systems that will require extensive
repairs.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


There were 128 trees replaced in the Florida Citrus Arboretum this
biennium. A number of tropical citrus relatives were lost to cold injury
and others were replaced with young trees propagated using techniques
to eliminate virus infection. There were 268,400 budeyes distributed
from the foundation plantings this biennium.
A 20-acre citrus foundation planting was completed in the spring of
1989 at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center near
Immokalee. This location is relatively secure from severe freezing weather.
The planting consists of 18 varieties on 22 rootstocks representing the
best cultivars available through the Budwood Registration Program. The
planting was made possible by Gulf Coast Citrus Growers who supplied
equipment and materials to prepare the land, install an irrigation system,
grow, plant, and provide tree care to the new planting. The grove will
provide registered budwood to the southwest Florida area growers
beginning in 1992 and also serve as a resource for teaching and research.
The virus test nursery near Winter Haven also sustained severe
damage from the 1989 Christmas freeze causing the loss of 93 tests that
will require replanting. There were 70 (2.1 percent) scion-mother trees
found infected with exocortis viroid due to accidental contamination
from routine cultural practices by nurserymen. Virus test activity is
summarized in the table below.

Table 1. Summary of Virus Testing 1988-90
Psorosis Xyloporosis Exocortis Tristeza
Tests in progress 99 64 3,594 ---
Tests completed 53 152 3,363 5,028
Tests discontinued 7 86 -----
(freeze)


During this biennium, a serological laboratory procedure using
monoclonal antibodies to detect severe strains of citrus tristeza virus
(CTV) was incorporated into the bureau's testing standards. This technique
will be applied to trees supplying registered budwood in an attempt to
identify and reduce the propagation of citrus nursery trees from budwood
containing damaging isolates of CTV.
A large number of the major varieties representing the best selections
available in the budwood program have been freed of virus disease
agents through shoot-tip grafting therapy. These plants are currently
being held in screenhouses and represent a valuable resource of disease-
free propagating material to be made available to the industry for
propagation of registered disease-free nursery stock.






Division of Plant Industry


One new orange hybrid variety and a new rootstock variety were
released by the United States Department of Agriculture during this
biennium. Ambersweet orange and Sun Chu Sha mandarin budwood
was distributed to nurserymen through the bureau to assure the
preservation of identity and protect the integrity of the virus indexing
on these popular selections. Ambersweet is an early maturing, cold-
hardy scion variety and Sun Chu Sha rootstock has shown good tolerance
to blight in alkaline soils of the east coast.
The bureau distributed 1,075 budeyes of the new satsuma selection,
Kimbrough, during this report period. This selection originated in
Louisiana and was introduced under the division's plant introduction
and screening requirements. A seedling selection of Owari satsuma, the
Kimbrough is believed to be one or two degrees more cold hardy than
most satsumas.
The new grapefruit variety, Rio Red, introduced from Texas under
division quarantine, has been multiplied during this biennium to increase
propagation material for distribution to growers. Upon completion of
virus tests, this budwood will be made available to nurserymen for
propagation.
Charles Youtsey was presented the 1988 Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association Distinguished Service Award at the 45th Annual Convention
Sept. 28, 1988, in Naples, Florida. Mr. Youtsey was praised for his
many years of outstanding contributions to the Florida citrus industry.
Approximately 250 government officials, growers, students and foreign
visitors (117 foreign visitors representing 15 countries), visited the bureau
and toured the Florida Citrus Arboretum or virus test facilities during
this biennium.
Field training and lectures in citrus budwood registration procedures,
virus recognition, citrus variety identification and horticultural evaluation
were given to 30 new agricultural products specialists, in a total of four
training sessions.
Lectures and/or slide talks on citrus diseases and techniques of
virus indexing and variety identification were given to students from
the University of Florida Fruit Crops Department and Florida Southern
College citrus classes on five occasions. In addition, talks and presentations
were given to the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association and other
citrus growers interested in selection of rootstocks and citrus varieties.
Bureau personnel contributed to two scientific publications.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY
H.A. Denmark, Chief









The Bureau of Entomology provides arthropod identification services,
conducts investigations of some economic pest problems, assists in
instructing agricultural products specialists, continues to build a general
arthropod reference and research collection, conducts taxonomic
investigations, supervises security of the Florida Biological Control
Laboratory and collects the taxonomic and biological control literature
to support these areas of responsibility.
During the biennium there were 380,233 specimens (individual insects)
received and identified for the agricultural products specialists. From
these, there were 300,307 specimens discarded, 57,877 specimens pinned,
7,484 slide mounts prepared, and 14,565 specimens in vials of alcohol.
All were added to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA).
There were 424 new county records, 14 new state records, and five
new continental U.S. records established during the biennium.
Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, was again discovered in
south Florida. Twenty-three adults were identified by bureau entomologists
in fiscal year 1989-90 from Miami and one from Ft. Lauderdale. During
the trapping and eradication projects, bureau personnel provided technical
and identification services.
The black parlatoria scale, Parlatoria ziziphi, eradication program
continues in Miami with the technical assistance of one entomologist
providing identifications and one secretary providing reporting services.

Identifications, Duties, and Responsibilities
Identifications, biosystematics, distributions and curation into the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods of the various groups are the
duty and responsibility of eight staff taxonomic entomologists. In addition
to these functions the entomologists and supporting staff of the Entomology
Bureau provide numerous services to the citizens of Florida. Particular
attention is given the protection of Florida agriculture against injurious
arthropod plant pests. The entomologists and the groups for which
they are responsible are as follows:






Division of Plant Industry


H.A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology
(1) Aphids, mites, thrips and ticks.
(2) Chairman, Arthropod and Arthropod Pathogen Introduction Com-
mittee.
(3) Chairman, Plant Pest Introduction and Evaluation Committee in
Entomology.
(4) Member, Supervisory Committee to review fruit fly trapping.
(5) Member, Advisory Council, Department of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee.
(6) Rotating chairman for the Center for Arthropod Systematics represen-
ting the Florida Department of Argiculture and Consumer Services.
(7) Member, Technical Council for honey bee trachael mite.
(8) Scientific Advisory Board of Butterfly World, Ft. Lauderdale.
(9) Committee to secure additional land for construction of addition to
FSCA.
(10) Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
(11) Board member, Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc.

G.B. Edwards, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) All terrestrial non-insect arthropods except Acarina.
(2) Chief editor of Peckhamia.
(3) Member, Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and
Animals (FCREPA).
(4) Member, Safety Committee, Division of Plant Industry.
(5) Member, Publications Committee, Division of Plant Industry.
(6) Membership secretary of Peckham Society.

A.B. Hamon, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Homoptera: Coccoidea, scale insects; Aleyodidae, whiteflies.
(2) Member, Black Parlatoria Scale Technical Committee.

J.B. Heppner, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Immature insects and adult Lepidoptera.
(2) Editor, Lepidopterorum Catalogus; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera;
Lepidoptera of Taiwan; Atlas of North American Lepidoptera; and
Tropical Lepidoptera.
(3) Associate Editor, Insecta Mundi.
(4) Board Member and Secretary/Treasurer, Center for Systematic
Entomology, Inc.
(5) Executive Director, Association for Tropical Lepidoptera.
(6) Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


F.W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Diptera: suborder Nematocera; Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha, plus
Psyllidae; Hemiptera (Heteroptera).
(2) Member, Long Range Planning Committee, Florida Entomological
Society 1988-90 (Chairman, 1990-91).
(3) Year-round daily operation of blacklight trap as a survey-detection
tool in an agricultural area of southwest Gainesville.
(4) Rotating editor of Tri-ology Technical Report.

LA. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Hymenoptera; gall-forming insects; Neuroptera and snails and slugs.
(2) Research Associate, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History
(3) Field Associate, Division of Malacology, Florida Museum of Natural
History.
(4) Member, Publications Committee, Division of Plant Industry.
(5) Member, Florida Africanized Bee Task Force.
(6) Associate Editor, Insecta Mundi.

M.C. Thomas, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Coleoptera and Orthoptera
(2) Member, Computer Oversight Committee, Division of Plant Industry
(3) Member, Library Committee, Division of Plant Industry.
(4) Editor, Insecta Mundi.

H.V. Weems, Jr., Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Diptera: suborder Brachycera and miscellaneous smaller arthropod
groups.
(2) Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA), Division of
Plant Industry.
(3) Director, Research Associate Program of FSCA.
(4) Editor, Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, Division
of Plant Industry.
(5) Editor, Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
(6) Associate Editor, Florida Entomologist.
(7) Member, Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and
Animals (FCREPA).
(8) Board Member, Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc.

R.E. Woodruff, Emeritus, Taxonomic Entomologist
(Retired July 31, 1988)
(1) Coleoptera and Orthoptera.







Division of Plant Industry


Florida Biological Control Laboratory
The Florida Biological Control Laboratory (FBCL) is a cooperative
facility of the Division of Plant Industry, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA-ARS) and the University of Florida (IFAS). During the biennium
the cooperating agencies exported 67 shipments, and imported 134
shipments of possible biocontrol agents into quarantine.
Research projects being conducted in the laboratory were principally
those which deal with insect biological control of aquatic weeds, mosquito-
rearing techniques, and parasites of mole crickets, black parlatoria scale,
sweetpotato whitefly, cloudy-winged whitefly, and fall armyworm.

Table 1. Insects Exported by Cooperating Agencies

Insects Target Destination No. Agency
Exported Organism


Aphytis lingnanensis
Aphytis lingnanensis
Aphytis lingnanensis
Aspidiotiphagus sp.
Aspidiotiphagus sp.
Ceratitis capitata (sterile)
Coptera merceti
Cotesia plutellae
Eretmocerus sp.
Eretmocerus sp.
Eretmocerus sp.
Eretmocerus n. sp.
Fidiobia citri
Hydrellia balciunasi
Hydrellia balciunasi
Hydrellia balciunasi
Hydrellia pakistanae
Hydrellia pakistanae
Larra sp.
Larra sp.
Metaphycus sp.
Microterys sp.
Muscidifurax raptor
Neochetina bruchi
Neochetina eichhomiae
Opius sens. lat.
Ormia depleta
Pheropsophus aequinoctialis
Solenopsis (Labauchena)
Spalangia cameroni
Spalangia gemina
Telenomus remus
Tetrastichus haitiensis
Trichopria cilipes
Trichopria stomoxydis


Unaspis citri
Unaspis citri
Unaspis citri
Parlatoria ziziphi
Unaspis citri
artificial diet
Musca domestic
Plutella xylostella
Bemesia tabaci
Bemesia tabaci
Bemesia tabaci
Bemesia tabaci
Pantomorus cervinus
Hydrilla verticillata
Hydrilla verticllata
Hydrilla verticillata
Hydrilla verticillata
Hydrilla verticllata
Scapteriscus acletus
Scapteriscus acletus
Protopulvinaria pyriformis
Protopulvinaria pyriformis
Musca domestic
Eichhomiae crassipes
Eichhomiae crassipes
Anastrepha spp.
Scapteriscus acletus
Scapteriscus acletus
Solenopsis invicta
Musca domestic
Musca domestic
Spodoptera frugiperda
Diaprepes abbreviatus
unknown
Stomoxys calcitrans


Homestead
Lake Alfred
Texas
Lake Alfred
Lake Alfred
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Texas
Bradenton
Apopka
Texas
Lake Alfred
Ft. Lauderdale
Hollywood
Palm Beach
Ft. Lauderdale
Palm Beach
Gainesville
Micanopy
Israel
Israel
Gainesville
Honduras
Honduras
Homestead
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Honduras
Lake Alfred
Gainesville
Gainesville


IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
USDA
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
USDA
USDA
USDA
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
USDA
USDA
USDA
IFAS
IFAS
USDA
IFAS








34 Thirty-eighth Biennial Report

Table 2. Organisms Imported by Cooperating Agencies

Parasite or Predator Host Origin Agency
Imported


Weeds
Artace sp.
Coleophora sp.
Episimus utilis
Heteroperreyia hubrichi
Hydrellia balciunasi
Liothrips Ichini
Uthraeus atronotatus
Omolabus piceus
Polypedilum sp.

Domestic Flies
Coptera merceti

Coptera merceti
Heterotylenchus n. sp.
Muscidifurax raptor
Spalangia cameroni
Spalangia endius
Spalangia gemina
Spalangia nigra
Tachinaephagus stomoxicida
Trichopria sp.
Trichopria cilipes
Trichopria stomoxydis
Unidentified Encyrtidae
Unidentified Encyrtidae

Fire Ants
Solenopsis (Labauchena) sp.

Fruit Flies
Biosteres vandenboschi
Ceratitis capitata (sterile)
Opius spp. sens. lat.
Parasites of Anastrepha sp.

Lepidoptera
Cardiochiles sp.
Cotesia plutellae
Telenomus remus
Telenomus sp.

Mole Crickets
Larra bicolor
Larra sp.
Larra spp.
Ormia depleta
Pheropsophus aequinoctialis
Pheropsophus aequinoctialis


Schinus terebinthifolius
Schinus terebinthifolius
Schinus terebinthifolius
Schinus terebinthifolius
Hydrilla verticillata
Schinus terebinthifolius
Schinus terebinthifolius
Schinus terebinthifolius
Hydrilla verticillata


Musca domestic &
Stomoxys calcitrans
Musca domestic
Musca domestic
Musca domestic
Musca domestic
Stomoxys calcitrans
Musca domestic
Unknown
Stomoxys nigra
Stomoxys nigra
Unknown
Stomoxys nigra
Muscina stabulans
Stomoxys calcitrans


Solenopsis Invicta


Dacus sp.
Artificial diet
Anastrepha spp.
Anastrepha sp.


Diaphania hyalinata
Plutella xylostella
Spodoptera frugiperda
Spodoptera frugiperda


Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus acletus
Scapteriscus spp.
Scapteriscus spp.


Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Australia
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Burundi


France

Hungary
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Mauritius
Brazil
France
Mauritius
Mauritius
France
Mauritius
Brazil
Brazil


Brazil


Malaysia
Guatemala
Brazil
Brazil


Colombia
Malaysia
Puerto Rico
Jamaica


Bolivia
Brazil
Bolivia
Brazil
Bolivia
Brazil


IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
USDA
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
USDA


USDA

USDA
IFAS
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA
USDA


USDA


IFAS
DPI
IFAS
IFAS


IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS


IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS







Division of Plant Industry 35

Table 2. Continued...

Parasite or Predator Host Origin Agency
Imported


Root Weevils
Fidiobia citri
Platystasius asinus
Tetrastichus gala
Tetrastichus haitiensis
Tetrastichus haitiensis

Scales and Whiteflies
Amitus sp.

Aphytis sp.
Aphytis sp.
Aphytis lingnanensis
Aspidiotiphagus sp.
Aspidiotiphagus spp.
Aspidiotiphagus sp.
Bemisia tabaci
Chilocorus cacti
Coccidophilus sp.

Egius platycephalus
Encarsia sp.
Encarsia sp.
Encarsia spp.
Encarsia spp.

Encarsia spp.
Encarsia spp.
Encarsia nr. paratransvena
Encarsia protransvena
Eretmocerus sp.

