Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075925/00001
 Material Information
Title: Division of Plant Industry biennial report
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Div. Plant Ind. bienn. rep.
Physical Description: v. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: The Division
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 26th (1964/66)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075925
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001511744
oclc - 01242950
notis - AHC4712
lccn - sn 86001883
issn - 0888-9554
 Related Items
Preceded by: Biennial report - Division of Plant Industry

Full Text


T ,




Central Scleno

University of FloridS

Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Richard D. Gaskalla, Director

Post Office Box 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32602



Plant Industry Technical Council

Roy Vandergrift, Jr., Chairman (Vegetable) Canal Point
Joseph Welker, Vice-Chairman (Horticulture) Jacksonville
Bill Shearman (Apiary) Wimauma
John W. Hornbuckle (Citrus) Belleair Beach
Leonard Coward (Commercial Fower) Punta Gorda
Richard Mims (Citrus) Orlando
Ed Holt (Citizen-at-Large) Jacksonville
Elliot Maguire (Forestry) Green Cove Springs
Michael Hunt (Tropical Fruit) Homestead
Owen W. "Sonny" Conner, III (Foliage) Mt. Dora
Thomas Latta (Turfgrass) Deerfield Beach

Administrative Staff

R. D. Gaskalla, Director Gainesville
C. C. Riherd, Assistant Director Gainesville
D. L. Harris, Chief of Methods Development Gainesville
H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology Gainesville
L. P. Cutts, Chief of Apiary Inspection Gainesville
R. A. Clark, Chief of Plant Inspection Gainesville
R. J. Griffith, Chief of Pest Eradication and Control .......... Winter Haven
T. S. Schubert, Chief of Plant Pathology Gainesville
J. H. O'Bannon, Chief of Nematology Gainesville
C. O. Youtsey, Chief of Budwood Registration................ Winter Haven


Report of the Division Director ........................................... 5
Personnel .................................... ............. ........... 8
Fiscal .................................... ................................... 15
Training ............................................................................. 18
Library .......................................................................... 19
Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility............................... 20
Office of Systematic Botany .................................... 21
Technical Assistance .............................................. 22
Bureau of Apiary Inspection ............................................. 24
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration .......................... 26
Bureau of Entomology ..................................... .......... 33
Bureau of Methods Development................................... 57
Bureau of Nematology ..................................... .......... 62
Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control ......................... 78
Bureau of Plant Inspection ............................................... 86
Bureau of Plant Pathology ............................................ 97

1 2 13 ON THE COVER:

... 1 Boll Weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis
2 Black Parlatoria Scale, Parlatoria ziziphi
3 African Honeybee, Apis mellifera scutellata
4 Citrus Canker, Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri
14 I 5 s 6 5 Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata
6 Varroa Mite, Varroajacobsoni

ISSN 0071-5948
This public document was promulgated at a cost of $11,641.51 or a cost of $19.41 per copy,
to inform the general public, Legislature and other interested parties on the programs and
investigative efforts of the Division of Plant Industry. PI89G-07

Gainesville, Florida

Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
The Capital
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0810

Dear Commissioner:

I am pleased to present herewith the 1986-88 Biennial Report
for the Division of Plant Industry.


Richard D. Gaskalla, Director
Division of Plant Industry

Division of Plant Industry

Richard D. Gaskalla

Created to safeguard Florida's agricultural interests, the Division of
Plant Industry (DPI) is responsible for detecting, intercepting, identifying
and controlling plant pests which could pose serious threats to agricultural
and horticultural interests within the state. To fulfill this responsibility, the
DPI administers biometric surveys and other regulatory programs including
inspections and certifications of nurseries and stock dealers, special
certifications, and control and eradication programs. During the 1986-88
biennium, retirement of several key personnel brought about important
changes in the division's leadership. Division Director Dr. Salvatore
Alfieri, Jr., retired April 29, 1988. Upon his retirement, Assistant Director
Richard Gaskalla was named director. A graduate of Florida State University,
he joined DPI in 1975 as the agricultural products specialist for South
Broward and Martin counties, was promoted to agricultural products
specialist III in 1979, to agricultural products supervisor II specializing in
import/export regulations in 1980, and to assistant division director in
As assistant director, Mr. Gaskalla was instrumental in overseeing all
division programs, including emergency plant pest and disease eradication
programs. He served as chairman of the Special Task Force on Citrus
Canker, as a member of the Joint State/Federal Citrus Canker Technical
Advisory Committee, as chairman of the DPI Rules Committee, as Florida's
representative to the Southern Plant Board and as a member of the
National Plant Board Advisory Council. A recipient of two Citations of
Special Recognition and the division's Outstanding Service Award, he was
also named DPI's Employee of the Year for 1987. Mr. Gaskalla is a member
of Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society of Agriculture.
Constance C. Riherd was appointed assistant director of the division.
A magna cum laude graduate of the University of Florida, she started with
the division in 1977 as a laboratory technician in the Bureau of Nematology.
From 1979 to 1984, she served as an agricultural products specialist in the
Gainesville area. In her years with the division, Mrs. Riherd also served as
agricultural products supervisor, administrator for the Bureau of Plant
Inspection's Region I and as chief of the Bureau of Plant Inspection,
responsible for coordinating and supervising the duties of more than 100
plant inspection personnel throughout Florida.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Richard Clark replaced Mrs. Riherd as chief of the Bureau of Plant
Inspection. He joined DPI in 1973 as an agricultural products specialist and
has been an agricultural products supervisor, the agricultural inspections
administrator for Region I and the assistant chief of the Bureau of Plant
During the biennium, Dr. Calvin Schoulties resigned as chief of the
Bureau of Plant Pathology and was replaced by Dr. Timothy Schubert. Dr.
Schubert began with the division in 1980 as a plant pathologist, was
promoted to biological scientist IV in 1983 and served as interim bureau
chief prior to his appointment.
Region III Administrator George Gwin retired in February 1988, and
that position was filled by Agricultural Products Specialist Supervisor
Debra Chalot.
With the growth of the state's population and the increase in foreign
travel, emergency programs developed into a substantial portion of the
division's workload.
Following the detection of five male Mediterranean fruit flies in
Hialeah in 1987, the division, in a cooperative effort with the USDA,
successfully eradicated this destructive pest, utilizing a combination of
aerial sprays and the release of sterile Medflies.
One adult male Mediterranean fruit fly was detected in Sweetwater in
the spring of 1988. A combination of ground bait spray applications and
intensive trapping was implemented immediately, and there were no
further finds.
Florida was spared the potentially disastrous establishment of African
honeybees in several port areas, including Palm Beach, Panama City and
Port Everglades, when hitchhiking swarms were intercepted and destroyed.
Placement and monitoring of bait hives in the port areas statewide increased
At the end of September 1987, varroa mite was confirmed in several
beehives in Wisconsin and on Oct. 1, the first suspicious sample was taken
from a Florida hive. Statewide surveys revealed widespread infestation.
As of the end of June 1988, more than 12,000 hives in 31 counties were
known to be infested with this destructive honeybee pest. Infested colonies
were quarantined until the EPA approved the use of fluvalinate-treated
strips for infested hives under a Section 18 exemption.
The Citrus Canker Eradication Project continued, and finds of the
nursery type have steadily decreased since 1985. Finds of the A strain have
also steadily declined after major survey, control and regulatory actions
were undertaken in those areas of the west coast where it had been
Florida joined Alabama and Georgia in the cooperative, state/federal
Boll Weevil Eradication Program, the first phase of which began in fall

Division of Plant Industry 7

1987. The Bureau of Plant Inspection established procedures for collecting
grower assessments to offset program costs and is responsible for
administering all regulatory activities relating to the program.
The Black Parlatoria Scale Eradication Program began in February
1987 in north Dade County and is still continuing. At the end of the
biennium, more than 2,000 infested residential citrus trees had been
The Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility, adjacent to the Doyle Conner
Building in Gainesville, was completed on schedule and production of
Caribbean fruit fly colonies has been underway since March 1987. Planning
and design stages for installation of an irradiator on the same site began.
The Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol, a program designed to allow
certification of fresh citrus fruit for shipment to Japan and other citrus-
producing states without the use of post-harvest fumigants, grew steadily
in both grower participation and acreage enrolled and is proving to be one
of the most beneficial and successful programs DPI has undertaken.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

June 30,1988

Richard D. Gaskalla, Director
Constance C. Riherd, Assistant Director
Ernest Collins, Jr., Education & Training Specialist
Sandra R. Roberts, Administrative Assistant I
Mary Creekmore, Executive Secretary
Jeanne B. McAllister, Administrative Secretary

Edith H. Roundtree, Personnel Technician I
Terry A. Green, Personnel Aide

Douglas G. Hadlock, Accountant IV
Merceta Ambrose, Accountant I
Gene M. Neal, Fiscal Assistant II
Sally J. Ashe, Secretary Specialist
Anna J. Williams, Clerk Typist

June Jacobson, Librarian II
Alice R. Sanders, Library Technical Assistant I

Technical Assistance
Phyllis P. Habeck, Public Information Supervisor
Maeve McConnell, Information Specialist III
John J. Corkery, Illustrator II
Jeffrey W. Lotz, Photographer II
Janet K. Miller, Secretary Specialist
Grace J. Jones, Clerk Typist

Kenneth R. Langdon, Biological Scientist IV
Carlos R. Artaud, Biological Scientist II

Henry S. Rodgers, Maintenance Supervisor
Kenneth A. Sims, Cabinet Maker
John J. Cavallaro, Maintenance Mechanic
H. Larry Walker, Maintenance Mechanic

Division of Plant Industry

Richie C. Benton, Nursery/Landscape Supervisor
Theodore G. Barrett, Groundskeeper
Nyle D. Bauer, Groundskeeper
Marion C. Johnson, Jr., Custodial Supervisor I
Rosa L. Alexander, Custodial Worker
George A. Brown, Custodial Worker
Mary J. Danzy, Custodial Worker

Sterile Fly Laboratory
Ralph E. Brown, Biological Administrator I
Suzanne Fraser, Biological Scientist II
Mary Jo Hayes, Biological Scientist II
Julie Pocklington, Laboratory Technician IV
Steven C. Gillis, Laboratory Technician II
Bernard Green, Laboratory Technician II
J. Barry Miller, Laboratory Technician II
Karen S. Woodburn, Laboratory Technician II
Keary N. Doke, Agricultural Technician II
Frank S. Green, Agricultural Technician II
Richard E. Harvey, Agricultural Technician II
Steven T. Hatton, Agricultural Technician II
B. Ann Warnick, Secretary Specialist

Bureau of Methods Development
J. C. Everett Nickerson, Chief, Methods Development
Don L. Harris, Biological Scientist III
Ru Nguyen, Biological Scientist III
Arleen B. Kaufmann, Biological Scientist II
Catherine R. Thompson, Biological Scientist II
Kevin A. Heard, Agricultural Technician II
Jeffrey C. Hollingsworth, Agricultural Technician II
Douglas W. Lawrence, Agricultural Technician II
G. Bryan McElroy, Agricultural Technician II
Robert H. Murdock, Agricultural Technician II
Norma A. McGinn, Secretary Specialist

Bureau of Entomology
Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology
G. B. Edwards, Biological Scientist IV
Avas B. Hamon, Biological Scientist IV
John B. Heppner, Biological Scientist IV
Frank W. Mead, Biological Scientist IV
Lionel A. Stange, Biological Scientist IV

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Howard V. Weems, Jr., Biological Scientist IV
Robert W. Woodruff, Biological Scientist IV
Amy I. Baker, Laboratory Technician IV
Brenda M. Beck, Laboratory Technician IV
Ladonia Fields, Laboratory Technician IV
Ernestine Ostanik, Laboratory Technician IV
Robert S. Weston, Laboratory Technician IV
James R. Wiley, Laboratory Technician IV
Brenda S. Crowe, Administrative Secretary
Charlotte J. Burkett, Secretary Specialist
Lynda L. Johns, Secretary Specialist
Pamela M. Meister, Secretary Specialist
Frances L. Williams, Secretary Specialist

Bureau of Nematology
John H. O'Bannon, Chief, Nematology
Robert P. Esser, Biological Scientist IV
Paul S. Lehman, Biological Scientist IV
John B. MacGowan, Biological Scientist IV
Catherine Milatos, Laboratory Technician IV
Zell Smith, III, Laboratory Technician IV
Carol R. Cochran, Laboratory Technician III
Pamela C. Zwerski, Administrative Secretary
Jean H. Wilson, Clerk Typist Specialist

Bureau of Plant Pathology
Timothy S. Schubert, Chief, Plant Pathology
Lawrence G. Brown, Biological Scientist IV
Nabih E. El-Gholl, Biological Scientist IV
John J. McRitchie, Biological Scientist IV
John W. Miller, Biological Scientist IV
Stephanie M. Burgess, Biological Scientist II
Robert M. Leahy, Biological Scientist II
Lisa L. Breman, Laboratory Technician IV
Sarah E. Walker, Laboratory Technician IV
Ora B. Lawson, Laboratory Technician III
Judy M. Mattes, Administrative Secretary
Cynthia A. Edwards, Work Processing Systems Operator

Bureau of Apiary Inspection
Laurence P. Cutts, Chief, Apiary Inspection
Thomas B. Dowda, III, Agricultural Inspector Supervisor
James R. Hall, Agricultural Inspector Supervisor

Division of Plant Industry

John P. Ballard, Agricultural Inspector
John L. Bastianelli, Agricultural Inspector
Stephen H. Beaty, Agricultural Inspector
Richard L. Dunaway, Agricultural Inspector
D. Fred Howard, Agricultural Inspector
Warren R. Johnson, Agricultural Inspector
William I. Langston, Agricultural Inspector
M. Cecil Morgan, Agricultural Inspector
Tomas Mozer, Agricultural Inspector
Cathy A. Watson, Secretary Specialist

Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control
Robert J. Griffith, Chief, Pest Eradication & Control
Leon H. Hebb, Assistant Chief, Pest Eradication & Control
Sam E. Simpson, Biological Scientist III (BN Lab)
Jimmy F. Ward, Biological Scientist II (BN Lab)
A. C. McAulay, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Calie C. Jenkins, Agricultural Products Specialist
Homer A. Mercer, Agricultural Products Specialist
Robert S. Rice, Agricultural Products Specialist
Ralph L. Smith, Agricultural Products Specialist
Randolph E. Thompson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Jack D. Toole, Agricultural Products Specialist
Carl F. Schultz, Automotive Equipment Mechanic II
Jack H. Hammond, Automotive Equipment Mechanic I
Florence L. Roberts, Administrative Secretary
Jessie M. Harris, Agricultural Technician II
George A. Howard, Agricultural Technician II
James G. Jones, Agricultural Technician II
Thomas W. McLeod, Agricultural Technician II
John A. Roser, Agricultural Technician II
Peter B. Wayland, Agricultural Technician II
Donald W. Weiser, Agricultural Technician II
Suzanne C. Nordheim, Clerk Typist Specialist

Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration
Charles O. Youtsey, Chief, Citrus Budwood Registration
Michael C. Kesinger, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Nuoc Van Dang, Agricultural Products Specialist
Fred D. Gebhard, Agricultural Products Specialist
Charles A. Thornhill, Agricultural Products Specialist
Frank J. Rosenthal, Laboratory Technician IV
Travis B. Carter, Laboratory Technician II

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Johnny J. Yates, Nursery/Landscape Supervisor
Julia B. Wiggins, Administrative Secretary
Neal A. Crawford, Agricultural Technician III
Hedgel M. Floyd, Agricultural Technician III
George W. Johnson, Agricultural Technician III
Robert E. Miller, Agricultural Technician II
Donna S. Hutchinson, Word Processing Systems Operator
Marinelle Powers, Clerk Typist Specialist
Donna P. Stewart, Clerk Typist Specialist

Bureau of Plant Inspection
Richard A. Clark, Chief, Plant Inspection
Daniel C. Phelps, Assistant Chief, Plant Inspection
R. Ed Burs, Agricultural Inspections Administrator
Debra S. Chalot, Agricultural Inspections Administrator
William P. Henderson, Agricultural Inspections Administrator
Raymond T. Buchholz, Agricultural Products Supervisor
L. J. Chambliss, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Dennis C. Clinton, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Hugh W. Collins, Jr., Agricultural Products Supervisor
Kenneth L. Hibbard, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Edwin H. Hill, Agricultural Products Supervisor
William M. Keen, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Terry L. Kipp, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Ralph E. Meukeley, Agricultural Products Supervisor
W. Jack Shirley, Agricultural Products Supervisor
G. Terry Smith, Agricultural Products Supervisor
David A. Storch, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Harlo E. von Wald, Agricultural Products Supervisor
Q. Guy Anglin, Agricultural Products Specialist
Arlynn C. Baker, Agricultural Products Specialist
John H. Banta, Agricultural Products Specialist
Joseph S. Beckwith, Agricultural Products Specialist
Stephen P. Beidler, Agricultural Products Specialist
James E. Bennett, Agricultural Products Specialist
Debora A. Bivens, Agricultural Products Specialist
W. S. Brewton, Agricultural Products Specialist
V. G. Brown, Agricultural Products Specialist
Barbara A. Buss, Agricultural Products Specialist
Anthony N. Capitano, Agricultural Products Specialist
Gwen A. Corbitt, Agricultural Products Specialist
Brian N. Daigneau, Agricultural Products Specialist
Lynda F. Davis, Agricultural Products Specialist

Division of Plant Industry

Mark M. Dixon, Agricultural Products Specialist
Robert W. Dudley, Agricultural Products Specialist
Roberto Erb, Agricultural Products Specialist
Paul R. Ericson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Thomas S. Everett, Agricultural Products Specialist
E. Russell Fatic, Agricultural Products Specialist
Jack T. Felty, Agricultural Products Specialist
Peter E. Forkgen, Agricultural Products Specialist
Samuel A. Fuller, Agricultural Products Specialist
Alan J. Gambrill, Agricultural Products Specialist
Paul Gibson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Harmon L. Gillis, Agricultural Products Specialist
John F. Gilmore, Agricultural Products Specialist
Donna M. Gruber, Agricultural Products Specialsit
Alan R. Haynes, Agricultural Products Specialist
Clyde K. Hickman, Agricultural Products Specialist
Danee A. Hoover, Agricultural Products Specialist
Paul L. Hornby, Agricultural Products Specialist
Lynn D. Howerton, Agricultural Products Specialist
John M. Hughes, Agricultural Products Specialist
Karen E. Jenkins, Agricultural Products Specialist
Gregory L. Johnson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Leslie Johnson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Cindy S. Kamelhair, Agricultural Products Specialist
Robert H. Hendrick, Agricultural Products Specialist
Charles E. Kouns, Agricultural Products Specialist
Tommy R. Lampley, Sr., Agricultural Products Specialist
Lisa A. Lanza, Agricultural Products Specialist
R. T. Lawton, Agricultural Products Specialist
Ronald G. Lee, Agricultural Products Specialist
Fernando E. Lenis, Agricultural Products Specialist
Donna M. Leone, Agricultural Products Specialist
James E. Lindsay, Agricultural Products Specialist
Jack C. McCuskie, Agricultural Products Specialist
Floyd J. McHenry, Agricultural Products Specialist
David M. Mooney, Agricultural Products Specialist
Cecil L. Morgan, Agricultural Products Specialist
Harry L. Morrison, Agricultural Products Specialist
Carl E. Nelson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Keith B. Nicholson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Stuart W. Olson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Cynthia A. Phelps, Agricultural Products Specialist
Tom L. Phillips, Agricultural Products Specialist

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Diane S. Powell, Agricultural Products Specialist
Nanciann E. Regalado, Agricultural Products Specialist
Donald R. Robbins, Agricultural Products Specialist
William L. Robinson, Agricultural Products Specialist
William R. Schirmer, Agricultural Products Specialist
Mary L. Schneider, Agricultural Products Specialist
E. Ray Simmons, Agricultural Products Specialist
Frank A. Smith, Agricultural Products Specialist
Helen Smith, Agricultural Products Specialist
Larry W. Smith, Agricultural Products Specialist
W. W. Smith, Agricultural Products Specialist
Travis T. Soroka, Agricultural Products Specialist
John A. Strutz, Agricultural Products Specialist
Ellen J. Tannehill, Agricultural Products Specialist
Grace E. Thompson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Frank D. Urso, Agricultural Products Specialist
Jalil Vadaie, Agricultural Products Specialist
Howard L. Wallace, Agricultural Products Specialist
Alan L. Waters, Agricultural Products Specialist
Karen J. Watson, Agricultural Products Specialist
Anne F. Weathers, Agricultural Products Specialist
Charles H. Webb, Jr., Agricultural Products Specialist
Tracy L. Wright, Agricultural Products Specialist
W. Elmer Wynn, Agricultural Products Specialist
Lynn E. Zellers, Agricultural Products Specialist
Tangela D. DuPree, Word Processing Systems Operator Supervisor
Elizabeth L. Fallon, Administrative Secretary
Veloria A. Kelly, Senior Word Processing Systems Operator
Bonnie F. Ewing, Senior Clerk
Glenda J. Anderson, Word Processing Systems Operator
Barbara G. Bale, Secretary Specialist
Phyllis C. Chang, Secretary Specialist
Terry L. Harris, Secretary Specialist
Jacque L. Slysofski, Secretary Specialist
Tina M. Sain, Clerk Typist Specialist

Division of Plant Industry

Douglas G. Hadlock, Fiscal Officer

Tables I III, respectively, depict the actual budget expenditures for FY
1987/88, estimated budget expenditures for FY 1988/89 and the requested
legislative appropriations for FY 1989/90.