Eretmocerus sp.
Eretmocerus sp.
Parasites of Bemisia tabaci
Parasites of Parlatoria scale
Parasites of Unaspis citri
Parasites of Unaspis citri
Pentilia egena


Miscellaneous
Leidyula moreleti
Leidyula portoricensis
Leidyula portoricensis &
Leidyula sp.
Leidyula sp.
Sarasinula plebeia
Sarasinula plebeia
Sarasinula plebeia


Pantomorus cervinus
Naupactus xanthographus
Diaprepes abbreviata
Diaprepes abbreviata
Diaprepes abbreviata


Aleurocanthus spiniferus,
A. citriperdus & A. woglumi
Parlatoria ziziphi
Chrysomphalus aonidum
Unaspis citri
Parlatoria ziziphi
Unaspis citri
Parlatoria ziziphi
Gossypium sp.
Chionaspis strachani
Parlatoria sp. &
Unaspis citri
Parlatoria ziziphi
Bemisia tabaci
Dialeurodes citrifolii
Bemisia tabaci
Bemisia tabaci &
Trialeurodes spp.
Bemisia tabaci
Bemisia tabaci
Dialeurodes citrifolii
Dialeurodes citrifolii
Bemisia tabaci &
Trialeurodes spp.
Bemisia tabaci
Bemisia tabaci
Bemesia tabaci
Parlatoria ziziphi
Unaspis citri
Unaspis ctri
Selenaspidis aniculatus &
Unapsis citri


Brassica sp.


Brassica sp.


California
Chile
Dominican Rep.
Dominican Rep.
Puerto Rico


Hong Kong

Puerto Rico
Hong Kong
Australia
Hawaii
Jamaica
Puerto Rico
California
Jamaica
Brazil

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Dominican Rep.
Grenada
Costa Rica

Honduras
Mexico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Costa Rica

Honduras
Puerto Rico
Mexico
Hong Kong
Dominican Rep.
Puerto Rico
Brazil


Honduras
Jamaica

Puerto Rico
Jamaica
Honduras
Jamaica
Nicaragua


IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS


IFAS

IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS

IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS

IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS

IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS



IFAS
IFAS

IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS
IFAS






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Talks
The bureau entomologists gave a total of 77 talks during the biennium.
These talks ranged from school classes visiting the FSCA to presentations
of scientific results of research given at professional meetings.

Publications
H.A. Denmark
Brown, L.G., H.A. Denmark, and R.K. Yokomi. 1988. Citrus tristeza
virus and its vectors in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agri. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Plant Path. Circ. No. 311:1-4.
Denmark, H.A., and H.L. Cromroy. 1989. House dust mites,
Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphididae). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 314:1-4.
Pena, J.E., R.M. Baranowski, and H.A. Denmark. 1989. Survey of predators
of the broad mite in southern Florida. Florida Ent., 72(2):373-377.
Denmark, H.A., and M.H. Muma. 1989. A revision of the Genus Amblyseius
Berlese, 1914 (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Occasional Papers of the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, 4:1-149.
Moraes, G.J. de, H.A. Denmark, H. van den Berg, and A. Bellotti. 1989.
Some phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from the Far East, with
description of a new species. International Journal of Acarology,
15(3): 129-133.
Denmark, H.A., and J.F. Price. 1989. The gladiolus thrips, Thrips simplex
(Morison), in Florida (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 322:1-2.
Butler, J.F., and H.A. Denmark. 1990. Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of
lyme disease organisms (Borrelia burgdorferi) in Florida. Fla. Dept.
Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 326:1-6.

G.B. Edwards
Edwards, G.B. 1988. A spiny orb weaver, Gasteracantha cancriformis, in
Florida. (Araneae: Araneidae) Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 308:1-2.
Young, O.P., T.C. Lockley, and G.B. Edwards. 1989. Spiders of Washington
County, Mississippi. J. Arachnol. 17(1):27-41.
Gregory, B.M., Jr., C.S. Barfield, and G.B. Edwards. 1989. Spider predation
on velvetbean caterpillar moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a soybean
field (Note). J. Arachnol. 17(1):120-122.
Edwards, G.B. 1989. The Florida false wolf spider, Ctenus captiosus
(Araneae: Ctenidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 319:1-2.
Young, O.P., and G.B. Edwards. 1990. Spiders in United States field
crops and their potential effect on crop pests. J. Arachnol. 18(1):1-
27.






Division of Plant Industry


A.B. Hamon
Hamon, A.B. 1989. Metaleurodicus cardini in Florida. (Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae: Aleurodicinae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 323:1-2.
Nguyen, R., and A.B. Hamon. 1989. Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky), in
Florida. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 323:1-2.
Hamon, A.B., R. Nguyen, and H. Browning. 1990. The bayberry whitefly,
Parabemisia myricae, in Florida. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae:
Aleyrodinae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 328:1-2.

J.B. Heppner
Heppner, J.B. 1988. A new species of Ethmia from the Florida Keys
(Oecophoridae: Ethmiinae). J. Lepid. Soc. 42(4):281-284.
Heppner, J.B., H.Y. Wana, and W.C. Chang. 1988. Larval morphology
of Taiwan Saturniidae (Lepidoptera): Actias selene ningpoana Felder.
J. Taiwan Mus. (Taipei) 41(2):107-114.
Heppner, J.B. 1989. Fasc. 118. Noctuidae, By R.W. Poole. In, J.B.
Heppner (ed.), Lepidopterorum Catalogus (new series). Leiden,
Netherlands. 3 pts (1314 pp).
Heppner, J.B. 1989. New Argyotaenia and Choristoneura moths from
Florida (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Florida Ent. 72(1):101-106.
Heppner, J.B. 1989. Lepidoptera diversity in North Sulawesi. Oriental
Insects (Gainesville) 23:349-364.
Heppner, J.B. 1989. Larvae of fruit flies. 5. Dacus cucurbitae (melon fly)
(Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 315:1-2.
Heppner, J.B., H.Y. Wang, and Y.C. Sen. 1989. Larval morphology of
Taiwan Saturniidae (Lepidoptera): Attacus atlas (Linnaeus). J. Taiwan
Mus. (Taipei) 42(1):89-97.
Heppner, J.B. 1990. Larvae of fruit flies. 6. Anastrepha interrupta (Schoepfia
fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 327:1-2.
Heppner, J.B., H.Y. Wang, and Y.C. Chang. 1990. Larval morphology
of Taiwan Saturniidae (Lepidoptera): Antheraea yamamai superba Inoue.
J. Taiwan Mus. (Taipei) 43(1):95-102.

F.W. Mead
Pena, J.E., and F.W. Mead. 1988. Citrus gall midge Prodiplosis longifila
Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 312:1-2.
Mead, F.W. 1989. Cotton lace bug, Corythucha gossypii, in Florida






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


(Hemiptera: Tingidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 324:1-2.
Howard, F.W., F.W. Mead, and B.J. Center. 1989. Eye color changes
due to pigment migration in some species of Heteroptera and
Homoptera. Florida Ent. 72(4):637-641.
Mead, F.W. 1990. Leafhoppers and their close relatives in Florida.
Florida Garden Guide (March-April 1990). Lewis S. Maxwell publisher,
Tampa, Florida. 2 p. illus.

L.A. Stange
Stange, L.A., and R.B. Miller. 1989. Revision of the genus Dimarella
Banks. Insecta Mundi 3:11-90.
Stange, L.A., and R.B. Miller. 1989. A new species of Moranida Mansell
from Venezuela. Insecta Mundi 3:65-70.
Stange, L.A. 1989. Review of the New World Dimarini with the description
of a new genus from Peru. Florida Ent. 72:450-461.
Stange, L.A., and K. Auffenberg. 1989. The Polygyridae of Florida. Fla.
Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No.
317:1-4.
Stange, L.A. 1990. The Alderflies of Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. and
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 329:1-2.
Stange, L.A. 1990. Snails and slugs of Florida. Florida Garden Guide.
Lewis S. Maxwell publisher, Tampa, Florida, 2 p.

M.C. Thomas
Throne, J.E., L.D. Cline, and M.C. Thomas. 1989. First record of Cryptolestes
dybasi (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) outside Florida. Ent. News 100(2):81-
82.
Thomas, M.C., and M.L. Zimmerman. 1989. A new species of stored
products Cryptolestes From Thailand. J. Stored Prod. Res. 25:77-79.
O'Brien, C.W., and M.C. Thomas. 1990. The species of Metamasius in
Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 330:14.

H.V. Weems, Jr.
Heppner, J.B., and H.V. Weems, Jr. (editors). 1988. Newsletter of the
Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc. 1:1-8.
Heppner, J.B., and H.V. Weems, Jr. (editors). 1989. Newsletter of the
Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc. 2:1-4.
Clark, R.A., and H.V. Weems, Jr. 1990. Detection, quarantine, and
eradication of fruit flies invading Florida. 1989 Proc. Florida State
Hort. Soc. 102:159-164.
Weems, H.V., Jr., and P. E. Skelley. 1989. European earwig, Forficula






Division of Plant Industry


aurieularia Linnaeus (Dermaptera: Forficulidae). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 318:1-2.

R.E. Woodruff
Woodruff, R.E., and B.M. Beck. 1989. The scarab beetles of Florida.
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Part II. The May or June Beetles (genus
Phyllophaga). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas.
13:226 pp, 609 figs.

FSCA Research Associate and Student Associate Publications
Baranowski*, R.M., and J.A. Slater*. 1989. The utilization of grasses as
host plants by a species of Oedancala (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) with
the description of a new species from Florida and the West Indies.
Florida Ent. 72(2):243-251, 2 fig.
Buckingham, G.R. 1989. Macropterous adults of alligatorweed thrips,
Amynothrips andersoni, found in Florida. Florida Ent. 72(1):219-221.
Cogley, T.P. 1989. First account of an adult deer bot (Diptera: Oestridae)
from Florida. Florida Ent. 72(3):553-554.
Cook, C. 1989. Philogenia redunca, a new damselfly from Ecuador (Odonata:
Megapodagrionidae). Florida Ent. 72(3):419-424, 6 fig.
Cook*, C., and E.G. Soriano. 1990. Phyllogomphoides apiculatus spec.
nov., a new Mexican dragonfly, and description of the female of P.
pacificus (Selys, 1873) (Anisoptera: Gomphidae). Odonatologica
19(3):263-273, 14 fig.
Denmark, H.A., and M.H. Muma*. 1989. A revision of the genus
Amblyseius Berlese, 1914 (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Occasional papers of
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 4:1-149, 770 fig.
Deyrup*, M.A., F.C. Johnson*, G.C. Wheeler*, and J. Wheeler*. 1990. A
preliminary list of the ants of Florida. Florida Ent. 72(1):91-101.
Donnelly, T.A. 1989. A new species of Philogenia from Honduras (Odonata:
Megapodagrionidae). Florida Ent. 72(3):425-428, 4 fig.
Donnelly, T.W. 1989. Three new species of Epigomphus from Belize and
Mexico (Odonata: Gomphidae). Florida Ent. 72(3):428-435, 12 fig.
Donnelly, T.W. 1989. Protoneura sulfurata, a new species of damselfly
from Costa Rica, with notes on the Circum-Caribbean species of the
genus (Odonata: Protoneuridae). Florida Ent. 72(3):436-441, 7 fig.
Dunkle, S.W. 1989. Dragonflies of the Florida peninsula, Bermuda, and
the Bahamas. Scientific Publ., 155p., 129 color fig.
Fairchild*, G.B. and RS. Lane. 1989. A second species of fossil Stenotabunus
(Diptera: Tabanidae) in amber from the Dominican Republic. Florida
Ent. 72.(4):630-632, 2 fig.
Gerberg*, E.J., and R.H. Arnett, Jr.*. 1989. Florida butterflies. Natural
Science Pub., 90 p., 137 fig.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Grogan, W.L., Jr., and W.W. Wirth*. 1990. A new species of the minute
predaceous midge genus Nannohelea from Sri Lanka (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 92(2):347-350, 1 fig.
Gupta, V.K. 1989. New genera of Porizontine Ichneumonidae from
Florida (Hymenoptera). Florida Ent. 72(2):284-294, 23 fig.
Hubbard, M.D. 1989. Matsumuracloeon, a replacement name for
Pseudocloeon matsumura 1931 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Florida Ent.
72(2):388.
Lane, R.S., G.O. Poinar, Jr., and G.B. Fairchild*. 1988. A fossil horsefly
(Diptera: Tabanidae) in Dominican amber. Florida Ent. 71(4):593-
596, 4 fig.
Lee, K.M., W.W. Wirth*, and K.L. Chan. 1989. A new species of Dasyhelea
midge reared from drains in Singapore (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).
Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 91(3):452-457, 13 fig.
Porter, C.C. 1989. Una revision taxonomica de los Groteini Chilenos
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a taxonomic revision of the Chilean
Groteini. Acta Ent. Chilena 15:143-162, 15 fig.
Porter, C.C. 1989. A new Floridian Athyreodon Ashmead (Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae), with comments on related species of the northern
neotropics. Florida Ent. 72(2):294-304, 7 fig.
Porter, C.C. 1989. Biosystematics of Zacremnops cressoni (Cameron), a
neotropic braconid newly recorded from Florida (Hymenoptera).
Florida Ent. 72(2):304-309, 2 fig.
Porter*, C.C., and T.J. O'Neill. 1989. New records for Xiphosomella
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the southern United States, with
description of a new species from Florida. Florida Ent. 72(2):309-
313, 3 fig.
Porter, C.C. 1989. New Chilean Itamuton (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae:
Mesostenini) reared from Elicura litigator (Neuroptera:
Myrmeleontidae). Florida Ent. 72(4):660-664, 2 fig.
Porter, C.C. 1989. Compsocryptus of the northern Caribbean with
description of a new species from Hispaniola (Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae). Florida Ent. 72(4):665-673, 6 fig.
Schuster*, J.C., and P. Reyes-Castillo. 1990. Passalidae: new larval
descriptions from Taiwan, Philippine Islands, Brunei and Ivory Coast.
Florida Ent. 73(2):267-273, 7 fig.
Slater*, J.A., and R.M. Baranowski*. 1990. Lygaeidae of Florida (Hemiptera:
Heteroptera). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas
14:1-211, 100 fig., 99 maps.
Stephan, K.H. 1989. The Bothrideridae and Colydiidae of America
north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Cavicomia and Heteromera). Occasional
Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 6:1-65, 43 fig.
Thompson, C.R. 1989. The thief ants, Solenopsis molesta group, of Florida






Division of Plant Industry


(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Ent. 72(2):268-283, 8 pl. 32 fig.
Thompson*, C.R., and F.C. Johnson*. 1989. Scientific notes rediscovered
species and revised key to the Florida thief ants (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae). Florida Ent. 72(4):697-698.
Weems, Howard V., Jr., and P.E. Skelley*. 1989. European earwig,
Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Dermaptera: Forficularidae). Fla. Dept.
Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 318, 2p.,
3 fig.
Wirth, W.W. 1990. New Neotropical species of "stick-tick" (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) from katydids. Florida Ent. 73(1):157-160, 5 fig.
Wirth, W.W., and J.R. Linley. 1990. Description of Dasyhelea chani new
species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from leaves of the water lettuce
(Pistia stratiotes) in Florida. Florida Ent. 73(2):273-279, 14 fig.

* FSCA Research Associate or Student Associate

Research Associates and Student Associates
Research associates and student associates of the FSCA have played
a major role in the development of the FSCA and library and research
files. Currently 295 formally appointed associates participate in the
program. During this biennium 20 associates were added, four were
dropped, and three died. The following are deceased: Major Harry O.
Hilton, 1988; Dr. Martin H. Muma, 1989; Dr. Henry K. Townes, 1990.
New associates appointed since 30 June 1988 are:

Mr. John Amoroso, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Brian V. Brown, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Dr. Sidney Camras, Lincolnwood, IL
Dr. John L. Capinera, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Thomas P. Cogley, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Gregory A. Dahlem, Cincinnati, OH
Mrs. Kathleen M. Dow, Largo, FL
Dr. John L. Foltz, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Robert C. Godefroi, Wilmington, MA
Dr. Lowell N. Harris, Lakewood, CO
Dr. Leroy C. Koehn, Coral Springs, FL
Mr. John S. Kutis, Belleview, FL
Dr. Lawrence A. Lacey, US Forces Azores, APO New York, NY
Dr. John T. Longino, Sarasota, FL
Mr. A. Noel McFarland, Sierra Vista, AZ
Mr. Roy F. Morris, II, Lakeland, FL
Mr. Gregory V. Myers, Sebring, FL
Ms. Karen L. Ogren, Gainesville, FL






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Mr. Stanley H. Pack, Hassocks, West Sussex, England
Dr. Richard B. Selander, Champaign, IL
Mr. Charles L. Staines, Jr., Edgewater, MD
Dr. Gary J. Steck, Takoma Park, MD
Dr. Kenneth J. Tennessen, Florence, AL
Mr. William B. Warner, Chandler, AZ
Mrs. Yoshika O. Willis, Marilia, Sao Paulo, Brasil

Complete current addresses are available by writing to Dr. H. V.
Weems, Jr., P.O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100.

Many people continued to make valuable donations appraised in
excess of $1.5 million to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods and,
through the Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc., to the Division of
Plant Industry library. Major donors included: Dr. Ross H. Arnett, Jr.,
Mr. H. David Baggett, Dr. Richard M. Baranowski, Dr. Frederick D.
Bennett, Dr. Allen H. Benton, Dr. Franklin S. Blanton, Dr. George H.
and Juanda Bick, Dr. Richard W. Boscoe, Ms. N. Julieta Brambila, Dr.
Phillip S. Callahan, Mr. James C. Cokendolpher, Mr. Lloyd R. Davis, Jr.,
Dr. Dick L. Deonier, Mr. Terhune S. Dickel, Dr. Thomas W. Donnelly,
Mr. Linwood C. Dow, Dr. Norville M. Downie, Mr. Byrd K. Dozier, Dr.
Sidney W. Dunkle, Dr. G. B. Edwards, Dr. Joseph E. Eger, Jr., Mr. Peter
J. Eliazar, Dr. Thomas C. Emmel, Dr. G. B. Fairchild, Mr. Frank D. Fee,
Dr. Clifford D. Ferris, Dr. Irving L. Finkelstein, Dr. Eugene J. Gerberg,
Mr. Edmund F. Giesbert, Dr. Newell E. and Virginia M. Good, Mr. J.
Richard Heitzman, Mr. Robert L. Heitzman, Dr. Roger L. Heitzman, Dr.
John B. Heppner, Mr. Frank T. Hovore, IV, Dr. Robert R. Jackson, Mr.
Stanley G. Jewett, Jr., Mr. John A. Kochalka, Mr. John S. Kutis, Dr. Peter
J. Landolt, Dr. James N. Layne, Mr. R. Bruce Miller, Mr. William D.
Miller, Mr. Charles W. Mills, III, Dr. William B. Muchmore, Mrs. Martin
H. Muma, Dr. William L. Peters, Dr. Charles C. Porter, Dr. Richard H.
Roberts, Dr. Dale F. Schweitzer, Dr. Richard B. Selander, Mr. Paul E.
Skelley, Mr. Charles L. Staines, Jr., Dr. Lionel A. Stange, Mr. Karl H.
Stephan, Mr. George C. Steyskal, Dr. J. Bolling Sullivan III, Dr. Michael
C. Thomas, Dr. Robert H. Tunrbow, Jr., Dr. Kenneth W. Vick, Mr. James
E. Wappes, Mr. William B. Warner, Mrs. Hiltrud M. Webber, Dr. Howard
V. Weems, Jr., Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr., Drs. George C. and Jeanette N.
Wheeler, Dr. Willard H. Whitcomb, Mr. James R. Wiley, Dr. Richard C.
Wilkerson, Dr. Nixon A. Wilson, Dr. Daniel P. Wojcik, Dr. Robert E.
Woodruff, and Dr. Frank N. Young, Jr.






Division of Plant Industry


BUREAU OF METHODS DEVELOPMENT
Don L Harris, Chief






The Methods Development Bureau develops, investigates and
implements new ideas, techniques and methods for the detection, control
and eradication of plant and honeybee pests. Bureau personnel are
involved in chemical control methods, biological control activities, sterile
insect technique, quality control, environmental concerns, restricted-use
pesticide training and licensing, hazardous waste storage and disposal,
adapting research of other agencies and modifying equipment to meet
division needs. To meet these needs and respond to extraordinary
assigned responsibilities requires considerable expertise by bureau
personnel, in a broad disciplinary range.
Public concern over exposure to chemicals and protection of the
environment has greatly emphasized the need for alternatives to chemical
controls. The Citrus Blackfly, Citrus Whitefly and the Citrus Snow Scale
Parasite Programs, among others, have demonstrated the advantages of
natural enemies for control of some plant pests. The bureau and the
Division of Plant Industry recognize the need to pursue classical forms
of biological control, as well as other alternatives to chemical controls,
such as sterile insect technique, augumentative parasite releases and
integration of various control measures. During the biennium, a
considerable amount of the bureau's resources and personnel have been
committed to these efforts. The following are highlights of these programs
and other bureau activities during the past biennium.

Citrus Blackfly Parasite Rearing and Releases
A citrus blackfly parasite colony is maintained at the Doyle Conner
Building complex in Gainesville to provide parasites for suppression of
new citrus blackfly outbreaks or for infestations that are not properly
populated with parasites. The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi,
was detected in Haines City, Polk County, in October 1988. Surveys
conducted at that time showed the infestation had spread to about 9-10
square miles in Haines City. Some sites in the city were heavily infested
and some were only a few blocks from commercial citrus groves. The
surveys indicated that no parasites were present. Amitus hesperidum,
from the Gainesville laboratory, was immediately released at 11 sites in
Haines City. Approximately 20,000 parasites were field collected at






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


other sites and released in Haines City in October and November 1988.
In surveys conducted in the spring of 1989, adult parasites were recovered
and, by fall 1989, were suppressing the citrus blackfly population.
Thirty-nine shipments, totaling approximately 197,000 of the citrus
blackfly parasites, A. hesperidum and Encarsia opulenta, were collected
from the field and laboratory colony maintained by the bureau, packaged
and shipped to the Texas Rio Grande Valley. These parasites, shipped
from July 1989 through November 1989 were provided to assist with
control of citrus blackfly infestations in commercial groves in Texas.
An infestation of the citrus blackfly, A. woglumi, was first reported
in a citrus grove in Hendry County in October 1989. Parasites were
shipped to this grove immediately. About 3,000 acres of the 9,000-acre
citrus grove were found to be infested during a survey in April 1990.
The citrus blackfly was also found in the spring of 1990 in groves in
Manatee County and in groves at Indiantown and west of Wellington,
Palm Beach County. Both species of parasites from the rearing laboratory
maintenance colony in Gainesville were released in the Indiantown grove
in April 1990 and the Manatee grove in May 1990.

Sweetpotato Whitefly
A small colony of the Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabacci, was
started and maintained in a greenhouse in Gainesville in preparation for
parasite introduction and screening in cooperation with Dr. Fred Bennett,
IFAS, Gainesville; Dr. Lance Osborne, IFAS, Apopka; Dr. David Schuster,
IFAS, Bradenton; and Dr. Ken Holmes, USDA-ARS, Orlando.

Water Lettuce
In cooperation with Dr. Dale Habeck, IFAS, Gainesville, more than
1,000 individuals of the moth, Namangana pectinicornis, were maintained
for evaluation for control of the aquatic weed, water lettuce, following
testing for host specificity of first and third instars against more than 60
plants/species in 32 families.

Caribbean Fruit Fly
Sterile Fly Project
The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense, Sterile Male Pilot Release
Project, which began in January 1988 continued in LaBelle, Hendry County.
After releases were suspended in the summer of 1988 due to rearing
difficulties, trapping, survey and fruit collection continued until releases
were resumed in February 1989. During the 1989/90 season, beginning
Sept. 12, 1989 and ending June 21, 1990, 94.8 million sterile flies were
released with an average release of 2.31 million per week. The ratio of
sterile flies to native flies, based on trap data for the season, was 558:1.






Division of Plant Industry


This ratio represents a significant increase over the 1988/89 season when
the ratio was 44:1 for the entire season. Also, the average of 2.31 million
flies released per week is an increase over the 1.67 million per week for
the 1988/89 season. Although the results of this pilot program indicate
that some suppression of feral Caribfly populations has occurred, additional
data will be needed before this technique can be incorporated into the
Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol. The bureau is cooperating with Tim Holler,
USDA-APHIS, S&T, Gainesville, on this project.
Parasite/Sterile Fly Integration Project
The bureau and division are also cooperating with Dr. Carrol Calkins
and Dr. John Sivinski, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, and Dr. Richard
Baranowski, IFAS, Homestead, on a Pilot Test for Integration of Inundative
Parasite and Sterile Male Releases for Control of Caribbean Fruit Fly
(CFF). The bureau's primary roll in this project is mass rearing the CFF
parasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. The bureau will also be involved
in release of sterile CFF's alone in Clewiston and the corresponding
trapping, fruit collection and data collection that is necessary to evaluate
the results. This sterile fly release will be compared with mass releases
of parasites alone on Key West and combinations of parasites and sterile
flies on Key Biscayne. Due to a shortage of funds, Clewiston is being
considered as a site for parasite releases, with Key West being eliminated
as a release site. At the end of the biennium, weekly parasite production
has increased to 80,000-90,000, with an estimated weekly production of
1 to 1.5 million parasites by January 1991, the projected release start
date. The Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Laboratory in Gainesville supplies
Caribfly larvae, host of the parasites, which are used to rear the parasites
in the laboratory, a 60-foot modified mobile home.
Protocol-Early-Season Grapefruit Study
and Bait-Spray Buffer Test
Caribbean fruit fly protocol investigations included a study of early-
season grapefruit as a low risk for CFF infestation and a study of bait-
spray buffers for CFF protocol requirements. In November 1988,
approximately 100,000 grapefruit were donated by citrus growers in
Hendry and Collier counties for study. The grapefruit were collected
from commercial citrus groves, incubated in field bins with a thin layer
of sand on the bottom, and examined at two and four week intervals for
presence of Caribfly larvae. No fruit or sand examined was found to
be infested with Caribfly, Anastrepha suspense, demonstrating the low
risk associated with early- season commercial grapefruit.
The bait-spray buffer test was conducted in June 1989 in Indian
River County to support data on acceptable bait-spray buffers for Caribfly
protocol. Approximately 11,000 sterile flies were released on each side
of six citrus blocks of approximately 165 acres each, including a 600-foot






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


bait-spray treated buffer on each side of the three bait-sprayed plots.
There were three untreated check plots. The results apparently indicate
that the current protocol meets the minimum requirements necessary,
including a 1/2 mile buffer from preferred host material with a 300-foot
bait-sprayed extension around a designated area.
Quality Control
Bureau personnel continue to evaluate the quality of Caribbean fruit
flies mass produced in the CFF Mass Rearing Laboratory, Gainesville.
Several standardized quality control tests are conducted, including egg
hatch, percent emergence, flightability, sex ratio and mating propensity.
These tests are performed routinely on flies from the lab colony as well
as those irradiated for shipment to the field. Investigations were also
made concerning diet ph, disinfectants for eggs, temperature factors
concerning different cover materials for larval tray stacks and oviposition
surfaces for adult fly egging cages.

Mediterranean Fruit Fly
In May and June 1990, standard quality control tests were conducted
in Gainesville to evaluate test shipments of sterile Mediterranean fruit
flies from the USDA's rearing laboratory in Petapa, Guatemala. Since
these sterile Medflies failed to meet acceptable or minimum quality
control standards established for irradiated Medflies, they were
unacceptable for use in the Medfly 90 Eradication Program in Dade
County. The QC tests indicated the mating ability of these flies, or
mating propensity index, was well below established acceptable standards.
Other bureau personnel were involved in preparations for the anticipated
sterile Medfly release in Miami during the Medfly 90 Eradication Program

Imported Fire Ant
Bureau personnel continue to sell fire ant baits, Amdro and Logic,
to the public at the office in Gainesville. During the biennium, 6,166
one-lb bags and 616 25-lb bags of Amdro were sold at the bureau office.
Identification services for Imported Fire Ant and other ant species
were provided, with bureau personnel identifying more than 7,354
specimens during the biennium.
A gas chromatography laboratory for Imported Fire Ant certification
was completed, and soil samples were analyzed for certification of nursery
stock for shipment to uninfested areas. A mobile home was acquired
as a laboratory for fire ant colony maintenance for bio-assay confirmation
tests for the GC analysis.
A revision of the "Imported Fire Ant" pamphlet was completed,
which provides information on biology, distribution, quarantines, control,
etc.






Division of Plant Industry


Fumigation
Blueberry fumigations were greatly reduced, due to a late freeze in
the spring of 1989. In Gainesville, 20 loads of 1,846 one-half pint and
1,950 pint flats of blueberries were fumigated to meet requirements of
California. In the spring of 1990, 31 blueberry loads were fumigated in
Gainesville and 32 additional loads were fumigated and certificates issued
by compliance agreement during the shipping season. These loads, in
1990, consisting of 24,455 flats, were shipped to California with the
exception of two loads to Washington.
Fumigation of specimens, books, reprints, etc., for the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods continued, as well as fumigations for the Florida
Museum of Natural History on the University of Florida campus.
Citrus, destined for California, Texas, Arizona, Louisiana and Hawaii,
was fumigated during the biennium at the Division of Fruit and Vegetable
Inspection fumigation chambers at Wahneta, Polk County.

Apiary Studies
A study was initiated in the summer of 1988 to determine if
stratification of pollen in Tupelo honey occurs while the honey is in
storage. Beekeepers have reported denial of Tupelo honey certification
after the honey was stored for long periods of time. The project consists
of storing honey in 2-inch diameter tubes and sampling sections of the
36-inch-long tubes at various intervals to determine pollen counts and
the ratio of Tupelo pollen to other pollen present. Three sampling dates
have been analyzed with no apparent stratification of pollen.
In cooperation with IFAS and the DPI Bureau of Apiary Inspection,
Methods Development personnel assisted with research projects involving
the honeybee tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, and the varroa mite, Varroa
jacobsoni.

Wild Red Rice
In the spring of 1989, bureau personnel assisted with the initial
assessment and recommendations for the eradication of wild red rice,
Oryza rufipogon, located near the Royal Palm Visitor Center at Everglades
National Park. A delimiting survey was completed and followed by
evaluations of equipment and herbicides to be used.