Table 1. Expenditures 1987/88

Bureau Activity Total Expenditures

Administrative Services
Technical Assistance-Training-Sterile Fly Lab $ 2,054,647
Total Administrative Service 2,054,647
Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection
Plant Inspection 3,687,779
Citrus Tree Survey 231,716
Imported Fire Ant Certification 13,689
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections 3,933,184

Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 717,374
Bio-Control Laboratory 36,207
Bureau of Plant Pathology 462,029
Bureau of Nematology 425,332
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 445,052
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 498,794
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 499,642
Spreading Decline 130,694
Fruit Fly Protocol 495,240
Imported Fire Ant 544,500
Bureau of Methods Development 305,566
Citrus Blackfly Vehicle Replacement 57,190
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities 16,655
Citrus Canker Eradication 6,360,539
Black Parlatoria Scale 175,600
Plant Pest & Disease Control Act. 103,511
Boll Weevil Eradication 297,010
Medfly V 30,652
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 11,601,587

Division Total 17,589,418

Division Total by Fund: General Revenue 12,795,717
Imported Fire Ant Trust 544,500
Florida Citrus Canker Trust 1,497,523
Plant Industry Trust 1,014,443
Contracts & Grants Trust 1,737,235

Division Total


Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Table 2. Estimated Expenditures FY 1988/89

Bureau/Activity Total Expenditures

Administrative Services
Technical Assistance-Training-
Sterile Fly Lab $ 2,573,720
Total Administrative Services 2,573,720

Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection
Plant Inspection 3,265,908
Citrus Tree Survey 224,943
Fruit Fly Protocol 724,156
Imported Fire Ant Certification 239,911
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspection 4,454,918

Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 720,229
Bio-Control Laboratory 52,957
Bureau of Plant Pathology 491,420
Bureau of Nematology 410,662
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 379,832
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 478,145
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 732,808
Black Parlatoria Scale 200,000
Imported Fire Ant 978,663
Bureau of Methods Development 288,772
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnities 36,000
Citrus Canker Eradication 5,989,620
Plant Pest & Disease Control Act 150,000
Boll Weevil Eradication 1,050,000
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 11,959,108

Division Total 18,987,746

Division Total by Fund:
General Revenue 13,081,040
Imported Fire Ant Trust 978,663
Florida Citrus Canker Trust 1,589,872
Plant Industry Trust 1,878,260
Contracts & Grants Trust 1,459,911

Division Total $18,987,746

Division of Plant Industry

Table 3. Requested Expenditures FY 1989/90

Bureau/Activity Total Expenditures

Administrative Services
Technical Assistance-Training-Sterile Fly Lab $ 2,895,628
Total Administrative Service 2,895,628

Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections
Bureau of Plant Inspection 3,555,014
Citrus Tree Survey 211,969
Fruit Fly Protocol 1,039,178
Imported Fire Ant Certification 202,000
Total Plant Industry Products & Protection Inspections 5,008,161

Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control
Bureau of Entomology 1,062,570
Bio-Control Laboratory 174,591
Bureau of Plant Pathology 553,548
Bureau of Nematology 601,614
Bureau of Apiary Inspection 674,976
Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration 620,797
Bureau of Pest Eradication & Control 797,783
Black Parlatoria Scale 275,872
Imported Fire Ant 905,010
Bureau of Methods Development 595,140
Special Categories
Apiary Indemnitites 36,000
Citrus Canker Eradication 4,198,833
Citrus Canker Financial Ast. 9,800,000
Plant Pest & Disease Control Act 300,000
Boll Weevil Eradication 1,225,000
Total Plant & Animal Pest & Disease Control 21,821,734

Division Total 29,725,523

Division Total by Fund
General Revenue Fund 25,595,131
Imported Fire Ant Trust Fund 901,822
Florida Citrus Canker Trust Fund 1,399,471
Plant Industry Trust Fund 1,615,599
Contracts & Grants Trust 213,500

Division Total


Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Ernest Collins, Education and Training Specialist

The education and training specialist was on temporary duty in Winter
Haven during much of this biennium due to the detection of the nursery
strain of citrus canker in Central Florida. The discovery of A strain citrus
canker in Manatee County in 1986 continued the need for training assignments
with the Citrus Canker Project until mid-1987.
The training specialist attended the National Safety Council course on
defensive driving and became certified to teach the council's course using
their materials. Defensive driving was taught to all division career service
employees, as well as Other Personnel Service (OPS) employees working
on the Citrus Canker Project, a total of more than 750 employees. A full
training session will be conducted again in 1990.
Chapter 442 of the Florida Statutes requires all employers of more than
six persons to inform employees about chemicals in their workplace; it is
referred to as their "right to know." The division has complied, and will
use the annual renewal of "right to know" as an opportunity to train
employees in chemical safety. Training cells from the Industrial Training
Systems Corporation have been purchased for this instruction. Chemical
safety, toxicology and subjects included on Material Safety Data Sheets
have been and will continue to be presented.
Due to the widespread infestation of varroa mites in Florida apiaries,
the Bureau of Apiary Inspection arranged for the use of the chemical
fluvalinate in a control program. The Training Office, in cooperation with
the IFAS extension apiculturist, held training sessions in the three main
regions of the state; this training was required by the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) as a prerequisite to purchasing the chemical for
hive treatment.
The primary training of new agricultural products specialists was
delayed during the height of the citrus canker eradication program. In this
biennium, a total of 40 agricultural products specialists in training classes
57,58 and 59 completed primary training. It was also necessary during this
time to temporarily reduce the normal six-week sessions to five weeks.

Division of Plant Industry

June B. Jacobson, Librarian

The Division Library provides assistance to the technical bureaus by
keeping more than 12,900 items/books in the specialized areas of entomology,
botany, nematology, plant pathology, apiculture, and insect control.
The library staff comprises a librarian and a library technical assistant.
Cooperation with the University of Florida continued in the computer
production of catalog cards for entomological subjects. Any new serial
title acquired that is not owned by the University is added to the campus's
LUIS database. In return, the division may now access LUIS for our
bibliographic needs.
During this biennium, the library staff produced a new edition of the
serial list that is available to interested researchers.
There were 236 interlibrary loans placed for division personnel, including
research associates of the FSCA. The staff processed 236 requests for other
institutions needing our materials. During this biennium, the National
Library Bindery in Roswell, Georgia, bound 247 serial volumes for the
Five hundred and forty-one books were added to the library during
this biennium. Gifts were received from Dr. G. Bick, Mr. H. Denmark, Dr.
H. Weems, Dr. E. DuCharme, Dr. R. Esser, Dr. D. Pletsch, Dr. J. Davis, Dr.
G. Fairchild, Dr. D. Barnard, Mrs. H. Donohoe, Dr. J. O'Bannon, Dr. L.
Dietz, Dr. W. Dixon, Mr. D. Baggett, Mr. E. Mitchell, Dr. T. Emmel, Mr.
Don Wood, Dr. F. Young, Dr. G. Buckingham, Dr. V. Green, Dr. J. Eger, Dr.
H. Frank, Dr. J. Heppner, Dr. F. Zettler, Dr. J. McRitchie, Dr. G. Wheeler,
Dr. J. Wheeler, the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Texas A&M
University, the International Crops Research Institute, the National
Agricultural Library, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural
Research Service.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Ralph Brown, Biological Administrator

The Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility was occupied by the Division of
Plant Industry in May 1987. This building is approximately 15,000 square
feet and has equipment designed to provide the environmental conditions
necessary for mass rearing Anastrepha suspense.
As a result of equipment malfunction and other difficulties in areas
critical to successful mass production of A. suspense, the development of
the colony and production goals have been delayed. Fungal and bacterial
contamination of the larval diet and infestations of the laboratory with
Drosophila spp. have been major areas of concern. These problems have
been dealt with through sanitation measures and special screen covers to
prohibit the Drosophila spp. access to the diet media for the first six days of
the larval process. By this method, the Drosophila are eliminated through
their disposal with the spent diet before their seven-day life cycle is
In addition to the named contaminants, two gut-infesting organisms,
one a virus and the other an enterobacter sp., have been found to infest the
colony. These organisms are being investigated. Preliminary results of egg
treatments utilizing a chlorox solution indicate these organisms can be
successfully controlled.
The 1987 Legislature authorized 18 positions to staff the Sterile Fly
Mass Rearing Facility. Personnel are being hired and trained to fill these
During the first year of operation, much of the equipment to be used
in the laboratory has been developed, prototypes fabricated and modifications
made. Four thousand fiberglass trays for larvae, 1,000 similar trays for
pupae and rolling carts on which they are stored and transported have
been purchased. In addition, cages for the adult flies have been purchased
and oviposition cabinets for these cages have been designed. Twenty-four
of the cabinets are currently being fabricated.

Division of Plant Industry

K. R. Langdon, Botanist

The Office of Systematic Botany is a service support unit primarily
aiding and assisting the other bureaus of the Division of Plant Industry by
providing plant identifications and related services. Also, to a lesser
extent, services are provided for other local, state and federal governmental
agencies and personnel and to individuals upon request. The Office of
Systematic Botany includes the Division of Plant Industry Herbarium. Dr.
K. R. Langdon serves as head of the office and as curator of the herbarium.
Mr. C. R. Artaud assists him.
The Division of Plant Industry Herbarium now houses more than 6,200
sheets of pressed, dried, mounted, identified plant specimens. The seed
collection contains 1,386 vials of seed specimens. The herbarium also
houses approximately 600 packets of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts).
There were 10,173 plant specimens submitted for identification during the
biennium, up dramatically from 2,636 last biennium.
Other work handled by the Office of Systematic Botany includes many
hours spent reviewing host lists and checking plant names to verify or
correct plant names for spelling, validity, synonomy, describers, etc.;
reviewing manuscripts as Chairman of the Publications Committee; and
reviewing and making recommendations on applications to the Plant
Pathogen Introduction Committee. Translations of scientific literature
from Spanish, Portuguese and Latin to English and from English to
Spanish were provided for various division personnel. Dr. Langdon also
works with the Endangered Plant Council in an advisory capacity.

Botanical Meetings Attended
August 10-15,1986. Joint meeting of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists
and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Amherst, MA.
August 9-14, 1987. Joint meeting of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists
and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Columbus, OH.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Phyllis P. Habeck, Public Information Supervisor

During the biennium, the Technical Assistance Office (TAO) staff
worked together to inform the public about division programs and activities.
Information was disseminated through news releases to and interviews
with newspapers, magazines, radio and television; feature articles in
various agricultural magazines and regional newspapers; a quarterly
news bulletin; leaflets and brochures; exhibits and audio-visual presentations,
including originally scripted videotapes about citrus canker, black parlatoria
scale, the Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility, the quarantine laboratory
facility and the division library. Staff members assisted the technical
bureaus in the preparation and printing of technical and scientific publications.
TAO personnel responded to approximately 4,100 requests from the
public for publications.
Staff information supervisor and specialist were at the scene of several
emergency programs to provide the news media and the public with the
latest information concerning eradication efforts, specifically the Citrus
Canker Eradication Project during the summer of 1986, the Mediterranean
Fruit Fly Eradication Project in Miami in 1987 and the survey following the
introduction of a single Medfly in Miami in 1988. News releases, chronologies,
reports and speeches were written, photographs were taken of major
events, and news conferences were arranged. The artist created posters,
maps and other artwork needed for these programs.
The TAO staff comprised an information supervisor, an information
specialist, a technical illustrator, a technical photographer and a
photographer's assistant (OPS), a secretary specialist, and a clerk typist II.
Public Information Supervisor Phyllis P. Habeck is chief of the TAO.
Illustrator II John Corkery joined the staff in August 1987; Secretary
Specialist Janet Miller in October 1986; and Clerk Typist II Grace Jones in
October 1987.

Publications and Printing
The TAO published three issues of the Plant Industry News with a
controlled circulation of approximately 12,000, six issues of the Reporter
(the division newsletter), and six brochures, including one on citrus
canker. An average of more than 80 news releases yearly were prepared
during this biennium.

Division of Plant Industry

The technical bureaus compiled 24 issues of the TRI-OLOGY Technical
Report, a monthly summary of the most important insects, plant pathogens,
nematodes and plants found in the state, and 72 monthly circulars dealing
with current plant pests. The TAO furnished photographs and illustrations,
did the camera-ready layouts and coordinated the printing of these
publications. Other publications produced by DPI included: Arthropods
of Florida, Vol 12; the 36th Biennial Report, 1984-86; and Florida's Certified
Nursery Directory, 1987,1988. TAO processed numerous contributions to
professional journals by DPI scientists, and the TAO handled 384 requests
to the department print shop and commercial printers for business forms
and other printing needs.

Art and Photography
The photography section completed 671 job requests from DPI personnel.
These included field and studio photographs for all regular DPI publications.
Photographs of laboratory specimens were taken for use in technical and
scientific publications. Slides and photographs were prepared for use in
employee training programs and manuals. Identification photographs
were taken of all new employees. Several slide presentations aboutdivision
programs and activities were put together by the staff to be used at
governmental and scientific meetings and public gatherings. The photography
section was also responsible for maintaining, repairing, operating and
supervising the use of all audio-visual equipment for the DPI.
The staff artist completed approximately 25 job requests per month
from DPI personnel for maps, charts, graphs, signs, cover designs and
other visual aids and graphics. There were numerous requests for detailed,
scientifically accurate illustrations of plants and plant pests. The artist was
responsible for the layout of all regular division publications, brochures,
training manuals, business forms and other printed matter as well as the
design and construction of several exhibits for display at agricultural fairs,
trade shows and professional meetings.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Laurence Cutts, Chief

The Apiary Bureau regulates the honeybee industry and works to
control and eradicate honeybee diseases and pests.
Ranked among the top five states in honey production, Florida's
beekeeping industry produces approximately 27 million pounds of honey
each year at a wholesale value of about $10 million. Honeybee pollination
service to Florida crops is estimated at $30 million annually.
Detection and identification programs as well as programs to deal
with the Africanized bee continued to be developed. The Africanized Bee
Task Force made several recommendations that are being implemented
including placing bait hives at ports, a fact sheet on the Africanized bee and
a program to educate dock workers and ships' crews. Three swarms of
Africanized bees were reported and destroyed on ships in Florida ports
during the biennium. Many other swarms have been reported and destroyed;
upon testing they were found to be European bees.
There were 294,534 colonies inspected for American Foulbrood during
the biennium. Foulbrood and varroa mite inspections were done
simultaneously on 108,313 colonies after varroa was discovered.
There were 2,597 registered beekeepers in Florida with an inventory of
approximately 240,000 colonies of bees, a drastic decline from previous
years which can be attributed to a number of different causes. The freezes
and droughts of the last few years have hurt production. Poor markets
caused by less domestic demand, coupled with less exports and more
imports (associated with the high value of the dollar), have harmed the
industry. Quarantines on the movement of bees because of the tracheal
mite have also affected the industry, especially the queen and package
producers. Numbering more than 40 in the early 80's, there are now less
than 10, who are operating on a vastly reduced scale.
The Asian bee mite, Varroa jacobsoni, was found in late September 1987
in Wisconsin and a few days later in Florida. Immediate emergency action
included a two-week moratorium on movement while a statewide survey
was conducted. During this time, 12 counties were found infested. Infested
apiaries were quarantined until a treatment could be approved by the

Division of Plant Industry 25

Environmental Protection Agency. Florida was the first state to meet the
requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture and the EPA
to treat bees with fluvalinate under the USDA-obtained Section 18 exemption.
By June 30, 1988, 87 beekeepers had treated a total of 364 apiaries under a
unique compliance agreement that has become the role model for many of
the other infested states.
A federal quarantine was placed on all known varroa mite-infested
states on March 6,1988, and rescinded on April 6,1988. It was determined
to be too restrictive, unworkable and unenforceable.
Apiary Bureau Chief Laurence Cutts has attended numerous state,
national and international conventions and seminars at which he spoke on
Florida's programs on tracheal mites, varroa mites, and the Africanized
bee. Florida continues to be a leader in research and program development
for these pests.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Charles O. Youtsey, Chief

The Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration serves the citrus industry
by providing the grower and nurserymen with the best disease-free, true-
to-type citrus varieties and clones that are available. Propagation material
is made available to the citrus industry through a program of selecting,
testing, and subsequently, releasing cultivars that are continually evaluated
for horticultural excellence and freedom from detrimental viruses or
viroids. Nurserymen participate in the Budwood Program on a voluntary
basis and have to adhere to stringent guidelines for producing registered
trees and maintaining their identity. Participating nurserymen budded
more than 11 million registered trees this biennium. By choosing registered
trees, growers are able to plant new acreage and replace frozen and
diseased trees with stock that should give them an advantage in a highly
competitive industry where the key to survival is getting the greatest
production per acre.

Citrus Budwood Foundation Grove
The bureau maintains a citrus budwood foundation grove near Dundee,
Florida, for the collection, preservation, evaluation and distribution of
selected citrus budlines. Varieties have been propagated on a wide range
of rootstocks to evaluate their horticultural performance and disease
tolerance. More than 53 different rootstocks are being used in the foundation
grove plantings. Information obtained from evaluations, such as annual
fruit yields, tree measurements and maturity tests have been useful to
nurserymen and growers in making the selections for their own plantings.
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has continued to be a perplexing problem
to growers using sour orange and other susceptible rootstocks. Because of
the natural infection of foundation trees with CTV, budwood for scion
grove propagation is being distributed from a limited number of trees
grown in a screenhouse where they are protected from CTV spread by
aphid feeding. Testing of foundation grove trees for severe strains of CTV
has proven to be very difficult using present techniques. Additional
research is needed to improve detection techniques for strains of CTV
virus that is causing severe tree losses in nearly every citrus-growing area
in Florida.
A mild strain cross protection block at the foundation grove planted in
1986 is growing and continually being naturally challenged by local CTV
isolates. This is a cooperative planting with the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), and the United States Department of Agriculture
research teams. Several trees have already declined and further testing and
evaluation may provide important answers to the practicality of inoculating

Division of Plant Industry

mild strains for cross protection from strong isolates. The severity of the
tristeza decline problem can be seen by growers switching away from sour
orange rootstock, the preferred rootstock in recent years. Thirty-one
percent of registered propagations were budded on sour orange in 1986-87
compared to 6 percent in 1987-88. This significant decrease represents an
83 percent decline in sour orange rootstock last year.
During this biennium, 859 trees were planted in the foundation grove.
One new nucellar Valencia block was planted in 1988 that will enable the
bureau to evaluate several new rootstock selections. Many of the trees lost
to cold damage and blight in recent years have been replaced on rootstocks
that promise greater tolerance. Table 1 shows trends in rootstocks used in
a given year.

Table 1. Rootstocks used for registered and validated nursery trees 1953-88

Volk/ C. P. Grand
YEAR S/O CarrizoSwingle Cleo R/L Milam Le Mac Trif Misc. Total
% % % % % % % % % %

1960 36.5 0
60-61 52.4 0
61-62 41.1 .7
62-63 28.7 .8
63-64 36.7 .9
64-65 34.6 .4
65-66 49.7 2.3
66-67 44.2 .7
67-68 34.7 6.3
68-69 32.7 13.8
69-70 26.9 23.1
70-71 29.4 23.0
71-72 41.9 16.6
72-73 41.9 29.1
73-74 39.0 34.6
74-75 32.1 46.2
75-76 27.0 38.0
76-77 18.9 51.5
77-78 21.4 40.2
78-79 25.2 40.1
79-80 20.1 41.1
80-81 28.2 45.4
81-82 31.4 40.6
82-83 38.1 33.8
83-84 32.6 38.0
84-85 28.5 28.6
85-86 33.0 25.5
86-87 31.0 35.2
87-88 6.0 34.4

0 7.8 44.9
0 8.2 29.4
0 7.6 42.8
0 8.7 50.8
0 13.6 40.3
0 14.3 45.9
0 14.3 29.8
0 11.8 32.6
0 4.1 49.2
0 8.3 39.4
0 8.3 38.7
0 7.1 35.9
0 19.4 12.9
0 11.9 1.5
0 11.8 .4
1.6 9.5 .6
6.9 7.9 2.1
3.5 8.0 1.9
6.9 13.1 1.0
5.8 10.0 1.7
12.4 13.1 .002
11.4 6.2 .3
10.2 6.9 .004
11.8 10.0 .002
15.2 8.3 0
30.1 8.3 0
18.6 18.2 0
6.7 19.9 0
31.0 22.9 .01

Total 31.1 26.1 9.3 12.4 12.6 3.2 1.1 .3 1.6 2.2 70,514.0


Total 31.1 26.1

9.3 12.4 12.6 3.2 1.1

.3 1.6 2.2 70,514.0

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Program Activity
Foundation grove selections that are top performers have been widely
distributed to the nursery industry for further multiplication through the
establishment of grower registered scion blocks. Scion groves are planted
under the direct supervision of the division's agricultural product specialists.
To lessen the risks of contracting citrus canker, many nurserymen established
their own scion groves to eliminate propagative material entering their
nurseries from outside sources. More than 50 percent of active participants
have their own registered scion groves. Table 2 summarizes participant
activity in the Citrus Budwood Registration Program for the biennium.

Table 2. Summary of Budwood Activity 1986-88
Number of New Participants 51
Number of Active Participants 207
Number of New Scion Groves 70
Number of New Scion Trees Planted 18,119
Number of New Scion Trees Registered 8,230
Total Buds Witnessed 15,465,978
Number of Registered Citrus Nursery Trees 11,303,632

Citrus Seed Treatment
More than 10,500 quarts of seed were treated during the biennium.
Forty-two percent of this total was Carrizo citrange, 34 percent sour
orange, 12 percent Cleopatra mandarin and 10 percent Swingle citrumelo.

New Varieties
A red-fleshed navel orange variety was released in 1987 for commercial
propagation. This variety, called "Cara Cara," was introduced from Venezuela
through the Division of Plant Industry's plant quarantine facility in Gainesville.
The Cara Cara has received considerable attention from fresh fruit growers
attracted by its red internal color. There have been approximately 33,550
buds distributed since its June 1987 release.
The popularity of red-fleshed varieties continues in Florida grapefruit
with two new red-fleshed selections released in June 1986. The Ray Ruby
grapefruit introduced from Texas in 1977 and released June 30,1986, has
a darker red flesh than the Ruby Red that has been the standard red
grapefruit selection in Florida. More than 177,450 Ray Ruby budeyes have
been distributed during this biennium.
A nucellar selection was made from a young Henderson grapefruit
seedling by USDA and given the varietal name "Flame." The Flame
grapefruit has an excellent red blush and deeper red flesh than the Ray

Division of Plant Industry

Ruby. Since the release of Flame budwood June 20,1986, more than 144,000
budeyes have been distributed to the industry. These two red-fleshed
grapefruit give the Florida grower two more excellent choices in grapefruit
cultivars. Virus indexing of another dark red-fleshed variety, Rio Red,
introduced from Texas, was completed this biennium by the Bureau of
Plant Pathology. Recent usage has made Rio Red Texas's number one
variety. Budwood is being multiplied for release to Florida growers during
the next biennium.
An early maturing Citrus reticulata hybrid, Fallglo, developed by the
USDA/ARS in Orlando was released July 27, 1987, with 34,855 budeyes
distributed to date. Three midseason oranges, Gardner, Midsweet and
Sunstar were also selected by the USDA/ARS and released through the
Citrus Budwood Registration Program May 9,1988. These three selections
produce better juice color than Hamlin and offer growers alternatives for
midseason varieties.

Virus Indexing
Virus testing continues to be a major emphasis of the bureau. Psorosis,
xyloporosis, exocortis and tristeza are all indexed in field plots, greenhouse
or the laboratory. The frequency of retesting foundation grove and scion
grove trees depends on the causal agent and the ease at which recontamination
can occur.