Pesticide License Training and Right-to-Know Law
Bureau personnel provided training and testing for restricted pesticide
licensing for division personnel during the biennium and worked on the
development of a regulatory category instructional and information manual
and regulatory category test revision. Acquisition of Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS) for the division continued, as well as record keeping






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


for the Right-to-Know Law, and the SARA, Title III, Community Right-
to-Know Law.

Staff Publications
Nickerson, J.C., and W.H. Whitcomb. 1988. Source of Carbohydrates
Utilized by Conomyrma medeis. pp 465-472. In: Advances in
Myrmecology. James C. Trager, ed., E.J. Brill, New York. 551p.
Nguyen, R., C.O. Calkins, (Senior Author), K. Corwin and J.R. Brazzel.
1988. Evaluations of Quality of Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,
Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), at the Release
Site in Miami, Florida during an Eradication Program in 1985. Florida
Entomol. 71(3):346-351.
Nguyen, R. 1988. A Parasite of the Citrus Blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi.
Amitus hesperidum (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae;). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 311:1-2.
Nguyen, R., and A. B. Hamon. 1989. Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky),
in Florida (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 323:1-2.
Nguyen, R., and S. Fraser. 1989. Lack of Suitability of Commercial
Limes and Lemons as Hosts of Anastrepha suspense (Diptera:
Tephritidae). Florida Entomol. 72(4):718-720.
Nguyen, R., A.B. Hamon (Senior Author) and H. Browning. March
1990. The Bayberry Whitefly, Parabemisia myricae, in Florida.
(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 328.
Thompson, C.R. 1988. Nest Distribution and Flight Biology of Paratrech-
na arenivaga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). pp 385-404. In: Advances
in Myrmecology. James C. Trager, ed., E.J. Brill, New York. 551p.
Thompson, C.R. 1989. Biological Control Agent for the Caribbean Fruit
Fly Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent.Circ. 325:1-2.
Thompson, C.R., and C. Johnson. 1989. Rediscovered Species and
Revised Key to the Florida Thief Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
Florida Entomol. 72(4):697-698.
Thompson, C.R. 1989. The Thief Ants, Solenopsis molesta group, of
Florida (Hymentoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 72(2):268-
283.






Division of Plant Industry


BUREAU OF NEMATOLOGY
J. H. O'Bannon, Chief







The objectives of this bureau are to maintain a diagnostic program for
analyses of soil and plant samples and for identification of phytoparasitic
nematodes involved in regulatory programs, pest detection surveys and
plant problems of a nematological nature. The principal part of the sample
workload is mandated by regulatory rules applicable to nematode pests.
These samples include those from in-state programs, out-of-state and out-
of-country plant shipments originating in Florida and samples intercepted
in Florida from areas outside of the United States. Other programs are
surveys to detect exotic nematode pests that might prove harmful to
Florida agriculture, preparation, maintenance of data retrieval systems,
sanitation, control investigations, host testing of regulatory pests, taxo-
nomic descriptions and nematode repository entries.
During this biennium, a total of 40,165 samples was diagnosed for
nematodes and other invertebrates (Table 1). Regulatory programs ac-
counted for 84.3 percent, while nematode surveys and investigations were
10.4 and 5.3 percent, respectively.
On January 31, 1990, Biological Scientist IV John MacGowan retired
after 30 years with the division. The position was filled by Dr. Renato
Inserra, who had been employed by the division as a nematology consult-
ant to conduct research on a special project.

Regulatory Summary
Of the 40,165 samples examined, 33,997 were for certification. Of
these, 133 (0.39 percent) failed to meet certification requirements (Table 2).
The low number is due in part to the Florida growers' awareness of
nematodes in the regulatory system and to the effectiveness of the DPI
nematode-sanitation control program. When new citrus nursery sites
were being selected after the 1983 and 1985 freezes, some 10 percent were
found to be infested with a grass race of a nematode which resembled the
citrus nematode. Therefore, these sites could not be certified. Research
revealed that the grass race was another nematode species similar to the
citrus nematode. This discovery and the finding that it does not attack
citrus enabled potential new nursery sites to be certified. There were no
site failures during this biennium.







Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Table 1. Nematology Diagnostic Analyses of Soil, Root and Foliar Samples
for Identification of Phytoparasitic Nematodes in Regulatory, Pest Detection, Surveys and
Investigative Programs During the Biennium

Category Total % Category % of Total


Regulatory
California
Arizona
Texas, Louisiana
AZ, TX, LA, EEC
Site/Pit Approva
Premovement
Burrowing Nematode



Nematode Survey
Random
Citrus Nematode
Buffer/Barrier
Soybean Cyst Nem


Investigations
Plant Problem
Experimental
Identification
Collection


Grand Total


6,744
4,200
3,533
8,825
1,970
4,303
4,422

33,997


2,496
346
1,212
103

4,157


1,344
625
36
6


2,011


19.8
12.3
10.3
25.9
5.8
12.6
13.3

100.0


60.1
8.3
29.1
2.5

100.0


66.8
31.1
1.8
0.3

100.0


40,165


16.7
10.4
8.8
22.0
4.7
10.7
11.0

84.3


6.2
0.9
3.0
0.3

10.4


3.4
1.6
0.2
0.1

5.3

100.0


Table 2. Samples that Failed Regulatory Certification During the Biennium

Certification Regulatory Nematode Total Failures
that Caused Failure

Arizona Rotylenchulus reniformis 81
Texas, Louisiana, European
Economic Community Radopholus similis 15
California Radopholus similis 9
Rotylenchus reniformis 6
Heterodera sp. 5
Belonolaimus sp. 11
Dolichodorus sp. 2
Hirschmanniella sp. 1
Premovement (Citrus) Tylenchulus semipenetrans 2
Pit Tylenchulus semipenetrans 1

Total 133'
'0.39% of total samples failed to meet certification.






Division of Plant Industry


Diagnoses and Control of Plant Problems Caused by Nematodes
A total of 1,344 plant problem samples were submitted to the Nema-
tology Bureau during the biennium, a 30 percent increase over the previous
biennium. These samples originated from a broad spectrum, including
nurserymen, growers, grove owners and homeowners. Many plant prob-
lems were diagnosed cooperatively with other technical bureaus in the
Division of Plant Industry, and on-site visits were made at the request of
the growers.

New Hosts of Foliar Nematode in Florida and Observations on
Unique Host Mechanisms for Foliar Nematode Dissemination
A foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, has been reported on 43
hosts in Florida. Eighteen of these hosts are ferns. During the biennium it
was observed on three new fern hosts: Adiantum anceps (maidenhair fern);
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); and Polypodium aureum (hare's foot
fern). Aphelenchoides fragariae causes foliar necrotic lesions which are
delimited by the veins, and high numbers were recovered from these
lesions. Foliar chlorosis was also associated with nematode infection of D.
esculentum. Vegetative plantlets which are produced on the fronds of D.
esculentum also were infected, indicating that foliar nematodes may be
spread from plant to plant in this way. Another possible unique means of
A. fragariae dissemination was observed on Philippine violet plants, Barl-
eria cristata, in which the nematodes were found adhering to seeds which
were forcefully ejected for more than one meter from the seed capsule of
this plant.

Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Survival of
Aphelenchoides fragariae and Pseudomonas cichorii
A foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, and a bacterium, Pseudo-
monas cichorii, were both found causing a severe foliar disease of Philippine
violet in a Florida nursery. During the biennium, the Nematology and
Plant Pathology Bureaus completed a 12-month cooperative investigation
on the survival of these organisms in detached leaves which were kept at
temperatures of 10, 25, 35 C and relative humidities (RH) of 35, 55, 75, 95
percent. Nematodes survive best at lower temperatures and humidities.
Foliar nematodes survived for less than a week at 95 percent RH and 35 C,
whereas at 55 percent RH and 10 C they survived for 48 weeks. At 25 C,
there is an inverse relation between relative humidity and survival time in
detached leaves. At 25 C and 35 percent relative humidity, nematodes
survived for 16 weeks, at 55 percent for eight weeks, at 75 percent for four
weeks and at 95 percent for one week. The effect of temperature on
bacterial survival was similar to that for nematodes. The most favorable
survival temperature was 10 C and the least favorable temperature was 35






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


C. The maximum time bacteria survived in detached leaves was 36 weeks
at 75 percent RH and 10 C. These studies indicate that these organisms may
survive for extended periods of time in plant debris, and subsequently
spread to uninfected plants.

Morphometric Studies on Rotylenchulus
Species in the Southern United States
Only two species of Rotylenchulus occur in the United States. These are
Rotylenchulus reniformis, which is common in Florida, and Rotylenchulus
parvus, frequently encountered in shipments of palms from Arizona to
Florida. To aid in the identification of these and otherRotylenchulus species,
studies were conducted on the morphometric variation among Roty-
lenchulus reniformis and R. parvus populations from various geographic
regions of the United States.
Morphometrics of Rotylenchulus reniformis and R. parvus immature
females from various geographic regions of the southern United States
were within the range of variations reported for other R. parvus and R.
reniformis populations from other countries. Populations of these two
Rotylenchulus species from the United States can be easily separated by the
lengths of the immature female body, stylet and tail, which are greater for
R. reniformis compared to those of R. parvus. A compendium of morpho-
metric data and a key were prepared for the valid species of Rotylenchulus.

Survey for the Soybean Cyst Nematode
in Florida's Potato Growing Region
A survey was initiated in February 1990 to examine potato growing
areas for the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. A total of 103
samples was collected in the potato-growing areas of St. Johns, Putnam
and Flagler counties. The following nematodes were extracted from the
samples: Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Cactodera weissi, Criconemella curvata,
Hemicycliophora sp., Heterodera cyperi, Heterodera schachtii, Hoplolaimus
galeatus, Hoplolaimus tylenchiformis, Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus zeae,
Scutellonema sp., Trichodorus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp. No soybean cyst
nematodes were detected. This is not surprising, since soybeans are not
produced in the region of the state where potatoes are grown, nor are
potatoes a host of this nematode. The results of the survey confirm those
of previous surveys which also indicated that the potato-growing region is
free of the soybean cyst nematode. Two of the three other cyst nematodes
detected in the survey, C. weissi and H. cyperi, are found on weed hosts
throughout the state and are not considered of economic importance. The
cabbage cyst nematode, H. schachtii, was detected in St. Johns County for
the first time but has previously been detected in two other counties where
cabbage is also grown.






Division of Plant Industry


Quarantine-37 Activities
The Animal and Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been asked to modify regulations
to permit approximately 10,000 species of plants in 50 genera to be
imported in artificial growing media. The law which quarantines plants in
soil or growing media is found in Title 7, Chapter III and Part 319.37. This
subsection of the law is generally referred to as Q-37.
A bureau nematologist participated in an APHIS Technical Review
Panel meeting on Standards and Guidelines for Pest Risk Assessment.
These standards are to be used to evaluate requests to modify Q-37
regulations. During the meeting and in the written review, there was op-
portunity to express concern to APHIS that the standards need to be
strengthened in four areas in order to: 1) ensure that methods of extraction
of pests from artificial media are adequate, 2) determine that action based
on precedents are documented and evaluated for current adaptability, 3)
develop a system of accountability to provide the resources that will be
required if regulations are changed, and 4) to assign relative weights to
data gaps during the risk assessment process.

Host Status of Some Citrus Rootstocks to Tylenchulus graminis
Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the host
suitability of four citrus rootstocks to Tylenchulus graminis, previously the
"grass" race of T. semipenetrans. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium) seedlings
grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were
not infected with this nematode after an 18-month exposure to nematode
population densities ranging from <0.01 to 0.4 second-stage juveniles (J2)/
cm3 soil. Two T. graminis populations from Florida did not infect sour
orange seedlings grown for two years in soil naturally infested with 0.3 and
1.3 J2/cm3. Rough lemon (C. limon), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata)
and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi X P. trifoliata) suppressed T. graminis
initial population density of 7 to final values of <0.1 J2/cm3 soil. Final
values >70 J2/cm3 occurred in soil with broomsedge. These findings
provide conclusive evidence that T. graminis is a parasite of grasses and
does not infect citrus.

Geographical Distribution and Hosts of Tylenchulus
palustris in the United States and Bermuda
Tylenchulus palustris was found on Aster elliottii and Liquidambar styraciflua
in Florida swamp lands. It was detected on Borrichia arborescens and B.
frutescens in saline habitats, tidal marshes and coastal rock lands of Florida
and Bermuda (Table 3). Host tests showed that T. palustris infects Mikania
scandens, a native plant common to hammocks and waterlogged soils in
Florida. No T. semipenetrans infection was detected on this plant, which in
the past was considered a host of the citrus nematode.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Table 3. New Hosts and Habitats of T. palustris in Florida and Bermuda.

Scientific Common Habitat
Name Name

Aster elliottii Aster River bank,Florida
(Ichetucknee river).
Bonichia arborescens Sea oxeye Coastal rockland
Florida (Biscayne Bay),
and Bermuda.
B. frutescens Sea oxeye Tidal marsh,
Florida (Jacksonville),
coastal rockland,
Florida (Biscayne
Bay), and Bermuda.
Lquidambarstyracilua Sweet gum Swamp, Florida (Aucilla
Wildlife Management Area).
Mikania scandens Climbing hempweed Greenhouse,
Florida (Gainesville).


Tylenchulus sp. Attacking Peach Trees in the United States
An undescribed Tylenchulus species was found associated with peach
(Prunuspersica) trees in the southeastern United States. To define the exact
identity of this nematode and its possible significance to the peach industry
in Florida, three Tylenchulus populations were collected from peach tree
roots in Alabama, Arkansas, and Georgia for detailed study. Morphologi-
cal characteristics of these populations did not differ from those of Ty-
lenchulus palustr's. So far, T. palustris has been reported in Florida only on
native plants such as aster, pop ash, salt bush and sea oxeye. Preliminary
results of host tests showed that T. palustris populations from aster and pop
ash in Florida do not attack Nemaguard and Lovell peach rootstocks.
Lovell rootstock was found infected by other populations of this nematode
in Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia.

Weed Hosts of Rotylenchulus reniformis
in Ornamental Nurseries in South Florida
The Nematology Bureau initiated a project in 1989 in collaboration
with IFAS, University of Florida, and the Office of Systematic Botany to
determine the main source of Rotylenchulus reniformis infestations in orna-
mental nurseries in south Florida. R. reniformis is of importance to orna-
mental growers in Florida because restrictions are imposed by some states
such as Arizona and California on ornamental shipments infested with this
nematode. It was observed that many weeds associated with ornamental
plants in southern Florida were the main reservoir of R. reniformis. A list
of weeds associated with ornamental palms and common in ornamental
nurseries is reported in Table 4.






Division of Plant Industry


Table 4. Weed hosts of Rotylenchulus reniformis Associated with
Ornamental Plants in Southern Florida Nurseries


Scientific Name


Common Name


Aeschynomene americana
Amaranthus spinosus
Artemisia sp.
Bidens pilosa
Chamaesyce ophtalmica
Colocasia spp.
Commelina diffusa
Emilia javanica
Euphorbia heterophylla
E. (=Chamaesyce) hirta
Galinsoga ciliata
Ipomoea spp.
Parthenium hysterophorus
Phyllanthus carolinensis
Pilea microphylla
Portulaca oleracea
Waltheria indica
Youngia japonica
Xanthosoma spp.


sensitive or American joint-vetch
spiny amaranth

Spanish needle
spurge
wild taro
day flower
tassel flower
spurge
spurge
Peruvian daisy
morning glory
Santa Maria
spurge
artillery plant
common purslane
sleepy morning
crepis
malanga


Some of these weeds-spiny amaranth, spurge, Santa Maria, common
purselane and malanga-are reported as hosts of reniform nematode in
other areas such as Hawaii, Puerto Rico and India. The remaining weed
species are new host records for the reniform nematode. These results
confirm that under poor sanitary conditions and poor weed control,
ornamental plants become infected or contaminated with the reniform
nematode regardless of their host status. This project has been expanded
by testing the suitability of several ornamental palms to R. renifornnis under
greenhouse conditions.

Staff Publications
Esser. 1988. A simple method for examination of the vulva area of mature
cysts of Heterodera cysts. J. Nematol. 20(3):497-498.
N. E. El-Gholl (senior author), and L. Ajello. 1988. Sporotrichosis.
Foliage Digest 11(4):1-3.
J. H. O'Bannon, and R. A. Clark. 1988. How to detect burrowing
nematode when making annual nursery inspections. Fla.Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 155.
J. H. O'Bannon, and C. C. Riherd. 1988. The citrus nursery site
approval program for burrowing nematode, and its beneficial effect on
the citrus industry of Florida. EPPO Bull. 18:579-586.
1988. Status of regulatory agencies in North America. Nematology
Newsletter 34(2):2-6.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


1988. An illustrated diagnostic compendium of members of the
family Dolichodoridae (Chitwood, 1950). Proc. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. 48:173-179.
J. H. O'Bannon, and R. A. Clark. 1988. Procedures to detect foliar
nematodes for annual nursery or out of state inspections. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 160.
A. C. Tarjan, and V. G. Perry. 1989. Jesse Roy Christie: The
Gentleman Nematologist. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 27:41-45
1989. A diagnostic compendium to members included in Paraty-
lenchidae Thorne, 1949. Nematropica 19(1):3. (Abstract)
1989. Plant quarantine and regulatory considerations regarding
nematodes in Florida ornamental and foliage nurseries. Nematropica
19(1):3. (Abstract)
J. M. Ferris, and V. R. Ferris. 1989. Nematological Examination, Part
9:204-227 In Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater. L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and R. R. Trussell (eds.).
Amer. Public Health Assoc., American Water Works Association &
Water Pollution Federation. Baltimore, MD.
and N. Vovias. 1989. A diagnostic compendium in the genus
Hemicriconemoides (Tylenchida: Criconematidae). Proc. Soil & Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. 49:173-179
Sand N. Vovlas (senior author). 1990. Merlinius paniculoides n.
sp.from Italy (Tylenchina: Belonolaimidae). J. Nematol. 22:79-85.
1990. Feeding habits of phytoparasitic nematodes in plant roots.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. 174.
No.174.
__ 1990. Tardigrades attacking nematodes. Fa. Dept. Agric. &
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 177.
Inserra, R. N., C. M. Heald (senior author), and N. Vovlas. 1988. Parasit-
ism and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis
on cantaloupe in two soils. Nematropica 18:53-58.
N. Vovlas, and J. H. O'Bannon. 1988. Morphological and biological
characters of diagnostic significance in Tylenchulus and Trophoty-
lenchulus. Nematologica 34:412-421.
J. H. O'Bannon, and W. M. Keen. 1989. Host status of citrus and
citrus relatives to Tylenchulus graminis. J. Nematol. (supplement)
21(4):661-665.
and H. L. Rhoades. 1989. Some nematode problems of spearmint
in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema.
Circ. No. 167, 3 pp.
N. Vovlas, and R. P. Esser. 1989. Heterodera graminophila in Florida.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Circ. No. 169.
A. P. Nyczepir, E. J. Wehunt, and A. M. Golden. 1990.






Division of Plant Industry


Tylenchulus palustris parasitizing peach trees in the United States. J.
Nematol. 22:45-55.
___R. A. Dunn, R. McSorley, K. R. Langdon, and A. Y. Richmer. 1990.
Weed hosts of Rotylenchulus reniformis in ornamental nurseries of
southern Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Circ. No. 171.
Lehman, P. S., and J. W. Miller. 1988. Symptoms associated with
Aphelenchoides fragariae and Pseudomonas cichorii infections of Philip-
pine violet. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema.
Circ. No. 159. 4 pp.
1989. A disease of begonia caused by foliar nematode Aphe-
lenchoides fragariae. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 164. 4 pp.
___,and J. B. MacGowan. 1989. New measurements that aid in the rapid
identification of Rotylenchulus parvus and R. reniformis. Fla. Dept. of
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 170. 4 pp.
1989. The use of protein coatings to prevent the adherence of
nematodes to plastic. Nematropica (Abstract).
1989. New hosts of foliar nematodes in Florida, and observations
on unique host mechanisms for foliar nematode dissemination.
Nematropica (Abstract).
and R. N. Inserra. 1990. Morphometric variation of Rotylenchulus
parvus and Rotylenchulus reniformis populations in southern United
States. Proc. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc. Ha. 49:220-226.
1990. A disease of African violets caused by foliar nematodes. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 180.
MacGowan, J. B., and R. A. Dunn. 1989. Hoplolaimus galeatus: Lance
nematodes on St. Augustine grass from Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. &
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 161.
1989. The rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, Golden
& Birchfield 1965. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 166.
and K. R. Langdon. 1989. Hosts of the rice root-knot nematode
Meloidogyne graminicola. Ha. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 172.
O'Bannon,J.H., and R.P. Esser. 1988. Nematodes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa
L.). III. Root lesion nematodes. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 156.
__,__, P.S. Lehman, and C. Milatos. 1988. The root-lesion nematode,
Pratylenchus penetrans and other nematodes associated with leatherleaf
fern. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ.
No. 157.
__, and R.N. Inserra. 1989. Helicotylenchus species as crop damaging






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


parasitic nematodes. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 165.
__, and 1990. Nematode vectors-Transmission of plant viruses.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. 178.

Publications by Contributing Nematologists
Griffin, G.D. 1988. The cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenue. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 158.
Noling, J.W. 1989. Methylbromide use, environmental impact and worker
safety. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema.
Circ. No. 162.
Nyczepir, A.P. 1989. Peach tree short life: A nematode associated disease.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No.
163.
Nguyen, K.B., and G.C. Smart, Jr. 1990. Heterorhabditis spp.: Nematode
parasites of insects. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 173.
Dickson, D.W., and M. Oostendorp. 1990. Biological control of nematodes
with Pasteuria spp. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 175.
Heald, C.M., and J.J. Stapleton. 1990. Soil solarization for nematode
control. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema
Circ. No. 176.
Vovlas, N., R.N. Inserra, and J.H. O'Bannon. 1989. The fig cyst nematode,
Heterodera fici. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 168.






Division of Plant Industry


THE BUREAU OF PEST ERADICATION AND CONTROL
Leon H. Hebb, Assistant Chief








This bureau is charged with the responsibility to respond to the
introduction of any plant pest of economic importance determined by
the Department to be regulated, controlled or eradicated under existing
Florida state statutes, rules and/or emergency rule. During this biennium,
the bureau has been involved with survey, control, eradication and
certification programs for Spreading Decline, Imported Fire Ant, Citrus
Canker, Black Parlatoria Scale, and Wild Red Rice. In addition, personnel
have been active in the Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol and the 1990 Medfly
Eradication Project. This bureau utilizes 24 Career Service personnel
augmented with Other Personnel Services (OPS) personnel as required
to accomplish the assigned projects.

Black Parlatoria Scale
Since July 1, 1988, black Parlatoria scale surveys 3 10 have been
completed in 8,000 citrus trees on 26,806 urban properties in 4.3 square
miles in central Miami. As of May 21, 1990, survey 11 was slightly less
than 50 percent complete, at which time the survey was suspended and
the BPS personnel utilized on the 1990 Medfly project. Prior to the ninth
survey, there had been a downward trend in detections, but in the ninth
and tenth surveys, there were increases to 85 and 100 infected trees,
respectively, compared with 39 in the eighth survey. Nine of the detections
in the tenth survey were in previously infested properties, and 31 have
been in previously uninfested properties. It has not been determined
whether the increase in infestations are due to cessation of control spraying
in order to allow a buildup of beneficial parasites or due to weather or
other undetermined factors.
Nine citrus nurseries in the regulated area have been surveyed every
30 days and have remained free of this exotic pest. Regular inspection
and biometric survey outside the regulated area in the remainder of the
state indicate this exotic pest is restricted to the regulated area in Dade
County.
Through June 30, 1990, 1,265 infested properties and 3,050 infested
trees have been found; all the infested trees have been destroyed.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Wild Red Rice
On Nov. 27,1985, A. Herndon of the National Park Service collected
specimens of a grass growing in shallow water at the edge of a pond
at the Everglades National Park, Royal Palm Visitors Center (Dade County).
On June 17, 1987, Dr. David Hall, Extension Botanist, University of
Florida, identified the grass as wild red rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff., a
plant on the federal noxious weed list. On April 4,1989, Dr. W. Nanakorn,
a visiting grass specialist from Thailand, confirmed the identification.
This was the first detection of this plant in the continental United States.
It is a common inferior rice often found in commercial rice plantings in
Southeast Asia. In April 1989, the plant was well established in about
.2 acre with a second patch approximately 50 feet in diameter about 100
feet away.
On April 13, 1989, an on-site meeting was held with representatives
from the National Park Service, University of Florida, USDA-APHIS,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, and Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. It was
decided that control and survey should be initiated as soon as possible.
The primary reason for the action was to prevent proliferation and
possible introduction of the inferior rice into Florida's 14,300 acres of
commercial rice or introduction into other rice-producing areas in Louisiana
and Texas.
On May 8 and 9, 1989, Dr. Vernon Vandiver, University of Florida,
IFAS Research Center, Ft. Lauderdale, and three Division of Plant Industry
personnel, Ed Hill, Matthew Brodie and Wayne McLeod, applied 140
gallons of water containing 2.10 gallons Rodeo (herbicide), 1.45 gallons
X-77 spreader-sticker, and 1.09 gallons of turf mark dye as the first
control treatment. The rice treated was scattered over approximately 4
acres with one concentration of approximately .2 acre. Follow-up surveys
resulted in additional control treatments on six occasions between May
31, 1989, and Mar. 13, 1990. On April 13, 1990, Dr. Hall and Dr. Vandiver
determined for the first time that three of the plants had developed
from seed. Observations prior to this indicated that primary natural
propagation was from vegetative stems and rhizomes which had been
moved by wind and water and had rooted. It has been reported that
germination of seed can take up to two years.
The area in which the rice is found is accessible by foot, but surveys
extending beyond this primary area of detection are difficult particularly
because of mud, water and saw grass. Attempts to use infrared
photography as a survey tool have met with mixed results. Early infrared
photography was able to define the presence of wild red rice when
greenhouse grown plants were placed in a similar environment. Ground
and aerial tests conducted in November 1989, using 35 mm photography
and a special video camera equipped for infrared survey in an attempt






Division of Plant Industry


to detect one to 12 plants interspersed in the natural flora, were
unsuccessful. These infrared survey tests will be repeated to check for
reliability at different stages of seasonal growth.
On March 13,1990, extended surveys facilitated by low water allowed
surveys by foot .75 mile south and .75 mile north of the visitors' center.
A biometric survey by 16 USDA and DPI personnel airlifted by helicopter
to 20 drop points at selected loran coordinates along eight miles of
Taylor Slough did not discover any wild red rice.
This cooperative control eradication is progressing well but will
require careful continued surveys for several years and minimal control
treatments in an environmental sensitive area.

Imported Fire Ant
The Imported Fire Ant Program continues to provide bait-type fire
ant control products to the public at six DPI offices and through public
sales, in cooperation with County Agricultural Extension offices throughout
the state. Schedules are made for sales twice each year at 66 sales locations.
Since July 1988, the program has offered, in addition to Amdro, 25-lb
bags of Logic labeled for use on non-bearing citrus.
From July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1989, a total of 83,104 pounds of
Amdro in 1-lb bags; 96,275 pounds of Amdro in 25-lb bags; and 7,250
pounds of Logic in 25-lb bags was sold. Sales collections (statewide)
totaled $641,783, an 11.7 percent increase over sales in Fiscal Year 1987-
88. Sales for July 1, 1989, through June 30, 1990, totaled $578,076. A
total of 62,281 pounds of Amdro in 1-lb bags and 54,400 pounds in 25-
lb bags were sold. Logic (in 25-lb bags only) sales totaled 9,675 pounds.
The overall volume and sales collection for this period was 126,356
pounds @ $578,076 compared with the prior season of 186,629 pounds
@ $641,783. In July 1989, there was an increase in prices from $4 to $5
on 1-lb bags and from $75 to $100 on 25-lb bags necessitated by the
increased bid prices from chemical companies that supply the state with
these products. This price increase, plus a highly competitive retail
market, may have contributed to the decline in sales this year. The
average annual sales for the last five years is 178,500 pounds sold with
$591,754, the average receipts.

Spreading Decline
Spreading decline activities have been to survey and collect root
samples for detection of Radopholis similis upon grower request, and to
assist the Bureau of Plant Inspection in nematode certification of nursery
stock. The costs of requested samples are defrayed by fees charged.
From July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1989, a total of 2,657 root and
soil samples was collected from 138 properties. The Gainesville laboratory






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


processed 1,793 of these samples; the Winter Haven laboratory processed
864.
Requests by growers and real estate agents on groves being sold
resulted in 16 properties (874 acres) being sampled; one positive grove
was found. Other requests by growers included 23 suspicious areas and
seven delimiting areas. Sixteen nurseries were sampled to assist regulatory
plant inspectors.
From July 1, 1989 through June 30, 1990, a total of 2,283 burrowing
nematode samples was collected from 134 properties.
The Gainesville laboratory processed 1,768 samples and the Winter
Haven laboratory processed 515 samples. Real estate certification consisting
of 251 acres in 16 properties resulted in finding three positive groves.
Other requests by growers included 18 suspicious areas and six delimiting
areas. Five nurseries were sampled to assist regulatory plant inspectors.
In research sampling and requests by growers on sampling old buffers,
96 properties were sampled. In Fiscal Year 1989-90, one new grove and
14 previously infested groves were found positive with burrowing
nematode.

Citrus Canker
During the biennium, 31 citrus nurseries were found to be infected
with weakly or moderately aggressive nursery strains. By Jan. 1, 1990,
the A-strain reoccurred in 120 trees in four grove blocks of the Manatee
Fruit Company. The detection of Asian strain citrus canker in the Cemetery
Grove, three miles northeast of Palmetto, increased the work load in
the Manatee County area. Forty-two USDA, APHIS officers spent up
to six weeks assisting and "assessing" survey and regulatory activities.
Intensive surveys have been conducted in a 5-mile delimiting area of the
Cemetery Grove and 78 groves which are associated with the positive
block through harvesting crews, harvesting equipment or grove
maintenance equipment. These high-risk associated groves are located
in DeSoto, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas and Polk
counties. No additional infected properties have been detected. The
original control action in the Cemetery Grove consisted of destroying 14
acres of mature grove (907 positive and 580 negative trees), and to
defoliate 63 positive and 232 negative scattered trees. Harvest of fruit
"for juice only" was permitted after initial control procedures were
completed.
Manatee Fruit Company has in the past destroyed infected trees and
high-risk trees and elected to defoliate trees in the area more extensively,
but the reoccurrence of infected trees in the Cemetery Grove, even after
complete defoliation of the grove, indicates that defoliation may not
always be a sure control.