Table 3. Summary of Virus Testing 1986-88
Psorosis Virus:
Tests in Progress 207
Tests Completed 157
Xyloporosis Viroid:
Tests in Progress 307
Tests Completed 100
Citrus Exocortis Viroid:
Tests in Progress 4,421
Tests Completed 2,915
Citrus Tristeza Virus:
Tests by ELISA 3,676

Florida Citrus Arboretum
The Florida citrus arboretum is a collection of citrus varieties and
relatives located on Division of Plant Industry property in Winter Haven.
The arboretum provides budwood and seeds and acts as a citrus germplasm
bank for research and educational purposes. Seventy-four trees were
planted in the Florida citrus arboretum during this biennium.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Students from the University of Florida, Florida Southern College and
high schools toured the arboretum and received specialized training in
citrus culture and varieties. During this biennium, 68 foreign guests,
representing 22 different countries, visited the arboretum.
Seeds and budwood collected from various arboretum trees were sent
to five countries this biennium.

Alex G. Shaw Building
Construction of the Alex G. Shaw Building was completed in January
1987 on Division of Plant Industry property in Winter Haven. Alex G.
Shaw was a past director of the Division of Dairy Industry. The building is
jointly occupied by the Central Dairy Laboratory of the Division of Dairy
and the Citrus Budwood Registration Bureau. The Budwood Bureau
moved from the Cowperthwaite Building into the new offices March 24,

Immokalee Foundation Planting
The developing trend in the Florida citrus industry is a southern
movement of plantings due to recent freezes and land availability. To meet
current and future needs of growers, a new citrus budwood foundation
planting is being developed at the Southwest Research and Education
Center in Immokalee. This is a cooperative planting with South Florida
Growers, IFAS, and the Division of Plant Industry. Twenty-seven selections
on replications of 22 rootstocks were propagated early in 1988 for planting
in the spring of 1989.

Conferences, Meetings and Trips
August 3-9,1986. The International Society of Citrus Nurserymen Second
World Congress, Riverside, California. (C. O. Youtsey)
October 26-28, 1986. Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, Miami
Beach. (C. O. Youtsey)
November 12, 1986. Florida Citrus Nurserymen's field trip, St. Cloud (C.
O. Youtsey)
May 21-23,1987. USDA Citrus Tristeza Virus Workshop, Beltsville, Maryland.
(C. O. Youtsey)
November 3-6,1987. Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting, Orlando.
(C. O. Youtsey and M. C. Kesinger)
November 6,1987. Crop Advisory Committee Meeting, USDA, Orlando.
(C. O. Youtsey)
January 6, 1988. Toured an experimental tree spacing and rootstock
planting in Frostproof. (C. O. Youtsey and M. C. Kesinger)

Division of Plant Industry

Talks and Presentations
C. O. Youtsey, Chief
September 30, 1986. Florida Growers Citrus Institute, Lakeland. Talk on
scion budwood and rootstock selections.
November 25,1986. A talk was given to a group of production managers
from the Ridge area on blight, tristeza, rootstocks and yields.
March 18,1987. A presentation was given to the Florida Citrus Commission's
Scientific Research Committee in Lakeland regarding the types of trees
and rootstocks available in nurseries.
March 30, 1987. Reported on incidence of citrus blight in Florida's citrus
budwood foundation grove at the Citrus Blight Seminar, CREC, Lake
April 1,1987. A talk to the Florida Citrus Production Manager's Association
on the status of new selections and budwood availability, CREC, Lake
April 15, 1987. Report on DPI fees, scion/rootstock incompatibility and
budwood activity with slide presentation on fruit comparison was
given to the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association, CREC, Lake
May 26, 1987. A presentation was made on citrus tristeza virus-blight
problems relative to rootstocks to citrus growers in Tavares.
June 19, 1987. A talk was given to the Board of Directors of Cooperative
Producers, Inc., meeting atCitrus World, Lake Wales, on citrus tristeza
virus problems.
November 17, 1987. Reported on new grapefruit varieties to Marion
County citrus growers in Weirsdale.
February 11,1988. A presentation was given on citrus nursery movement,
rootstocks used, and clonal choices at the Citrus Agents Training
Meeting, CREC, Lake Alfred.
April 6, 1988. An update on new citrus variety releases was given to the
Production Managers Meeting, CREC, Lake Alfred.
May 10, 1988. A slide presentation of variety and rootstock inventories,
differences in rootstocks, and CTV problems on sour orange rootstock
was given at the OJ Meeting, Lake County Agricultural Center, Tavares.

Brlansky, R.H., R. R. Pelosi, S. M. Garnsey, C. O. Youtsey, R.F. Lee, R. K.
Yokomi and R. M. Sonoda. 1986. Tristeza quick decline epidemic in
South Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 99:66-69.
Youtsey, C. 0., and F.J. Rosenthal. 1986. Incidence of citrus blight in
Florida's citrus budwood foundation grove. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.

32 Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Castle, W. S., C. O. Youtsey, and D. J. Hutchison. 1987. Rangpur x Troyer
citrange, a hybrid citrus rootstock for closely spaced trees. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 99:33-35.
Rouseff, R. L., S. F. Martin, and C. O. Youtsey. 1987. A quantitative survey
of narirutin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin in citrus. J. Agric.
and Foods Chem. 35:1027-1030.
Shoulties, C. L., L. G. Brown, C. O. Youtsey, and H. A. Denmark. 1987.
Citrus tristeza virus and vectors: Regulatory concerns. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 100:74-76.
Youtsey, C. 0. 1987. Current and future trends in budwood dissemination
and rootstock planting. Proc. Fla. State Hort.Soc. 100:78-82.

Division of Plant Industry

H. A. Denmark, Chief

The Bureau of Entomology provides arthropod identification services,
conducts limited investigations of certain economic problems, assists in
instructing agricultural products specialists, continues to build a general
arthropod reference and research collection, conducts taxonomic investiga-
tions, supervises the security of the Florida Biological Control Laboratory
and collects the taxonomic and biological control literature to support
these areas of responsibility.
During thebiennium there were 631,986 specimens (individual insects)
received from the agricultural products specialists. From these there were
316,071 specimens identified, 270,227 specimens discarded, 23,071 specimens
pinned, 10,516 slide mounts prepared, and 12,101 specimens in vials of
alcohol added to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA). There
were 1,532 specimens identified by collaborating specialists outside of the
Entomology Bureau.
There were 322 new county records, 11 new state records, and six new
Continental U. S. records established during the biennium.
Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (a cosmopolitan pest), became a
problem to foliage and vegetable growers in 1986 and 1987. Entomologists
of the bureau are participating on an IFAS task force to identify research
and educational needs to combat this economic plant pest. Research is now
underway to develop effective and acceptable methods of control.
The varroa mite, Varroa jacobsoni, was discovered on Florida honey
bees in late September 1987. Since then, the Entomology Bureau cooperated
in processing and identifying varroa mites from 11,745 colonies. The
bureau acarologist also served on the Varroa Mite Task Force.
Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, was again discovered in
Miami. Five adults and one larva were identified by bureau entomologists
in fiscal year 1986-87. One adult male was identified by bureau entomologists
in fiscal year 1987-88. During the trapping and eradication project, bureau
personnel provided technical and identification services.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

The black parlatoria scale, Parlatoria ziziphi, eradication program was
visited several times for training of new survey and identification special-
ists. A special study was carried out to determine how rapidly clean trees,
introduced into the known infested area, became infested. After six
months of study, none of the study trees were infested with black parlatoria
scale, but some were infested with other species of scale insects.
The bureau conducted several surveys for citrus blackfly and its para-
sites in the Bradenton area, and also in the Keys. Infestations in the Bra-
denton area are now largely under biological control. The biological
control agents (parasites) have virtually eliminated the citrus blackfly from
at least two previously heavily infested sites on Key Largo. Other citrus
blackfly infestations in the Keys have high levels of parasitism by the
parasites Encarsia opulenta and Amitus hesperidum.

Identifications of the various arthropod groups are made by eight staff
entomologists. The entomologists and the groups for which they are
responsible are as follows:

H. A. Denmark: Aphids, mites, thrips and ticks.
G. B. Edwards: All terrestrial non-insect arthropods except Acarina.
A. B. Hamon: Homoptera: Coccoidea; scale insects; and Aleyrodidae;
J. B. Heppner: Immature insects; Adult Lepidoptera.
F. W. Mead: Diptera: suborder Nematocera; Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha;
plus Psyllidae; Hemiptera (Heteroptera)
L. A. Stange: Hymenoptera (except Formicidae); gall-forming insects,
Neuroptera and snails and slugs.
H. W. Weems, Jr.: Diptera: suborder Brachycera and miscellaneous smaller
arthropod groups.
R. E. Woodruff: Coleoptera and Orthoptera.

Biological Control Laboratory
The Florida Biological Control Laboratory (FBCL) is a cooperative
facility of the Division of Plant Industry, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA-ARS) and the University of Florida (IFAS). During the biennium,
the cooperating agencies exported 45 shipments (20 species) and imported
91 shipments (33 species) into quarantine (See Tables 1 and 2).
Research projects being conducted in the Laboratory were principally
those which deal with insect biological control of aquatic weeds,mosquito-
rearing techniques and parasites of mole crickets, black parlatoria scale,
cloudy-winged whitefly and fall armyworm. The USDA-ARS personnel
provided two insect herbivores from India-Bagous affinis (weevil) and

Division of Plant Industry

Hydrellia pakistanae (fly) to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for release in
Florida against the major aquatic weed, hydrilla. This was the world's first
release of insects for control of an underwater plant. Experiments were
also begun on two other hydrilla-eating species, a weevil and fly from
Australia, Bagous n. sp. and Hydrellia n. sp. IFAS personnel also were
involved with insect biological control of aquatic weeds testing the weevil
Neohydronomus pulchellus, imported from Brazil via Australia, and the
moth Episammia pectinicornis, imported from Thailand, for control of water
lettuce. The weevil was released in Florida by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers. The major IFAS project during the biennium was biological
control of mole crickets. The wasp Larra bicolor from Bolivia, the wasp
Euphasiopteryx depleta from Brazil, and the nematode Neoaplectina from
Uruguay were released in Florida against mole crickets. Studies were
begun on the bombardier beetle, Pheropsophus aequinoctialis, from Brazil
and Bolivia.

Table 1. Insects Exported From Quarantine Laboratory

Insects Shipped Target Organism Destination No. of Agency
Project, Samoa Shipments

Agasicles hygrophila*
Anopheles freeborni
Aphelinus sp.
Aphelinus sp.
Aphytis n. sp.
Aspidiotiphagus n. sp.
Bagous affinis
Bagous affinis
Bagous affinis
Bagous affinis
Copidosoma truncatellum
Euphasiopteryx depleta
Hydrellis pakistanae
Hydrellia pakistanae
Muscidifurax raptor
Muscidifurax raptor
Nasonia vitripennis
Neohydronomus pulchellus
Pheropsophus aequinoctialis
Spalangia cameroni
Spalangia camerone
Spalangia endius*
Stenaptinus jessoensis
Telenomus remus Nixon
Trichopoda pennipes*
Trissolcus basalis'
Unidentified Lampydridae

*Non-quarantine shipment

Alternanthera philoxerides P.R. China
Anopheles freeborni Aitken Washington
Aphids Monticello
Scapteriscus spp. Monticello
Parlatoria ziziphi Homestead
Parlatoria ziziphi Homestead
Hydrilla verticillata Gainesville
Hydrilla verticillata Kissimmee
Hydrilla verticillata Gainesville
Hydrilla verticillata Ft. Lauder.
Plusine pests Trinidad
Scapteriscus sp. Gainesville
Hydrilla verticillata Frostproof
Hydrilla verticillata Gainesville
Filth flies Gainesville
Filth flies Brazil
Filth flies Gainesville
Pistia stratiotes Gainesville
Scapteriscus spp. Philadelphia
Filth flies Gainesville
Filth flies Gainesville
Filth flies Brazil
Scapteriscus spp. Brazil
Spodoptera frugiperda Gainesville
Nexara viridula R.S. Africa
Nexara viridula R.S. Africa
Millipedes Brazil

Phil. Zoo

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Table 2. Insects Imported Into Quarantine Facility

Parasite or Predator Host Origin Agency

Aquatic Weeds
Bagous n. sp. Hydrilla vertidllata
Episammia pectinicornis Pistia stratiotes
Hydrellia sp. Hydrilla verticillata
Neohydronomus pulchellus Pistia stratiotes

Mole Crickets
Euphasiopteryx depleta Scapteriscus sp.
Euphasiopteryx depleta Scapteriscus spp.
Larra spp. Scapteriscus spp.
Larra bicolor Scapteriscus spp.
Larra spp. Neocurtilla
Pherophophus sp. Scapteriscus sp.
Pheropsophus sp. Scapteriscus sp.
Pheropsophus aequinoctialis Scapteriscus sp.
Pheropsophus aequinoctialis Scapteriscus spp.
Parasitized Scapteriscus abbreviatus
Scarites sp. General predator

Scales and Whiteflies
Aphytis sp. Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli
Aphytis n. sp. (Japan) Parlatoria ziziphi
Aphytis sp. Parlatoria ziziphi
Parlatoria ziziphi
Aspidiotiphagus sp. Parlatoria ziziphi
Aspidiotiphagus sp. Parlatoria ziziphi
Aspidiotiphagus n. sp. Parlatoria ziziphi
Encarsia sp. Dialeurodes citri
Encarsia sp. Dialeurodes citrifolii
Encarsia sp. Dialeurodes sp.
Encarsia sp. Dialeurodes citrifolii
Encarsia n. sp. Dialeurodes citrifolii
Encarsia sp. Parlatoria ziziphi
Encarsia sp. Parlatoria ziziphi
Scale parasites Parlatoria ziziphi
Scale parasites Pseudaulacaspis

Domestic Flies
Coptera merceti Musca domestic
Muscidifurax raptor Musca domestic
Natural enemies of filth flies Musca domestic
Natural enemies of filth flies Unknown flies
Spalangia endius Musca domestic
Spalangia sp. Musca domestic
Spalangia cameroni Musca domestic
Spalangia endius Musca domestic
Spalangia nigra Musca domestic
Spalangia cameroni Musca domestic
Trichopria sp. Syrphidae pupae







P.R. China
Hong Kong
P.R. China
P.R. China
Hong Kong
Puerto Rico
P.R. China
P.R. China
Hong Kong
British W.I.
Puerto Rico
Hong Kong
P.R. China
P.R. China
Hong Kong



Division of Plant Industry

Table 2. Continued...

Parasite or Predator Host Origin Agency

Fire Ants
Fustiger elegans Solenopsis spp. Argentina USDA-ARS
Solenopsis (Labauchena) daguerrei Solenopsis spp. Argentina USDA-ARS
Solenopsis (Labauchena) sp. Solenopsis invicta Brazil USDA-ARS

Army Worms
Telenomus remus Spodoptera frugiperda Cayman Isl. IFAS
Telenomus remus Spodoptera frugiperda Puerto Rico IFAS

Fruit Files
Doryctobracon trinidadensis Anastrepha, Ceratisis Argentina IFAS
Parasites of Tephritidae Anastrepha, Ceratitis Argentina IFAS
Aphelinus sp. Toxoptera sp. Hong Kong IFAS
Aphelinus sp. Aphis sp. Hong Kong IFAS

Anopheles freeborni Mammals Washington USDA-ARS
Anopheles freeborni Mammals California USDA-ARS
Anopheles freeborni Mammals Utah USDA-ARS
Blattella lituricollis Scavenger (Omnivorous) USDA-ARS
Eufriesea sp. Nectar feeder (orchids) Costa Rica FSM
Unidentified Lampyridae Possibly millipedes Guatemala USDA-ARS

Other Duties and Responsibilities

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology:
(1) Chairman, Arthropod Introduction Committee.
(2) Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
IFAS, University of Florida.
(3) Associate Professor, Area of Entomology and Structural Pest Control,
Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(4) Chairman, Plant Pest Introduction and Evaluation Committee in
(5) Member, Supervisory Committee to review fruit fly trappings.
(6) Member, Advisory Council, Department of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(7) Member of a committee to discuss quarantine facilities and what is
needed in the Gainesville area.
(8) Member of a pesticide recommendation committee for the Division of
Plant Industry.
(9) Rotating chairman for Center for Arthropod Systematics representing
the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
(10) Serving on a technical council for honey bee tracheal mite.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

(11) Scientific Advisory Board of Butterfly World located at Tradewinds
Park, Fort Lauderdale.
(12) Committee to secure additional land for construction of second
addition to the Entomology Bureau.
(13) Served on Board of Directors for newly organized Center for Systematic
Entomology, Inc. 1987 1988.

G. B. Edwards, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Chief editor of Peckhamia and membership secretary of Peckham/
(2) Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals

Avas B. Hamon, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Florida Biological Control Laboratory, Equipment Coordinator.
(2) Assistant Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida.
(3) Associate Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(4) Assistant Bureau Chief.
(5) Vegetable Task Force (IFAS) on sweetpotato whitefly research.

J. B. Heppner, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Assistant Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida.
(2) Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
(3) Editor, Lepidopterorum Catalogus.
(4) Associate Editor (Taxonomy), Florida Entomologist.
(5) Associate Editor, Insecta Mundi.
(6) Board member and Secretary/Treasurer, Center for Systematic
Entomology, Inc.

F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Associate Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
(2) Associate Professor, Courtesy, Department of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.

L. A. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Associate Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, and member of the
Graduate Research Faculty.

Division of Plant Industry

(2) Associate Professor, Courtesy, Department of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(3) Research Associate, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History.
(4) Field Associate, Division of Malacology, Florida State Museum,

H. V. Weems, Jr., Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Editor, Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas and Occasional
Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
(2) Associate Editor, the Florida Entomologist.
(3) Professor, Adjunct, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS,
University of Florida.
(4) Associate Professor, Courtesy, Area of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee.
(5) Member, Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and
Animals (FCREPA).
(6) Florida Entomological Society: member of the Publications Committee,
1986-88; member of Past Presidents Committee, 1986-87; member of
Job Title Evaluation Committee, 1986-87.
(7) Served on Board of Directors of the Center for Systematic Entomology,
Inc., 1986-88; Chairman of Finance Committee 1986-87, Vice President

R. E. Woodruff, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Professor, Adjunct, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida.
(2) Curator, Adjunct, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Museum
of Natural History.
(3) Professor, Adjunct, Department of Latin American Studies, University
of Florida.
(4) Associate Professor, Courtesy, Department of Entomology and Structural
Pest Control, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, Florida.
(5) Research Associate, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo
Domingo, Dominican Republic.
(6) Committee on Common Names of Insects, Entomological Society of
(7) President, Center for Systematic Entomology (1986-1987), a non-profit
corporation to support systematic entomology.
(8) Editorial Board, Insecta Mundi, taxonomic journal of entomology.
(9) Editorial Board, Colemania, Indian taxonomic journal of entomology.
(10) Board of Directors, Caribbean Center for Scientific Research; non-
profit research organization.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Special Surveys

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology:
Western Flower thrips on peanuts and tomatoes as a joint project with
William B. Tappan, North Florida Research & Education Center, Quincy,
during the spring and summer of 1987 and 1988.
Cooperated with Glades Crop Care, Inc., in January 1987 in a survey
for a thrips, Thrips palmi Karny. This is an oriental species that was found
in Hawaii in 1982. This is the first report of this thrips in this part of the
world. It attacks eggplant, pepper, tobacco, most Cucurbitaceae and a
number of Leguminosae. If this thrips should become established in North
America, it could cause severe damage to melon and vegetable crops in the
warmer areas of the U.S.A., specifically the Gulf Coast states and parts of
the southwest.
Cooperating with entomologists in Georgia in aphid-host relationship
in pecan orchards. Weed hosts of aphids provide for parasite buildup in
order to have parasites available for pecan aphids as they develop later in
the season.
Revision of the genus Amblyseius will be printed by Rose Printing.

Avas B. Hamon, Taxonomic Entomologist:
Seven scale insect/whitefly surveys were made during this biennium.
Five black parlatoria scale surveys were made during this biennium.

J. B. Heppner, Taxonomic Entomologist:
Conducted six Lepidoptera surveys and three Medfly surveys.

F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist:
June, 1987: Medfly survey.

L. A. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist:
Conducted one Medfly survey, two Africanized bee surveys and one
Eobania snail survey.

R.E. Woodruff, Taxonomic Entomologist:
Conducted eight surveys for beetles, mole crickets, egg parasites of
citrus weevil, mango seed weevil, Fuller's rose beetle, and an orchid pest,

Division of Plant Industry

Special Projects

H.A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology:
(1) Revision of the genus Paraamblyseius (Completed).
(2) Catalog of Acari in the Hawaiian Islands by Jo Ann M. Tenario, H. A.
Denmark, and S. F. Swift (Completed).
(3) Catalog of the Phytoseiidae of the World by G. J. de Moraes, J. A.
McMurtry, and H. A. Denmark (Completed).
(4) Committee member for the construction of the fruit fly laboratory.
(5) Committee member for an addition to the Biological Control Laboratory.
(6) Formosan Termite Coordinating Council was formed by instructions
from the legislature, through Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. Commissioner Conner appointed Mr. Chuck
Aller, Dr. John Mulrennan, Jr., Dr. Dwynal Petterngill, Mr. Norman
Goldenberg, Dr. D. L. Shankland, and H. D. Denmark, Chairman. The
purpose of the committee was to determine the impact this pest
would have on Florida residences; consider research needed to develop
a survey method to detect the termite's presence; develop a control;
recommend disposition of infested lumber; and recommend the
agencies for the development of this information. The Department of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, was recommended
for the research and the Department of Health and Rehabilitative
Services was recommended to regulate infested lumber.

G. B. Edwards, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Renovation was completed of the FSCA Diplopoda collection, which
includes the Nell Causey collection and part of the Harold Loomis
(2) Five displays and talks were presented for educational purposes to
schools and other groups.
(3) May 9,1988 identified spiders from the stomachs of crocodiles for Sr.
Andres Seijas.