Division of Plant Industry


The owners of the Manatee Fruit Company grove and the Cemetery
Grove proposed increased tree destruction in an attempt to eliminate
the A-strain infestation more quickly. Both owners realized that continued
detections of infected trees would extend the program indefinitely at a
high cost to the public and industry in taxes and in meeting certification
requirements. It was agreed to allow the state to destroy portions of the
Manatee Fruit Company grove and all the remaining trees in the Cemetery
Grove. In the Manatee Fruit Company grove, 2,494 trees in four areas,
totaling 55 acres in which citrus canker had been detected in the past
two years, were destroyed. In the Cemetery Grove, all of the remaining
6,273 trees in 66 acres have been destroyed. Destruction began on
March 1, 1990 and was completed in May 1990. This more aggressive
approach to citrus canker control hopefully has helped preclude further
detections of this disease in these properties.
Detections of weakly and moderately aggressive forms of the nursery
strain citrus canker increased dramatically during this period, but no
detections of the aggressive form have been found since Feb. 25, 1988.
There has been no incidence of the nursery strain disease in a bearing
commercial citrus grove. Plant pathologists believed that the weakly
aggressive and moderately aggressive nursery strains were possibly
widespread and existing in a wide range of non-citrus hosts and only
affect citrus nursery stock under optimal conditions. Nursery strains
have been studied extensively at the Hastings Research site, Plymouth
Laboratory, the DPI laboratory in Gainesville and in the USDA Beltsville
Laboratory. There is no scientific evidence to indicate that a statewide
eradication effort is necessary. The Citrus Canker Technical Advisory
Committee on Nov. 15, 1989, recommended deregulation of the weakly
and moderately aggressive nursery strains. This recommendation was
supported by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services and implemented on Dec. 28,1989. Program policy was changed,
and all nurseries infested with nursery strain citrus canker were released
from quarantine. Growers were informed of the presence of the disease,
given recommendations for control, and advised of the persistent USDA
regulations which disallowed harvest of fresh fruit from groves having
received nursery stock from any nursery which has not received three
negative inspections during a 90-day period just prior to the movement
of the stock. Fruit originating from groves receiving uninspected nursery
stock was not eligible for fresh fruit movement under Federal Limited
Permit to non-citrus-producing areas for one year, and for two years
under Federal Certified Shield to citrus-producing areas.
On March 27, 1990, the USDA published a proposed citrus canker
rule change and released it for public comment. The proposed rule
change would deregulate the nursery strains and make more stringent






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


the Asian strain regulations. While the Asian strain survey area would
not change (northwestern Sarasota County, entire Manatee County, and
southwestern Hillsborough County), there would be strict regulations
on the movement of all citrus fruit and host plant material from within
a defined quarantine consisting of approximately a 5-mile area from any
property previously infested within the past two years. Strict
decontamination requirements would be imposed for any property
containing citrus. The remainder of the state would be deregulated and
considered as a citrus- producing area ineligible as a market for fresh
citrus produced or packed in the defined quarantine area. Fruit produced
within 1/2 mile of any property where the Asian strain was detected
during the past two years, could be harvested for processing only. Fruit
produced in the quarantine area and located more than 1/2 mile from
an active infestation (past two years) could be harvested, receive post-
harvest treatment with Sodium Hypochlorite or SOPP, and shipped under
a Federal Limited Permit to non-citrus-producing areas. Under the
proposed rule change, there could be no commingling of cartons from
the regulated and non-regulated areas during shipment.
At public hearings conducted by the USDA in Palmetto, Florida,
and Ontario, California, the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services and the Florida citrus industry fully supported the
deregulation of the nursery strains, but did not support the excessive
regulation of fresh fruit harvested or packed in the proposed quarantine
area. The state, with industry's support, has recommended that a risk
assessment process be adopted which would allow fruit from adequately
inspected groves to be harvested, treated, packed and shipped intrastate
and interstate to non-citrus-producing areas without undue restrictions.
California, Texas and Arizona strongly supported continued statewide
regulation of the nursery strains and Asian strain of citrus canker in
Florida. Additionally, the state requested that the USDA allow fruit
originating from within a 1/2-mile area from an active infestation be
allowed to move as fresh fruit under Federal Limited Permit to non-
citrus-producing areas. With consideration given to all parties at the
end of the 60-day comment period, USDA officials hope to have the
final quarantine document in effect prior to the beginning of the 1990-
91 fruit season.
As of June 30, 1990, survey and regulatory totals were as follows:

Groves outside "A"-Strain area 803,382 acres
Groves in "A"-Strain area 27,771 acres
Residences in "A"-Strain area 168,789 properties
229 budwood source properties 1,934 acres
954 propagating citrus nurseries (383 million plants)






Division of Plant Industry


1,631 non-propagating citrus nurseries (.3 million plants)
6,417 residential properties (homeowner fruit) 36,637 trees
Fresh fruit inspections Limited Permit 261,345 acres
Fresh fruit inspections Certificate Shield 41,203 acres
Fresh fruit limes Certificate Shield 6,623 acres
Number of citrus packing houses 913
Number of citrus processors 149
Number of scale operators 44
Retail fruit sales establishments 4,898
Retail juicer establishments 220

Citrus Canker Litigation
A major issue during this biennium was litigation resulting from the
destruction or quarantine of citrus canker exposed host plants.
During the early phase of the Citrus Canker Eradication Project, the
FDACS/DPI faced several legal challenges to its authority to destroy
citrus nursery stock and young grove trees that had been exposed to
citrus canker (nursery strain) disease in Florida. The Division was
successful in winning these early cases filed in 1984 and 1985; however,
on August 5, 1985, an inverse condemnation action was filed by Bill
Lambert of Mid-Florida Growers, Inc. and Joe B. Himrod of Himrod &
Himrod Citrus Nursery in Hardee County, naming the FDACS as the
defendant. Inverse condemnation is an action which alleges that the
state has taken private property for a public purpose without payment
of just compensation, as required by Article X, Section 6, Florida
Constitution. The plaintiff contended "the Department's destruction of
nursery stock, which was not infected or diseased, resulted in a taking
for public purposes." The Department argued that the destruction occurred
pursuant to regulatory and police power and did not constitute a taking.
The liability phase of this case was heard on September 24, 1986 in a
non-jury trial. The court ruled in favor of the plaintiff, finding the
Department liable for full and just compensation. The case was appealed
to the District Court of Appeals and then to the Florida Supreme Court.
After the Florida Supreme Court upheld the plaintiff, the FDACS
unsuccessfully attempted to have the U.S. Supreme Court hear the case.
After FDACS' liability for the destruction of exposed, but apparently
healthy citrus canker host plants was established, the damage portion of
the trial was tried before a jury in March 1988. The jury found in favor
of the plaintiff, awarding a large value for the plants destroyed.
Again, the FDACS appealed the decision to the 2nd District Court
of Appeals and then to the Florida Supreme Court.
Based on the precedent of the Mid-Florida Growers/Himrod case,
the FDACS became the target of more than 70 law suits involving citrus






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


canker host plant destruction or quarantine. The majority of these cases
were filed in 1988 and 1989, after the Florida Supreme Court ruling on
the Mid-Florida Himrod case issued January 21, 1988.
The second major case to be heard was Richard Polk vs. the FDACS.
Richard Polk, owner of Richard Polk Nursery, contended that the FDACS/
DPI did not need to destroy the nursery stock within his nursery due
to the relatively mild strain of citrus canker present. Unfortunately, the
presiding district court judge permitted the use of information obtained
subsequent to the action taken in the nursery and found in favor of the
plaintiff. He stated that the disease did not pose an imminent danger,
the FDACS was arbitrary and capricious in applying the regulations and
failed to promote public health safety and welfare, and that no public
harm was actually present.
The decision in this case was appealed to the 2nd District Court of
Appeals which, on March 8, 1989, certified it to the Florida Supreme
Court for resolution.
The FDACS and the Florida Legislature, seeing the potential for
unprecedented liability (estimated in excess of 200 million dollars) and
with more than 70 citrus canker cases yet to be heard, began to search
for some alternate means of resolution.
In February 1989, President of the Senate Bob Crawford and Speaker
of the House Tom Gustafson appointed a Joint Select Committee on
Citrus Canker. The committee was composed of 12 members of the
Florida Legislature with the Honorable Bert Harris, Chairman of the
House Agriculture Committee, serving as the committee chairman during
the 1989 Legislative Session.
The committee, with a great deal of input from the FDACS, set
about to develop a remedy to the damages aspect of the citrus canker
litigation.
After several months of exhaustive fact-finding and deliberations,
the committee developed CS/HB 1088, a bill that addressed the
compensation issue for all parties having citrus canker host plants destroyed
as part of the Citrus Canker Eradication Project. Basically, the bill
established presumptive values for all categories of plants destroyed
and established procedures for the payment of claims via the Office of
the Comptroller. Disagreements were to be settled through an
administrative hearing process.
This legislation was signed into law on June 20,1990, and was assigned
to Chapter 89.91 Laws of Florida.
Almost immediately the constitutionality of the law was challenged
by citrus canker plaintiffs as they perceived it as a threat to limit the
windfall judgements that were being awarded by the courts.






Division of Plant Industry 67

In Circuit Court in Hillsborough County, Judge Bonanno declared
the law to be unconstitutional. The Attorney General's office of the
State of Florida then took the lead in seeking an appeal of the decision.
Again the issue made its way to the Florida Supreme Court.
At the close of the biennium, three citrus canker case decisions of
monumental importance rested with the Florida high court.
Several issues relating back to the Mid-Florida/Himrod damages
trial regarding instructions given to the jury to not admit evidence
concerning industry fear of citrus canker being spread on exposed host
plants were pending with the court. Also, the FDACS contested the
jury award in the Richard O. Polk trial and the Mid-Florida/Himrod
trial stating the values for lost production and certain other values were
not valid. However, the key issue pending remained the question of the
constitutionality of Chapter 89.91 Laws of Florida, regarding the legislative
remedy to the citrus canker compensation issue.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


BUREAU OF PLANT INSPECTION
Richard Clark, Chief Plant Inspector









The Bureau of Plant Inspection is responsible for conducting surveys
for the early detection of plant pests which pose a serious threat to
Florida agriculture and for enforcing Florida Statutes and departmental
rules pertaining to the movement of plants and plant products.

Performance Audit
Beginning in February 1989, the Bureau of Plant Inspection underwent
a comprehensive performance audit conducted by the office of the Auditor
General. The results of the audit were presented to Commissioner Conner
on March 13, 1990. This audit focused primarily on two key areas: the
bureau's ability to consistently carry out its regulatory responsibilities;
and the recovery of regulatory service costs.
Results in brief indicated that the bureau is generally implementing
its programs in accordance with Chapter 581, Florida Statutes. However,
the audit indicated that weaknesses in the bureau's current inspection
process limit its accountability and its ability to meet its regulatory
responsibilities. This audit also indicated that current registration fees
collected by the bureau from industry only defray a small percentage of
its total costs when compared to other regulatory programs.
As a result of the audit, the Bureau of Plant Inspection has begun
to implement procedures to comply with recommendations outlined in
the Auditor General's report. This will also include establishing procedures
for determining the cost of the special services the bureau provides to
businesses.

1990 Medfly Eradication Program
During this biennium, the bureau continued to demonstrate its ability
to respond quickly to agricultural emergencies. On April 16, 1990, Florida's
ninth successful Mediterranean fruit fly eradication campaign began with
the detection of a single male Medfly which was trapped in Miami
Springs, Florida, located immediately adjacent to the Miami International
Airport. Hopes that this Medfly was a lone invader were soon dashed






Division of Plant Industry


when nine additional flies were trapped between April 21 and April 30,
1990. By May 21, 1990, a total of 23 Medflies were trapped on 21
separate properties.
Initial eradication plans called for four weekly aerial applications of
malathion-protein bait sprays over a 20-square-mile treatment zone. These
chemical treatments were to be followed by a sterile Mediterranean fruit
fly release program, whereby approximately 30 million sterile Medflies
would be released each week for a period of 75 days.
Since the state of California had been battling the Medfly for nearly
a year, and as a result, required a minimum of 350 million sterile Medflies
per week, the Florida eradication program was limited to obtaining
sterile Medflies from the USDA's insect rearing laboratory located in
Petapa, Guatemala.
Unfortunately, initial sterile Medfly test shipments sent to Miami
from the Petapa facility did not meet the minimum quality control
standards established for irradiated Medflies. Therefore, project officials
were left with no other alternative but to continue the Miami eradication
program utilizing the aerially applied malathion bait treatment.
The negative reaction by some of the public to this decision led to
a series of meetings with concerned citizens residing within the 20-
square-mile treatment zone. Questions were immediately raised concerning
the safety of malathion. These concerned citizens emphatically felt that
the repeated use of aerially applied bait sprays to eradicate the
Mediterranean fruit fly by state and federal officials posed an unacceptable
alternative.
In spite of the disapproval by some of the public, weekly applications
of malathion-protein bait continued uninterrupted for a total of eight
complete treatments, with the eighth and final aerial application being
applied on June 17,1990. However, ground bait treatment continued to
be applied through the month of June. Intensified trapping will continue
through the month of July, and if no additional Medflies are trapped,
Florida's ninth Medfly eradication program will officially end on August
3, 1990.
On April 24, a single unmated female Medfly was found in a trap
at Port Everglades in Broward County. Additional plant inspection
personnel and equipment were sent to south Florida to do yet another
intensive survey. By the end of the biennium no additional flies had
been detected. The survey will continue until July 24, a period covering
three Medfly life cycles.

Imported Fire Ant Certification Program
As of June 30, 1990, there were 1,577 nurseries and stock dealers
under compliance agreement for Imported Fire Ant (IFA) certification






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


purposes. The Bureau of Plant Inspection, in cooperation with the USDA,
has been conducting various tests in Florida to try and determine why
the granular Dursban treatment of potting media used for nursery stock
certification is not effectively controlling IFA. As of June 30, 1990, the
USDA was recommending new IFA regulations which include provisions
for an IFA-free nursery concept reducing the certification period for
drench treatment from 90 days to 30 days.

Boll Weevil Eradication Program
As the Boll Weevil Eradication Program approaches the fourth and
final year of the intensive phase of this eradication effort, program officials
are extremely optimistic. Based on a significant reduction in the boll
weevil population, less than 1 boll weevil per thousand acres, Florida's
248 cotton producers are now enjoying a significant reduction in the
costs associated with producing cotton in this state. In order to eliminate
the current financial shortfall in program operating funds, a referendum
will be held among all Florida cotton growers on July 25, 1990. This
referendum will provide cotton producers the opportunity to vote on
increasing their per acre assessment by $10.00 for each of the next five
years.
It is anticipated that during the 1990 growing season, Florida's cotton
producers will plant at least 35,000 acres of cotton. This represents a
26 per cent increase in planted cotton acreage when compared to the
26,000 acres of cotton planted in 1987, the first year of this radiation
program.