A. B. Hamon, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Taxonomy and morphology of Rhizoecus males (Pseudococcidae).
(Partially completed).
(2) Whiteflies on citrus in Florida This is a joint effort with Drs. Nguyen
and Sailer (Partially completed).
(3) Black Parlatoria Scale Technical Committee.
(4) Black parlatoria distribution studies with Dr. Ru Nguyen in eradication

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

J. B. Heppner, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Lepidoptera of Florida: a revised Florida checklist, with data on
Florida range and dates information for each species, plus host plant
data (partial revision of a checklist by Kimball, 1965). Additional
future parts will describe each species in detail.
(2) Lepidoptera pests of Florida: a continuing project listing all known
Florida pest species, for development into an illustrated manual.
(3) Lepidoptera pests of the world: cataloging of all known world
Lepidoptera pests, particularly for pantropical species that could
become established in Florida.
(4) Florida surveys for immature insects and Lepidoptera: continued
periodic surveys of the Florida fauna (including nearby areas bordering
Florida), to develop data on occurrences and distributions; curation of
survey collections.
(5) Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera: a long-term project on the Lepidoptera
of the Neotropics, with 40 authors in publication series; serve as editor
and director. Part 1 of checklist published in 1984; other parts in
(6) Lepidoptera of Taiwan: a long-term project (NSF grant INT-8119539)
to survey and record the Lepidoptera fauna of Taiwan; 30 authors
involved. Most field work is already completed; currently the species
checklist is in preparation, to be followed by detailed species accounts;
serve as editor and project director, Taiwan Museum, Taipei.
(7) Lepidopterorum Catalogus: a long-term cataloging project for world
lepidoptera species, with a multitude of contributing authors; serve as
editor and project director. Introduction and Fasc. 118, Noctuidae, in
preparation, along with some smaller families.
(8) Revision of the genus Episimus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). (In
(9) New species of Florida Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). (In press).
(10) Description of the larvae of Taiwan moths. (Currently continuing with
(11) Revisions of various genera in Lepidoptera families Choreutidae,
Glyphpterigidae, Brachodidae, and Immidae. (In preparation).
(12) Revision of North American Choreutidae (Lepidoptera). (In preparation).
(13) Checklist of Puerto Rico Lepidoptera. (In preparation).
(14) Lepidoptera Taxonomic File: continued building of FSCA holdings of
color photographs of Lepidoptera species (currently at ca. 4,400
species); further additions to be made from holotypes and identified
species at the Smithsonian Institution (Washington) and the British
Museum (London), plus other institutions.
(15) Immature Insect Taxonomic File: continued work on a comprehensive
system of notebooks on holometabulous insect families and their

Division of Plant Industry

immatures, including larval descriptions and identification keys,
particularly for pest species.
(16) Collection exchanges with other institutions to enhance the FSCA
Lepidoptera collection and the immatures collection, particularly for
genera and higher categories lacking in the FSCA. (Current programs:
exchanges with the Antipa Museum of Natural History, Bucharest,
(17) Lepidoptera of Sulawesi (Natl. Geographic Soc. grant, 1985): Survey of
northern Salawesi (Dumoga-Bone Natl. Park) for Lepidoptera (Oct.
1985); curation of survey collections, particularly for pantropical pest
species of importance to Florida agriculture.
(18) Lepidoptera of Tambopata Nature Reserve, Peru (Natl. Geographic
Soc. grant, 1979): continued curation and documentation of the faunal
survey of 1979 for this nature reserve, plus subsequent surveys (1986);
for publication of a guide to the fauna.

F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Year-round daily operation of blacklight trap as a survey-detection
tool in an agricultural area of southwest Gainesville.
(2) Taxonomic studies on Oliarus spp. (Homoptera: Cixiidae).
(3) Preparation of maps to show county distribution in Florida of numerous
species of Auchenorrhynchous Homoptera and Heteroptera.
(4) Rotating editor of Tri-ology Technical Report.

L. A. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist:
(1) Fig Insects of Florida. A joint project with Dr. Robert Knight, USDA-
(2) Africanized honey bee identifications. Morphometric identification of
honey bees in Florida, especially from bait traps at ports.
(3) Studies of Florida snails and slugs. A survey was made in Panama City
where a localized find of the imported snail Eobania vermiculata was
discovered in June 1988.
(4) Economic snails and slugs of the world. Gatheringa synoptic collection
of mostly terrestrial snails of economic importance to Florida. Several
hundred specimens were added to the Collection, mainly from South
Africa and Venezuela.
(5) Neuroptera of Florida. Collection and identifying all families on this
(6) Antlion Taxonomy and Biology. Rearing of larvae from Mexico,
Venezuela and South Africa. Working on a world catalog and
bibliography of the Myrmeleonidae. Revised the genus Dimarella.
(7) Continued studies and surveys of the Hymenoptera of the Florida

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

(8) Continued studies and surveys of the Hymenoptera, Neuroptera and
(9) Mole cricket parasite investigation. Collecting possible parasites
(Larra) and mole crickets in Venezuela.
(10) Studies of gall-forming insects of Florida.
(11) Identified specimens (parasitic Hymenoptera) received in the Quarantine
facility for various state and federal research projects.
(12) Leaf Cutter Bee Studies. Continued research on the taxonomy of
various genera of the Megachilidae.

H. V. Weems, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) Worked toward a comprehensive report on private collections of
arthropods which have been submitted for ultimate deposition in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods by Research Associates and
Student Associates and those already donated but which are currently
in the possession of the donors for curating and continuing development
and study.
(2) Worked on a continuing inventory of the primary and secondary type
specimens in the FSCA and in private collections of arthropods which
are committed for ultimate deposition in the FSCA.
(3) Coordinated the development of the arthropod collections of the
FSCA located at the University of Florida and the Division of Plant
Industry, FDACS, in Gainesville, and at Florida A & M University in
(4) Reviewed and updated the biographical information records for
research associates and student associates of the FSCA.
(5) Experimented with designs for more effective insect flight traps, field
tested these traps and coordinated operation of insect flight traps by
collaborators in several locations.
(6) Conducted exchanges of reference material to make the Florida
collection more complete. A special continuing effort is being made to
obtain representatives of the principal arthropod pests occurring in
other parts of the world, notably Tephritidae (fruit flies), which
constitute a potential threat to Florida agriculture.
(7) Continued a special effort to develop complete sets of the entomological
publications of some of the most important and most prolific dipterists
as well as to cover other arthropod groups.
(8) Continued studies of the Diptera family Syrphidae, including preparation
of a bulletin on the Syrphidae of the southeastern United States.

R. E. Woodruff, Taxonomic Entomologist
(1) The Scarab Beetles of Florida, Part II, The May Beetles (Phyllophaga
spp.). Complete data from more than 80,000 specimens have been

Division of Plant Industry

entered into the computer. Two one-month trips were sponsored by
the National Science Foundation, through the Illinois Natural History
Survey, to study this genus in their collections (the largest in the
world). The bibliography has been completed and species treatments
begun. The illustrations, using over 450 scanning electron microscope
photographs, are completed, and the retouching should be completed
by December 1,1988. The text is expected to be entered in the computer
and camera-ready copy produced. Publication is anticipated in early
1989. This volume will be co-authored with Laboratory Technician
Brenda Beck.
(2) Citrus Weevils of the West Indies and their parasites. Several trips
were taken to the Dominican Republic, in cooperation with Agro
Delta (a major citrus producer there). Several species of parasites have
been found, but mass rearing in Gainesville facilities has not been
successful. Many other citrus insects were collected in conjunction
with these studies and enhance the DPI reference collection.
(3) Mango Seed Weevil in the Caribbean. This mango pest was introduced
into the Caribbean about 1984, possibly from Africa. In May and June
1987, FAO sponsored a survey of nine islands in the Lesser Antilles,
with St. Lucia being the host. During this time, division responsibilities
were assumed by the following visiting scientists: Dr. Walter Suter,
Dr. F. N. Young, Dr. R. L. Wenzel, Dr. M. C. Thomas and Eric Smith.
(4) Curating. Special effort has been made to incorporate a huge backlog
of specimens that accumulated before drawer space and unit trays
were available, as well as the continued donations of major holdings
of Coleoptera from Research Associates. This has been accomplished
with much assistance from: Laboratory Technician Brenda M. Beck;
graduate student Paul E. Skelley; volunteer May Buckingham; Research
Associate Charles W. Mills (Cerambycidae); Research Associate Robert
Turnbow (Cerambycidae); and Research Associate Robert Waites. In
addition, the following curators were dedicated to both identifying
and curating their specialties: W. Suter (Scydmaenidae, Paelaphidae,
and micro Coleoptera), F. N. Young (Aquatic Coleoptera), R. L.
Wenzel (Histeridae), M. C. Thomas (Cucujidae) and E. Smith


H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology:
April 2, 1987: Aphids as they relate to plant problems in Florida. Mini-
conference at Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois.
June 15, 1987: Tropical fowl mite, Orithonyssus bursa. Spoke to 300
employees at the Martin Marietta Plant, Orlando, Florida.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

G. B. Edwards, Taxonomic Entomologist:
June 29,1988: gave slide-illustrated talk entitled, "Quantitative Analysis of
Phidippus courtships," at the American Arachnological Society National
meeting, Las Cruces, New Mexico.

A. B. Hamon, Taxonomic Entomologist:
June 15,1987: Sweetpotato whitefly identification training for IFAS extension
entomologists, faculty, and researchers, Gainesville, FL.
June 18,1987: Sweetpotato whitefly identification training for researchers
and growers, Apopka, FL.

L. A. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist:
August 4,1987: Gave talk on mole crickets of Venezuela and their parasites
to the Annual Mole Cricket Conference, Gainesville, Florida.
February 8,1988: Presented 40-minute talk on the biosystematics of antlion
larvae at the 3rd International Symposium of Neuroptera at Pretoria,
South Africa.

H. V. Weems, Jr., Taxonomic Entomologist:
Conducted 15 tours of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods for
various schools, individuals and public groups and, along with the
tours, presented related talks.
May 4-6,1987: Official delegate for the FDACS for the 1987 meeting of the
Association of Systematics Collections, held at the University of
Florida. Presented an invitational paper on the innovative fumigation
system involving use of methyl bromide gas to control insect pests and
a fire control system involving an inert gas for the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods (FSCA).
August 12,1987: Presented paper titled "Center for Systematic Entomology,
Inc." at the annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society held
in Daytona Beach, FL.
May 16,1988: Gave a 15-minute talk on DPI and its Bureau of Entomology
for Radioactive Isotopes Workshop at the University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL.
June 13,1988: Gave short report on the Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc., and Center for Arthropod
Systematics at the annual Biting Fly Workshop at the Solon Dixon
Forestry Center near Andalusia, AL.

R. E. Woodruff, Taxonomic Entomologist:
November 10,1987: Homestead, Florida. Talk to Mango Forum on Mango
Seed Weevil in the Caribbean.
March 4, 1988: Yuma, Arizona. Talk to citrus growers and regulatory
officials on Fuller's Rose Beetle in Florida.

Division of Plant Industry

Trips and Meetings

H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology:
August 6-8,1986: Florida Entomological Society Meeting, Clearwater, FL.
December 7-11, 1986: Entomological Society Meeting, Reno, Nevada.
March 31 April 3,1987: Mini Conference on Aphididae arranged by Dr.
David J. Voegtlin, Urbana, Ill.
June 4,1987: Tristeza meeting, Lake Alfred, FL.

G. B. Edwards, Taxonomic Entomologist:
September 1-13, 1986: FSCA representative, International Congress of
Arachnology in Jaca, Spain.
June 15-21,1987: FSCA representative to American Arachnological Society
National Meeting, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
June 22-July 11, 1987: Museum research at Museum of Comparative
Zoology, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; American Museum of
Natural History, New York, NY; and U.S. National Museum of Natural
History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.
February 1-29,1988: Collecting trip to Chile with Dr. LubomirMasner from
the Canadian National Collection. Hosted by Sr. Luis E. Pena.
June 23, 1988: FSCA representative, along with Dr. John B. Heppner, to
Typex 88 Computer Expo in Orlando, Florida.
June 25 July 3, 1988: FSCA representative at American Arachnological
Society National meeting, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,
New Mexico.

A. B. Hamon, Taxonomic Entomologist:
June 3,1987: Gainesville, FL, Black Parliatoria Scale Technical Committee
May 24,1988: Bradenton, FL, Vegetable Task Force (IFAS) on sweetpotato
whitefly research.
June 21,1988: Bradenton, FL, Vegetable Task Force (IFAS) on sweetpotato
whitefly research.

J. B. Heppner, Taxonomic Entomologist:
February 15-22,1987: Washington, DC, visiting Smithsonian Institution to
study collections.

F. W. Mead, Taxonomic Entomologist:
August 5-8,1988: Attended 69th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society, Clearwater Beach, FL.
August 11-14, 1987: Attended 70th annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, Daytona Beach, FL.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

L. A. Stange, Taxonomic Entomologist:
August 6-8,1986: Attended 69th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society, Clearwater Beach, FL.
September 20 October 12,1986: Insect and snail survey trip to Mexico.
March 1-30, 1987: Insect and snail survey trip to Venezuela.
July 20-24,1987: Attended Malacological meeting in Key West, FL.
August 12-14, 1987: Attended 70th annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, Daytona Beach, FL.
January 1 February 11, 1988: Conducted insect and snail survey and
attended third International Symposium on Neuroptera, Pretoria,
South Africa.

H. V. Weems, Jr., Taxonomic Entomologist:
August 5-8, 1986: Clearwater Beach, FL, attended annual meeting of
Florida Entomological Society.
September 26-28, 1986: Torreya State Park, attended the annual business
meeting of the Southern Lepidopterists Society.
June 8-12, 1987: Attended the 14th annual meeting of the Xerces Society
held at the Doyle Conner Building in Gainesville, FL.
August 11-14, 1987: Daytona Beach, FL, attended annual meeting of
Florida Entomological Society in Daytona Hilton Hotel.
November 19-21, 1987: Gainesville, FL, attended II Conference on the
Taxonomy and Biology of the Parasitic Hymenoptera.
February 17-19,1988: Tallahassee, FL, attended the 11th Annual Field Day
and Workshop at Florida A & M University.
May 13-15,1988: Tampa, FL, attended 52nd Annual Meeting of the Florida
Academy of Sciences and Annual Coordination Meeting of FCREPA,
held at University of Tampa.
June 9-16, 1988: Attended the annual Biting Fly Workshop with FSCA
Research Associate, Mr. George C. Steyskal, at the Solon Dixon Forestry
Center near Andalusia, AL.

R. E. Woodruff, Taxonomic Entomologist:
August 5-8, 1986: Clearwater, FL, Florida Entomological Society annual
October 20 November 10, 1986: Dominican Republic. Survey for mole
cricket (University of Florida project) and egg parasites of citrus
December 7-12,1986: Reno, Nev. Entomological Society of America annual
May 10 July 10, 1987. Lesser Antilles. Survey for mango seed weevil

Division of Plant Industry

August 29 September 27,1987: Urbana, Ill. Study of May Beetles (Phyllophaga)
in Illinois Natural History Survey, supported by National Science
October 19-25, 1987: Dominican Republic. Egg parasites of citrus weevils.
November 9-11, 1987: Homestead, FL. Talk to Mango Forum on mango
seed weevil.
November 11-15,1987: Dominican Republic. Egg parasites of citrus weevils.
November 28 December 4,1987: Boston, Mass. Entomological Society of
America annual meeting.
March 3-8, 1988: Yuma, Ariz. Meeting on Fuller's Rose Beetle.
April 4-31, 1988: Urbana, Ill. Study of May Beetles (Phyllophaga) in Illinois
Natural History Survey, supported by Natural Science Foundation.

Denmark, H.A., Gilberto J. de Moraes (senior author), and James A
McMurtry. 1986. A Catalog of the mite family Phytoseiidae. Brasilia:
,and C.F. Smith. 1986. Grylloprociphilus imbricator Fitch (Homoptera:
Aphididae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent. Circ. No. 288:1-2.
Phalaenopsis mite, Tenuipalpus pacificus Baker (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae)
Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 74
(Revised March 1987):1-2.
,and H.L. Cromroy. 1987. Tropical fowl mite, Ornithonyssus bursa
(Berlese) (Acari: Macronysidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 299:1-4.
C. L. Schoulties (senior author), L. G. Brown, and C. O. Youtsey.
1988. Citrus Tristeza virus and vectors: Regulatory Concers. Proc.
Florida State Hort. Soc. 100(1987):74-76.
1988. Sugarcane aphids in Florida (Homoptera: Aphididae). Fla.
Dept. Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 302:1-2.
1988. Revision of the genus Paraamblyseius Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Internat. J. Acarol. 14(1):23-40.
1988. The cyclamen mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acari:
Tarsoneimidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent. Circ. No. 25 (Revised May 1988):1-2.
Edwards, G. B. 1986. A tropical orb weaver, Eriophora ravilla, (Araneae:
Araneidae). Fa. Dept. Agric. Cons. Serv. DPI Entomol. Circ. 286:1-2.
1987. Predation by adult Erythemis simplicicollis (Say) on spiders
(Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Notul. Odonatol. 2(9):153-154.
F. Whitford (senior author) and W. B. Showers. 1987. Insecticide
tolerance of ground- and foliage-dwelling spiders (Araneae) in European

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) action sites. Env. Entomol. 16(3):
R. M. Shelley, (senior author). 1987. The Scolopendromorph centipedes
of Florida, with an introduction to the common myriapodous arthropods.
Fla. Dept. Agric. Cons. Serv. DPI Ent. Circ. 300:1-4.
1987. A revision of Muma, M. H. 1967. Scorpions, whip scorpions
and wind scorpions of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring
Land Areas, Vol. 4:1-28.
Hamon, A. B., and V. Salguero. 1987. Bemisia tabaci, sweetpotato whitefly,
in Florida. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae). Fla. Dept. Agric.
and Cons. Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 292:1-2.
1988. Lepidosphes laterchitinosa Green. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 304:1-2
Heppner, J. B., R. H Arnett, Jr., G. A. Samuelson, G. M. Nishida, J. C. Watt,
and R. E. Woodruff. 1986. The Insect and Spider Collections of the
World. Gainesville: E. J. Brill/Flora and Fauna Publ. 220 pp.
1986. Revision of the New World genus Lotisma (Lepidoptera:
Copromorphidae). Pan-Pac. Ent., 62(4):273-288.
1987. Copromorphoidea, Yponomeudoidea, Sesioidea. In, F. W.
Stehr (ed.), Lepidoptera, in An introduction to immature insects of
North America. Dubuque: Kendall-Hunt Publ. Pp. 399-415.
J. E. Pena and H. Glenn. 1987. The banana moth, Opogona sacchari
(Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. Cons.
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ., 293:1-4.
1987. Adult behavior of the Taiwan primitive moth, Ogygioses
caliginosa (Lepidpotera, Palaeosetidae). Tyo to Ga (Osaca), 38(1):13-15.
1987. New discoveries concerning Ischnuridia, a remarkable genus
of Indo-Australian Tineiday (Lepidoptera). Tinea (Tokyo), 12 (Suppl.):
145- 151.
1987. The family Ratardidae and the genus Ratarda in Taiwan
(Lepidpotera: Geometroidea) J. Taiwan Mus. (Taipei), 40(1):91-94.
1987. Morphology of the larva of Rhodinia verecunda Inoue (Lepidoptera:
Saturiidae) in Taiwan. J. Taiwan Mus. (Taipei), 40(2):33-39.
1988. Larvae of fruit flies. IV. Dacus dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)
(Deptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. Cons. Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Ent. Circ., 303:1-2.
Mead, F. W. 1986. Micrutalis treehoppers and pseudo-curly top in Florida
(Homoptera: Membracidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Cons. Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. No. 283:1-4; 6 fig.
__, and D. H. Habeck (senior author). 1986. In Memorium: Warren
Clifford Adlerz (1928-1986). Florida Entomologist 69(4):733.
___, and F. D. Bennett. 1987. Casuarina spittlebug, Clastoptera undulata
Uhler (Homoptera: Cercopidae). Florida Entomologist 69(4):733.

Division of Plant Industry

Stage, L. A., W. Dixon and R. Burns. 1986. Oriental chestnut gall wasp,
Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Cons. Serv. Ent.
Circ. No. 187:1-2.
and R. Knight. 1987. Fig pollinating wasps of Florida. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Cons. Serv. Ent. Circ. No. 296:1-4.
Sand K. Auffengerb. 1988. The Subulinidae of Florida. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Cons. Serv. Ent. Circ. No. 105:1-4.
1988. Classification of the Myrmeleontidae based on larvae. 3rd
symposium of Neuropterology (Pretoria):l-20.
Weems, Howard V., Jr. 1987. Three-page foreword for Coreidae of Florida
(Hemiptera: Heteroptera), by Richard M. Baranowski and James A.
Slater, volume 12 of Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land
S1987. Florida's Center for Arthropod Systematics. Florida Entomologist
1987. The Center for Arthropod Systematics and The Center for
Systematic Entomology, Inc. Proc. Fla State Hort. Soc. 100:348-350.
Woodruff, R. E., and M. C. Thomas (senior author). 1986. Description of the
larvae of two species of Hemipeplus (Coleoptera: Mycteridae). Insecta
Mundi 1(4):121-124.
and C. W. O'Brien. 1986. First records in the United States and South
America of the African oil palm weevils, Elaeidobius subvittatus (Faust)
and E. kamerunicus (Faust) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Dept.
Agric. & Cons. Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ. 284:1-2,6 fig.
___, and R. H. Arnett, Jr., G. A. Samuelson, J. B. Heppner, G. M. Nishida,
and J. C. Watt. 1986. The insect and spider collections of the World.
220p. Flora & Fauna Publ., Gainesville, Florida.

Publications by Research Associates of the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods
Baranowski, R. M. and J. A. Slater. 1986. Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera:
Heteroptera). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas.
Volume 12.
1987. New genera and species of Antillocarini from Trinidad and
Brazil (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Florida Entomologist 70(3):381-391. 4
1987. A new species of Ozophora from Costa Rica (Hemiptera:
Lygaeidae). Florida Entomologist 70(3):305-309.2 fig.
Carlson, D. A. and S. R. Yocom. 1986. Cuticular hydrocarbons from six
species of tephritid fruit flies. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and
Physiology 3:397-412.
Choate, P. M. 1987. Biology of Ceratocanthus aeneus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae:
Ceratocanthinae). Florida Entomologist 70(3):301-305, 3 fig.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Dean, D.A. and J. E. Eger, Jr. 1986. Spiders associated with Lupinus texensis
(Leguminosae) and Castilleja indivisa (Scrophulariaceae) in south central
Texas. The Southwestern Entomologist 11(3):139-147.
Eger, J. E., Jr. 1987. Bay Cedar, a previously unreported host plant of
Brepholoxa heidemani (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Florida. Florida
Entomologist 70(2):381-391, 4 fig.
.1987. A review of the genus Tiridates St61 (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea:
Scutelleridae). Florida Entomologist 70(3):339-350, 26 fig.
1988. A new species of Acrosternumfieber, subgenus Chinavia orian,
from Ecuador (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatomini). Florida
Entomologist 71(2):120-124.
Frank, J. H., R. E. Woodruff, and C. A. Nufiez. 1987. Scapteriscus didactylus
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in the Dominican Republic. Florida
Entomologist 70(4):478-483, 3 tables.
Gage, E. V. and W. D. Sumlin, III. 1986. Notes on Cicindela nigrocoerulea
subtropica in Texas (Coleoptera: Cicinelidae). Ent. News 97(5):203-207.
Goodwin, J. T. 1986. Immature stages of some western Nearctic and/or
Neotropical Tabanidae (Diptera). Florida Entolologist 69(4):710-715.3
Menke, A. S. and L. A. Stange. 1986. Delta campaniforme rendalli (Bengham)
and Zeta argillaceum (Linnaeus) established in southern Florida, and
comments on generic description in Eumenes s.. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae:
Eumeninae). Florida Entomologist 69(4):697-702, 2 fig.
Nelson, G. H. 1986. A review of the genus Psiloptera subgenus Lampetis
solier in the United States (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The Coleopterists
Bulletin 40(3):272-284, 10 fig.
O'Brien, Lois B. 1987. A synopsis of New World Lophopidae (Homoptera:
Fulgoroidea). Florida Entomologist 70(4):493-498, 21 fig.
Steyskal, G. C. 1987. A new species and synonymy in the Ulidiinae
(Diptera: Otitidae). Florida Entomologist 70(1):187-188.
Shelley, R. M. 1987. The scolopendromorph centipedes of North Carolina,
with a taxonomic assessment of Scolopocryptops gracilis peregrinator
(Crabill) (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha). Florida Entomologist
70(4):498-512, 16 fig.

The Florida State Collection of Arthropods and Its Research
Associates Program
From a small nucleus collection of insects in 1953, the scope of the
collection was broadened to cover most groups of arthropods, including
spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, millipedes, centipedes and some groups of
terrestrial and littoral crustacea. The arthropod identification services

Division of Plant Industry

provided by staff entomologists were expanded first to include personnel
of the University of Florida and, eventually, residents of the State of
Florida. This identification service, provided by the staff of the Bureau of
Entomology, involves active participation of more than 200 taxonomic
specialists who are located throughout the United States and in several
foreign countries. Accurate, authoritative identification is essential. Not
every insect is destructive, and not every injury to plants is caused by
insects or other arthropods. Only by proper identification of what is
causing a problem can one select the proper method of control.
Misidentification can be disastrous.
The FSCA today consists of the original collection of the State Plant
Board of Florida and several collections of the University of Florida which
were combined to form a single state collection and the arthropod collection
of Florida A & M University. The latter collection became an official part
of the FSCA in 1977 through an agreement signed by Dr. B. L. Perry, then
president of Florida A & M University, Chancellor E. T. York, then
chairman of the Florida Board of Regents, and Commissioner Doyle
Conner of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
The collection and library provide the basic references for the state's
arthropod identification service and for basic research on arthropods by
specialists in many parts of the world. A continuing special effort is being
made to obtain representation of arthropods of economic importance from
many parts of the world, especially those relating to agriculture in tropical
and subtropical areas.
Staff entomologists conduct field work in many parts of the world to
gather specimens and information, but the dramatic growth of the FSCA
and the library of the Division of Plant Industry is due very largely to the
contributions of the research associates and student associates of the
FSCA. In 1982 there were 2300,000 pinned specimens, more than 225,000
slide-mounted specimens, and more than 20,000 jars of unsorted alcohol-
preserved specimens in the FSCA. Additions to the collection have increased
dramatically in recent years. By mid-1988, there were 6,472,400 processed
specimens and 30,000 bottles of unsorted specimens. In addition, there are
330,000 immature specimens in the Department of Zoology, University of
Florida; 950,000 Lepidoptera in the Allyn Museum of Entomology of the
Florida Museum of Natural History; and 1,070,000 specimens, mostly
parasitic Hymenoptera, in an affiliated museum, the American Entomological
Institute's Center for Parasitic Hymenoptera located in Gainesville. Donation
to the FSCA in each of the past three years, mostly by student associates
and research associates, have been appraised in excess of 1.5 million

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Research Associates and Student Associates
The FSCA Research Associate Program, unique in several respects,
was begun in 1963 with the appointment of a small number of professional
and amateur entomologists, most of whom lived in Florida. The basic
purposes of the program were to involve the associates in an effort to
conduct a biological survey of the insects that occur in Florida, their
geographic and seasonal distribution and their host/habitat relationships,
to obtain the assistance of the associates in the development of a good
reference and research collection of insects with emphasis on those species
which occur in Florida and neighboring areas, and to obtain the expertise
of some of the associates in the authoritative identification of the various
groups of insects.
During the next several years the program was expanded, and a basic
sphere of special interest was established which happened to coincide with
that of the Florida State Museum (which in 1988 became known as the
Florida Museum of Natural History). This area of special interest encompassed
the southeastern United States, Bahama Islands, Greater and Lesser Antilles,
and land areas in or adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea,
which include Mexico, Central America and the northern part of South
Research associates and student associates of the FSCA have played a
major role in the development of the FSCA and library and research files.
Currently, 270 formally appointed associates participate in the program. In
the fiscal yearsJuly 1984-June 1988,61 were added, six dropped, and seven
died. The following are deceased: Mr. Harold LaVerne King, 1985; Dr.
Arthur Cecil Allyn, 1985; Mrs. Patricia Rosier, 1986; Dr. Reece Ivan Sailer,
1986; Dr. George William Rawson, 1986; Mr. Charles Frederick Zeiger,
1987; Mr. Richard Leo Jacques, Jr., 1988.

New associates appointed since 30 June 1984 are:

Mr. James C. Allen, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Richard T. Arbogast, Savannah, GA
Mr. Mauricio Barreto, New Orleans, LA
Dr. Frederick D. Bennett, Gainesville, FL
Mrs. Juanda Bick, Gainesville, FL
Mr. Ronald Boender, Ft Lauderdale, FL
Ms. Norma J. Brambila, Alachua, FL
Dr. F. Martin Brown, Colorado Springs, CO
Dr. John J.S. Burton, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Jerry F. Butler, Gainesville, FL
Mr. James L. Castner, Gainesville, FL
Mr. Joseph M. Cicero, Gainesville, FL
Ms. Jane E. Deisler, Tucson, AZ
Dr. Thomas H. Farr, Kingston, Jamaica
Mr. Ronald R. Gatrelle, Goose Creek, SC

Dr. Inocencio Gorayeb, Belem, Para, Brasil
Dr. Benny M. Gregory, Baton Rouge, LA
Dr. Santosh Gupta, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Virendra K. Gupta, Gainesville, FL
Mr. Takuji Hayakawa, Gainesville, FL
Dr. Robert Jackson, Christchurch, N. Zealand
Dr. Ke Chung Kim, University Park, PA
Dr. Uoyd V. Knutson, Beltsville, MD
Dr. Stuart B. Krasnoff, Gainesville, FL
Dr. R. John La Salle, Riverside, CA
Mr. Michael J. Lane, Palm Harbor, FL
Ms. Barbara Lenczewski, Gainesville, FL
Mr. Randall W. Lundgren, Gainesville, FL
Mr. Ted C. MacRae, St. Louis, MO
Mr. Barry Mansell, Jacksonville, FL

Division of Plant Industry

Mr. Alan R. Masters, Gainesville, FL
Ms. Deborah L. Matthews, Gainesville, FL
Mr. Eric H. Metzler, Columbus, OH
Mr. William D. Miller, Project City, CA
Mr. Charles W. Mills, III, Lake Butler, FL
Mr. Marc Minno, Gainesville FL
Mr. Vincent Nolfo, Garner, NC
Dr. Floyd M. Preston, Lawrence, KS
Mrs. June D. Preston, Lawrence, KS
Mr. Edward G. Riley, Baton Rouge, LA
Dr. Gary N. Ross, Baton Rouge, LA
Dr. Luis DeSantis, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Dr. Aubrey G. Scarbrough, Baltimore, MD
Dr. Petra Sierwald, Ft. Pierce, FL

Mr. Paul E. Skelley, Gainesville, FL
Dr. James A. Slater, Storrs, CN
Dr. Richard J. Snider, East Lansing, MI
Mrs. Carolee A. Boyles-Sprenkel, Quincy, FL
Dr. Barry D. Valentine, Columbus, OH
Dr. David B. Wahl, Gainesville, Fl
Mr. J. Richard Walker, Norcross, GA
Mrs. Hiltrud M. Webber, Cabool, MO
Dr. George C. Wheeler, Silver Springs, FL
Dr. Jeanette N. Wheeler, Silver Springs, FL
Dr. Norris H. Williams, Gainesville, FL
Dr. G. William Wolfe, New Brunswick, NJ
Mr. John D. Worsley, Largo, FL

Complete current addresses are available by writing to Dr. H. V.
Weems, Jr., P.O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602.

Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas
In 1965 an irregularly appearing bulletin series, titled Arthropods of
Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, was initiated with publication of
Lepidoptera of Florida, written by FSCA Research Associate Charles P.
Kimball. Twelve volumes have been published in this series, and several
others are in various stages of preparation. Each volume was designed to
give basic information of value to taxonomic specialists and at the same
time be useful to field personnel of the State Plant Board (which, in 1961,
became the Division of Plant Industry of the Florida Department of
Agriculture), nurserymen and others in industry, as well as amateur
naturalists. Volume 11, The Soft Scale Insects of Florida (Homoptera:
Coccoidea: Coccidae),by staff entomologist Dr. Avas B. Hamon and Research
Associate Dr. Michael L. Williams, was published in December 1984.
Volume 12, Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), by Research
Associates Dr. Richard M. Baranowski and James A. Slater, was published
in October 1986.

Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods
In 1981 another irregularly appearing bulletin series, titled Occasional
Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, was initiated with the
publication of two bulletins authored by Research Associates, one by Dr.
J. Howard Frank and one by Dr. Frank N. Young, Jr. A third volume, A
Revision of the New World Secies of Placonotus Macleay (Coleoptera:
Cucujidae: Laemophloeinae), was published in 1984 authored by another
Research Associate, Dr. Michael C. Thomas. Volume 14, by Mr. Harold A.
Denmark, Chief of Entomology, Bureau of Entomology, is in press, and

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

two other manuscripts are ready for publication in this series, with others
in preparation. Like the older series, the Occasional Papers series is
concerned with the systematics, zoogeography, faunal survey, life histories,
ecology, behavior, and biological control of insects and other arthropods.
However, it is not geographically restricted and may treat various groups
from other parts of the world which are of known or potential interest to
the State of Florida. It provides a forum for revisionary studies, monographs,
reviews, catalogues and other treatments pertinent to the program of the
FSCA, but which do not fall within the scope of the older publication series.
While a preference will be shown for publications dealing with groups of
arthropods known to be of economic importance, this series ultimately
may encompass all groups of arthropods.

Center for Arthropod Systematics
A recent development that directly or indirectly involves the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods has been the establishment of Florida's
Center for Arthropod Systematics. The center, initially involving an
institutional agreement between the University of Florida and the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, was established in
1983. Its primary purpose is to encourage research on the diversity,
systematics, biology, evolution and identification of insects and other
arthropods. The center seeks to pursue a unified policy on the collection,
acquisition, administration and curation of the various arthropod systematics
collections and libraries and make this a world center for arthropod
systematics. The founders envisioned that eventually the center might
involve active participation of programs such as those at Florida A & M
University, Tall Timbers Research Station, and Archbold Biological Station.
The Center for Arthropod Systematics promotes educational programs in
arthropod systematics and biology through the University of Florida and
indirectly through Florida A & M University.

Division of Plant Industry

J.C.E. Nickerson, Chief

The Bureau of Methods Development develops, investigates and
implements new ideas, techniques and methods for the detection, control
and eradication of plant and honeybee pests. Bureau personnel are involved
in development of the design of division buildings, biological control,
chemical control, adaptation of the research of other agencies to division
needs and modification of equipment to meet the requirements of division
activities. Public concern over exposure to chemicals in the environment
has greatly emphasized the need for biological control of pests. The Citrus
Blackfly, the Citrus Whitefly, and the Citrus Snow Scale Parasite Programs,
among others, have proven the advantage of natural enemies for control of
some plant pests. Division and bureau personnel recognize the need to
move with this change while, at the same time, integrating chemical
measures of pest control with biological control.

Emergency Programs
Methods Development personnel continued their involvement in
emergency programs, including the 1987 Miami Medfly Eradication Program.
They were involved in quality control, determination of trapped sterile
flies, pupae set-up, emergence, fly knockdown and release preparation.
The bureau has continued its investigation of the honeybee tracheal
mite. A series of tests were performed to assemble data for a minor-use
acaricide label. Three tests were conducted with various miticides, including
Amitraz and menthol, as well as an experiment in California with, and at
the invitation of, the California Beekeepers Association. An extensive
study was begun of the infestation rates of honeybee queens and their
accompanying workers.
After the discovery of the varroa mite in Florida in September 1987, the
bureau was involved in survey efforts. In November, a series of chemical
control studies were started in cooperation with the Apiary Inspection
Bureau and the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University
of Florida. Several tests were conducted with various miticides. Amitraz
and fluvalinate were both shown to be efficacious materials for control of
varroa mite. Fluvalinate was subsequently labeled for both varroa mite
control and survey use. The prospects appear good that an Amitraz label
will be approved for use on both tracheal mite and varroa mite.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Citrus Whitefly
The citrus whitefly has infested Florida for many years. In 1977, a
parasite of this plant pest, Encarsia lahorensis, was released in Gainesville.
In the summer of 1979, releases of E. lahorensis were made by bureau
personnel throughout the state. This parasite has been established throughout
Florida, and bureau personnel continue to monitor the parasite populations
by occasional surveys.
Encarsia lahorensis has been very successful in suppressing the populations
of citrus whitefly in areas south of Gainesville. North of Gainesville, results
have ranged from good to poor.

Citrus Blackfly Parasite Rearing & Releases
When the citrus blackfly parasite rearing facility in Broward county
was closed in June 1982, a portion of the colony was transported to
Gainesville and has been maintained at the Doyle Conner Building. This
colony consists of the blackfly host and two species of parasites, Encarsia
opulenta and Amitus hesperidum. This colony is maintained to provide
parasites for new, unparasitized citrus blackfly outbreaks or for blackfly
infestations that are not properly infested with parasites. In June 1986, the
citrus blackfly was found in Manatee County, and by July 1987, approximately
10-12 square miles in Bradenton were infested with the pest. No evidence
of any parasites was found in June or November 1986, so parasites from the
Gainesville lab were released in November 1986 and were established by
July 1987. During this biennium, releases of parasites were made in
Hillsborough, Sarasota and Manatee counties.

Formosan Termites
The Formosan Termite, Coptotermes formosanus, was found in Gulf
Breeze, Florida, in August 1984. Bureau personnel investigated the report
at that time and continue to survey and investigate reports of Formosan
termites in the Florida panhandle. Since 1984, homeowners have reported
Formosan termites in six structures in west Florida. Four of six locations
are believed to be incidents in which winged or swarming termites were
attracted to building lights. In September 1987, damage was observed in a
building east of Destin and in June 1988, live Formosan termites were
found at Navarre Beach. Additional finds have been investigated east of

The threat of citrus canker continued to curtail shipments of citrus fruit
to Arizona, California, Hawaii, Louisiana (in part), and Texas. During FY
1986-87, 67 semitrailer-loads of Bahamian fruit were transshipped to
California and Texas; 53 loads were transshipped in FY 1987-88. The

Division of Plant Industry

lesseningof citrus cankerrestrictions inFebruary 1988 resulted in reopened
markets for Florida fruit in California and Texas. Three hundred and
eighty-five semitrailer-loads of citrus were fumigated to meet certification
requirements for California and Texas from Feb. 27 toJune 15,1988. During
the biennium, 11,545 flats of blueberries were fumigated to meet certification
requirements of California and one shipment (39 flats) to Washington
Experiments were conducted on the market quality of tomatoes fumigated
with methyl bromide. Initial results were encouraging although preliminary
data indicated that ripening was delayed.
Various methyl bromide dosage rates continued to be tested against
the German cockroach to determine efficacious doses and exposure times.

Caribfly Fly-Free Area Protocol
Bureau personnel were involved in investigative efforts to support the
Caribfly-free area protocol. Pesticide efficacy, treatment zones and migration
potential were studied. Dyed, sterilized Caribbean fruit flies were released
and recaptured to determine flight range.

Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility Quality Control
Bureau personnel are evaluating the quality of laboratory-reared
Caribbean fruit flies from the Gainesville Sterile Fly Mass Rearing Facility,
with an ongoing monitoring program utilizing standard tests for mating
propensity, sex ratio, percent emergence and egg hatch, and flightability.
Investigations continue on factors such as diet formulation and equipment.

Sterile Caribfly Pilot Release Program
A Sterile Caribfly Pilot Release Program was begun in Hendry County
in January 1988 to determine the best method and proper number of sterile
Caribflies to release per square mile to effectively suppress native Caribfly
populations. Sterile Caribbean fruit flies reared in the Sterile Fly Mass
Rearing Facility were released weekly from January 24, 1988, to June 19,
1988. Rearing difficulties in the rearing facility caused a temporary suspension
of releases; however, the program will be expanded and continued during
the next biennium.

Tupelo Honey Stratification Study
A study has been initiated to determine if stratification of pollen in
Tupelo honey occurs while honey is in storage. Beekeepers have reported
denial of Tupelo honey certification after honey was stored for long
periods of time. The project consists of storing honey in two-inch-diameter
tubes and sampling sections of the 36-inch-long tubes at various intervals
to determine pollen counts and the ratio of Tupelo honey to other pollen

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Black Parlatoria Scale
The black parlatoria scale was found in Miami on Oct. 7,1985. Bureau
personnel were involved with investigations of native parasites and predators
of the black parlatoria scale. No parasites have been found that are effective
in significantly reducing the scale population; some havebeen shown to be
a factor in reducing scale populations. The eradication effort, i.e., cutting
infested trees and chemically spraying surrounding trees, has had a
limiting effect on any possible biological control success.

Imported Fire Ant Program
Responsibility for the Imported Fire Ant Control Program was transferred
from the Bureau of Methods Development to the Bureau of Pest and
Eradication and Control in July 1984. However, Methods Development
continues to sell Amdro bait to the public at its Gainesville office. During
the biennium, more than 6,800 bags of Amdro were sold.

Right-To-Know Law and Pesticide Training
Bureau personnel continue to review pesticide use in the division and
provide training for Restricted Pesticide Use Certification. Acquisition
and cataloging of current Manufacturer's Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) were
continued, as well as verification of Right-To-Know Law forms.

Published Papers
During the biennium, the following papers were published by personnel
in the Methods Development Bureau:

Habeck, D.H., C.R. Thompson, F.A. Dray, T.D. Center and J.K. Balciunas.
1986. Biological control of water lettuce. Proc. 21st Ann. Meeting,
Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Mobile, Alabama. Misc.
Paper A-87-2:108-113.
Nguyen, Ru. 1986. Encarsia lahorensis (Howard), a parasite of Dialeurodes
citri (Ashmead). (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. &
Cons. Serv., Div. Plant Ind. Circ. No. 290.
1987. Encarsia opulenta (Silvestri), a parasite of Aleurocanthus woglumi
(Ashby). (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Cons. Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind. Circ. No. 301.
1987. Facultative hyperparasitism and sex determination of Encarsia
smith (Silvestri). (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 80:713-19.
Nickerson, J.C. 1986. The crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille).
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Cons. Serv., Div.
Plant Ind. Circ. No. 289.

Division of Plant Industry 61

1987. The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille).
(Hymenotera: Formicidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Cons. Serv., Div. Plant
Ind. Circ. No. 297.
Sand C.L. Bloomcamp. 1988. Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius).
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Cons. Serv., Div.
Plant Ind. Circ. No. 307.
Thompson, C.R. 1987. The present status of citrus blackfly (Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae) in Florida with emphasis on Merritt Island. J. Environ.
Entomol. 16:140-144.
R.I. Sailer, and Ru Nguyen. 1987. Citrus blackfly: a past pest thanks
to biocontrol. Univ. Fla. Inst. Food Agric. Sci. Research. 87:16-17.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

J. H. O'Bannon, Chief

The objectives of this bureau are to maintain a diagnostic program for
analyses of soil and plant samples for identification of phytoparasitic
nematodes involved in regulatory programs, pest detection surveys and
phytoparasitic nematode plant problems. The principal part of the sample
workload is mandated by regulatory rules applicable to nematode pests.
These samples originate from in-state programs, out-of-state and out-of-
country plant shipments originating in Florida and samples intercepted in
Florida from areas outside of the United States. Other programs are
surveys to detect exotic nematode pests that might prove harmful to
Florida agriculture, preparation, maintenance of data retrieval systems,
sanitation, control investigations, host testing of regulatory pests, taxonomic
descriptions and nematode repository entries.
During this biennium, a total of 42,826 samples was diagnosed for
nematodes and other invertebrates (Table 1). Regulatory programs, including
BN, comprised 82 percent while nematode surveys and investigations
comprised only 18 percent of the program for this biennium.
Two nematology grant-in-aid projects were initiated by the bureau in
this biennium. The first program, funded by Lykes Pasco Packing Co., was
a three-year project to determine if Citrus, Poncirus or their hybrids are
hosts of a grass race of Tylenchulus semipenetrans and to compare the grass
race and citrus race by morphometric studies. This study began September
30, 1985. The second program, funded by Bedding Plants, Inc., was to
determine nematode survival and reproduction in rockwool and its potential
to serve as a carrier for nematode contaminants. This study was begun in
July 1985 and completed in 1987. Information about both studies are
presented elsewhere in this report.
The Division of Plant Industry contracted with Dr. R. N. Inserra to
conduct the first investigation; the second study was conducted by Dr. P.
S. Lehman.

Regulatory Summary
Of the 42,826 samples examined, 389 (0.9 percent) failed to meet
certification requirements (Table 2). This low number is due in part to the
Florida growers' awareness of nematodes in the regulatory system and to
the effectiveness of the DPI nematode-sanitation control program.

Division of Plant Industry

Table 1. Nematology diagnostic analyses of soil and root samples for identification of
phytoparasitic nematodes in regulatory, pest detection, surveys,
and investigative programs (July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1988).

Master Total % Category Grand
Category Units Total Total

Burrowing Nematode
California Export
Texas, Louisiana
Site Approval
Arizona Export
Soil Pit Approval
European Economic Community
Multiple Objective*
Miscellaneous Export"
Texas Survey



Investigations Plant Problem






35,182 82.0

31 1.7 0.1
476 26.6 1.1
58 3.2 0.2
244 13.6 0.6
984 54.9 2.3
1,793 4.3

1,036 17.7 2.4
4,755 81.3 11.1
52 0.8 0.1
8 0.2 0.1
5,951 13.7

Grand Total 42,826 100.0

"Multiple Objective
Any combination: CA-AZ, TX-AZ, TX-CA, site/pit, etc.
"Miscellaneous Export,
Bahamas, Canada, etc.

Nematode Taxonomic Retrieval System
To facilitate correct identification of plant parasitic nematodes involved
in regulatory programs and to ensure recognition of new nematode pests
that may enter Florida, a comprehensive taxonomic filing system is
maintained. During the biennium, two descriptions of genera and 231
species of plant parasitic nematodes were incorporated into the system.
Species identification compendia were prepared for the phytoparasitic

Citrus Tree
Citrus Wild (30A)

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Table 2. Samples that failed regulatory certification during the 1986-1988 biennium.