Grades and Standards
At the request of the Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
and the Florida Foliage Association, Commissioner Conner in February
1990 reappointed the Florida Grades and Standards Committee. The
purpose of the committee is to conduct a complete review and revision
of the Grades and Standards program for nursery plants and to develop
standards for Florida-produced foliage plants. The nine-member
committee is made up of industry representatives and representatives
from the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
The last revision to the Grades and Standards program was in 1969.

Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol
The Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol (CFFP) is a body of regulations
under which fresh Florida citrus fruit may be certified free of the Caribbean
fruit fly and shipped to those domestic and foreign markets that have
established regulations for this pest. Japan, Bermuda and the states of
California, Texas and Hawaii have accepted the CFFP for the certification







Division of Plant Industry


Table 1. Fresh Fruit Certified for Export

Shipping Counties Acres Cartons
Season Participating Certified Shipped

1982-83 2 2,200 6,920
1983-84 2 2,200 48,839
1984-85* -- -- -
1985-86* --
1986-87" 2 15,900 926,076
1987-88 4 32,000 4,461,699
1988-89 8 62,020 6,473,147
1989-90 13 80,120 4,973,538

'No citrus shipped to citrus producing states due to Citrus Canker Quarantine
"First year Japan accepted Protocol









Table 2. Caribbean Fruit Fly Detections in the Protocol Areas

Shipping Flies Counties Areas Areas
Season Detected Involved Suspended Cancelled

1986-87 Females 3 Indian River 1
Males- 2 St. Lucie- 4 4 1

1987-88 Females 26 Indian River 13
Males 11 Martin- 8
St. Luce- 16 7 0

1988-89 Females- 15 Hendry- 3
Males 8 Indian River 4
Martin- 12
St. Lucie- 4 3 0

1989-90 Females- 9 Indian River 3
Male- 1 Lee- 1
Martin- 5
St. Lucie- 1 1 0






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


of citrus fruit without post-harvest treatment. This certification is based
on the fruit coming from specific Caribbean fruit fly controlled areas
("designated areas"). The success of this program is demonstrated in
the following tables:

Citrus Excise Tax
Following the 1989 legislative session, Section 581.193, Florida Statutes,
was amended to require an excise tax of 12.5 cents instead of 10 cents
per plant on the movement, sale or distribution of citrus nursery stock,
including lemon and lime nursery stock, to any commercial citrus fruit
producer or resale to a citrus fruit producer. Additional amendments
also required all commercial citrus fruit producers producing citrus plants
for their own use and for movement only within the contiguous citrus
where the plants were produced to obtain a certificate of registration
from the Division of Plant Industry. However, the producer would not
be required to pay a registration fee.

Citrus Tree Survey
During this biennium, the Citrus Tree Survey specialists spent 50
percent of their time participating in the citrus tree census. This program
is a cooperative effort between the Florida Agricultural Statistics Reporting
Service and the Bureau of Plant Inspection. Using aerial photography
as a guide, inspectors visited groves in critical areas to update statistical
information on citrus. Twenty-five percent of their time was spent
surveying 20 percent of the sections that contained commercial groves.
In each assigned section, all groves are surveyed for early detection of
harmful pests and diseases. The remaining 25 percent of their time was
spent on the Medfly eradication program in Miami Springs.

Other bureau activities for the biennium are summarized in the
following tables and charts.

Table 3. A Three-Year Comparison of Nursery Data
1987-88 1988-89 1989-90
No. of plant inspection districts 74.00 74.00 74.00
No. of nurseries in state 7,693.00 7,384.00 7,304.00
Total no. of inspections of
nursery stock 22,192.00 21,682.00 20,951.00
Total acreage of nurseries
in state 28,935.29* 31,396.57' 35,284.12*
Total amount of nursery stock
in state 535,925,050.00' 595,276,877.00* 566,592,606.00*
*Includes seedling trees grown for reforestation.







Division of Plant Industry


Table 4. Number of Nurseries Under Inspection by Type

Type 1988-89

Citrus 245
Citrus and ornamental 85
Citrus and other fruits and nuts 0
Citrus, ornamental and other fruits and nuts 26
Ornamental 5,887
Ornamental and other fruits and nuts 939
Other fruit and nuts 97
Native plants 64
Native plants and ornamental 33
Native plants, omamental and citrus 1
Native plants, ornamental and other fruits & nuts 6
Native, citrus, ornamental and other fruits & nuts 1

Total 7,384


1989-90

243
93
0
28
5,758
969
94
68
45
1
5
0

7,304


Table 5. Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock, a Three-Year Comparison

1987-1988 1988-1989 1989-1990
Kind of Stock Acres Plants Acres Plants Acres Plants

Orange 12,982,555 13,902,816 15,875,019
Grapefruit 2,011,534 3,134,165 2,405,578
Mandarin type 1,047,044 1,018,229 974,969
Lemons & limes 89,870 59,606 81,718
Seedlings,
in seed beds 10,400,752 13,171,031 11,243,816
Seedlings,
lined out 8,929,375 10,303,161 9,672,591
Miscellaneous
citrus 99,852 122,597 1,379,416

Total Citrus 1,315.37 35,560,982 1,338.76 41,711,605 1,483.21 41,633,107

Ornamental 332,903,511 307,408,389 331,817,211
Other fruits
and nuts 1,892,047 1,909,847 1,831,093

Total
Non-Citrus 27,203.91 334,795,558 29,667.70 309,318,236 33,377.30 333,648,304

Grand Total 28,519.28 370,356,540 31,006.46 351,029,841 34,860.51 375,281,411
(Citrus and Non-citrus)

Trees for
Reforestation 416.01 165,568,510 390.11 244,247,036 423.61 191,311,195

Grand Total 28,935.29 535,925,050 31,396.57 595,276,877 35,284.12 566,592,606
(under inspection)







Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Table 6. Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected (Not Included as Nursery Stock):
July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1990

1988-89 1989-90
Variety Growers Acres Plants or Growers Acres Plants or
Bulbs Bulbs
Cabbage 8 772.57 450,048,100 8 765.61 29,248,500
Caladium bulbs 32 1,292.00 79,130,000 28 1,061.00 65,396,000
Cut fern 115 3,226.40 506,540,000 78 2,501.25 568,220,000
Misc. vegetables 10 40.40 53,511,705 14 36.30 39,011,900
Peppers 5 59.68 80,567,505 11 43.63 35,324,750
Tobacco 1 2.21 4,662,000 2 11.12 14,063,000
Tomato 10 54.46 47,898,590 11 59.44 45,099,649

Total 181 5,447.72 1,222,357,900 152 4,478.35 931,615,700



Table 7. Export Certification

Items Certified 1988-89 1989-90

Aquatic plants 904,907 14,824,381.00
Bulbs 3,701,021 4,814,637.00
Bromeliads & orchids 156,270 860,959.00
Citrus & other fruit plants 354,970 189,522.00
Fruits & vegetables (bxs, Ibs, qts, & bags) 64,360,063 13,149,726.25
Miscellaneous commodities 33,340,476 5,722,995.00
Miscellaneous plants 89,231,031 46,400,926.00
Seeds (units, Ibs., cartons, & bags) 961,938 1,885,079.00
Tropical foliage plants 21,733,836 38,749,145.00

Total Units Certified 214,744,512 126,597,370.25

Federal Phytosanitary Export
Certificates Issued 1,897 1,831
State Phytosanitary Export
Certificates Issued 15,611 15,562

Total Certificates Issued 17,508 17,393


Postentry Quarantine 1988-1990
Plants entering the United States must comply with U.S. Department
of Agriculture regulations. They fit into one of four categories; refused
entry, unconditional entry, departmental permit or postentry quarantine.
During postentry quarantine, the plants are placed on the owner's property
and inspected periodically for six months to two years and then released
if pest-free. The purpose of postentry quarantine is to detect any exotic






Division of Plant Industry


pests which may manifest themselves during plant growth. If any exotic
pests are detected during the quarantine period, the plants are destroyed.



Plants Released from Postentry Quarantine 1988-89 1989-90
Inspections made to release plants 51 62
Plants released that were dead and destroyed 8,119 2,113
Plants released that were alive 12,990 2,117
Plants released 21,109 4,230

Plants Remaining Under Postentry Quarantine
Inspections of plants remaining under quarantine 67 85
Plants dead and destroyed 838 5,065
Plants that remain under quarantine 4,428 4,478

Total Inspections Performed 118 149

Total Number of Plants Under Quarantine
During the 1988-90 Blennium 26,375 13,773


Non-citrus Nematode Certification:
Citrus Nursery Site and Soil Pit Selection
Burrowing nematode (BN), the cause of spreading decline in citrus,
was not detected in any citrus nursery during the 1988-90 biennium.
According to Bureau of Plant Inspection records, BN has not been detected
in a citrus nursery since 1969.
A summary of the program's activities during the 1988-90 biennium
is represented in the following tables:










Table 8. Burrowing Nematode Site Approval: Citrus & Pits

Number of New Citrus Existing Total No. of Existing
Nematode Apr. Total No. New Sites New Sites Citrus Sites New Pits Nematode Pits
County Citrus Sites Apr. Sites Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Approved Apr. Pits Disappr.
Total Acres

Brevard 5 20.00 9 0.00 0 0 11 0 6 0
Broward 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 2 1 1 2 0
Charlotte 5 30.61 8 6.50 2 2 8 2 4 1
Citrus 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 1 0 0 2 0
Collier 11 123.60 18 26.50 3 2 62 0 1 1
Dade 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 1 0 0 2 0
Desoto 46 113.11 57 22.45 20 19 164 5 7 1
Flagler 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 1 0
Glades 2 10.05 2 10.00 1 12 23 0 2 3
Hardee 61 157.04 83 10.35 25 17 376 0 3 0
Hendry 21 322.49 37 114.51 9 24 132 0 3 0
Hemando 4 6.45 4 0.10 1 0 16 0 1 1
Highlands 59 804.80 123 106.33 22 13 420 3 28 4
Hillsborough 34 102.71 38 85.30 8 7 169 3 14 1
Indian River 7 33.15 10 1.12 3 5 47 0 3 1
Lake 80 803.95 128 5.03 10 8 120 2 61 4
Lee 8 27.57 12 8.00 2 4 25 0 2 0
Levy 1 244.00 1 244.00 1 0 1 0 1 1












Table 8. Continued...

Number of New Citrus Existing Total No. of Existing
Nematode Apr. Total No. New Sites New Sites Citrus Sites New Pits Nematode Pits
County Citrus Sites Apr. Sites Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Approved Apr. Pits Disappr.
Total Acres

Manatee 7 46.42 8 40.01 2 1 41 0 1 0
Marion 4 18.60 5 3.10 1 0 2 3 4 0
Martin 3 52.20 7 0.00 0 4 10 0 0 0
Monroe 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
Okeechobee 8 32.56 11 0.50 1 2 44 2 9 0
Orange 23 213.16 34 4.40 3 9 81 0 19 0
Osceola 19 51.57 20 1.86 7 8 62 0 2 0
Palm Beach 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 3 0 1 5 2
Pasco 20 105.46 35 .30 2 10 195 1 1 0
Pinellas 1 0.10 1 0.10 1 1 4 0 0 0
Polk 138 642.57 227 20.88 55 26 718 9 56 1
Putnam 1 0.01 1 0.00 0 0 0 0 7 0
Sarasota 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
Seminole 1 5.00 1 0.00 0 0 0 1 2 0
Sumter 2 2.61 2 0.00 0 1 3 2 10 1
St. Lucie 12 101.39 20 1.28 4 8 78 0 2 1
Volusia 2 10.75 3 0.00 0 0 0 0 9 0
Others 1 145.00 1 145.00 1 0 0 0 1 0


Totals 586 4,226.93 906 857.62 184 190 2,813 35 271 21










Table 9. Burrowing Nematode Certification: Non-Citrus

No. of Nematode New New Nsys. New Nsys. Exisitng Nsys. Existing Nsys.
County Cert. Nurseries Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Disapproved
Total Acres

Brevard 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0
Broward 34 153.16 36.30 14 0 96 11
Charlotte 1 5.00 0.00 0 0 4 0
Citrus 1 0.10 0.00 0 0 2 0
Collier 14 158.90 90.65 11 0 59 12
Dade 233 1624.50 370.85 41 1 291 40
Desoto 4 11.07 6.56 1 0 21 1 ;
Flagler 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0
Glades 4 303.00 300.10 4 0 12 2
Hardee 7 128.20 72.40 2 0 55 2
Hendry 10 499.60 306.50 6 0 17 2
Hemando 1 0.20 0.20 1 0 0 0
Highlands 9 6.84 8.10 4 0 42 2 X
Hillsborough 14 130.25 97.00 9 0 22 2
Indian River 1 0.01 0.00 0 0 2 0
Lake 13 93.92 88.13 7 0 23 5
Lee 36 150.19 20.50 7 0 72 4
Levy 1 70.00 70.00 1 0 0 0
Manatee 12 54.00 12.55 3 0 18 0













Table 9. Continued...