Regulatory Program

Phytoparasltic nematode
that caused failure

Failure frequency

Burrowing Nematode 21A Radopholus similis Total: 210

Texas, Louisiana,
European Economic 21A Radopholus similis Total: 30
Community (EEC)

Arizona 23A Rotylenchulus reniformis Total: 83
3 Belonolaimus sp. 5

8 Dolichodorus sp. 9

California 13 Heterodera sp. 6
21A Radopholus similis 14

23A Rotylenchulus reniformis 11

36 Hirschmanniella sp. 3

Total: 48

Site/Pit Program 30A Tylenchulus semipenetrans Total: 13

Premovement Program 30A Tylenchulus semipenetrans Total: 5
Total: 389

genera Criconema (108 species), Dolichodorus (21 species),Hemicriconemoides
(46 species), Hoplolaimus (53 species), and Xiphinema (220 species).

Emergency Texas Certification
Early in 1988, many Florida nurseries required Texas certification; they
needed to be sampled and analyzed to meet Texas nematode requirements
in a short time frame. It required a cooperative effort by agricultural
products specialists to collect the samples and the Nematology Bureau to
process the samples.
A total of 6,560 samples from 174 Florida nurseries was diagnosed.
Thirty-six samples in 14 nurseries were found infested with burrowing
nematode; 697 samples from 60 nurseries (34 percent) were diagnosed free
of plant parasitic nematodes.

Division of Plant Industry

Citrus Grove Survey
A nematode survey was conducted in commercial citrus sites in
Florida in conjunction with the Bureau of Plant Inspection's citrus grove
survey. The survey team supervised by G. T. Smith included V. G. Brown,
Harmon Gillis, John Hughes, Greg Johnson, Bill Olson, Zell Smith and
Lynn Zellers.
Nematode samples were taken in citrus groves from Brevard, Charlotte,
Citrus, Dade, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands, Indian
River, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Polk, St.
Lucie, Sarasota, Sumter and Volusia counties.
Two hundred thirty-eight samples each were taken in citrus groves
and environs from plants growing adjacent to groves. Results are shown in
Table 3. Burrowing nematodes were not detected in any citrus sample but
one banana plant sampled in the environ group was infected with burrowing
nematode. Citrus nematodes were detected in 43 citrus groves (18 percent)
and seven times (.03 percent) in environ samples. Sting nematodes, a
potentially serious pest of citrus, were detected in eight citrus samples.
Tylenchulus graminis was associated for the first time in the citrus survey
from Diospyros kaki in a grove environ. In only three instances were citrus
nematodes found in the grove and environs at the same site. There were 40
new host-parasite associations established in the citrusgroves and 66 in the
environs (Table 3). Two nematode phytoparasitic species, Helicotylenchus
amplius and H. paraplatyurus were detected in Florida for the first time.

Table 3. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with citrus and citrus
grove environ plants for the first time.

Acer rubrum
Nothocriconema permistum
Achyranthes indica
Criconemoides citri
Pratylenchus brachyurus
Pratylenchus zeae
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Averrhoa carambola
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Blechnum brownei
Criconemoides sp.
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Trichodorus christiei
Xiphinema vulgare
Boehmeria cylindrica
"Helicotylenchus amplius
Hemicriconemoides annulatus
Hemicycliophora sp.

Callicarpa americana
"Helicotylenchus paraplatyurus
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Xiphinema americanum
Callistemon viminalis
Meloiodogyne sp.
Rotylenchulus reniformis
Casuarina equisetifolia
Meloidogyne incognita
Citrus aurantiifolia
Rotylenchulus reniformis
Citrus aurantium
Tylenchorhynchus martini
Citrus limon
Tylenchorhynchus daytoni
Citrus X paradisi
Xiphinema opisthohysterum
Citrus X paradisi 'Duncan'
Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Criconemoides citri

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Table 3. Continued...

Citrus reticulata 'Cleopatra'
Trichodorus minor
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Xiphinema vulgare
Citrus sinensis on Citrus limon
Xiphinema vulgare
Citrus sinensis 'Hamlin' on Citrus aurantium
Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Hoplolaimus tylenchiformis
Citrus sinensis 'Hamlin' on Citrus limon
Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Trichodorus teres
Citrus sinensis 'Hamlin' on 'Swingle' citrumelo
(Poncirus trifoliata X Citrus X paradisi)
Criconemoides curvatum
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Hoplolaimus sp.
Meloidogyne sp.
Pratylenchus sp.
Trichodorus christiei
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Xiphinema sp.
Citrus sinensis on Citrus aurantium
Trichodorus pachydermus
Citrus sinensis 'Parson Brown' on Citrus
Scutellonema bradys
Trichodorus minor
Citrus sinensis'Parson Brown' on Citrus limon
Aglenchus sp.
Criconemoides informis
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Hoplolaimus sp.
Pratylenchus sp.
Trichodorus sp.
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Citrus sinensis 'Pineapple' on Citrus
Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Meloidogyne sp.
Peltamigratus christiei
Citrus sinensis 'Valencia' on Citrus aurantium
Nothocriconema permistum
Citrus sinensis 'Valencia' on Citrus limon
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Hoplolaimus galeatus
Citrus X tangelo 'Page' on Citrus reticulata
Criconemoides citri
Meloidogyne sp.
Curcurbita pepo
Tylenchorhynchus brassicae

Diospyros kaki
Tylenchulus graminis (?)
Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Erechtites hieracifolia
Criconemoides citri
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
Hemicriconemoides wessoni
Meloidogyne sp.
Peltamigratus christiei
Eriobotrya japonica
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Ficus carica
Trichodorus pachydermus
Xiphinema vulgare
Ficus elastic
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Juncus effusus
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
Hemicydiophora thienemanni
Mammea americana
Criconemoides sp.
Rotylenchulus reniformis
Nerium oleander
Dolichodorus heterocephalus
Xiphinema americanum
Prunus caroliniana
Paratylenchus vanderbrandei
Parthenium hystrophorus
Aphelenchoides sp.
Criconemoiodes sp.
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Persea borbonia
Criconema octangulare
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
Pratylenchus zeae
Xiphinema vulgare
Prunus persica
Meloidodera floridensis
Psidium guajava
Helicotylenchus dihystera
Nothocriconema permistum
Pratylenchus zeae
Pyrus communis
Criconema sp.
Xenocriconemella macrodorum
Quercus virginiana
Quinisulcius acti
Sabal palmetto
Criconemoides quadricome
Sansevieria trifasciata
Criconemoides curvatum
Hoplolaimus galeatus
Scutellonema bradys

Division of Plant Industry

Table 3. Continued...
Schinus terebinthifolius Sonchus asper
Belonolaimus longicaudatus Criconemoides curvatum
Scoparia dulcis Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
Hemicydiophora thienemanni Pratylenchus brachyurus
Meloidogyne sp. Verbena scabra
Trichodorus teres Criconemoides curvatum
Tylenchorhynchus martini Pratylenchus brachyurus
Trichodorus christiei
"New geographic record

Movement, Survival and Reproduction of Nematodes in Rockwool
Rockwool, an inert fibrous material, is used as a substrate for growing
plants. In Florida, its use has increased, especially for greenhouse-grown
vegetables and aquatic plants. Currently, European growers have requested
the relaxation of Quarantine 37 restrictions to allow for exportation to the
U.S. of plants grown in rockwool. Experiments were conducted in which
known quantities of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and soybean
cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) were injected into rockwool, and the
movement, survival, and reproduction of these nematodes was evaluated
six times during a three-month period. Results indicate that limited
passive movement of nematodes occurs during watering. Over a period of
weeks, nematodes that were introduced into rockwool blocks contaminated
uninoculated rockwool slabs. This dispersion is due to a combination of
both theactive movementof the motilenematodeand to passive movement
which is incurred during watering. The potential of root-knot and cyst
nematodes to survive in rockwool in the absence of a host is similar to their
potential to survive without a host in soil or organic soilless media. If a host
is present, the potential for nematode reproduction in rockwool medium
is similar to their reproductive potential in a soil or an organic soilless type
medium. Extracting nematodes from rockwool is difficult and inefficient
unless standard techniques used to extract nematodes from soil are
modified. This factor, and the ability of nematodes to move, survive and
reproduce in rockwool are considerations for assessment of risks related to
relaxing Q-37 regulations.

Diagnoses and Control of Plant Problems Caused by Nematodes
A total of 1,036 plant problem samples was processed during the
biennium, a 60 percentincrease over the previousbiennium. These samples
originated from a broad spectrum including nurserymen, growers, grove
owners and homeowners.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

A New Disease of Philippine Violet, Barberi cristata
In December 1987, Agricultural Products Specialist Joe Beckwith
observed a severe foliar disease on several hundred Philippine violet
plants in a Florida nursery. Initial isolations from foliar lesions indicated
that the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, and a bacterium, Pseudomonas
cichorii, were present. Cooperative investigations were conducted with Dr.
John Miller. Philippine violet plants were inoculated with the nematode or
bacteria alone, or in combination in replicated experiments. Each organism
alone caused angular black lesions; other symptoms caused by these
organisms are different, and the time of development of black lesions
differs in the relation to the progressive development of other symptoms.
Black, angular lesions developed two days after inoculation with Pseudomonas
cichorii. These lesions became chocolate-brown with a dark brown or black
border after two weeks. A chlorotic halo was evident around some, but not
all lesions. The size and shape of lesions caused by Aphelenchoides fragariae
remained unchanged for many months, but the color of lesions on both the
upper and lower surfaces changed from light brown to dark brown and
eventually to black. Black lesions are the first symptoms caused by P.
cichorii. The black lesions caused by nematodes develop over a period of
many weeks, finally becoming black in color.
When plants were inoculated simultaneously with A. fragariae and P.
cichorii, or when plants were inoculated with bacteria two or seven days
following inoculation with nematodes, the basic types of symptoms did
not differ from those they caused alone. However, light brown necrotic
lesions typical of those caused by nematodes appeared earlier and in
greater numbers on leaves first inoculated with nematodes and then
inoculated with bacteria seven days later; whereas, leaves inoculated with
nematodes alone or inoculated with nematodes and bacteria simultaneously
developed fewer necrotic lesions. Thus, it appears that bacteria may affect
the timing and severity of symptoms caused by nematodes.

The Use of Protein Coatings to Prevent Contamination by
Adherence of Nematodes to Plastic Containers
Nematodes were observed adhering to new polystyrene petri dishes,
polypropylene beakers and polycarbonate centrifuge tubes after routine
rinsing with deionized water from a wash bottle. As shown in Table 4,
nematode genera differ greatly in their adherence to polystyrene petri
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the coating of plastics with
materials to prevent nematode adherence and contamination. Materials
were: Siloo Rain Shield, Alconox*, Static Guard*, Tween 20*, bovine
albumin serum, gelatin, and milk. The permanence of protein coatings for

Division of Plant Industry

preventing nematode adherence to plastic containers following routine
laboratory cleaning was also evaluated. After plastic petri dishes were
treated with 1 percent milk, 0.01 percent bovine albumin serum or 0.01
percent gelatin for 5 minutes, dishes were subjected to the following
laboratory cleaning treatments: rinsing with water; dipping in 0.7 percent
solution Alconox* followed with a water rinse after each dip; dipping in a
solution of 0.5 percent NaOCl (bleach) and 0.7 percent Alconox* followed
with a water rinse after each dip. The effectiveness of protein coating in
preventing nematode adherence to plastics was not decreased after they
were cleaned 200 times with any of the three treatments above. However,
soaking dishes for one hour in a 05 percent NaOCI destroyed the effectiveness
of the protein coating. Nematode contamination will occur if new plastic
containers are used, and the risks of contamination can be reduced if
plastic containers are coated with a protein such as milk.

Table 4. Percentage of nematodes adhering to uncoated polystyrene petri dishes.

Nematode Percent Adhering

Meloidogyne incognita 85%
Tylenchulus semipenetrans 64%
Trichodorus 30%
Rotylenchus reniformis 19%
Radopholus similis 18%
Belonolaimus longicaudatus 3%
Helicotylenchus dihystera 3%
Paratylenchus sp. 2%
Criconemella curvata 1%
Peltamigratus christiei 1%
Aphelenchoides fragariae 0%
Criconemella sphaerocephala 0%
Hemicycliophora wessoni 0%
Heterodera glycines 0%
Hoplolaimus galeatus 0%
Pratylenchus penetrans 0%
Tylenchorhynchus sp. 0%
Xiphinema americanum 0%

Florida Collection of Nematodes
The Bureau of Nematology houses a collection of nematode specimens
preserved on microscope slides, in small vials and in large screw-cap jars.
The collection consists chiefly of plant parasitic nematodes, but also

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

contains nematodes parasitic to animals and humans. A small number of
other helminths and invertebrates are also included. An increasing amount
of clerical activity is now required in order to manage the rapid growth of
the collection.
The collection contains 6,400 microscope slides and 2,800 bottles and
jars for a total of 9,200 units.
The collection serves the bureau as a source of reference and comparison
for nematode identifications, as well as a repository for voucher specimens
for confirming research results or validating regulatory evaluation.

Mounting Media and Stains
Comparative tests were conducted to study the effects of different
stain combinations and mountants on nematodes mounted on microscope
slides. Nematodes were examined for tissue distortion which included
swelling, crinkling and blistering, as well as how effectively tissues retained
their stain, and whether or how well specific combinations of mountants
and stain helped to make structures more readily observable which are
normally difficult to see. The mountants tested were glycerine, lactophenol,
lactoglycerol and triethanolamine. The stains tested were picric acid, acid
fuchsin, pianese III B and methyl blue. After 21/2 years, 180 slides were
The following information is indicated by a preliminary evaluation.
For the period tested, triethanolamine preserved some specimens in
lifelike condition except for excessive clearing which makes some structures
difficult to observe. This substance also acts as a slow solvent for the slide
ringing cement, Zut.
Lactoglycerol can be employed with excellent results when using a
modification of the four-minute hot-lactophenol method. Clearing remains
somewhat excessive for whole body mounts, although visibility of some
structures appear tobe enhanced under limited conditions. Lactophenol in
this study exhibited no gross tissue distortion. Lactophenol should be used
with care to avoid exposure to the toxic liquid and vapor phases of its
phenol component.
Although the glycerine process is non-toxic, the traditional procedures
for glycerine infiltration are time-consuming and permit little margin for
deviation or error. A number of hastily prepared specimens in this study
exhibited greater or lesser degrees of tissue distortion.
Of the stains used, only nematodes stained with picric acid consistently
remained satisfactorily tinted and unfaded with time. Specimens lightly
stained with acid fuchsin exhibited marginally visible traces of color, while
those with a heavy stain retained that stain to the extent that they were
unsatisfactory to view for identification or study.

Division of Plant Industry

Improved Nematode Recovery Technique
Many types of soils and substrates are processed by the nematology
laboratory; some samples maybe so occluded with debris that recognition
and identification of nematodes may be difficult. A secondary processing
technique was developed which enhances recovery and visibility. A two-
ply piece of facial tissue, 6.5 cm square, was placed across the meniscus of
a tapered glass tube which had been filled to within 2.5 cm of its rim with
After a debris-laden sample had received its routine examination for
nematodes, it was transferred to the tissue in the top of a tapered glass tube.
Nematodes which migrated through the tissue were collected for a second
examination usually after five hours (but in a few cases 18 hours), and for
a third examination after approximately 18 hours or overnight. The results
of the second and third examinations were compared with the original
examinations. Five hundred samples received secondary processing as
well as second and third examinations following secondary processing.
In 43 percent of samples, a greater number of species or larger
population numbers of the same species were recorded after the second
In 56 percent of the samples, the same numbers of species and/or the
same population numbers were recorded after the second examination.
In 0.08 percent of the samples, fewer numbers of species or lower
population numbers of the same species were recorded after the second
Regulatory nematodes were detected and recorded from 65 of 500
samples. Of the 65 samples from which regulatory nematodes were
detected, 46 were positive after both the first and the second examinations.
Regulatory nematode population levels recorded from the second
examinations were always as high or higher than the population levels
recorded from the first examinations.
Of the 65 samples from which regulatory nematodes were detected, 17
samples were positive after the second examination only. The small
populations of regulatory nematodes in these samples were obscured by
the moderate amounts of debris which normally accompany many samples
after normal routine processing.
Of the 65 samples from which regulatory nematodes were detected,
two samples were found to be positive only after the third examination
which always followed approximately 18 hours of tissue filtration.
In conclusion, it appears that an effective method of secondary processing
may help to raise the efficiency and accuracy of diagnostic services when
screening samples for nematodes of regulatory importance.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Methods for Sealing Specimen Bottles
Slow evaporation of preserving fluids from specimen bottles is a
problem encountered with preserved biological materials. Seven sealing
compounds were tested against 13 different fluids for both sealing
effectiveness and compatibility of materials. After 17 months, an evaluation
of 138 bottles indicated that silicone rubber seals performed better than the
other tested sealing compounds. Of the bottles sealed with silicone rubber,
36 percent showed no evaporative loss and 64 percent had a mean
evaporative loss of 15 percent as compared to a mean loss of 45 percent
from the control bottles.

Studies on the Citrus Nematode "Wild" Races Attacking
Noncultivated Plants in Florida
The study on the host-range, taxonomic status and host-parasite
relations of the "wild" races of the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans
was continued in 1987-1988.
Morphological comparisons of the citrus nematode "wild" races, from
the native flora of Florida, with the race attacking citrus confirmed that
these "wild" races are different species from that attacking citrus. Two new
Tylenchulus species, T. graminis and T. palustris Inserra et al., 1988, previously
considered "wild" races of T. semipenetrans, were described from broomsedge
(Andropogon virginicus) and pop ash (Fraxinus caroliniana).
The host range and geographical distribution of T. graminis and T.
palustris are reported in Table 5.
T. graminis is a specific parasite of native grasses of Florida. These
plants are common in flatwood and marshes and are widely distributed
along with T. graminis in the northern, central and southern parts of the
state. The host range of T. palustris was confined to nonrutaceous dicots
growing in swamps mainly in northern Florida.
T. graminis was successfully reared on two strains of broomsedge,
grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. T. palustris cultures on pop
ash seedlings were also prepared outdoors. These cultures will be used to
test the host compatibility of citrus and citrus rootstocks to T. graminis and
T. palustris.

Investigation of the Morphological Differences Between
Tylenchulus and Trophotylenchulus Species
In noncultivated areas of Florida, Tylenchulus graminis, Tylenchulus
palustris and Trophotylenchulus floridensis occur often in association. Although
these species are not regulated nematodes, it is necessary to identify them
to prevent their being confused with Tylenchulus semipenetrans which is a

Division of Plant Industry

regulated species. Tylenchulus and Trophotylenchulus have been objects of
debate, and the taxonomic status of Trophotylenchulus was considered
invalid by some authors. In this study, comparisons were made of the
morphological and biological features of Tylenchulus graminis, Tylenchulus
palustris, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans with those of Trophotylenchulus
floridensis and Trophotylenchulus obscurus. The results of this study have
indicated that the presence of cuticular outgrowths around the excretory
pore is a consistent and peculiar characteristic of the adult females of all
Tylenchulus species. No cuticular outgrowths are present around the
excretory pore of Trophotylenchulus species. This diagnostic characteristic
is of value in separating Tylenchulus and Trophotylenchulus.
A histological study of roots infected with the three Tylenchulus species
indicated consistency in the anatomical changes induced in the roots with
the formation of clusters of "nurse" cells in the cortex. Trophotylenchulus
species were variable in the anatomical response induced, which may be
host specific. Trophotylenchulus floridensis induced a syncytium in the
cortex of a noncultivated dicotyledon in Florida while Trophotylenchulus
obscurus induced a single mononucleate "nurse" cell in the cortex of coffee
roots. This study confirmed that Tylenchulus and Trophotylenchulus are
valid genera that differ morphologically and biologically.

Table 5. Hosts of Tylenchulus graminis and T. palustris
Nematode Plant Host County of Detection
Species Scientific Name Common Name

T. Graminis Andropogon virginicus L. broomsedge Glades, Hernando,
Highlands, Lake,
Putnam, Sarasota,
Sumter, and Taylor
Axonopus furcatus (Flugge) carpet grass Glades
A. Hitchc.
Eremochloa ophiuroides centipede Taylor
(Munro) Hack. grass
Schizachyrium rhizomatum Highlands (Stokes, 1969)
(Swallen) Gould
Sporobolusjunceus Kunth wire grass Clay
T. Palustris Baccharis halimifolia L. salt bush Dixie
Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. pop ash Dixie, Polk, and Taylor

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Staff Publications
Esser. R. P., S. E. Simpson, and A. L. Taylor. 1984. Improvements in a
disposal system for nematology waste. Proc. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
E. Cohn (seniorauthor), and D. T. Kaplan. 1984. Observations on the
mode of parasitism and histopathology of Meloidodera floridensis and
Verutus volvingentis (Heteroderidae). J. Nematol. 16:256-264.
and G. R. Buckingham. 1986. Genera and species of nematodes
occupying freshwater habitats in North America. J. Nematol. 18:591
___, N. E. E1-Gholl (senior author), and L. Ajello. 1986. Sporotrichosis.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Plant Pathology
Circ. No. 286.
K. Gerber (senior author), and G. C. Smart, Jr. 1987. A comprehensive
catalogue of plant parasitic nematodes associated with aquatic and
wetlands plants. Agric. Exp. Sta., Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Univ. of
Fla. Bull. 871.
1987. Checklist of phytoparasitic nematode genera, subgenera, and
the number of species described in each taxon. NematologyNewsletter
33:6- 8.
.1987. The impact of nursery sanitation practices on the Florida foliage
industry. Florida Foliage 13(5):6-7.
__, and J. H. O'Bannon. 1987. Physiological complex: I. Nematodes and
low temperatures. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 138.
and J. A. Meredith. 1987. Red Ring Nematode. Fla. Dept. Agric. &
Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 141.
1987. Biological control of nematodes by nematodes. I. Dorylaims.
(Nematoda: Dorylaimina). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 144.
1987. Biological control of nematodes by nematodes. II. Seinura
(Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 147.
__, and J. Windsor. 1987. A method of photographing small biological
specimens. Functional Photography 22:24-25,44.
__, G. M. Blakeslee (senior author), and T. Miller. 1987. Observations on
pine wood nematode-related mortality of sand and slash pine seed
orchard trees in Florida. In Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode.
M. J. Wingfield, ed. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. 122 pp.
__, J. H. O'Bannon, and R. A. Clark. 1988. How to detect root-knot
nematode when making annual nursery inspections. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 151.

Division of Plant Industry

Inserra, R. N., N. Greco (senior author), A. Brandonisio, A. Tirro, and G.
DeMarinis. 1987. Life-cycle of Globodera rostochiensis and yield losses of
potato in Italy. Nematropica 18:8 (Abstr.)
N. Vovlas, J. H. O'Bannon, and R. P. Esser. 1987. Differential
morphological characteristics between Tylenchulus and Trophotylenchulus.
Nematropica 18:10 (Abstr.)
__, N. Vovlas, J. H. O'Bannon, and K. R. Langdon. 1987. Biology of
Tylenchulus semipenetrans bush race and concomitant infection with
Meloidogyne incognita on Fraxinus caroliniana. Proc. Soil & Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. 46:143-147.
__,N. Vovlas, J. H. O'Bannon, and R. P. Esser. 1988. Tylenchulus graminis
n. sp. and T. palustris n. sp. (Tylenchulidae), from native flora of
Florida, with notes on T. semipenetrans and T.furcus. J. Nematol. 20:266-
and C. M. Heald (senior author). 1988. Effect of temperature on
infection and survival of Rotylenchulus reniformis. J. Nematol. 20:356-
__, R. P. Esser, and J. H. O'Bannon. 1988. Identification of Tylenchulus
species from Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 153.4 pp.
__, J. H. O'Bannon, K. R. Langdon, and W. M. Keen. 1988. Hosts of
Tylenchulus graminis and T. palustris. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 154.4 pp.
Lehman, P. S., and J. B. MacGowan. 1986. Inflorescence and leaf galls on
Palisota barteri caused by Meloidogyne javanica. J. Nematol. 18:583-586.
1987. Dispersal of plant parasitic nematodes after passage through
the digestive tract of endotherms. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv.,
Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 137.2 pp.
1987. Migration, survival, and reproduction of nematodes in rockwool.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 100:350-355.
__ and R. A. Dunn. 1987. Distribution of Florida populations of the
soybean cystnematode with previously undescribed genetic variation.
Plant Disease 71:68-70.
Sand N. Dwyer. 1987. Evaluation of techniques for extracting nematodes
from rockwool. J. Nematol. 19:51-52. (Abstr.)
__ and 1987. Movement of nematodes in rockwool during
watering. J. Nematol. 19:52. (Abstr.).
1988. Nematodes can survive in rockwool. Greenhouse Grower 6:34-
and G. R. Stirling. 1988. Paralongidorus australis, a needle nematode
that may cause severe damage to rice. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 152.4 pp.
MacGowan, J. B., 1986. The Florida Collection of Nematodes. Fa. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 132.2 pp.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

and W. S. MacGowan. 1987. Computerized data base for the Florida
Collection of Nematodes. Fla. Dept. Agric. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 146. 2 pp.
O'Bannon, J. H., and R. P. Esser. 1986. Regulatory perspectives in nematology.
J. Nematol. 18:594. (Abstr.).
__, J. N. Pinkerton (senior author), H. Mojtahedi, and G. S. Santo. 1987.
Vertical migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodwi and M. hapla under
controlled temperature. J. Nematol.19:152-157.
__, and C. M. Heald (senior author). 1987. Citrus decline caused by
nematodes. V. Slow decline. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 143.
and R. N. Peaden (senior author). 1983. Preliminary data on influence
of stem nematode-Verticillium wilt interactions. Proc. Western Alfalfa
Improvement Conference, Richland, WA. Sept. 20-21, 1983, pp.24-26.
_, and R. P. Esser. 1987. Regulatory Perspectives in Nematology. In J. A.
Veech and D. W. Dickson (eds.), Vistas in Nematology, pp. 38-46.
Society of Nematologists, Inc., Hyattsville, MD. 509 pp.
and 1987. Nematodes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). I. root-knot
nematodes. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind.,
Nema. Circ. No. 148.4 pp.
__, and 1988. Nematodes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). II. Stem
nematode. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema.
Circ. No. 150.4 pp.
and R. N. Inserra. 1988. Migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M.
hapla in laboratory and field soil columns. Nematropica 18:15-16.

Publications by Contributing Nematologists
Dunn, R. A. 1986. Nematicide safety in ornamental plant nurseries. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 134.
Giblin, R. M. 1987. Biological control of mosquitoes with the nematode
Romanomermis culicivorax. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 142.
Greco, N. 1987. Heterodera carotae: a destructive nematode of carrot. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 140.
1987. Potato cyst nematodes: Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No.
Kinloch, R. A. 1986. Root-knot disease in Florida soybean. Fla. Dept. Agric.
& Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 135.
McSorley, R. 1986. Nematode problems on bananas and plantains in
Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema.
Circ. No. 133.
Noling, J. W. 1987. Multiple pest problems and control on tomato. Fla.
Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 139.

Division of Plant Industry 77

Rhoades, H. 1986. The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, a serious
pest of corn in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant
Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 131.
Smart, G. C., Jr., and N. B. Khuong. 1986. Neoaplectana carpocapsae, a
nematode parasite of insects. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Nema. Circ. No. 136.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Robert J. Griffith, Chief

The Bureau of Pest Eradication and Control is responsible for special
programs involving survey, control and eradication of specific pests to
eliminate threats to Florida's important agricultural industry and to permit
certification of crops for marketing. The presence of native or exotic
insects, mollusks, bacterial and fungal diseases often results in federal
regulation and/or special restrictions being placed on Florida's agricultural
products by important markets. The bureau accomplishes assigned programs
with a minimum permanent staff augmented with OPS temporary personnel,
as required. During this biennium period, 1 July 1986 through 30 June 1988,
the bureau has been assigned the Imported Fire Ant, Spreading Decline,
Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol, and Citrus Canker programs.

Imported Fire Ant
The Imported Fire Ant Program is a cooperative program between the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the County
Agricultural Extension Service to supply the public with fire ant control
products at a reduced cost. Amdro*, a bait control product, is purchased
and made available to the public twice each year at 66 sale locations
throughout the state. County Extension offices arrange for sale locations
and advertise through news letters and local media. During this biennium,
362,202 pounds of fire ant bait were sold. This program continues to be
fully self-supporting, with monies derived from sales defraying costs of
the program.

Spreading Decline
Spreading decline, discovered in 1953 to be caused by the burrowing
nematode, Radopholus similis (Cobb.) Thorne, has been a serious disease of
citrus. The effect has been particularly devastating in plantings of deep-
rooted citrus on the sandy soils of Polk, Highlands, Orange and Lake
counties. Natural spread of the nematode occurs as the nematode moves
through the root systems of citrus and alternate host plants. Early infestations
were increased through movement of the nematode in infested citrus and
ornamental host plants planted in or adjacent to citrus properties. By 1955,
a program of nursery stock and barrow pit certification and a program for

Division of Plant Industry

eradication and control were implemented. The United States Department
of Agriculture (USDA) surveys to detect visible decline symptoms, root
sampling for laboratory incubation and identification, and state control
activities, involving tree destruction and soil fumigation, made this a
major program. Early policy for mandatory push and treatment of infested
commercial citrus properties, without compensation, did not prevail after
court action, resulting in some infested properties being allowed to remain
as a threat to neighboring groves. These infested citrus groves and non-
citrus properties became a reservoir for the nematode which made eradication
impossible. The program became a voluntary control program to push and
fumigate infested properties and to establish fumigated buffers limiting
natural movement of the nematode. This program persisted with the
revision that growers would eventually pay full cost of the program.
In August 1983, the last ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation was
applied by the state. EDB had been reported to be contaminating ground
water, and cancellation of registration for this use was imminent. Without
an effective approved fumigant, bureau activities have been limited to
survey and sampling of problem properties upon request, certification for
real estate transactions, and assistance to the Bureau of Plant Inspection in
regulatory inspection of nursery stock, soil, clay and peat sources. The
current economic impact of spreading decline has been somewhat alleviated
due to changes in horticultural practices. The abandonment of groves to
urbanization, avoidence of planting known infested properties, use of
tolerant citrus rootstocks, improved irrigation and use of granular nematicides
have reduced losses in trees and fruit production. No specific funding for
the Spreading Decline Program has been requested by the bureau for the
Fiscal Year 1988-89.

Citrus Canker
Since the detection of citrus canker, Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri,
nursery strain, in Polk County on 26 August 1984, the bureau has been
involved in the complex Citrus Canker Eradication Program, a program of
survey, regulation and control of a bacterial disease affecting Florida's
multi-billion-dollar citrus industry. All segments of this industry-nurseries,
grove maintenance, harvesting, bulk fruit hauling, processing plants,
packing houses, shippers, wholesale and retail sales-have been affected.
In addition, ornamental citrus nurseries, stock dealers and dooryard citrus
trees have been regulated. Federal mandates establishing certification
requirements for interstate and intrastate shipment of fruit have resulted
in an increased work load for the Division of Plant Industry's Administration
Office and bureaus of Plant Pathology, Plant Inspection and Pest Eradication
and Control.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

This bureau has been charged primarily with the administration of
survey, control and regulation of citrus canker, based on federal regulations
and Florida statutes. Seventeen permanent personnel and 221 to 521 OPS
temporary personnel have accomplished the administration, purchasing,
logistical supply, personnel records, training, inventory records, vehicle
records and maintenance, planning, and assignments to inspect 700,000
acres of commercial groves, 1,294 citrus nurseries, 1,650 stock dealers, 656
regulated packing houses, 116 processors, 51 scale operators and 4,042
wholesale or retail citrus fruit establishments to allow certification of citrus
crops for processing or fresh fruit shipment. Each of these establishments
is under a compliance agreement and requires 12-30 inspections annually
to permit certification.
On 27 June 1986, the Asian strain (A strain) of citrus canker was
confirmed in Manatee County at Holmes Beach on Anna Maria Island. By
the end of June 1986, the A strain was also detected in a commercial grove
belonging to Manatee Fruit Company in Palmetto and in a residential area
in southwest St. Petersburg. These detections resulted in an intensive
increase of activity to detect, regulate and control the disease. Subsequent
detections of the A strain were made in residences in Palm Lakes Estates
and Golf Lake Estates (near Oneco), Palmetto Point (north of Palmetto) and
at Indian Beach in Sarasota. The USDA declared Sarasota, Manatee,
Pinellas and Hillsborough (south of Highway 60) counties an A-strain-
infected area and put into effect stringent rules regulating citrus and other
articles which might spread the disease. Control action in residential areas
have been to destroy positive trees, buckhorn (cut back to large wood) all
citrus trees within 50 feet of the positive tree, and apply bactericidal spray
of copper or Agri-Strep to all plant material within a 50-foot-radius and to
all host plants between 50 feet and 125 feet. All non-host material (grass
clippings, hedge prunings, mowers, hand tools, etc.) which might carry the
citrus canker bacterium has been regulated. In commercial citrus groves,
heavily infested areas were destroyed. Scattered positive trees were destroyed,
and the twelve adjacent trees were buckhored. All positive trees and
debris from buckhorning were destroyed by burning.
In one Manatee Fruit Company block of Thompson pink grapefruit
where the disease showed only early symptoms, a defoliation test was
conducted using Diquat II to destroy all foliage, green stems and citrus
canker without destroying the trees. No subsequent detections of canker
have been made in this block. Defoliation is believed to be a practical
control for eradication if the disease is detected early, before lesions are
formed in bark tissue. Approximately 25 percent of the Citrus Canker
Project effort involves survey, control and regulation to eradicate the
Asian strain of citrus canker.

Division of Plant Industry

The citrus canker nursery strain has been a major concern for the
program. During this biennium, 12 citrus nursery properties and one
commercial grove have been positive for the nursery strain. The symptoms
observed, number of plants affected, severity of disease and methods of
control have been quite variable. In all but one case, positive plants have
been destroyed, but risk assessment procedure in each case has resulted in
recommendations for control and eradication with a reduction in number
of plants destroyed and minimum-length quarantines.
A bacterial leaf spot was detected in Wampi, Clausena lansium (a citrus
relative), in five properties in Dade, Broward and Lee counties. The disease
was discovered to be similar to the nursery strain. No citrus on these
properties has shown symptoms. Changes to relax federal regulations
concerning the nursery strain have been difficult to achieve. Citrus nursery
inspection, grove inspection and residential inspection have been necessary
to allow certification of fresh citrus fruit. Major changes in USDA regulations
have been made during this biennium:

1. 27 October 1986: homeowner tree sales are allowed to resume.
2. 19 November 1986: growers are allowed to reduce the distance between
citrumelo rootstock and other nursery rootstocks in field plantings from
one-half mile to 125 feet. In greenhouses, the distance is reduced from
125 feet to thickness of enclosure wall.
3. 23 December 1986: citrumelo budwood from scion groves which have
been under Citrus Canker Project inspection for at least two years may
now be cut. Under the same guidelines, other varieties of budwood may
be cut from trees located within 125 feet of citrumelo source trees in
scion groves.
4. 1 January 1987: homeowner dooryard fruit movement approved, pro-
vided fruit is inspected by Citrus Canker Project, issued a harvesting
permit (valid for 30 days), treated at an approved facility and issued a
limited permit.
5. 1 April 1987: covering of bulk fruit during transport no longer required
outside A-strain area.
6. 30 July 1987: restrictions relaxed to allow movement of citrus rootstock
seedlings into commercial groves and budded citrus nursery trees
between citrus nurseries. Citrus harvesting operators are no longer
required to record section, township and range on trip tickets.
Packinghouse operators are no longer required to strap cartons that are
packed for sale within Florida.
Retail outlets are allowed to sell loose Florida fruit for intrastate or
interstate movement. The federal limited permit is placed on or inside
of bag.

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

7. 11 February 1988: fresh citrus fruit is allowed to move under USDA
certification to citrus-producing states, provided producing grove is
outside the A-strain area, special surveys are conducted, and a strict
decontamination program is practiced for personnel and equipment
during production and harvesting.

As more knowledge is gained of the citrus canker strains in Florida, the
program will continue to change. However, the process of change will be
complex due to the high stakes involved and multi-facet input from the
various segments of Florida's citrus industry, the citrus industries of other
citrus-producing states, the scientific community, public opinion, the
Florida legislature and state and federal regulators.

Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol
Currently, Japan and domestic markets in California, Texas and
Arizona require that citrus be certified as Caribbean fruit fly-free. The
Caribbean Fruit Fly Protocol has allowed fresh Florida citrus from Indian
River and St. Lucie counties to be certified for shipment to Japan without
post-harvest treatment with ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation or cold
treatment during 1986-87; Martin, Palm Beach and Hendrycounties were
added during the 1987-88 season.
In the 1986-87 season, fruit certification was based on a three-mile
isolation of designated areas from urban, residential or other areas of
numerous fruiting, preferred host plants (common guava, Cattley guava,
loquat, Surinam cherry, rose apple and peach) and negative trap surveys
within 1'/2 miles of the harvest areas. In 55 designated areas, a total of
16,500 acres was approved for certification. Sixteen packing houses shipped
926,076 cartons of fruit to Japan certified through this protocol. During the
1987-88 season, 90,000 acres in Indian River, St. Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach
and Hendry counties were accepted by Japan for participation in the
protocol. Approximately 32,000 acres met full certification requirements of
being free of preferred host plants, showing negative trapping results and/
or applying aerial bait spray. This season, a total of 4,461,699 '/s-bushel
cartons was certified for Japan under the protocol. This was 40.8 percent of
the total citrus export to Japan. This has been accomplished through the
cooperative efforts of the industry, DPI, the Division of Fruit and Vegetable
Inspection and the USDA/APHIS.
In preparation for the coming season, the Caribfly Technical Advisory
Committee has proposed a protocol agreement with less stringent
requirements for early season fruit, a reduced setback requirement for
preferred hosts in certification by bait spray and the elimination of certification
stamping except for the top of each carton. Caribfly personnel have

Division of Plant Industry 83

prepared trapping data to support inclusion of eastern Okeechobee County,
Big Cypress (Hendry County), and the Immokalee area (Collier County)
for participation next season. Application by growers for participation in
the 1988-89 season indicates a doubling of participation and acreage.
In addition, California has accepted certification for Caribfly by the
Japanese protocol with the exception that detection of gravid female flies
will result in suspension of eligible designated areas for the remainder of
the season. California will accept the "Certified for Japan" stamping for the
1988-89 season only. Negotiations for a similar protocol with Texas and
Korea are in progress.
Improvement of the program is directed toward staffing, office facilities,
transportation and communication to meet the anticipated protocol
certification needs of the industry.

Table 1. Citrus Canker Program Citrus Canker Detections for Period (July 1986 June 1988)

Residential Properties Date Positive No. Properties No. Trees Destroyed Strain
Bouganvilla (Pinellas Co.) 6/24/86 8 21 Asian
Anna Maria Island (Manatee Co.) 6/27/86 243 482 Asian
Lake Maggiore (Pinellas Co.) 8/01/86 1 2 Asian
Palm Lake Estates (Manatee Co.) 10/28/86 22 52 Asian
Palmetto Point (Manatee Co.) 11/11/86 4 13 Asian
Golf Lake Estates (Manatee Co.) 4/09/87 1 4 Asian
Indian Beach (Sarasota Co.) 6/10/87 1 25 Asian
Total 280 599

Grove Properties Date Positive Acres No. Trees Destroyed Strain
Manatee Fruit Company (Manatee Co.) 7/03/86 325 3,009 Asian
Bronson Enterprises (Oranae Co.) 8/04/86 40 4 Nursery
Total 365 3,013

Nurseries Date Positive Acres No. Plants Destroyed Strain
Environmental Citrus Nsy. (Polk Co.) 7/16/86 3.58 16,506 Nursery
Fred T. Snell (Pasco Co.) 8/20/86 17.30 13,897 Nursery
Ben Hill Griffin (Polk Co.) 8/18/87 14.00 18,699 Nursery
Lost Hammock Nsy. (Orange Co.) 9/29/87 2.00 107,023 Nursery
Lykes Citrus Management (Polk Co.) 10/02/87 15.00 255,531 Nursery
Phares & Allen (Hendry Co.) 10/14/87 13.00 29,505 Nursery
John Floyd & Assoc. (Pasco Co.) 10/20/87 7.00 28,691 Nursery
Evans Plantation (Pasco Co.) 10/26/87 40.00 44 Nursery
Silver Strand Nsy. (Collier Co.) 11/25/87 2.50 23 Nursery
Aliens Way (Hillsborough Co.) 11/30/87 2.50 1,384 Nursery
Berry's Ranch Nsy. (Collier Co.) 1/29/88 25.00 0 Nursery
Duck Hill Nsy. (Polk Co.) 4/12/88 .14 616 Nursery
Hopkin's Nsy. (Broward Co.) 1/08/88 1.50 33 Wampi
Markham Nsy. (Broward Co.) 2/11/88 4.00 50 Wampi
Rare Fruit Council (Dade Co.) 2/18/88 .25 140 Wampi
Silas Wood (Dade Co.) 3/02/88 1.00 7 Wampi
Treehouse Nsy. (Lee Co.) 4/21/88 15.00 45 Wampi
Total 142.02 471,919

Table 2. Spreading Decline, Burrowing Nematode, Radopholus similis, Survey All Counties

Type of Survey Number Number Samples Samples Winter Initial Reinfested
Properties Samples Gainesville Lab Haven Lab Positive Groves Positive Groves

For period July 1, 1986 June 30, 1987

Nurseries & Sites 20 958 872 96
Detection & Suspicious Area 13 272 118 154 1 3
Old Buffers 61 1,161 572 589 4 4
Delimit 8 521 424 97
Research 4 20 -
Real Estate 835 Acres 18 670 305 365 1

Total FY 86-87 124 3,612 2,311 1,301 6 7

For Period July 1, 1987 June 30, 1988

Nurseries & Sites 12 573 573
Detection & Suspicious Area 22 197 10 187 6 2
Old Buffers 62 1,058 879 179 3 6
Delimit 4 67 40 27
Real Estate 1,664 Acres 33 1,291 103 1,188 2

Total FY 87-88 133 3,186 1,605 1,581 9 10

Total Biennial 257 6,798 3,916 2,882 15 17

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Richard Clark, Chief

The Bureau of Plant Inspection is responsible for conducting surveys
for the early detection of plant pests which pose a serious threat to Florida
agriculture and for enforcing Florida Statutes and Departmental rules
pertaining to the movement of plants and plant products.
During this biennium, the bureau continued to demonstrate its ability
to respond quickly to agricultural emergencies. On March 2, 1987, two
years following the successful 1985 Medfly Eradication Campaign in
North Miami, five male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, were
trapped in a single Jackson trap located in Hialeah, Florida. Immediately
following this find, fruit fly detection activities were intensified in an 81-
square-mile area surrounding the location of the find. On March 5,1987, a
single Mediterranean fruit fly larva was detected approximately 1/2 blocks
east of the March 2nd find. As a result of the larva detection, eradication
measures were implemented. Eradication measures began with four aerial
treatments utilizing malathion and protein bait, followed by a sterile
Mediterranean fruit fly release program.
Sterile Medfly release began April 3,1987, and continued through June
16,1987. Approximately 4 million sterile flies per day were released, five
days a week, over a 49-square-mile area of North Dade County utilizing
both aerial and ground releases. Eradication was declared on July 17,1987.
Based on the recommendation of the Black Parlatoria Scale Technical
Advisory Committee which met on January 22,1987, the bureau formulated
plans and began eradication efforts directed at eliminatingblack parlatoria
scale, Parlatoria ziziphi, from a 12.25-square-mile area of North Dade
County. Eradication plans call for the removal of all black parlatoria scale-
infested citrus trees and the treatment of exposed citrus trees with a
malathion/safety-oil spray mixture. As of June 30, 1988, a total of 2,441
citrus trees infested with black parlatoria scale had been destroyed on
1,022 residential properties, and 2,551 exposed citrus trees on 1,025 properties
had been chemically treated. Following the removal of all known infested
citrus trees, three additional surveys will be conducted at 90-day intervals
to coincide with the scale insect's life cycle.

Division of Plant Industry

The second detection of the Medfly during this biennium occurred on
March 22, 1988, when one male Mediterranean fruit fly was detected in a
Jackson trap hung in a guava tree located at 8800 SW 8th Street, Miami,
Florida. Personnel from the USDA Plant Protection and Quarantine Service
and the Bureau of Plant Inspection immediately began initial response
actions. On March 23,1988, control crews were dispatched to the site of the
find and completed ground applications of Diazinon 4E to the positive
property and all adjoining properties to eliminate any newly emerging
Medfly adults. The following day all Medfly host plants located within a
radius of 660 feet of the find received one application of a protein bait spray
consisting of three pounds of 25 percent Malathion wettable powder
mixed with one quart of Nu-Lure protein hydrolysate and enough water
to make 40 gallons of spray mixture.
In addition, all Medfly host fruit from the positive property were
examined for the presence of Medfly larva. No Medfly larvae were found.
Intensified trapping continued for three life cycles of the Mediterranean
fruit fly, approximately ninety days, and the program was successfully
terminated on June 10, 1988.
On April 1,1988, the Division of Plant Industry entered into a cooperative
agreementwith the USDA toadminister the Imported Fire Antcertification
program in Florida. Administering this program will require the bureau to
have all nurseries, stock dealers, plant brokers and agents sign a compliance
agreement that stipulates conditions (i.e., treatments) which must be met
before Imported Fire Ant certification is issued. The bureau also compiles
statistical reports on all aspects of the program which includes the total
number of firms under compliance agreement as well as all reported
violations. At this time, there are 534 firms under compliance.
Following theJune 30,1987, Florida referendum in which 77percent of
the 149 cotton producers casting ballots voted to join the Boll Weevil
Eradication Program, activities began throughout the expanded area of
Alabama, Florida and Georgia. The bureau is responsible for coordinating
the collection of grower assessments and conducting all regulatory activities
associated with the program in Florida. The eradication program officially
began in Florida on September 7, 1987, with the aerial application of
Guthion 2L, an EPA-approved chemical for boll weevil control on cotton.
Applications began at five-day intervals, then went to seven-day intervals
and eventually extended to 14-day intervals with the onset of cooler
temperatures. This continued until the first freeze or until cotton stalks
were destroyed. The intent of these treatments was to severely restrict the
number of boll weevils that may survive the winter and emerge in the
spring on the new cotton crop. During the 1988 spring season, traps baited
with Grandlure (a strong sex attractant) were used to locate any remaining
weevils. Traps were placed in all cotton fields at a density of one trap per
acre. Cotton fields where two or more weevils were trapped triggered

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

pesticide applications. Due to pesticide application restrictions involving
environmentally sensitive areas as identified in the Environmental Assessment
of the program, Guthion 2L was replaced with Malathion ULV (ultra low
Program cost is shared between the USDA and the farmer. The federal
government pays 30 percent. The remaining 70 percent is the responsibility
of the farmer. Fortunately, Florida cotton producers were able to obtain
state funding to offset half of the first year's assessment of $10.00 per acre
and half of this year's assessment of $35.00 per acre. Next year's cost will
be $35.00 per acre and $25.00 per acre in the fourth year. Payments are
spread out over a four-year period for the farmer's benefit. Once the
intensive phase is completed, annual containment costs will be no more
than $10.00 per acre for as long as containment is necessary.
One of the most important aspects of this pest eradication program is
that it is a grower program. Cotton producers through individual state
foundations make up the Southeastern Boll Weevil Eradication Foundation,
which is responsible for the overall coordination of activities in the multi-
state program.
At the close of this biennium, the Bureau of Plant Inspection had 8,956
registered nurseries, including blocks, and 6,453 registered stock dealer
establishments under inspection. The amount of nursery stock in the state
at the end of the 1986-88 biennium (including trees for reforestation)
totaled 535,925,050 plants in comparison to 571,534,656 plants at the end of
the 1984-86 period.
Plant pest survey activity was greatly reduced due to various emergency
programs with only 1,760 sites surveyed during the biennium.
Since 1956, the Division of Plant Industry and the USDA have maintained
fruit fly traps throughout the state, with special emphasis directed at those
areas most likely to become infested. Bureau of Plant Inspection personnel
inspected and serviced an average of 9,156 Jackson traps on a three-week
basis and 110 McPhail traps ona weeklybasis during the 1986-88 biennium.
In addition to fruit fly traps, the bureau inspected and serviced an average
of 801 gypsy moth traps and 25 exotic pest traps each summer.
Brown garden snail, Helix aspersa, continues to be intercepted from
California with 11 interceptions on certified commercial shipments of cut
plant material, two interceptions on certified nursery stock, and one
interception on uncertified nursery stock.

Citrus Tree Survey
During this biennium, the Citrus Tree Survey inspectors spent 40
percent of their time assisting with the black parlatoria scale eradication
project and the two Medfly eradication programs. Once again, this group's
value as a ready-trained mobile force was exhibited by their contributions
to these programs.

Division of Plant Industry

The remaining 60 percent of time was spent participating in the citrus
tree census. This program is a cooperative effort between the Florida
Agricultural Statistics Service and the Bureau of Plant Inspection. Using
aerial photography as a guide, inspectors visited groves in critical areas to
update statistical information on citrus.

Other bureau activities for the biennium are summarized in the
following tables and charts.

Table 1. A Three-Year Comparison of Nursery Data

1985-86 1986-87 1987-88

No. of plant inspection districts 74.00 74.00 74.00
No. of nurseries in state 7,667.00 7,967.00 7,693.00
Total no. of inspections of
nursery stock 33,983.00 22,215.00 22,192.00
Total acreage of nurseries
in state 25,797.39' 34,785.03' 28,935.29*
Total amount of nursery stock
in state 571,534,656.00' 669,112,928.00' 535,925,050.00*

*Indudes seedling trees grown for reforestation.

Table 2. Number of Nurseries Under Inspection by Type

Type 1986-87 1987-88

Citrus 243 208
Citrus and ornamental 100 72
Citrus and other fruits and nuts 2 1
Citrus, ornamental and other fruits and nuts 15 19
Ornamental 6,460 6,301
Ornamental and other fruits and nuts 947 894
Other fruit and nuts 73 93
Native plants 75 60
Native plants and ornamental 43 36
Native plants, ornamental and citrus 1 1
Native plants, ornamental and other fruits & nuts 7 7
Native, citrus, omamental and other fruits & nuts 1 1

Totals 7,967 7,693

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Table 3. Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock, a Three-Year Comparison

1985-1986 1986-1987 1987-1988
Kind of Stock Acres Plants Acres Plants Acres Plants

Orange 10,893,795 15,310,245 12,982,555
Grapefruit 554,214 1,916,714 2,011,534
Mandarin type 271,677 701,696 1,047,044
Lemons & limes 16,429 14,118 89,870
in seed beds 14,813,531 15,340,142 10,400,752
lined out 11,439,199 10,523,906 8,929,375
citrus 75,461 81,330 99,852

Total Citrus 1,374.30 38,064,306 1,391.03 43,888,151 1,315.37 35,560,982

Ornamental 292,191,999 347,423,010 332,903,511
Other fruits
and nuts 3,297,976 2,262,667 1,892,047

Non-Citrus 24,051.83 295,489,975 32,963.98 349,685,677 27,203.91 334,795,558

Grand Total 25,458.38 333,554,281 34,355.01 393,573,828 28,519.28 370,356,540
(Citrus and Non-citrus)

Trees for
Reforestation 345.01 237,980,375 430.02 275,539,100 416.01 165,568,510

Grand Total 25,797.39
(under inspection)



34,785.03 669,112,928


Division of Plant Industry

Table 4. Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected (Not Included as Nursery Stock):
July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1988

1986-87 1987-88
Variety Growers Acres Plants or Bulbs Growers Acres Plants or Bulbs

Aquatic plants 2 8.02 10,750 2 8.02 10,750
Cabbage 1 75.00 25,000,000 1 30.40 11,406,000
Caladium bulbs 37 1,166.00 55,793,000 34 1,475.00 85,583,000
Cut fern 142 1,243.65 95,496,500 119 2,925.00 609,094,100
Misc. vegetables 6 114.25 102,280,512 6 33.45 33,888,680
Peppers 5 28.45 34,049,900 8 17.00 90,234,616
Tobacco 7 114.50 34,375,200 6 45.00 60,831,000
Tomato 7 40.10 42,242,454 11 13.00 40,567,554

Totals 207 2,789.97 389,248,316 187 4,546.87 931,615,700

Table 5. Export Certification

Items Certified 1986-87 1987-88

Aquatic plants 1,524,753 889,251
Bulbs 1,368,145 2,931,396
Bromeliads & orchids 1,678,351 86,590
Citrus & other fruit plants 77,414 398,077
Fruits & vegetables (bxs, Ibs, qts, & bags) 21,583,415 1,694,702
Miscellaneous commodities 28,617,920 44,322,934
Miscellaneous plants 55,531,124 65,166,467
Seeds (units, Ibs., cartons, & bags) 850,177 2,361,496
Tropical foliage plants 8,806,030 12,103,123

Total Units Certified 120,037,329 129,954,036

Federal Phytosanitary Export
Certificates Issued 1,325 2,027
State Phytosanitary Export
Certificates Issued 10,575 12,445

Total Certificates Issued



Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Postentry Quarantine 1986-1988
Plants entering the United States must comply with U.S. Department
of Agriculture regulations. They fit into one of four categories; refused
entry, unconditional entry, departmental permit, or postentry quarantine.
During postentry quarantine the plants are placed on the owner's property
and inspected periodically for six months to two years, then released if
pest- free. The purpose of postentry quarantine is to detect any exotic pests
which may manifest themselves during plant growth. If any exotic pests
are detected during the quarantine period, the plants are destroyed.

Plants Released from Postentry Quarantine 1986-87 1987-88

Inspections made to release plants 27 29
Plants released that were dead and destroyed 1,796 611
Plants released that were alive 508 552
Plants released 2,304 1,163
Plants Remaining Under Postentry Quarantine

Inspections of plants remaining under quarantine 81 125
Plants dead and destroyed 1,530 5,558
Plants that remain under quarantine 9,546 19,405
Total Inspections Performed 108 154

Total Number of Plants Under Quarantine
During the 1986-88 Biennium 13,380 26,126

Non-citrus Nematode Certification:
Citrus Nursery Site and Soil Pit Selection
Burrowing nematode (BN), the cause of spreading decline in dtrus,
was not detected in any citrus nursery during the 1986-88 biennium.
According to Bureau of Plant Inspection records, BN has not been detected
in a citrus nursery since 1969.
A summary of the program's activities during the 1986-88 biennium is
presented in the following tables:

Table 6. Burrowing Nematode Site Approval: Citrus & Pits 1986-88

Number of New Citrus Existing Total No. of Existing Exist.
Nematode Apr. New Sites New Sites Citrus Sites New Pits Nematode Pits Pits
County Citrus Sites Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Approved Apr. Pits Disapproved Re-eval.
Total Acres

Brevard 6 20.60 9.53 4 4 2 0 7 0 2
Broward 2 15.00 15.00 2 0 3 0 1 1 3
Charlotte 6 25.21 10.00 2 10 15 1 3 0 1
Citrus 1 0.50 0.00 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
Collier 10 100.60 142.70 7 5 61 0 2 0 2
Dade 1 0.51 0.51 2 0 1 0 2 0 0
Desoto 48 125.24 47.68 17 13 70 2 3 0 5
Flagler 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Glades 8 32.85 1.35 3 1 16 0 5 0 4
Hardee 61 203.05 20.31 18 25 184 0 3 3 5
Hendry 30 358.75 121.09 17 4 105 2 3 0 2
Hemando 3 6.35 0.00 0 1 14 2 2 0 2
Highlands 53 801.81 131.76 35 20 290 3 28 2 57
Hillsborough 37 18.01 0.71 8 11 160 4 12 0 10
Indian River 8 39.08 1.01 2 9 46 0 4 3 0
Lake 78 846.78 40.53 16 3 139 7 62 5 62
Lee 11 22.22 9.52 6 0 18 1 2 0 6
Levy 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

TABLE 6. Continued...

Number of New Citrus Existing Total No. of Existing Exist.
Nematode Apr. New Sites New Sites Citrus Sites New Pits Nematode Apr. Pits Pits
County Citrus Sites Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Approved Pits Disapproved Re-eval.
Total Acres

Manatee 6 6.60 0.30 3 12 26 0 1 0 1
Marion 3 15.50 0.00 0 0 8 1 1 0 1
Martin 4 69.75 0.60 2 1 11 0 0 0 0
Monroe 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Okeechobee 10 35.07 5.06 3 0 23 3 7 2 4
Orange 27 239.39 6.64 6 3 47 1 19 0 23
Osceola 17 59.74 0.16 3 5 28 0 2 0 1
Palm Beach 3 1.08 0.00 0 0 0 4 4 2 5
Pasco 9 124.36 38.21 15 11 186 0 0 0 0
Pinellas 1 0.10 0.00 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Polk 129 658.65 53.11 40 30 431 12 51 18 114
Putnam 1 0.01 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sarasota 0 0.00 0.00 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Seminole 1 5.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Sumter 3 2.64 0.00 0 0 3 0 8 1 5
St. Lucie 14 125.18 19.06 6 11 52 1 3 1 5
Volusia 2 10.75 0.01 1 3 7 0 9 4 10
Others 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

Year to Date

674.85 218 183 1947

45 251 43 332

593 3970.38

TABLE 7. Burrowing Nematode Certification: Non-Citrus 1986-88

No. of Nematode New New Nsys. New Nsys. Exisitng Nsys. Existing Nsys. Cumulative Total
County Cert. Nurseries Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Disapproved by Certification Type
Total Acres I II 1I1

Brevard 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Broward 32 225.87 60.50 11 0 156 5 34 28 52
Charlotte 1 5.00 5.00 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Citrus 1 0.10 0.00 0 0 0 0 1 1 2
Collier 15 538.96 434.85 10 0 20 6 11 16 0 -
Dade 231 1659.45 526.95 94 1 762 5 215 125 162 '
Desoto 5 21.53 8.02 2 0 9 0 6 6 2 o
Flagler 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
Glades 2 18.00 0.00 0 0 10 6 6 0 2 R
Hardee 6 56.30 54.25 3 0 4 0 9 8 0
Hendry 6 207.35 5.35 3 1 18 1 5 5 1
Hemando 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Highlands 6 61.12 1.14 6 0 8 5 5 3 3 .
Hillsborough 8 37.50 19.25 4 0 5 0 2 4 9
Indian River 1 0.01 0.01 1 0 0 1 2 0 0
Lake 11 11.59 11.52 10 1 1 2 13 2 0
Lee 33 131.96 59.90 12 0 101 1 10 19 29
Levy 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Manatee 9 41.45 17.20 2 0 10 1 10 8 8

TABLE 7. Continued...

No. of Nematode New New Nsys. New Nsys. Existing Nsys. Existing Nsys. Cumulative Total
County Cert. Nurseries Acreage Approved Disapproved Re-evaluated Disapproved by Certification Type
Total Acres I 11 11

Marion 1 4.00 4.00 1 0 4 5 1 0 0
Martin 5 9.50 7.90 1 0 10 3 0 6 9
Monroe 0 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Okeechobee 4 1266.00 67.00 2 0 7 2 7 0 0
Orange 93 182.26 153.33 80 10 61 11 60 7 58
Palm Beach 87 792.91 492.45 55 1 327 25 78 82 101
Pasco 1 0.10 0.00 0 0 2 0 1 1 2
Pinellas 1 1.50 0.00 0 0 2 1 1 1 2
Polk 9 28.75 18.45 5 0 23 4 5 0 8
Putnam 1 32.00 32.00 1 0 0 1 2 1 0
Sarasota 5 3.26 2.66 3 0 5 0 3 3 7 5-
Seminole 7 15.77 15.77 5 2 1 2 5 3 3
Sumter 1 5.00 2.00 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 .
St. Lucie 3 645.50 0.50 1 0 1 0 3 4 0
Volusia 2 7.21 7.21 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 g
Others 32 476.58 0.60 2 0 35 1 35, 4 27 3.

Year to Date
Totals 619 6486.53 2007.81 317 16 1585 88 531 339 499

Type I Certification for Texas, Louisiana and European Economic Community
Type II Certification for Arizona
Type III Certification for California

Division of Plant Industry

Timothy S. Schubert, Chief

The Bureau of Plant Pathology serves as a plant disease clinic for
diagnosis of diseases of nursery and greenhouse crops, field crops, fruit
and vegetable crops, landscape and interiorscape ornamental plants and
native flora. Samples for diagnosis are received from DPI plant inspectors
for regulatory and academic purposes and, as a consumer service, from
commercial and noncommercial plant growers to diagnose plant diseases
and recommend control measures.
Routine bureau functions include crop and seed indexing for exotic
and endemic pathogens, tissue culture to rid plant introductions from
plant pathogens, indexing of citrus introductions from outside of Florida
for virus and virus-like pathogens, surveying for new diseases in Florida,
initiating investigations of new or exotic diseases which may pose a threat
to Florida agriculture, as well as new or improved detection methods for
these disease-causing organisms, and responding to major disease threats
in cooperation with other state and federal agencies.
Citrus canker played a prominent role in bureau activities during the
biennium. During the summer and fall of 1986, the Asiatic strain of citrus
canker was detected in more than 1,600 citrus trees in one grove and
several hundred residences in the west coast counties of Hillsborough,
Pinellas, Sarasota and Manatee. Spotted recurrences of the Asian strain
were detected over the subsequent 18 months in both the grove and in
residential areas.
The nursery strain of citrus canker was detected in two nurseries and
one grove in fiscal year 1986-87, and in ten nurseries in fiscal year 1987-88.
In addition, a bacterial spot Xanthomonas campestris was discovered in five
separate locations in South Florida on Clausena lansium (wampi), a citrus
relative. All host range studies with the wampi isolates have demonstrated
pathogenicity on Clausena excavata, Murraya paniculata, Aegle sp., Feronia
limonia, and Poncirus trifoliata in addition to C. lansium. Since the discovery
of the nursery strain in 1984, considerable research and discussion have
been devoted to the proper taxonomic designation of these pathogens. As
of the close of the biennium, evidence was accumulating of genetic
differences between nursery strains and other previously known strains of
Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri, but available information was considered
insufficient to warrant a taxonomic change at that time.
The Plant Disease Diagnosis course taught by bureau pathologists was
successfully completed by 16 graduate students from the University of
Florida departments of Plant Pathology, Agronomy, Entomology, Weed

Thirty-seventh Biennial Report

Science and Forestry. A six-month internship program commenced in June
1988 for Ms. Terry Thompson, a graduate student from the University of
Georgia Department of Plant Pathology. Upon completion of her training,
Ms. Thompson will assume duties as Plant Protection Officer/Plant
Pathologist in Bermuda.
Bureau pathologists who have served in numerous service/leadership
roles for the profession include: Dr. Jack McRitchie as chairman of Plant
Disease Diagnosticians Committee for the American Phytopathological
Society, and as a member of the committee compiling a Plant Disease
Diagnosis Manual; Dr. Larry Brown as a member of the American
Phytopathological Society Committee on Ornamental and Turfgrass Diseases,
and the IFAS Vegetable Disease Task Force addressing the multiple
problems of tomato uneven ripening, squash silverleaff" disorder, lettuce
infectious yellow virus, and sweet potato whitefly; Dr. Tim Schubert on a
Forest Nursery Task Force on poor pine seedling survival in certain north
Florida counties, on the Joint State/Federal Citrus Canker Technical
Advisory Committee, Citrus CankerSpecial Task Force, and CitrusCanker
Risk Assessment Group.
Plant disease investigations/pathogenicity tests conducted or in progress
during 1986-88 include: Discovery of the sexual stage of the pathogen that
causes Cylindrocladium leaf spot on Ilex vomitoria, Calonectria avesiculata;
Pseudocercospora feijoae, a new leaf spot pathogen on Feijoa sellowiana;
Xanthomonas leaf spot on Photinia xfraseri; host range studies of Xanthomonas
campestris leaf spot pathogen of Clausena lansium; pathogenicity tests of the
Alternaria sp. isolates from blighted Juniperus virginana foliage; discovery
of Cylindrocladium leucothoae, a proposed new species of a leaf spot pathogen
isolated from Leucothoe axilaris; pathogenicity tests of Phytophthora parasitica
on Radermachera sinica; foliar distortion and witches' brooming of Lagerstroemia
indica and other woody ornamentals caused by glyphosate herbicide
misapplication; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum pathogenicity test on
Leucaena leucocephala; improved diagnostic techniques for Tomato Spotted
Wilt Virus in ornamental plants.
The bureau has acquired a photographic dissecting microscope for
rapid documentation of macroscopic plant disease symptoms and signs.
New diagnostic procedures to be implemented are double-stranded RNA
analysis for viral plant disease detection, and cultural/serological techniques
for isolation of fastidious xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogens.
During the biennium, the bureau processed 18,139 samples for citrus
canker diagnosis, and 12,454 samples were processed through the regular
diagnostic laboratory. Ninety-seven new diseases were recorded. Of that
number, twelve pathogens were reported in Florida for the first time, and
85 represented expanded host ranges for pathogens previously reported in
the state.

Division of Plant Industry

Bureau personnel published the following scientific/technical
contributions during the fiscal years 1986-88:

Alfieri, S.A. Jr., and T. S. Schubert. 1986. Cercospora leaf spot of petunia.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No.
SW. H. Ridings, D. J. Mitchell, and N. E. El-Gholl. 1987. Leaf blight of
dogwood, Comus florida, caused by Phytophthora parasitica. Plant Dis-
ease 71:555-556.
C. L. Schoulties, and N. E. El-Gholl. 1987. Leaf and stem infection of
Torreya taxifolia in Florida. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 291.
Barnard, E. L. and S. P. Gilly. 1986. Charcoal root rot of pines. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 290.
SS. P. Gilly, N. E. El-Gholl. 1986. Characterization and comparative
pathogenicity of four Nectria galligena isolates from Florida. Phytopa-
thology 76:1059.
Barnard, E. L., and G. M. Blakeslee. 1987. Pitch canker of southern pines.
Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No.
ST. Geary, J. T. English, and S. P. Gilly. 1987. Basal cankers and
coppice failure of Eucalyptus grandis in Florida. Plant Disease 71:358-
,and P. F. Cannon. 1987. A new species of Monascus from pine
tissues in Florida. Mycologia 79:479-484.
Breman, L. L. 1987. Tobacco etch virus. Fla. Dept. Agric. & Consumer
Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 297.
Brown, G. E., and T. S. Schubert. 1987. Use of Xanthomonas campestris pv.
vesicatoria to evaluate surface disinfectants for canker quarantine
treatment of citrus fruits. Plant Disease 71:319-323.
Burgess, S. M., O. B. Lawson, J. W. Miller, and A. B. Chase. 1986. Leaf spot
and blight of basil, Ocimum basilium, caused by Pseudomonas cichorii.
Proc. FL State Hort. Soc. 99:249-251.
El-Gholl, N. E., L. Ajello, and R. P. Esser. 1986. Sporotrichosis. Fla. Dept.
Agric. & Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Ind., Pathol. Circ. No. 286.
E. L. Barnard, and R. A. Schroeder. 1986. Homothallism in Nectria
galligena. Canadian Journal of Botany. 64:902-903.
___,. W. Kimbrough, E. L. Barnard, S. A. Alfieri,Jr., and C. L. Schoulties.
1986. Calonectria spathulata sp. nov. Mycotaxon. 26:151-164.
A. R. Chase, S. A. Alfieri, Jr., and C. L. Schoulties. 1987. Occurrence
of microconidia in Cylindrocladium heptaseptatum. Canadian Journal of
Botany 65:1733-1735.

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