No. of Nematode New New Nsys. New Nsys. Existing Nsys. Existing Nsys.
County Cert. Nurseries Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Disapproved
Total Acres

Marion 1 4.00 0.00 0 0 1 0
Martin 10 126.55 117.30 6 0 34 1
Monroe 1 0.01 0.01 1 0 0 0
Okeechobee 4 1,833.00 1,600.01 2 0 21 2
Orange 95 167.50 27.32 31 0 208 24
Palm Beach 102 1,091.97 313.06 23 0 245 5
Pasco 2 5.50 15.50 3 0 3 2
Pinellas 3 1.70 0.20 1 0 2 0
Polk 8 29.11 13.47 2 0 32 0
Putnam 2 200.40 168.40 2 0 1 0
Sarasota 6 3.36 0.85 2 0 14 1
Seminole 7 62.47 52.80 2 2 8 2
Sumter 1 5.00 0.00 0 0 2 0
St Lucie 1 5.50 0.00 0 0 1 1
Volusia 2 7.21 1.80 1 0 0 1
Others 46 2,086.73 587.15 10 0 43 6

Totals 686 9,018.95 4,377.71 197 1 1,351 128






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


BUREAU OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
Timothy Schubert, Chief






The Bureau of Plant Pathology provides the plant disease diagnostic
services for the Division of Plant Industry. Samples for diagnosis are
received from DPI inspectors for regulatory and academic purposes and
from professional and amateur growers to identify the causal agents of
plant problems and to recommend control measures when requested.
Samples are submitted from nursery and greenhouse crops, field crops,
fruit and vegetable crops, landscape and interiorscape plants and native
flora.
In addition to the routine diagnostic activities, other bureau functions
include: surveying for new or threatening plant diseases; indexing of
crops, budwood, or seed for exotic or endemic pathogens; tissue culturing
or shoot-tip grafting to rid plant tissue of pathogens; conducting
investigations and pathogenicity tests of new or exotic suspected pathogens
which may threaten Florida agriculture; evaluation of new or improved
pathogen detection techniques; and responding to major disease outbreaks
in cooperation with other state and/or federal agencies.
The bureau processed a total of 11,536 samples for routine disease
diagnosis during the 1988-1990 biennium. From those samples, 130 new
diseases were identified as caused by pathogens already present in Florida,
but that are now on previously unreported hosts. During the biennium,
19 pathogens-eighteen fungal and one viral-were detected for the
first time in Florida. Based on current assessments of damage potential,
none of these new pathogens represent major economic threats, though
many were detected on economically important ornamental and food
plants.
An additional 14,725 samples were processed in the quarantine clinic
as a part of the citrus canker eradication effort. Nursery strain citrus
canker/citrus bacterial spot continued to appear infrequently in weak to
moderately aggressive forms throughout central and south Florida citrus
nurseries, in no case causing any appreciable damage to the crop. At
the close of this biennium, USDA-APHIS PPQ was in the final stages of
deregulation of the nursery strain citrus canker/citrus bacterial spot
disease. DPI will continue to monitor the incidence and severity of the
citrus bacterial spot diseases) after deregulation, but not as a part of
any eradication effort. During our six-year experience with nursery






Division of Plant Industry


strain citrus canker/citrus bacterial spot, the bureau has evaluated dozens
of prospective control agents and disinfectants and has conducted or
cooperated in the conducting of numerous experiments to determine the
biological properties and potential of the causal agents. Much essential
information concerning the disease has also been provided through research
funded by the USDA and conducted by University of Florida-IFAS
scientists and USDA scientists. The spirit of cooperation between the
various agencies has for the most part been very constructive and has
served to put the disease through a scientifically defensible and adaptable
regulatory program that is unprecedented in plant pathology.
The Asian strain of citrus canker continued to appear sporadically
in the Manatee county area in two commercial groves with a previous
history of canker. Voluntary destruction of large portions of these groves
took place in early 1990 in areas where the disease had been active
during the last two years. This may be the last destruction necessary
in this four-year campaign in the west coast of Florida. IFAS and DPI
personnel utilized some experimental techniques involving defoliation
with dilute Diquat herbicide to eradicate Asian canker on lightly infected
trees. These experiments have met with mixed success and are perhaps
better suited to disease suppression efforts rather than eradication.
The update of the Index of Plant Diseases in Florida is nearing
completion, aided considerably by the computer LAN acquired in 1988
to improve record-keeping and disease-reporting capabilities. The final
form of the update will be tentatively titled "Florida Plant Diseases and
Related Disorders." IFAS Agricultural Engineering scientists have
expressed much interest in incorporating the updated compilation as a
database in a PC-accessed, color-illustrated diagnostic guide in compact
disc format, complete with recommendations for cultural, biological,
and chemical control of the disease.
Revisions in the statutes pertaining to the introduction of citrus
budwood into Florida have permitted some improvements in the indexing
procedures. Indexing must be performed on each new budwood clone
brought into Florida to preclude the introduction of exotic pathogens
along with the budwood. New policies now in place include the adoption
of a risk assessment form to outline the customized indexing program
for each individual introduction, the abandonment of the mandatory 2
1/2-year quarantine on introduced lines (lines will be released as soon
as indexing is complete), and the screenhouse propagation and increase
of lines when near the anticipated end of their indexing program. Included
in risk assessment is consideration of test results from other valid indexing
programs. This is in place of repeating the same tests in Florida facilities,
though limited testing will still be performed as a precaution. Also,
every attempt will be made to determine in the screenhouse at the






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


outset of the indexing program that the budline being indexed is true
to type. There are currently seven citrus introductions undergoing indexing
at DPI. Twenty-seven additional introductions from China and Nepal
will begin arriving later in 1990. These latest introductions have been
held at the USDA Glendale, Md. quarantine facility pending a reduction
in citrus canker quarantine activity at the DPI quarantine facility in
Gainesville. The indexing of these twenty-seven introductions will
commence as greenhouse facilities become available. After indexing,
the pathogen-free budlines will be placed in the National Clonal Germplasm
Repository for Citrus at the Whitmore Farm in Leesburg, Fl.
The Plant Disease Diagnosis course taught by bureau personnel for
the University of Florida has been successfully completed by 15 more
graduate students from the departments of Agronomy, Ornamental
Horticulture, Weed Science, Plant Pathology, Fruit Crops, and Vegetable
Crops. A six-month internship for Ms. Terry Thompson, a University
of Georgia graduate student in Plant Pathology, concluded in December,
1988. A one-month internship was completed in November, 1989, by
Mr. Augustine Gubba, Plant Pathology Research Officer with the Zimbabwe
Ministry of Lands, Agriculture, and Rural Development.
A foliar disease of Bougainvillea that has defied diagnosis for several
years has finally been resolved. The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas
andropogonis, usually found on members of the grass family, has been
proven as the causal agent. Bougainvillea has recently surged in popularity
even in colder climates where it is used as a container and hanging
basket plant. The discovery of the bacterial pathogen lays the foundation
for formulating intelligent and effective disease management
recommendations. Variety trials have been performed, and variety
selection alone appears to provide acceptable control in many cases.
Bureau personnel have initiated a joint project with the Florida State
Museum Department of Natural Sciences and Department of
Interpretations to inventory and catalogue the biota at the Katherine
Ordway Preserve in northwest Putnam County. This preserve contains
some of the last continuous permanent and ephemeral wetland habitat
free of major human impact in Florida. An inventory of the plant diseases
on the 10,000- acre site will identify the normal baseline level of plant
pathogen diversity at specified sites and at certain times of the year and
assess the impact of plant diseases on the relatively undisturbed ecosystems
contained in the Preserve.
Many years of experience with the fungus genus Cylindrocladium are
culminating in a monograph of that genus by Mr. Nabih El-Gholl. Dr.
Acelino Alfenas, Universidade Federal de Vicosa in Brazil, is cooperating
on the project by providing isozyme analysis of recognized species of
Cylindrocladium to complement the morphological descriptions of the






Division of Plant Industry


species. Cooperative research into the nature of the Cylindrocladium
diseases of Spathiphyllum and Heliconia is also underway with Dr. Janice
Uchida of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Sweet potato whitefly-transmitted gemini viruses have posed a
potentially serious regulatory concern for vegetable transplant growers
in Florida for the last two growing seasons. IFAS, DPI, and private
industry representatives have concluded that under present circumstances,
no feasible diagnostic methodology exists to detect the incompletely
characterized viruses) in small transplants. Therefore, the target of
regulatory plant inspectors continues to be the sweet potato whitefly
vector of the gemini viruses. Diagnostic methodology is being improved
to the point that the diseases) can be identified with good confidence
in older plants (primarily tomato and bell pepper), and considerable
research effort is underway in IFAS to increase our incomplete
understanding of this complex new diseasess.
The incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in various host plants
remained relatively steady and low as the 1988 and 1989 growing seasons
closed, but increased TSWV activity in the 1990 season was detected,
especially in some ornamental crops. Diagnostic techniques for this
serious disease are very good, thanks to some foresight in anticipating
a gradual escalation in the importance of the disease statewide and
nationwide. Dr. Larry Brown (DPI), Dr. Gary Simone (IFAS-Plant
Pathology) and Mr. Richard Christie (IFAS-Agronomy) are working with
a $47,000 grant from The Land, EPCOT Center, to further perfect the
diagnostic methodology for use on other ornamental host plants which
are susceptible to TSWV.
A survey for St. Augustine Decline Virus (SADV) in St. Augustine
and centipede grasses was completed in the spring of 1990, and the
pathogen was not detected in Florida. The survey, conducted jointly by
DPI plant pathologists and agricultural product specialists along with
IFAS research scientists and county extension agents, was precipitated
by reports of the disease spreading in the SE United States. Increased
awareness of SADV has been fostered by distribution of fact sheets to
DPI and IFAS field representatives and turfgrass industry professionals.
Based on the negative survey results, amendments to Florida's Rule 5B-
36 pertaining to SADV have been made.
The number of applications for APHIS-PPQ 526 Permit to Move
Live Plant Pests and Noxious Weeds has increased steadily with a total
of 84 applications processed over the last two years. In addition to the
PPQ 526 applications, three applications forwarded from the USDA-
APHIS Office of Biotechnology for release of genetically engineered
organisms into the environment were given consideration. This marks
the first releases of genetically engineered organisms (in these cases,
plants) into field plots in Florida.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


The following pathogenicity tests or investigations were undertaken
during the last biennium:

Xanthomonas sp. leaf spot on Photinia sp. pathogenicityy not yet proven
despite several attempts, disease still detected in the clinic with
some regularity).
Fusarium oxysporum crown and root rot from Heliconia sp. as a possible
wilt pathogen on banana pathogenicityy tests negative).
Fusarium decemcellulare as a potential gall pathogen on Eriobotrya japonica
and Cupaniopsis anacardioides (results pending).
Cladosporium sp. foliar ringspot disease on Rhododendron sp. pathogenicityy
tests negative, syndrome quite common on Formosa azaleas).
Investigations into new diagnostic techniques for Tomato Spotted Wilt
Disease in Florida ornamental plants (investigations in progress).
Erythricium (Corticium) salmonicolor canker and limb blight on various
woody ornamentals pathogenicityy reproven, and syndrome expanded
to include rough swollen cankers devoid of superficial mat of fungal
mycelium).
Identification of potyviruses causing mosaic patterns and stunting on
Crinum americanum and Liriope muscari (work in progress).
Preliminary characterization of an undescribed virus causing chevron
patterns on foliage of Cattleya sp. (work in progress).
Pseudomonas andropogonis leaf spot of Bougainvillea sp. pathogenicityy
proven, variety trials performed).
Cylindrocladium sp. leaf spot on Eucalyptus spp. pathogenicityy proven,
may be described as a new species of Cylindrocladium).
Scytinostroma galactinum root and butt rot of hardwoods pathogenicityy
tests incubating, disease appears to be developing slowly).
Pseudomonas rubrilineans leaf spot and foliage blight of Calathea sp.
pathogenicityy trials just commencing).
Description of a new species of Cercospora on the cultivated aquatic
plant Echinodorus osiris (in preparation for journal publication).

Journal publications by bureau personnel over the last biennium
included papers on Cylindrocladium clavatum on various hosts in Florida,
Pseudocercospora feijoae leaf spots on Feijoa sellowiana, Calonectria avesiculata
leaf spots on Ilex vomitoria, Cylindrocladium leucothoe leaf spot on Leucothoe
axillaris, Nectria galligena cankers on various hosts, mancozeb-induced
phytotoxicity on 'Lemondrop' cultivar of Tagetes patula, vegetative
compatibility in Leucostoma persoonii, Leucostoma cincta and other canker
fungi of apple in Michigan, and phenetic groups of Leucocytospora from
Prunus and Malus. Twenty-four circulars on various plant disease topics
in Florida have also been published.






Division of Plant Industry


Plant Pathology Bureau Publications, 1988-1990
Alfieri, S.A., T.S. Schubert, and N.E. El-Gholl. 1990. Gray leaf spot of
Rhaphiolepis. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Pathol. Circ. No. 332.
Barnard, E.L. 1988. Phytophthora root rot of sand pine. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 314.
Barnard, E.L. 1989. Nectria cankers of Swietenia spp. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 326.
Barnard, E.L. 1990. Groundline heat lesions on tree seedlings. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No.
338.
Barnard, E.L., N.E. El-Gholl, and S.Gilley. 1988. Comparative spore
morphology and pathogenicity of four Florida isolates of Nectria
galligena. Plant Disease 72: 973-976.
Barnard, E.L., N.E. El-Gholl, TS. Schubert, R.M. Leahy, and C.L. Schoulties.
1989. Cylindrocladium clavatum in Florida. Plant Disease 73: 273.
Breman, L.L. 1990. Dahlia mosaic virus. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 331.
Breman, L.L. 1989. Tomato mosaic virus. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 322.
Brown, L.G. 1988. Tomato spotted wilt virus in ornamentals. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No.
313.
Brown, L.G. 1988. Phytotoxicity of mancozeb to Tagetes patula
'Lemondrop'. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 101: 315-316.
Brown, L.G., J.K. Brown, and J.H. Tsai. 1990. Lettuce infectious yellows
virus. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol.
Circ. No. 335.
Brown, L.G., H.A. Denmark, and R.K. Yokomi. 1988. Citrus tristeza
virus and vectors. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 311.
El-Gholl, N.E. 1989. Septoria leafspot of sweet gum. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 316.
El-Gholl, E.L., R.M. Leahy, and T.S. Schubert. 1989. Cylindrocladium
leucothoeae sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 2529-2532.
El-Gholl, N.E., and T.S. Schubert. 1988. Septoria leaf spot of sapodilla.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ.
No. 310.
El-Gholl, N.E., and T.S. Schubert. 1989. Corynespora leaf spot of Tabebuia.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ.
No. 328.
Leahy, R.M. 1988. Stigmina leaf spot on palm. Fla. Dept. Agric. &
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 308.






Thirty-eighth Biennial Report


Leahy, R.M. 1989. Cylindrocladium leafspot on palms. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 315.
Leahy, R.M. 1989. Black spot of rose. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 327.
McRitchie, J.J. 1988. Peach scab. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 309.
McRitchie, J.J. 1989. Phloeospora leaf spot of mulberry. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 329.
McRitchie, J.J. 1989. Frangipani rust. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 319.
McRitchie, J.J. 1989. Ovulinia petal blight of azalea. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 317.
McRitchie, J.J. 1990. Dodder, a parasitic plant pest. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 334.
McRitchie, J.J., and R.M. Leahy. 1988. Stromatinia dry rot of Gladiolus.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ.
No. 306.
Miller, J.W. 1988. Crown gall of woody plants in Florida. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 305.
Miller, J.W. 1988. Bacterial leaf blight of Schefflera arboricola caused by
Pseudomonas cichorii. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 312.
Miller, J.W. 1989. Soft rot of Epipremnum aureum caused by Erwinia
carotovora pv. carotovora. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 318.
Miller, J.W. 1990. Bacterial blight of Syngonium podophyllum caused by
a pathovar of Xanthomonas campestris. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 336.
Miller, J.W. 1990. Bacterial brown spot of orchid caused by Pseudomonas
cattleyae. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol.
Circ. No. 330.
Miller, J.W., and J.H. Blake. 1989. Veinal necrosis of Fittonia caused by
a pathovar of Xanthomonas campestris. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 324.
Proffer, T.J. 1989. Botryosphaeria cankers and dieback. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 325.
Proffer, T.J. 1990. Tubakia leaf spot. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 337.
Schubert, T.S. 1990. Epiphytic bromeliads on Florida trees. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 333.
Schubert, T.S., and N.E. El-Gholl. 1989. Cercospora leaf spot of New
Zealand flax. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Pathpl. Circ. No. 323.






Division of Plant Industry 87

Schubert, T.S., N.E. E1-Gholl, S.A. Alfieri, Jr., and C.L. Schoulties. 1989.
Calonectria avesiculata sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 2414-
2419.
Schubert, T.S., and R.M. Leahy. 1989. Phytophthora blight of Catharanthus
roses. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol.
Circ. No. 321.
Tsai, J.H., and L.G. Brown. 1989. Maize dwarf mosaic virus. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 320.













University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs