The Florida times-union
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075920/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Florida times-union
Uniform Title: Florida times-union (Jacksonville, Fla. 1903)
Portion of title: Florida times union
Alternate title: Sunday times-union
Florida times-union, Jacksonville journal
Abbreviated Title: Fla. times-union
Physical Description: Newspaper
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: December 27, 1964
Publication Date: 1903-
Frequency: daily
Subjects / Keywords: Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 38 (Jan. 20, 1903)-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 08334948
lccn - sn 83045831
issn - 0740-2325
System ID: UF00075920:00001
 Related Items
Related Items: Semi-weekly Florida times-union
Related Items: Semi-weekly times-union (Jacksonville, Fla. : 1903)
Preceded by: Florida times-union and citizen
Preceded by: Jacksonville journal (Jacksonville, Fla.)

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From the Original LtMoynt Painting. Covritsii of the Ntw fort Public library

Kneeling Savages W r.hip.Ribault Column as an Indian Chief Rettt Hit Arm Around the Shoulder of the French Commander, Rene de Laudonniere 5 5r

Ft. Caroline: The Birthplace of It All i r;




Out of the Agony of Massacre 400 Years Ago, a New World Took Root

;, Admiral Pedro Menenrtea de Avlles"bad murder In his heart There were Indians aplenty l In i that wilderness. At first they
and,massacre on his mind as he led hla column of Spanish soldiers had been friendly to the French. But misunderstandings had
J against tlie French Harrison at Foil Caroline oj>>; a gloomy turned friendliness into suspicion and finally hostility.
i morning 399 years ago. I
Y The result was that the French suffered from a lack of food

t The admiral leaned forward In his saddle, bracing! himself I and other commodities the Indians, no longer would supply.
1 against hurricane-Ilk winds and slinging -rain that rang like
hall on nil ornate helmet. If he was thinking about anything ; The French wHtlers" had arrived In 1V>4 under the leadership
except bring wet and miserable he was probably dwelling on the 'iof Rene de Laudonnlpr: a middleaged"mariner I who bad called
, thought that this would be a good day for a victory.He with Jean Ribault; In 1.V2 when he discovered the St. Johns
I River Laudonnier's armada to the New World carried 300 per-
ions In three ships, but no farmers were among the settlers.
rode on, auspiciously eying the French renegades who--

traitors to their own-were leading his force of 300 men against theY had built their fort-namrd Caroline In honor of King
their unwary countrymen, fortified "behind' a flimsy stockade I Charles .IX -on a flat, defensible site. A triangular stockade was
within pistol shot of what Is now one of Jacksonville's. most I complete with earthwork and there! wore a number of buildings

populous suburbs Inside the walls as well as i few houses on a meadow beyond.

The storfn .as to he an ally of the Spaniards that Sept. 20. x. t 'l.rr E\ ent.. other than weather, act the. fort up for massacre
t.65, nearly tour centuries ago. There had been a quick disillusion when the New World failed to
yield easy riches When Rifts of silver from friendly Indians
sf q P! turned out to be loot from aunken Spanish treasure ships discontent .
skeleton force of French t,
At Fort Caroline a soldiers and t 1 exploded into mutiny and a group of the colonists seizedone
women and children-about 240 In all-went about their dailychores a anchored
of the three vessels offshore at Fort Caroline, and
as beat they eould-ln the driving rain taking comfort in ," r } nth 1 sailed off In search of plunder. They managed to capture one
s fr
the thought that the storm would discourage any expedlUnna or ,rS{ t "4 "? ; i ,a,Y z small Spanish vessel and attack and raze a Cuban hamlet before
against the fort their privateer was overhauled by a Spanish man of war. The
activities of the renegade band gave the Spaniards their first
about the existence of threatening force the
Information on
At least that wan the thought of the officer In command who ih r 4 ri a
St Johns River
rpade the! fatal error of underestimating Admiral Menendcz.
assuming that no commander would drive, his men to battle
While all this was going: on. other discontents at Ft. Caroline
jungle wilderness in- miserable weather.
through a such brewed another pot of trouble for Laudonnler They also seized
one of the fort's ships and sailed oil In search of treasure. The

The French commander M. de la Vlgne. feeling safe behindthe Spanish wasted no time, captured the vessel executed some _
storm and the stockade of his fort relieved his watch and of the crew for piracy, but allowed about 23 to escape. They returned
Ft. Caroline and Laudonnler executed the ringleaders
left the ramparts without defenders. The men were happy enough wto .
to be out of the rain and some huddled around kitchen fires i f Nn". i after a trial. v
drying themselve.,pff and taking the morning chill out of their a'ta ,
bones. -"" Then camp the trouble with the Indians, who cull off supplies S
\ r rnre from the fort. An expedition to take by force from the Indians
% r what could not be gained in friendship, ended In failure. The 1
V wy of the women settlers bad a premoniubo! of disaster colonists petitioned Laudonnler to return them to France but
they didn't let on. There were about 70 women nd\ children In with two ships captured by the Spanish! the prospect looked
the fort, and-the little ones played game or ran about performing dim. -
the kind of.. chores that have been a child' lot from time
Immemorial. r + When Capt. John Hawkln'1\ English trader put Into their
4 port seeking water the French traded their cannon arms and
powder jor one of the four ships In Hawkins' fleet. But as they
Perhaps someone stopped a moment listening;. The day was
were preparing to return to France a relief expedition underContinued
oppressive. The weather was enough to make one edgy. But If the! 4
weather hadn't been bad the Imposing wilderness growing
around the fort and down to the St. Johns River was enough to Diorama at Fort Caroline National Memorial Depicts Attack by Spanish on French in 1564
peep a person wary ( on A-Column I)
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I Chief Players in the Struggle for Florida .

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MenenJet J. Avilei Th, Duke ol Alba Valoi. CatparJ Jt Coil 5ny Rene Jt LauJonnitrtt.1582 Charles IX Cathtrtnt Jt Medici

1519.1574, 1508.1583 1546-1568 /52 1516-J 572 1550-74 I I9-8g ,

A* commander of King Philip During the controversy In Daughter 'of Catherine de A powerful 'Majority of credit tor th, first When the Spaniards attacked Became kin, of Prance at Mother of three French kings
IT, fleet which wu lent to the Florida between Spain and Medic! and Henry U. she mar. Spain and e French settlement In the New the French Port 'Carollni in the ass of 10 at the death of and wife of Henry II, eho'U'
fled Philip U. king of Spain la Franol n. He the neat behind the throne
hu brother wu power
New World be wu a ruthless France Alba wu the real man Catholic World
power wu attributed to him, 1M4, hi wu commander of the
1159and became Queen Isabelli. the too of Henry n and Cath- for moat of her life. Her tint
but able' officer On a mission behind the throne. He wu Her father wu wounded needing, his ( One of the Huguenot leaden, hi.wu French Colony: In the stale, Brine de Medici, and wu but son, Francis H died In 1MO and
to clear Florida of all heretic, alao president of the Council of and killed la a tournament during to the throne an adviser to Catherine di* Boarding a French teasel, hi city In the hands ol !lIB mother wu auooteded by: his tea-year-
he attacked"and captured the Blood, the high tribunal against her marriage festivities) Itwu married three Medici. She appreciated him not escaped to England In October who really handled attain ol old brotbar Charles IX and then
French fort and massacred all -the heretic, Ai trusted confidant / through Fourquevaux the of Portugal and : u she did nothing to save him 19611. Upon his return to France, state during his rolin. Charles Henry BL Moat of bar effort
French ambassador, that the England both from being murdered In the hi found thi court wu hostile wu of llltli help in untangling were timed at maintaining a
the surviving Frenchmen on Ri and adviser to King Philip sent word to her mqther of everything and finally to II. Bartholomew musacn ot toward him and hi died without the civil and nllglous strife at balance between the Catholics
bault' ships when they: were U. he went with Queen Isabella Philip was doing or bit Henry U and U71 honor or recognition.. thliUm*. and the Hujueaot
wrecked. to the Bayonne conference.. tended to do. Medld,


I Museum Is Tribute to Ber

B) tYSrlll.PARKS over too) :run past National; historians, since he lave the first devil have all )
tMM-UilM" Miff "*. Park Service. historian Albert pictorial record of Europe's contact n 1* laid (hit
Manner offers the first guide: with the American native taught parts of
T The making of a museum U The writing of a museum pro and his customs, LeMoyni'i use u \ '
nohe sirnple'gathertnr together spectus. e drawings Were printed in a book long Spaniard from r, dr sot 'I
of artifacts and massing them by Theodore DeBry called +
on the historical .lte particularly A prospectus enumerate whit "America of 1591." A copy of the Livelihood II I
then the said artifact and site la available In historical data history by the Library of Com materials ;
ir. ""me log feet out from shore and how 1i will be shown to grew ti la the Fort'Caroline clay for bricks;
ac i in the middle of a shipping .
inform and'' Interest both adult Museum, long: Indian crops I'r
lam Despite these limitations,
and children It alto prophesies and squash; ;
in 1953 the
Fort Caroline
National Memorial became the facilities needed. ," Of course, there wen some passenger pigeon
extinct for to ...
disappointments. the collecting, '
a reservoir of Information on the
tin I Protestant colony In the The first decision wu the site at in the silver medallion turnedup the colonist
Untied State of a visitor center. The center's by a plow. With scrutiny the starving that
back window wu to be in an thrill faded: It was a religious' dential look of
Chief enthusiast for memorializing exact location to overlook the lost medal cf the 1870e.
the short-lived French fort site.Relics. Fort
colony wa, and Is, VS. Rep. Indian object that pro-date the
Charles E Bennett. His Interest' I tee must be-collected: European,landin' were donatedby 'Historian and s
date from about 1930 when Ben- dug up or dredged from the deep the public-epirlted: A mill tide by side to
nap moved here with his family with the aid of archaeologist, Ituman-shaped clay effigy aboriginal rama showing
from Tampa frogmen, historians or simply tools, a dugout dredged up descent on the :;
little boys with 'finds.- w from a lake bottom and a pair research time, it
Early: Attempt of clay balla that until recently j and tsooo0 build.Through ,
Alter graduating In 1934 from Ancient Rtol Found were thought to bear out a deplo j
the University of Florida' College tines by LeMcyne'a of the Indiansat ;;
of Law Bennett became An example of the last wu play The bails were used for the
active in the Junior Chamber of the finding of a gold ring In an cooking. They were heated white of Rep Bennett
Commerce. "I wu chairman of Indian mound nean..the beach hot and dropped Into a kettle original A
time IM been Replica of Rlbault'i Marker Stands Watch a committee In the Junior Chamber closes' to the county line between that could not stand the Intensityof :
-of Commerce la the early here and St, John E. O. Adams the fire. The Indians did play\ : astrolabe, a : ,- '
}030i actively backing the Idea wu ti boy then and found it at ball but the balk were Of animal for night use by: ""
of making the Fort Caroline area play Years later, when the skin.or a bladder, an armlllary: with .,
Into a state or federal park,", museum became a reality, lie Instructional use, ,0 ::
said Bennett. "When I wu lathe I donated It. velvetjlrod pocket yf, .. 'f. ,, ,. + .,1'.4 t 4
4 ev
Ivory Madonna a '
State Legislature In 1941, I ,+rt ar "ai ia4r' a :
attempted( to pas a law creating One other Item believed to be On June SI, a
a state park with the idea of the directly associated with Laudon- From Europe: In the mld-lOTOsi: fort Hself was :
federal government taking over nlere't colony la a bar shot foundIn An Ivory madonna recalling on a remnant
the park at a later date t wa St. Johns Bluff and donated Catholic France and a 1M1 copy plain spared by
not able to pas this legislation by: W.. M. Jones.Archaeologtats'. of John'CaivIn'I Institute Chris the fort U about :
tianas' Rellglonls, undenglrder of and built
After war service Bennett wu test trenches' the strong faith of the Frewft logs of LeMoyne. d'4'
seated In the D.S. Congress In Found geological and aboriginal Huguenot settlers. and soddtd, the 4 i.
1949. "One; of the first bin I data, but no European evidence. 1 ed by I
introduced wu to create a national U%. Navy divers came up with 1 Tool of the day were hard to Though ,the Iana"
park ladlllY at Fort Caro nothing either, for the course of find, An ax was purchased, and up In a hurry to tlfte'J
tine sae The bill was passed the river had meandered In the nail unearthed In 1950 in Maine the nearbY
i ino law by the slat Congress In 400 year past and sliced away having a similar background: the adequate to
ft itKMSei' of 1950. and the land Ustory. 1604-03 explorations of Sieur de of that dayReproductions:
via acquired through the dona- Mont and Samuel de ChampIsJn.
t ''I i o' pirate funds, while theft interest ,
However the historians of
.il] ucvernment now bear
once kindled brought a ; Smithsonian Institution lent a none are being
tl cost of administration,
variety of fascinating and valuable virginal and a 1562 Genevan Industries Two
Museum Prospectus Items. The 1564-6) colony' Psalter shows what the Protestants poundersv secured
cartographer wu Jacques Le sang then psalms from Spanish
Ai to the actual mechanics ofee Moyne de Morgue, who was also the Bible set to popular melodies. I cleaned and
n,: up a memorial to a elte an accomplished artist His drawings (Reformation leader Martin Lu ton for
DOW cone and a period of history are still source material for I ther queried "Why should the 'seum.

I Ft. Caroline: The Birthplace of

:(Continued from A-l) here when I reached these provincesonly two ; *
escaped and those very miserable ones with some w rv
sons In them.

Jean Ribault arrived, and among those on board were farmers
The furious when of the .
to till the soil and keep the fort supplied with food Europe Diplomatic were relations between dews the French The' Parade Ground of the Reconstructed Fort Caroline Near St. Johns Bluff

With Rlbault'i reinforcements!, the French numbered about were,such, however, that it wu necessary to
1,000 effective troops. But the Spanish admiral, Menendez, sent shaky peace. So the French took: no formal action.
bhla accept the Spanish argument that the French aaramNewRwwx.www .. .. '
king to colonize Florida and drive out the settlers of any ""l. II '
other nation arrived with another fleet about the Same time. Ida were pirate and heretics and thus outside I : 1,

Within! five days the Spaniards tried to close on the French But at feast one Frenchman, 40-year-old '
fleet but it managed to slip away. Menendez sailed south and lounges wasn't willing to let the matter end
founded what Is now St. Augustine Hearing of this, Ribault fitted three ships for what he advertised aa a slave : 1 Fa '
mustered his men, took the bulk of them aboard Ills ships and and rounded up a force of 180 men, But tha course
set sail to Attack Menendei he left Bordeaux revealed bus true intentions
sailed directly for the mouth of St.John River
That's when the storm hit-setting op the massacre at Ft.

Cuollne. In the spring of 1568 lounges landed' north of
Rlbault'i fleet buffeted parleyed 'with tome Indian and managed to
wu by winds of hurricane force, tipL-L
driven lies. He learned that the Spanish bad built two
ashore near Matanzas Inlet and wrecked, The calamity:
the river mouth and launched an expedition, .
extracted toll
a high of casualties among bIB army of 800.
wen captured and Oourgei prepared for the e
Indiana carried the newcof the disaster to Menendei and he x
seized the initiative issuing orders immediately to his army: of against Fort Caroline, renamed Ban )Mate by: the

Say()( for an overland march to hit Ft. Caroline In the rear. It On April 14, 1568 Oourges' men kurrounded
took four days and the Spaniards arrived on the night of Sept. Spanish guns opened fire' the gates opened and t
19, tired, wet and discouraged, their gunpowder useless. The men armored Spaniard attempted a sortie against the 4s'x
wanted to abandon the fight, but the admiral persuaded them to Spaniard were cut down mercilessly.: This abrupt }
try at !least one attack. moralized the remnant of the garrison and they j'
wood. ,,' Indian allies .r ,
At There Opur. were) waiting-
dawn on Sept. 20, after being ordered to spare women and
children the army swept forward into the clearing! around' the Only a few Spaniard escaped to carry news of \ r
fort. But the storm that had soaked the Spaniards' gunpowder, to St. Augustine. Gauges meanwhile burned San ,
making their flrearma useless had hurt the French even more. fled at last that the Insult to France bad been
A careless commander had ordered the watch down from the :
ramparts. There were ao defenders ready and someone in a San Mateo wu rebuilt and maintained by the
moment of panic, left a main gate open Laudonnler managed out the colonial period as a fort, mission and
to rally some of his men and a party: slipped away in the following British Era in Florida ((1764-13) a thriving }
/ confusion. But In an hour of fierce hand-Ioband combat, 132 veloped in the area dominated by a defensive
ol the fort's defenders, were cut to ribbons John Bluff. Zephanlah Klngsley the slave trader i eS
: yard In the area la the early 18001.' The ; :
Fort Caroline was garrisoned\ with Spanlab troop and NenenI heavy guns on the bluff during the Civil War r
4 I des marched south again; seeking out the survivors of Ribault' artillery duel with a flotilla of Union gunboats from
fleet. Five hundred had survived storm and ihlpwreckNpf these, point. During the' Spanish-American War< a e fs
150 died battling Indian and. -attacking Spsnlsrds\Hungry artillery was erected on the bluff and the :
and helpless, the remaining 350 surrendered but' M nendel heavy I\IIIIIDIt thick wall of their rnaiadnee S
ordered them killed: Another massacre The site of the/ bloody: 3h.
day' work still bears the name Matanzas meaning slaughters. The actual sits of Fort Caroline I* now '
Only a few of the 1,000 officers! and men who hid arrived erosion after the St John was deepened la the
al t Fort Carolina escaped the series of disasters. Frenbhy power replica: of the fort-true la every detail-stands today '
la the gulf region of the New World wu broken clearing the the original-site, about 10 mile from downtown
way 'for the Spanish development of their stronghold at St. Port Caroline Road In Arlington. At the earns s 4
Augustine Caroline Natlonal 'Nemorlai Museum contains _

the story of the day 400 year ago when Spain ,,, .a are. .ev..orq WAw N u wen..
In his official report of, the campaign Menendei said: "Of clashed In Duval County In the first war between'
.....a thousand French with an armada of 12 tall who bad landed .what la now the United States of America. Only for Show Now But Once for heal The Reconstructed Arch over Main EntranceAGZ

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Forts, Some Obscure, Other Famous, !


I Hold Key Roles in the Florida Story


BJ ALBERT 'MANVCY fortified colonies In addition, he St Augustine, to guard the river a master plan for a fort system strong Martello towers to prevent !
*-.., Kulontt Pu* ...*... built blockhouses la strategic Indian crossing of the road to, Apalache extending from Maine to Texas enemy landings on the
Four hundred years' of history' country Tampa Bay.Char Much of the plan was carried
havi given Florida dozens of military lotte Harbor Miami, and the Indian Associated with the later Spanish out In the 1830s, 40s, and SOs beaches. In North Florida Forts Castillo de San Marcos as It Appeared in An 1885 Print
files and landmarks Some River areas), occupation Were fortifications Marlon and Clinch were briefly
are. of treat hlstoricaT Impor Fart Marina 1 occupied by Southern forces.
such San Nicolas at
as battery I
tance. Others are obscure and Hostile Indians
forgotten But each played a part the Cow Ford (Jacksonville)I. The Castillo .at St Augustine i But only at Pensacola did a Arsenal Dates Back to 1588 -

la the Florida story As the Indians:turned hostile Queaada'batLer)' at the mouth was rechristened Fort )to1ooand real contest occur&vaee artillery s

the distant blockhouses bad to of the St. Johns, and the harbordefenses modernized with an up-todat duel between the Federal ST AUGUSTINE. Dee. 2t-The racks On patrols to the south I(I On Aug IS. 1907, the State of '

aoadee.iieereecctted) .defenses by I the )"" '1 abandoned. ( .Jn"'( !."their..W'Tr""( .....pdu" at Fernandma ,I,, ''water t bakery: In 1842. Soon garrison!! }t Fort PIckens and buildings and grounds now comprising -: among' the harried plantationsalong Florida leased the buildings forsterm

I Indians around their milages': '4jry' ;I panuD.1_ pAiih4n;, / ,. '{l:ut skd6la, with notable harbor afterward ,'Vn\H'"began on the ConfctoroM/! batteries( across the the state arsenal at St.i the Mosquito and Tomoko of five years as stats
stations/ '' Augustine an some of the most River districts, as wen as on u UfaryKBeadquartersThe ,
This carefully located watch great btdl! blurts which the elsewhere
was a surprising achievement also bad its share of tar were bay. Here as \ strongnaval '
historical In They
our country. missions Johns
along the St
for a stone much, closer to st. Augustine. last word In defense for Flortda ,
people who
but few backed the Federal
ttflcatlons were per- support up have occupied a central theme: River main building was' gutted ,
lacked efficient: woodcutting tools The worsening situation forced s key harbors At Key West, Y
manent structures San Carlos
garrisons As a result the In the military history of all of I by fire In December 1915, but
But it was hardly worth the Spain to (all back on military battery, constructed of brick, Is Fort Taylor was started In 1845,
farlaIeped' Florida but particularly In the again the original walls,were unharmed
brick \ to blockadethe During the, War Between the
trouble they went to. since the defenses The succession of earth- now the sole remnant of the That was the year Florida became of I
thatch: buLl inside the palisade and.timber forts at St Augustine Spanish works, a atatt The biggest fort very harbors they were built development Northeast Florida : States Union troops were qua and for several 18-
of all began at Tortugas hi .1846 Including, Jacksonville ; Prod In the barracks and other the building lay In dismal ruins.
wen easily burned by the fire nave way in 1671 to Castillo de to defend
arrows of the attackers; San Marcos the atone fort which facilities were added. It remained Temporary headquarters were
has become Florida best known Indian War Forts Today Ills Fort Jefferson National .Changes/ weapons and tactics The state arsenal one of ..ver'l a military post following the established In other buildings of.
European style fortification landmark. Monument The engineers al buildings comprising st. cessation of hostilities and the the post. w
The Spanish return after'tIe have long since made fortifications cis Barracks, and one of kIn
came with the French In 1564 As solved mammoth'problems. of personnel} ther added a military
taudonniere and his people sailed Other Important sites were also Revolution ended with Florida oversea supply and underwater of this kind obsolete oldest", buildings In st. Augustine., flavor to the city During the I 1921 Congress passed an act II
np the st. Johns River and set to fortified. .A second San Marcos cession to the United Stale in construction to make sure that Is the headquarters. for the Military time that Ceronimoa Indians donating St Francis Barracks to
work on Fort Caroline the Indians this onecalled San Marcos de 1821 and the Seminole War of an enemy could not VM those Florida Is in another age We .Department State of Florida were Imprisoned in the Castillo the State of Florida for military ,
watched curiously Later, Apalsehe, was built In the fertile the 1830s found U.S. troops buildIng Isolated, Islands in case of war have built a' new kind of installatlon and the Florida National soldiers. of the barracks wen I purposes and the Legislature appropriated (
when it came time to roof some Indian lands near Tallahassee a network of blockhouses on the coastal promontory Guard. their guard i sufficient funds to restore
of the fort buildings the natives Begun In 1675,. this fort had just as Menendes had done In At Pensacola! : not one, I the' Spanish called Cape I sIn I the buildings F, A. Hol.
pitched In and showed the newcomers a colorful history Eventually It the 1500s Forts Peyton and PI three forts were built MeRe! Canaveral. It Is- a watch station This structure has'aot always 1867 the ,st. Francis Barracks Ungsworth local architect under
how to use palm leaves was rebuilt In stone, and the colata near St. Augustine, Fort and Plckens faced each othei for looking Into the future been a military headquarters! were remodeled by the the direction of the late Adjutant
for roof thatching, ruins are extant today as a state King (OcaJal, Fort Brooke (Tampa across the entrance channel: War Department Several sets of General Charles P. Lovell. drew .
) and Fort Dallas Miami) Barrancas i Religious Era 1513 176! I
park commanded the spa- I, officers quarters were built. the plans for the restoration and
FreDch'Fort Caroline caused were only a. few of these ail- clous harbor) At Femandlna t i Suites and reception moms were modernization of the old barracks ,I
Spain to make good her claims Blockhouse Defenses but f forgotten military pouts. Fort -Clinch was started in 1850. The first records of this property constructed to cater to gala modeling them after the '
to Florida Pedro Mcnendez Thanks to the Indian War historians Forts Clinch and Plckens are now :: i "Old Spanish Documents" affairs: An event which never lines of the former:structure
founded St. AUll'USllne'ln' 1565 and :Related defenses were the however, most of the popular state parks I. Indicate that thi. Franciscan failed to draw a crowd was the ,
blockhouses of San Francisco and sites can be pinpointed today. f monastery Nuestra Senora de la
seized Fort Caroline In a aur .
Saturday afternoon dress parade, Today the military reservation
prise attack, Renamed San Mateo Plcolata dating from 1734. they In I the 1820s: a commission Florida seceded from the Union Concepcion originally occupiedthe houses .1he Military J
the river fort was maintained were on opposite banks of the beaded by a French engineer In 1861 At Key West, the r rftoIe site This monastery and con The lepartf\.lIeadQUartera.cent. State of Florida

by the Spanish for many years St. Johns,_a, few miles west- of named Simon Bernard developed Federals hastily erected two u vent In built the year of logs 1588 was following constructed the I post barracks until 1900 remained when a It military was and Headquarters, Florida !

I abandoned by the United States National Guard.
Florida's Strategic Value arrival of the lIev. Alonw de ,
Re)' oeG, accompanied by a num I Army,
For four centuries the St Francis ,
Florida had unusual importance bet of other priests and lay
brothers in late 1S77 An old map, Recent History Barracks State Arsenal has
for Spain. True, the early ,
dated 1590 four after Sir out.
years been a religious and military
explorer' did not find precious 0 1 ,ad r T'! Francis Drake destroyed the city'. The St Francis Barracks post and served u the center of
metals here, but they soon discovered shows the existence of a religious served as a temporary shelter
for the orphans and Sisters of service and duty to country under
that Florida had another community on the present .site,
of the arsenal st. Joseph! whose orphanage and four flags. Its sturdy walls will
kind of value It was a pot n. ,
convent In Jacksonville were destroyed continue to serve God, country'
Cat road block on the aetlane In 1792 the three-story wooden in the t1 r% of 1901, and the State of Florida
to Spain Navigators had already barracks, which had been built

learned to use the great ocean ''by i the English, was destroyed by -
fire. The troops remained quart .
currents and prevailing winds'
tered t In the remaining buildings l
Thus, coming to America they
until the United States gained /
..aI.1eIfhe equatorial current r control of Florida on July 10, t t

westward to the Caribbean. But 1821 t

for the return to Spain, they America Takes Over s 'II 1fC $ tI
hitchhiked on the Gulf Stream

past Florida east coast and Lt. Harvey Brown. D.S. Army. I
thence eastward t .1.1I I Ir
The most dan was assigned 4th Artillery St.
serous part of the route was the 'Francis Barracks St Augustine I ;
Florida Rector, where sudden In August 1821 and had charge
tormi drove' many vessels of repairing St Francis'Barracks
shore, during 1822-1823 ,ffie."

A Nest .( Pirates .- M5seaoY Oseed ardM551 rase By act of Congress. June 28.

Pedro Mraendei. the founder PRESIDENT ARTHUR HONORED AT PARADE set 1832,aside St. Francis and established Barracks as was a

If Spanish Florida, had an orderly permanent TJ.S military reserva- )

plan for Us development President Chester A.. Arthur* racks-tin state Arsenal-ln Et. under the command of U. Gen dent Arthur was entertained ata ton "
Ha established St, Augustine (18811885) was honored at a Augustine during his administration. Alexander Piperr US First" reception held on the second '1
Sao Mateo Fort Caroline), and dress parade at st.. Francis Bar- ., Shown here are troops Army during the parade Presi floor: of the right wing. During the Semlnols War. View Hasn't Changed-Much Since 1885 ) .
r Santa Elena (South Carolina) u : troops were sent from the bar


1887 1964 : ,- '



"v "5





'R" 1'ri ee tIhrrlsffopher;

'St4eelMerchants ,,, .41 tai e..
..t Kl ;lupb .i.iA lr'A'L1argN1






Founded In 1887 the company was one of the tint mm supply houses In the Southeast, serving the sawmill, For many years the: President and General Manager of the Company was Mr: J. P Mines, now retired He
was succeeded by George W. Sparks, 48. the current president and aand Christopher employee since June, 1927. I
lumber camp, contracting municipal and county trade AS time progressed there wen shipyards, machine shops, Sparks Is active in both service and Industry affairs on a national local level He Is currently president of II
I foundries and fertilizer plants For many years, the company enjoyed large business in the phosphate fields on the Florida Industrial Distributors Association and Is a past-president of the Jacksonville chapter of the Purchasing -
the West Coast of Florida, and general industrial business as far south as Miami and Key West. Agents, Association of Florida+
"S Other officials of the company are R. A. Gray, Vice-President, W": E. Kindred, Treasurer, and B. F Teele.

John 0 Christopher founder of the company which bears his name was (truly a nan of many talents and'I Secretary All men are long.time employees .t
There are 33 employees In Jacksonville. Including seven salesmen
Interests having bought the nucleus around which the supply firm Is built IB 1887. In addition to the main location In Jacksonville, the company has operated a branch In Cocoa. :Florida Since +
1957 The branch Is managed by Al Muntan. a veteran of 14 years with the company and In his present post for '
Born In St. Louis Mo In ISIS, :Mr. Christopher, with a brother.In.law, established the first wholesale the past six years, There are IS employees: including the: two salesmen and Muntan..who also does specialized
grocery 'business In Florida He also brought the first telephone to Jacksonville to 1880, Other distinctions and sales work with specific accounts
1" better service ta the Patrick Air Force Base. However
Interests were the building of Murray Hall Hotel at Pablo Beach (now Jacksonville Beach), which was the '' The branch was opened primarily to Cape ltofrmer'ly
since that time' the explosive growth of Kennedy Canaveral) has far overshadowed the original
first of Florida many fine hotels. building of the first light plant In the state Owned and operated the first ., government busneas

steamers on the st. Johns River; built and operated first ventilated boats for eoastwlde fruit and vegetable The Christopher branch Is within 18 miles of all this activity Indeed:!, the branch territory Is only a 20-mile J)
trade; organized a line of schooners that operated between New York{ and Jacksonville, and operated a large radius of Cocoa But, they normally make two delivery,trips a day tn the area and they have an active counterS /
Tampa He was also founder and director of the Barnett Bank in Jacksonville business *
cypress plant near a ,
S have been made
Always a progressive concern looking to the future. changing as developments throughout
their trade area, J. O Christopher today specializes in Industrial, aviation missile, electronic, and safety supplies
Although he died In 1933 Mr Christopher company maintained many of the same policies with which Also carrying the moot complete stock of Lyon Steel FloridaSnap Equipment: in the state of Florida
be directed the firm so successfully for many years J. O. Christopher las been growing and prospering with the Southeasouih for over 75 years'

'. Industrial-Municipal-Aviation{ & Contractors Supplies and Safety Equipment : r;

Bolts Nuts Washers Rivets Shackles Pins of all i iI"
': I .;,;)1 \ -:; ., Screws types "

-- in .

f-: '" -, ,, a Flai"nSteel-Brass- luminum-Stair -Silicon Bronze-Plated Steel !,

t {: ::'






''' ,"
"'. .diaWi.ima714aeuJ'd11., 4e.W..of'f.\' '. ,- \. ... nd..! _I,!< .., "' '''''''''''''' '',", .;$';:"..:-;,;.... ."""_ *" ", "" ....,..,..-o:......"""," ,, ,,,' '''''''''''''' '

". . -


The St. Johns : tr + I Pensacola;Oldest-City? j

First U.S. River .PENSACOLA Dee -One of city In the United State This Hsb laid out the city substantial superficial feet of lumber was-

the most momentous events fact I* itlll debated. a* it Mist today shipped from Pensacola, having
value of M.01911I.
which had a
profound consequence .
l y nii In world history was the con The Spanish were devout Catholic Tb morning sun over Pensa
quest of America by the Spanish and nearly everything cola shone on a scene of pageantry Historical Sights
To Be Explored W In the Ktli Century named by them was In honor III on July 17, 1821, when a full A few of the historical light

+NA! 1 at ,,'Prior some saint The bay was called company of Spanish troops', dismounted still remaining an:
s yft Not only did site blue the trail Santa Maria In honor of St Mary. dragoon of the regiment

of European penetration South The Island was called Santa of Tarragona paraded In ST, MICHAEL'S CEMETERY-: ..
BT CARITA DOGGETT CORSE/JackMaylll* Author, and HlslorlM Central, and North America the Rosa the plaza before the Government One of Pensacola most hlitorio

The broad placid St. Johns River was the first left the tint European footprint House. spots, It. ha been the burying
In Florida IOU She unfurled the Being very religious churchwas ground for this locale for nearly
in America to be and
great waterway North explored tint fix over Pensacola Bay one of the tint buildings Andrew Jacaso Arrive 200 yean In all probability the

mapped beyond its mouth. After this. He\4nte; < the fin erected and it was called San'KBKuel. Through the pas wood a few Spaniard used. this as their

creed, the symbol of Christianityon In honor of St. Michael miles away,;-rode Andrew Jackson !:- burying ground .* early at 1754
When our country was wilderness,+jlhreided! by Uw shorn of"tlW"Bay. So it -,,' ,, heading the elements of the when the ton was moved from

forest trails and inhabited by hostile Indians_white was Spain and her soldiers who Name' Shortened tth U.S. Infantry and 4th US Santa Rosa Island.

explorers learned Very early that they could'penetrate save 'paternity to Pensacola his'tory 1II I Interesting to note that in Artillery regiments with band #.

over 200 miles into the interior by way of the the Treaty of Paris In 176J, the playing and flags flying. After Resting side by side la the

St. Johns River so it holds a 'prominent place inEurope' 1II III resting to note that Engll exchanged Cuba for Florida aknost two months of time-con cemetery's quietness are natives
with recorded took suming negotiations, the surren of Spain France, England, Ira
American adventure a. history It wiv&uyV*0 yean after UM and when they posees5105
der by Spain of the province\ of land, Scotland, Germany Austria
COlumbus of Santa Maria dea Penrtco-
of 400 of Xmerlca by -
years. t that cry th Spanish fleet of De la they retained only the latter; West Florida to the United States Italy, Greece. Norway, Denmark .
town, and Cowferd now entered part of the name and spelled III was about to be consummated Sweden, Portugal Mexico
Narvaei Pensacola BayIn
However. It la not only on pri '
Jacksonville began to'11'0'II', Cuba and all section -of the
Pensacola. The bay was given
., search of golden fortunes be-
o rtty of discovery that the 1mportance This Cowford on the wuthslde of the Jackson and a few of his staff United State Rich and poor
same name. II
Sieved to exist In the
of the the erasing was near Fort San .orld'i .. entered the city and took breakfast white and Negro, Catholic and
river roots butF Nicholas of the old Spanish an burled
Protestant there.
one who are
with bra Jackson was
co its very ear fV 4' outposts.Then : Later came the fleet of the In 1781 the city: again became ;
ly exploration V j>*nlard..,e Luna with 1000 fol"lowers ; the property ef the Spaniards established In a house near the '
and In the plaza A short time later Colonel _Dates and family relationships
I ./'. to found a city and while they changed
settlement and .
came the American Revolution George M Brooke bad drawn which tile tombetonea
? the year 1559 a settlement was names of the street and other
It has .
defense unfurled CT and again the St. Johns made on the mainland near things the name of the city and up a battalion of the 4th Infantry make the cemetery a priceless
seen erg. e became a military barrier when Fort Barrancas BOW bay was retained probably for and a company of the genealogical gem. The* marker
the flags against"Invaders. The East Florida stands 'This was four yean. before the reason that It was already 4th Artlllets-ppoatle .Spanish provide the only record, in many
Spain. Navy maintained a flotilla of -'I'1J Taste the founding of St. Aujus- Spanish, but they spelled It "Pan- troop on the plaza which is cases of the people ,who livedPensacola'
England h e patrol boat on the river Distinguished still the plaza today Then Brooke historyPENSACOLA /
ofi tine, which some historians have lacola which spelling I* commonly
East Florida i"ReplIblle ,e, Tories from. the col A Lone Buoy Stands Silent Watch In St. Johns credited with being the oldest I found upon mill from foreign detached four companies of Infantry .
\ II' I onlea poured into British Florida countries to take possession of Fort LIGHT HOUSE-

the Contldtr Southern Corn by the thousands. Barrancas nine miles away, Constructed, In 1825 when the

icy and the Unlled States of 1 Tiring; of the'hardships encountered Navy Base was (In* only one oa
America But when they were defeated the colony abandoned the At 10 o'clock Jackson emerged the Gulf Coast. The lens, the
In the Revolution the British decided town and sailed for Mexico from his bouse and with grave most amazing part of this,structure
they could not defend Flortda dignity crossed th* plaza between was band out and polishedby
Rio Corflenfel'It and cave It back to Spain. row. of saluting Spanish and Monsieur LaPlatta la Paris
a" Spanish Plantations along the river were +. t i But the enchanting loveliness American soldiers and entered _
was probablY captain a f r jr 139 yean ago.
of Pensacola too
Bay was temptlog
who gave the river Its firs! deserted Since Spain web In too the Government House. While
to allow It to remain longforsaken.
recorded name, Rio Corrtentea. weak a position here, Florida and Another Spaniard by Jackson and Spanish Governor FORT SAN CARLOS Pint
The the St. Johns became a haunt of Jose Callava signed the transfer
or River Of Currents great the name of De Artola took possession built of wood by Don Andrea de
volume of water, then obstructed pirates and outlaws.Pirate of the deserted village document within, outside the Arrtola In 1696 The French came

by a shallow bar caused a piling with lOG Midlers and in 1696 Spanish guard was ceremonially unexpectedly In 1719 end burned
up of breakers noticeable far out Days ha built a fort that was called replaced with a guard of UStroops. it The fort was rebuilt la the-

at tea RI Corrtentes appeared Daniel McOlrt kept the Spanish San Carlos ., later Spanish period of brick and
on the first recorded map of the '
patrol busy chasing him up the
DeSoto expedition Since DeSoto St Johns when he vanished Twenty-three years later a Yellow Pise Economy'
traversed Florida only along the
west coast, the name was not de along Us hundreds of tributaries French fleet destroyed the town According to Mica Gale CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHThis
rued from his 1539 visit but froman and they could not find his hide and ire location was moved Clubby, Pensacola historian. "The structure, erected In 1834,
earlier out. Jean Laflltes brother Pi'ire Mv'r across the narrow mouth of the yellow pine was the backbone of Is the oldest church building In
source w aa said to be operating bay to Santa Rosa Island, about the economy of the Pen acola Pensacola The history of old
alOng the nearby coast and Pernandina a half-mil from where Fort region and the source of several Christ Church: has been rich and
Because Jean Rlbault slopped 's fine harbor, Just rorthoi Pickec* .now stands Individual fortune during the varied, but unfortunately, not always
by the river May 1, 1562 he the St John was acted by decade-of this article. a happy one.
called It Riviere de Mat and two ; Louis Airy governor of Texas + {f Old Ruins
later his lieutenant, Laudonnlere .
years :
built a strong fort'(Fort under the Mexican flag The old ruins of the town are A* early a* ISM. E E: SimPson During the War Between the
.3 FAar A. had constructed water-mill States, Union soldiers used It fora
Caroline Here These men bold \ till to be seen and soma Interesting '
Meanwhile many American to out his hospital and barracks. When
regular officers of the French" relics are occasionally at Woodbine cany
Navy, and a map maker, L planter had secured Spanish land ( found there. This was the location contract to furnish .lumber for the parish moved to Us present
Moyne, went over 100 mile up grants In Northeast Florida and of the town until 1754 at certain buildings at the Pensa- location, It was attended for a
the river to chart Its course,*by ,finally decided to revolt against which time: a tidal wave swept cola Navy Yard then under eonatrscttoe. time by Negro parisbonen. Then
I the lax Spanish; regime They set Hunt built in old Christ Church
In 1841 John 1936 was
rder of the King of f ranee. t5a } .rr. i.v dt over the Island, partly tnundat-
65'6 5' .
: ; .d as e.ex +w 'x + sw--3l aA .
DP a Republic of East Florida In log the place, which caused its the first steam sawmill. deeded to We City of Pensacolafor
'I 1812, established\ a military base location to be moved to the us a* an historical museum
In 1565, Queen Elizabeth Captain -on the St John and attacked SAILING TO THE RIVER MAYwater site.When. pros'ant In 1851 the extensive ;foreign or a* a public library,
John Hat Una paid a visit ,
80 A ieua tine, BY 1 81T, tit a SDanlab of Pensacola began
to the French at Fort Caroline. commerce
He assured them that all be them governor by granting finally local settled aell-with government TWs ta how the mouth of the named the waterway the Riviere to-welcome! the Europeans I Florida" was exchanged with the shipping of cargo of i For 10 yean the library made
for Cuba In 1763 the Spanish residents hewn timber, and the following It* home' here. In August of
wished wa wood and water for to the area between the St. Johns River looked to the de Mal River of Maj since itwas Aa Indian village Is shown
Historical Society
were not willing to become year the first cargo of lumber \960, the Pensacola
the back but
to England, discovered 1.
voyage May
on Here
It.... clear he thought that If St. John and St. Mary River. 'French artist Jacques: UMoyneIn Le Moyne shows Indian greeting oa the right bank: of the river British subject so they reluctantly by the ship Queen of the Seas I In cooperation with the

I France dared encroach on this 1362, two yean alter the river tv boat load of explorers Mayport Is Bow located oil the sold their property to the English City at Pensacola, opened here
land which the Pope had decreed When the United State finally '* discovery Obi French with one Indian wading Into the left bank!: of flu river, \ and departed for other In lest than twenty yean, beginning I the Pensacola Historical Muse
belonged exclusively to Spain acquired Florida\ In 1819, hope climes Two :yean later the Eng- 'with 1875, 4.168J19.000 man.IIIIIIIIIIIIllhIIIIIIlIIIIIJIIIFlIIlllllllhIllhIJ.
were high that Americans would
why not England?
rush to settle the choice location "5
on the river. But land title were ala, mined the river and mounted Grant and Cleveland to write of (
Spain's Merest confused and the Indians retreated batteries along narrow stretch the tropical wonder of the river.
es where they bombarded the
Spain took an even more serious slowly finally launching the
gunboats and did material damage Decline Is Importance
View of Fort Caroline .on longest and costliest Indian
to the
thi St. Johns. It lay dangerously wars Many were built enemy. At this lime the cast and west
close to the route of the treasure along the river and In 1838 the coasts of Florida were almost as

fleets which followed: the Florida George Washington, the first However, the real bey day of wild as In Colonial times: It was E'"O ..
coast bringing the fabulous steamboat to enter the river, the St Johns River came with not until Flatter and Plant built : ': R' G '1 A

wealth of the Americas to Spain brought soldiers and supplies! to the advtnt of tteamboaU In the their railroad and hotel systemsIn :=: ,' "' :' :I""l' '.: :" .:, <: ,\! ;
So King Philip II dispatched hi* these posts After IMS and several 1870s. After the-fall of the Con the 1890s that tourists were
highest ranking admiral Pedro I peace treaties settlers felt secure federacy bankrupt Floridians able to reach the beaches Then : -
Menendei with Instructions to destroy enough to return to their took winter boarder for a living the St. John River lapsed Into :
the French fort and fortify Florida borne but In 1849 the and Jacksonville became a famous comparative oblivion.
,the coast. California Gold Rush swept all resort Tourists flocked to
who might have to l"Iorid.weat1'ard. ,
come its fashionable hotels and took The Spanish) .American War and
Vlcnendei established St. Au- the Grand Tour, as the trip up; World Wan I and n found enemy
fiBUoe in IMS because It was the St. Johns River was, called.I forces operating Just off the
near enough to the St Johns for Call War Era I I St. Johns. In each case the

h 'm to atah the French and When Florida became the third Between the 1880 and 1880s river defense were strengthenedand
t'i use the opportune time to at* state to secede from the UnionIn then wen more luxury steamerson !I new methods used to repel

ta 1861. Union gunboats ascend the St. Johns than there were I the I Invader 0- .,. .. ,
ed the St Johns four times to on the Mississippi In 1880 the ,. JACKSONVILLE
Soon after the destruction of hunt blockade runner, recruit first Jetties helped fix the chancel Today Mayport Naval Station Served
Fan Caroline. Menendei went up Negro slave as soldiers and and permit safer entranceover at the mouth of Ue $t. John with'pride
the St Johns River to see If It check the shipments! of beef and the bar. Orange groves and the Jacksonville Naval Air '
'lad a connection with the Cull other food to the Confederate lined the river and feature writers Station 30 miles upstream, dwarfall 1920 In homes and
of Mexico forces. A small Confederate cavalry followed In the wake of fa- previous military installationson
troop left to fight the Feder- mous visitor, such as Presidents the river. ...,.; belter restaurants
--- -----
Early. EiploreraBut ..... ..... _
; :'-"\" *- ".;,. -- w m. an araabwr spli' tn.rr yOUR a throughout
after the destruction of the s

Spanish Armada In 1588, controlof Florida and SouthGeorgia .
the sea lanes passed from
S1I11l"rom" then on, an Increasing
,, nit _.
number of explorers for other a uK
nations began to rte rivers ",1.: ".. .:" t
of j 0
America For Dutch, 7
Henry Hudcon ascended the great o'
river that bear his name In 1607 t"-
The Mississippi which DeSoto had yr t! v
discovered In 1541 was not explored ..
by Marquette until 1073.Marquette .
also explored the Missouri
and another Frenchman .
named LaSalle, was on the Ohio : ..

by 1670 SENSIBLE : ,1 .p

However by this time, Chris i
tian communities had been flourishing .
along the St Johns for a '
century and the Indiana went to SERVICE : d :
church In cloth coats and sang I t
their psalms In Latin The Span. .
lards would not tell guns or liquor .. .
to the Indiana who becametoo 1 -
civilized So when British FOR ALMOST ;
traders led wild Indians from the

Carolinas against them, they I
were not able to defend themselves ",
Steadily, the British Colonlali
pressed back the forcesof 91st YEARThe HALF A
Spain until the St. Johns became '

a regular route for alivehunters
to descend into Florida I t. V Sutphin Company has been In the wastepaper business since J 1873, '

They burned the rlverforta whose! I and has served the Jacksonville area since 1939, purchasing any usable CENTURY !

Augustine garrisons :were and withdrawn even descended to St kind of wastepaper. ANYTHING,THAT IS PAPER! I ;

Into-the Everglades in pursuit of All collected material li cleaned, assorted and baled In our plant, and 'I MIAMI -

their victims. shipped to our milt connections to be mode into new paper products. The '

England Takes Over Imo Sutpjim Company is the oldest and one of the largest most experienced I

wastepaper dealers in the industry. This Company operates In the following' I
Finally In 1763 England secured cities, i
Florida by treaty with

Spain The first thing the English J..k>Mvllle, FlorU. AtI...,., Geee lea ClndnmH, Ohio Ckorlo, North C.r.lw! 1(_. ;
governor did was to make a Ill*, TmiMUMt ...d. h.. Int...... ,. _lioN has Columkw, South Caralim AvenM, .
treaty with the Indiana whereby Gwrflet Sar..iMk. Gnrflet N..lliel. TMMMMM Mianpolii, Main. sad TM..,. Ohlsv
they agreed to live and hunt west
of the lower 81 John RIver. WASTEPAPER IS OUR BUSINESS

So the west bank; of the lower

times river Hoer was A u chain the known Indian of Indian during side trading British of the THE I. V. SUTPHIN COMPANY CLARK LEWIS CO.

pests were established on the
lower river and the first accurate Jacksonville Florida (124 Watts SL n WHOLESAlE FOOD ,DISTRIBUTORS

chart of the river prepared, I I t JockionYilU Florida Miami, Florida ,

Phone: 354.1475 phone 433-0116
Many British secured landgrants
along the river auditoims P. 0. Box 2146 Ttl. No. 356-7122 I *

such M '- Town, Relies-

.' \1

.e .*

-.. ..; ;!::. ; "':"' ...........r,... ,..-. _-.... .4.......................... .. _...._...., .,......... ..... .. .... ... ...... ...........,: ", :. : .. :. ." .
.,. ,w.f-w.. ---.J MW..n .J.J4, v.. .' ,, ., .J...

; 11 :

-- -

Pensacola Anticipates HW r. r ir. r' St. Augustine Turns l


The Clock Backward
Greater Developments } \

I L :. k a For Exciting Future'f fIy '

By CHARLES 7. MASON, Vic Admiral, DSN Ret)

'aravw III ..... oo!. -'. d JOSEPH A. SHEU.tV, Mayer *f Si. AigiallM
The City of St. Augustine with the assistance of
Florida's western-most city, like Its sister cities In other parts of the state, the County of St. Johns and tl'le' State of Florida, has

has seen tremendous growth since World War II and there Is brlck-itecl-concrete begun major effort to turn the clock backward la

evidence that many responsible business people. anticipate still greater develop- time, In order to move forward Into the future. ''

ment. For most of Its life as a part of the United States
Two of the city's older banks have moved Into new buildings, while the St. Augustine has been a resort and tourist center

oldest has more than doubled its 'floor:Pspace, -though retaining; Its traditional largely because of the appeal of its rl'" .
facadA The two new buildings house the.Florida National Bank and the First Bank quaint architecture
and Trust Company. Citizens & Peoples National Bank expanded In floor space and the massive Castillo de San Marcos ,

and added drive-In facilities. preserved and restored by the National I

Since 13%. the. area' banking ""'"'--- -- -- Park Service..Today a massive effort Is j'

facilities. have Increased from. and annual report have consistently activities have drawn tourist at under way to restore the appearance of
DIM three originals to a Soul 1- hown good corporal a healthy level.Pensaoola's .
of fight One earning fisheries do not the city to Colonial Spanish times,
of these III much as Colonial Williamsburg was restored -
industry rank a* high as torn other
In neighboring\ I Pen+.oola's /first steeable Florida clUes, la volume, but during the second quarter of this

SI U& Rosa Heyden Newport Chemical they are still a large supplier 0 century. It is estimated, to be a $20(
which makes
County at Gulf
many northern market for red I
Breene a community more than 100 bane and end product -snapper, shrimp and other teafoods. million 20-year effort. .. ,. .,, SIIoIIe ,
The first. five atop come .r. J
M across chemical from tare extracted year
the bay: from from old pine stumps -rose II Ord yoOd In IMS/ when the city eelebrate' national quedrlcentennlal 'I' b *
New rscllltle
the city. Other nu added plant taclllUe several Port Us 400th anniversary The city. Hlspairie nations *n both side of

euburban bank time during Its_ existence here Five years 'ago th* Port olPensacola / Firs Mass In .St. Augustine, Sept. S, !SU, Following Menendes Landing county and stat have allied themselves .. he ocean are cooperating with
with the national government
laelud the ) placed In operation a the governments National Commission
WarrlngtenBank. A neighbor Armstrong Curt: new $3.5 million terminal and to -celebrate this! important, In the establishment 'S.
1 The Went which formerly u.edht pulp warehouse facility: and port bust of permanent eihlbttlon and
from to make ST.
residue the AUGUSTINE
M.... Pen ICOII Bank ness hu In general Increased cultural center and the development ,
Insulation board and ceiling tile,
the Southern Bank, Just recently steadily since. In fact the city of a great celebration and
(lIar la now used In a recent
opened and the Florida national port authority reports a crying Hlspanlo fiesta throughout the a
Bank of Brent north of Vie city statement said "To,better serve need fat itlll other modem sell. Cjutdrlcentennltl 1 :year f +
growing customer needs, Arm. I
In addition the Florida hu a Itles. Suffering and Hardships t
strong hu made substantial Investments
Preliminary Evesl ,
branch aboard the huge. Naval
over several year atthe In agriculture, the soy bean It
Air Training Center Pensaala: pant. .. COIrtiM the staple money producer for A great variety of prellmineryevents

Bank clearing haw not Increased tied efficiency: and the cooperative : northern Escambla: and Santa are scheduled for
In ratio to faellltie but effort of Pensacola employee Rosa County farms, although the spring and Bummer of UWS
the figures are up from 1442.059, will be channeled toward livestock nu become of major Marked even before the quadrtcentennlsii
lit In 1950 M SI.413,839,224 In lowering unit costs to expand Importance. City's Early DaysSoon year Is launched on Sept S, the
r, llfi). At the MUM tune metropolitan product sal**." The company Startling many Floridian It date on which Pedro Uenendei
population hu Increased said tn a midyear report that the fact that wheat I II now being de A fUN arrived at this site, on
from 131. to Chamber sale were up 7 percent and profits the chore of Florida In 155.
DM West
a current In In
I. of estimate ol up 24 percent over the cam grown Florida cornmercl.l B/ J. T. VAN CAMPCN south, lay up along the eastern. for all Us needs the settlement after Its acquisition By
Commerce K
quantities and since
1963 period. SUM ... MMrlM shores of the peninsula This hovered l frequently on the brink the United States, a few 'Northerners -I Visitors reluming to St Augustine -
127 700
and other can be harvested In time for
made Its .retention essential to .( starvation and abandonment; becatt to visit St. Augustine each year find the city:
r r. have grown bMln..lllndlce'I'r. Ewamhla Chemical Co. aim other planting! It provide with One of the most remarkable Spain. i marking the beginning of changed anew. The National Park
I '1 Guiding east of Pensacola la Santa Ron while potatoes mere land utilization achievements of the Iltb Century At If this were not enough, it Its tourist Industry. The town I Service 1* completing the fir. t
County but In the metropolitan and Income. Stale agronomists wu the development of Spain'sgreat The French Threat lived 1n. dally fear of attack by' was still very quaint and foreign stage of the rebuilding of the
f versification t has been the &ana makes ammonium nitrate I have now developed fruits colonial empire I In Amer When two French Huguenot pirates or hostile band that In appearance After the Civil i city a fortification/ known a* th*' r
! guiding principle of those workIng among other chemicals, and principally, peache*-adaptable lea The early annals of St expeditions visited the region In roamed the coast In 15M. when War its tide of visitors steadily "CUba Line" extending from th. t{
I to promote Uw area's economy share the- history of expansionof i to the climate here and farm Augustine and Florida are closely 156J and ISM, their presence in 9t, Augustine was 21 years old Increased The large influx Ifpt'oplll tort itself to the ancient City:
I' and It hu paid off for other local Industries. leader hope these will come Into linked with this story. the area was viewed with alarm the famous English seadog. Sir brought many changes gales which till stand at Ik *'

I Pensacola hu Industry\ ; tourism Impact of TeurlsaActual I Increasing- Importance. .by Spanish authorities While lhofol'l Francis Drake, happened to be Old buildings were torn down to north end of the oil SpanishCane
I fisheries port commerce egrl The Military Sailing northwestward from a built by the 1M expedition' tailing. by and sighted the settlement make way for new ones. In which Rale' preient-day St 1
culture and a tremendous mill count of tourist at the- racier Spanish colony on the Island of was sooo abandoned, the 1564 a watch tower lie landed the visitor might be lodged George Street Th* aspect of thl ,
tary contribution combined. only Florida welcome station Biggest single la and boo Puerto Rico Ponce'dt Leon in with and
on expedition established a post as overwhelming fore street 1* changing rapidly: u the
one of three traffic arteries Into long been the military Pensacola /4 1513 cllacoveredI. named Fort Caroline near the owned the town to the ground. State Restoration Commission
4 In the industrial field a new the area showed that In 1963 a 1* headquarter for all naval avLatlon the peninsula to St. Augustine modern era
mouth of the St, John River, remove dilapidated modern
comer la the Southern Plywood total of 444,293 listed Peniacola training, which Includes which ha gave Early In U* history St. Augustine may be said to date from the
which posed a real threat to buildings and reconstruct on Iho'trII'Inal
Corporation attracted here largely and Penaacola Beach a* destinations -many Installation widely scattered : 'f the poetic name -became u important religious advent of Henry M. Flagler. the
: by the availability of ample"aoft If the Florida Development about the nation, It 1* also of',La Florida Spanish control of the territory center. From ft Franciscan wealthy Standard Oil capitalist old archeological colonial foundationsthe
hardwooda' on lands ownedor Commission. figure for average headquarter for basic air train Spain claim to Don Pedro Menendes, OlIO of missionaries. constantly went who first visited the city duringthe *. : Spanish etruoture -
leaned by St Regis Paper Co. ing. Payroll and other direct forth work the winter of 1183-M, He was ,
expenditure per person are.u ed, this region, thus i. Spain most capable naval leaders to among Indiana "
It went Into 'production within this means that visitor contributed naval expenditure are about citabllshedeventually ". was commissioned to expel establishing a chain of impressed with Its charm and i The city Itself will remove a
recent months and 'expansion US,550.765 to the economy (93 million annually., embraced ., the-French and occupy Florida mission posts that extended into possibilities and Invested mil portion of one block to provide
j already la.contemplated.: 'American here in 1963. ? ; Some have felt that mlsailry not only for Spain, He ailed. from Cadlx southeastern Georgia and Into lone in constructing the luxurious. parking for the expected Influx
i cyanamld plant east of the present day West Florida a* far' as Tallahassee hotels which are still an architectural
might decrease the manned Spain, t' of visitors, ai well as for mere
Fensacola hu added a third production Most Pensacola visitor are craft training program But military limits of the For 41 year it remained ornament to Its central chants who ply their trade In a
lint and. a fourth la la summer vacationists. This summer authorities feel then will I tate, but the St. Augusta ,...d... the only European settlement In area-th* Hotel Pone de Leon block south of thla restoration
planning, the beaches got off to anIncreajse In the foreseeable future, be a Van Campen entire Atlantic After reconnoitering the French what U now the continental begun in laoS and opened In URS area Several of the** merchant
of about 10 percent, buta need far a human In the cock- Coast M far north u Canada position on the st. Johns, the United States; a tiny speck of the Alcazar and Cordova bulli have remodeled tile front of their i
Chenutrand.; Monsanto Co.
a prolonged rainy season startingIn
civilization in a vast continent. rigs completed won afterward
licensed to produce nylon :yarn mid-July slowed the visitations pith After the discovery of Florida, Spaniard eho** U their baa a Then the founding of Jamestown, building to rive them t Spanish I

la doing long range repair This Still, the area beaches I The description for Pensacola the rout of Spain treasure point some 40 miles down theoos Va. In 1607 by tilt English A Freud Resort aspect
I is one of the largest private en- old torts modern Naval Air &&- economy 1* that Ills definitely fleets. bringing riches from Mexico t, where there was a small marked the beginning of a long Cle.rtag CIte rOn -
Surprise employer In Florida Jon llahlng camping and other, "Go". Pent and lit Colonies to thee bay end inlet Here on Sept. I, period <* itrife.r These and other Improvement
cots Menendei and Us principal made by Flagler transformed st. the pi... In th* center fJl r

officers landed amid the .rt Is Built I Augustine from a sleepy Old tile old section and lust off a on
blare of trumpets and roar of World town Into a gar and fun Charlotte and St George street. '
cannon to found a fortified Gradually other En.IWIlie- tenable resort hailed u the Newport old building* are crashing down i
settlement, which he named St ments crept down the coast occupying of the South. For a number I* make way reconstructed. f
1 Augustine A few diy later the land claimed by Spain of years It held this distinction I colonial buildings t* serve as
French under Rlbault sailed u a part of Florida. Hearer and until gradually eclipsed byh.. ixhlblUol pavilions for the quad.
south to attack the newly: established nearer they came to St Aukustlne development of Palm Beach and rlcentennlal! year, for the partto-, r
Spanish position before Spain answer to this growing Miami., \paling governments Spain hM
they had time to strongly) fortify threat was the building of already begun construction on Its

It, but their fleet wu caught In st. Augustine' great stone fort, Within recent year St. Augur lavlllon} nearby: then will ariw
a hurricane and wrecked on the the Pan.American Union buI14Inr.
Castillo de San Marco, begun tine has become popular u a -
x coast many miles to the south .
in 1(71 and virtually completed summer destination because oft
While thl* storm wu raging '
in 16%.
fine uncrowded ocean beaches,
Menendei made a daring march A dilapidated- hominess| building
.. w overland to surprise and capture TIle fort subsequently withstood cooling sea breezes. and varied on the central plaza Is coming ,
b Fort Caroline which had been two strong English attacks one opportunities for recreation down to be replaced by the Florida
a. Afila x left weakly garrisoned He alto by the Carolinian under Moore to state Exhibition Building anda
While st. Augustine efforts
k later destroyed the survivors of in 1702. and by General Ogle-' with block war the old "Governor.
the French fleet who were endeavoring thorp of Georgia .la 1740.. attract Industry have met Palace," presently: used *- th* ,
to mak their. way up tome success lit income derived post office, will be converted to
the coast from their wreckedvessels. For the next 20 year St. from entertaining visitor remains the United State Government EsIbltlon
Augustine and Florida wen a an Important factor In its Building.
province occupied mainly by overall economy. Its destiny
St.Auguatine's early: :year, like British subjects This ended In seems to 11* In gradually restoring In the south 'end of the hls-
5 time of many other colonizing 783 when England, having lost the Spanish colonial atmosphere tone area the St. Augustine Kit i
.far, : ventures were marked by sufferIng the Revolutionary War ceded and Old World charm, that torical Society ha completed
____ and hardship-diminishing Florida back to Spain which continued .I are the unique heritage\ of. Its reconstruction of a eoltnlal l
1 supplies Indian attacks and to occupy the territory put, anJhoVte: properly: preened ; building for Its new library and
: :fin mutiny on the part of Its far until 1121. when the United Stales, can make research center, and nearby
.'2 +s 1 from satisfied colonists Dependant having acquired tt by treaty, took It an even more outstanding several recreated colonial buildings -
largely on outside sources P lMllllo... point of Interest than It Is today. are arising

Caarrk Plans

r s x In the north end of town althe
Mission of Nombre d* Dloswt.he .
,, original landing site w th *" '
Serving Florida Catholic Church will celebrate lt*_.

uadrlcentennlal with the eree-,
lion of a. votive Church and anew
library and exhibition center; k.

20 Years? to display the oldest document Inhe
for United States On the landing
site Itself will arise a great tt-
mlnated cross; which can b*>
tern mile out to sea.
The city government Itself baa-
Wholesale Distributors of.: undertaken a massive program of
bringing its baste utilities and
street up to date Street, sewr .
., and water supply arc under
'f on*ant redevelopment. In cooperation *
I'Industrialand i I "f: : with \the county: and the
tate,' Anastasla Boulevard
(AlA) has been converted to a

An Important chopttr In the) Florida Story Is being! ,written by a hidden jewel ". !, double lane boulevard to the
city: limits, In anticipation of the b+
In Jacksonville beautiful furniture for your living plea sur.. great rush of visitor* in IMC
Plans are being drawn for a rehabilitation -
of the Tourist Information '
Center and other informaon '
'y A complete lint of quality furniture is available to /v/rs. Housewife through r acllltle*.

"-, her furniture dealer of decorator, whoappreciates the 'cor* and tlmr'that I J; 1v 1- Printing Papers New ,ladualryParallel tC

0 .
has beerf takerT select only those :Items with excellent craftsmanship, ,. to this intensive pro., l
:- ', gram in preparation for the 400th ,
exquisite detail, Interest and beauty of theme, ) birthday itself a* well a* Keep..
Ion and entertainment of the nu>, }
Ions of tourists who will enjoy
hese festivities, city, county and'
sold dealer r' or.'decorotorit: \ t ''' 1i ;: have
private development
Merchandise) only through your furniture .g'' 4'' di1 group 4
*y "-1 > V f cooperated In an effort to balance

: : : : ?t: '<: ; GRAHAM-JONES PAPER CO. the MW.A st.complete Industry AiurusUn! tax revaluation economy with tai

; .,. : '

.; :: !it : :1 :: : ',{ TAMPA city been lima completed resulting tax lists by of the the many county bringingonto adooval and>'

.. properties and the reduc-
'I : tlon in DM tax rat for an

Southern> Wholesale 'Furniture(/ Go. : .;i; '. ; If" ORLANDO taxpayer. Steady' : Increase in the
,' r A 101&1. tax list 1* expected tress
I ,
) new enterprise established IB thecity
and Increased tourist rr><
I ues resulting from the ret\orao',

lion and quadrlcentennlal efforts.,

: 738-50 West Boy St.. Jacksonville, Florida'I. JACKSONVILLE. St. Augustld\ today combine s

somnolent air of the put wtth ainergctto
penult of Its *wn rV 1
i development '


L :" '\I.,;" ... ,,, .... (....1 J ... ',, ......., I-.j"t': ''''''' ''".'':'''W ...... ... '" .... ... .., 'L.. 'L.. -. .. .... _-- _.. _- ""- -- ------ ..-

1\"W" '1"'I'I' ''V'\'II'. ''''' ,'_ ," .. .' .. ., .. .,..._-"!" __ '., ., ', ...




r '1 II.; -,'"-h':" '- { '
Natural Resources'
; r,,. t.it '! ?" S K., 1
t :
k l .
nw+ ,

Abound in St. Johns !

Rr RAVK DRANE a modest rail when one eon. and 8wlterland areas and KaM with the st. Aur .llne.flt. Johns

.... riXM-l'_ sun WrtM I,alders that the atate'a populallnaalmost trigs. ..A telephone call from St County Chamber of Commerce: "

doubled during that decade Augustine to most stew ef the
ST AUGUSTINE. Dee M Also t sizeable portion of county U long distance, ,* lie The Fairchild Killer Corp;
Several ago, a tourist fromCan.d.
years this growth was In the Pont pointed out which modifies and overhaul
appeared unexpectedly >t
Vedra. Palm Valley] Switzerlandand aircraft employs approximately! ;
a routine mating of the St
Johns County Commission Jullngton Creek areas of the Most visitors are surprised to t.JflO workers at Its plant at the
county whose residents have close learn of the importance of agriculture city airport It la the county,
I tlf. with Jacksonville largest Industry and as often
Gentlemen:' /he paid."I heard la the county\ economy re-
The Ir>h'potato. ,which haa been ferred, to as a llfeMver"\ for
that and
;'JOU'IW&rll In. tj '
I IJ1pet
font anted to drop by' and tell\ Dr, Joseph Shelley. mayor ol produced extensively In the St, Augustine because\ It* ,expin,
you that the potential for development St. Augustine, acknowledges that county since 1190 la the prlnd\ lion catrte it a time when Ultra
In your county: to the f ciLiuM of the city haven taken pal crop St, Johns la the 10th() was a sharp reduction in em
greatest I've aver llfen." I full advantage of the potentialfor ranking county In the nation In ployes at the SEC Railway shops.

... development, production of .POtl t.oeI.

The visitor said he was very Improvements PlannedThe
"I think ire have beet Warded In 1900 (there were 1.731 acres
much Imprewed by the county:
bv paternalism In name reapecta city Is expanding runway
planted la the county with an
S3 miles of beach area. particularly
Anulasla. Island which he ," he said which dales average yield of M bushels to at the airport and other Improve

described a<, the moat beautUule back 'to Ilia Henry Flagler era the acre. The crop that yearwas ments are planned by t recentlycreated
of development We.have depended valued'at |110.S38. Airport Authority 10 (tieplant
> too much on one Industry. theFlorida will be in position tq bid

"Mark my word", lie said East Coast RailwayThere I This year, approximately 14.000 for contracts on overhaul, Ind
"one of these days you'r doing also la t I large segment of acres wen planted In the county i repair of Jet planes.Wlse'Potato .

to experience a population elplosion our population content with the with an average yield of 190 bags
that will make thla county Itatua quo." i (1100 pounds to the bail per acre Chip Co: recently

one of the talent growing for a total of t78ft,000 bag*. The constructed a plant north of the
area In the staler And youd Chairman Dan Mlckler ot the average price was $410 per bag : city\ which employs around itworkera .
better he ready for H." St. John County Commission totaling a return of : Dobba Bros Library
up gross ,
I who has lived /here all his life 16348000. Binding Co. has expanded Its
hidden Departure feels that- the county la on the faculties and now employs! a,.
verge of Ita greatest development proximately 100 workera
With 'Uic"e ,ord the visitor There are 155 potato growers

departed M suddenly an he. had In the county and the average
:411 arrived. leaving the commlwlon trouble Investment! of each operation Is Diesel Engine Sales Co the
bur major In .thepast" world largest builder of triwu
era to ponder hU lavish pU In of $100000 Approxl
An Ancient Day Scene In St. Augustine (left) and A Street Today as It has Been Restored and predictions, Mlckler said. 'was that mainly excess Snot person? are employed era. employe 79 workers The

we have depended too much on during the potato season Florida East Coast Railway ."'".
: our own Idea and our own people ploys about 73 at Ita main office
QUADRICENTENNIAL Anvone visiting St. Johns Coira which extends from December
for our development W.lilven' Bros Seafood
here Barwtck Processing
ty would certainly agree that It If through May*
abundantly blessed with natural encouraged' outside advice f plant employs an additional

resources. Besides the ocean It -..and capital: "" Cabbage Important 100 workers and there are
has the Intracoastal about 7S more employed In smalK
Ancient Gains Waterway on Mlckler said this philosophy Is Cabbage the only other com er seafood processing plants,
he east the 81 John River on
beginning to change and It will merclal truck crop of any Importance
he weal and numerous plcture
In between result In greater development In In the unty.Thui yearabout i St Aiiiustlnej Is headquarter
que stream the future 4,500 acres were planted In for the Florida Military Deportment .
I cabbage grossing farmers Iroundtwo with approximately 100 em-
Ito fertile roll make It one of
Pope Agrees million dollars in additional ploy ..
the largest potato and eabbageproducing

Worldwide Attention area In the world andIt Slate Sen Verlc Pope agreeswith In Income the county Cabbage extensively was not grown until : The national Park Service,

rank among the top five coun Mayor Joseph Shelley that about IS year Now St. ...l11ch'operate.. the Castillo de
lieu In the state In production of 81, Augustine in the past hat
Johns la the leading producer in San Marcos. St. AugusBne most
leaned too heavily the endowments
forestry product on
ae It.* w..... strutted colonial, building of the At 15,01 a m. on Jan 1. Mayor The musical drama written by ,I bestowed by Henry nag the stale r"" Fort popular Malaniaa tourist I attraction on' Anastasia, and

ST, AUGUSTINE. DtotI. :M\ ancient city\ Joseph Shelley and national and Green entitfed the Cross and The county la IM! rich In tils-: ler and other) "wealthy families 30
I Production i of beef cattle also Island employs persons here
This city will celebrate the 4onth Cute dignitaries will usher in the Sword" will open In Juneas ory-4K( years 001 It with St who began settling here la the

anniversary of Us founding dur j It..t..tI..surW.bllorlU" 10RS. On. Fb. 131), a Fiesta de well as the "Sound and LUrht Augustine the oldest city lit -.!he I latter part of the 19th century, In expanding since passage of The .county educational facilities
fence law by the 1947 Leglslature
inn 196MS. an historic event on I of the entire historic Mcnendez will honor the birth production In the Castillo de San nation and one of Florida most I consist of 14 elementaryachoota
which worldwide attention has area of St Augustine to lui day of the city a founder MardI Marcos A Pan American Congress popular tourist attraction The "'The community la beginningto i Currently 7MJ head there of are cattle approximately Including two parochial
been focusing I Craa Feb 27-:a\. will burst forthIn on Historic monuments Is county also li served by two move ahead on Its own and'
Is under prtnclP.1I11 schools
colonial period way In the county owned seven junior high file
I Fiesta of Four major highways 17 .11. 1 and think positively" he aald A
of the State a Flags com scheduled for June 10-12 AIA I I
under the auspices { by about 10 cattlemen There are \ high schools Including one parochial
memoiating the lour and Is the home office good example of than floating _
national for the
The nations oldest city was of Florida acting through the St t. l !i approximately 10.ooo acres of Improved the Florida State Schoolfor
Restoration I powers whlrh have governedSt Them and dedlcatlona : Florida East Coast RailwayDevelopment ) of a bond Issue to expand our ;
founded on Sept, I. IW. hv Don Augustine Historical ceremonies ." pasture tor feeding these the Deaf and Blind and FlorIda
I airport facilities .
Pedro MenendPi de Aviles and and Preservation Commission I Augisftn will be supplemented bv animals Normal College for Negrom. !

for :2m yearn thereafter Florida The commission boa restored or j I II' other Important lellglous and Nut Fast The county la also served by St "

and St Augustine were a part of- reconstructed four historicalhomes An HKnsnte Fashion Festivaland cultural Junctions In October and Despite; these numerous resources Future Cited Milk broiler and egg production Johns River Junior College at I'

the Hispanic world of the Caribbean i I' St. George; Street with !I! a Festival of Spain under j November The! last days of December the county hM not develoned Pope said the city'a future lies adds approximately $11 mil. : Palatka with the school system '

and South America funds has received from the Spanish gave tame atauapceo.j will feature Spanish a* fast as other area of In restoration of the historic area Don to the economy The county furnishing bus transportation for t

I state, City of Auguatlne' st. will create a bright end .gala Christmas celebrations. the state with fewer assets! t and going after Industries that nursery Industry,. particularly students ,
Johna Counfv and private inrtlvl fact that wa noted by.the Canadian locate bere He also feels z
During the next inn years. the ; atmosphere In March April will can gladiolus, posses an additional ;
city was under English Spanish' duals'The Historical Society a commemorate discovery of Additional fiesta and ceremonies visitor anoSiM proved puazl- the! city should make a greater 1300,000 The county Poaaew. abundant,
and eventually United Stau control number'of business places and Florida by Pence 'Ge Leon Alsoscheduled are still In the planning I Ing to leading cltbena here. effort! to cater to retired people recreational facilities Besides the
a* Florida gradually passed Individual haa also reconstructed stage for 19M when the 'tooth During the past decade. effort beach and excellent streams for 1
r'' Into the North American context 'or rebuilt colonial: homes 1j'a Pan-American Anniversary Corp will dedicate Between' 10,0-60: the populationof He bald efforts should be made to bring Industry Into the County freshand salt water fUhing
l Festival' and Easter Week Festhvat i a permanent memorial to, the I St Augustine Increased from lo promote stronger ties between have expanded considerably An there are 11 publlg parks two

Although much progress has j : celebration I : 11555 to only 14734.'The county St Augustine and Ponte Vedra, industrial corporation has beenchartered libraries a Little Theatre and an .
The government of Florida ... '" .. .....-- ._ increased from M9% to .
United Stales been made in (the restoration/ program I 30,034. Palm V.Ut.IM Jullnnton Creek which works closely! in hole golf courseThe .. .. 'I
the will\
sod anlively ---- ---
for the 400th anniversarycelebration
participate In the quadrlrentennlal I
\ the commission anticipates
celebration But In / ,
U will take 20 10compl..te ,
recognition of the origin of the !I the task YEARS OF .
city and slat" the festival will .
be an Hispanic our In which the 28 BETTER the BLOCK

governments of Spain and of Latin I The National Park Service\ SERVICEIlIIIIIIIIIEiBaEIIIIEKHH I t
America-through the organ which Is custodian for the,Castillo -
Uatlon of American Statef-wlll de San Marcos hete, also la I II'

play,'the leading role. I participating! In the program The BETTER the BUILDING! .
bv completing restoration of the t

Direction of the celebration I twail old fort and reminding the moat r ,
and defense walla between the
be handled primarily by thenatlon.I I'
fort and City Gates A new road BOREE 'Blocks
St. Augustine Qu.dnc.n.lnnl.1 are :
and parking area also art included .
Commission whichwas!
In their plans
chartered In 12 by an Act of

Congress The Catholic Church: contribution and ''he e'8 what makes '

Named .lo (itmmlMioi will be a library and extiibttion .: ,
center at the Mission of the differenceAUTOCLAVE \" .
Appointed! to the commission Nomhre de Dlos site; of the tint :' J-f-' '
bv the late President John F, I landing and Mass in 1S There :

Kennedy were Charles PatrickClark also will rise from the outdo of

Henry Ford II, J. Peter'Grace i' the bay a gigantic Illuminated' .
Archbishop Joseph P. cross commemorating the founding .
Mullen, Chancellor Edward H. $
Utchf eld and Herbert E. Wolfe UIRIIiM HIGH PRESSURE CURING H
Mr. Wolfe. the only member
On Anastasa bland great
who resides jiTSt Augustine was I .
outdoor amphitheatre seating 1ooo
appointed onairman. 1 la Hearing completion for ;j

musical dramatic and other It
Special" aspect. of the program' commemorative events. A music BORES
are beng handled by the Florida drama of the founding has been
ndricentennlal Commission written bv noted playwright Paul

the St. Augustine4ooth Annlver Green and will playthrough the

nary Corp and the Roman Catholic summer of !%j 'and 1A! The t
Dinrece of St. Augustine amphitheatre Is being constructed .
which celebrates a 4<>0tb annlver by the St. Aigustuie Quadrl .

nary almultaneously, centennial Drysdale, Corp headed by W. 1. Aur:

.peclal'eommltlH OFFERINGINDIVIDUAL o-r ;
Alan a of "-
the Pan.American Union has Cultural Events
been established to assist In the The celebration will feature a

preparation of Interamerlcan round of cultural events, arts INSURANCE PLANS + a i Wt5'
program and exhibitions The .
shows and private parties Spanish ;
Spanish government Is participating dancers gaily-dressed citizens'
through the Ministry of Information and atrolllng musicians will grace

and the Institute of the city's: streets EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PLANS .
Hispanic Culture

A Quadrlcentennlal Eve" afll

The focal points of the festival precede the "QuadrlcentennlalYenr IN 16 STATES,
will be national exhibition centers which will\ begin officiallyon .

:being constructed by Spain I' Sept I. !<*S, and extend to THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
t the State of Florida. the federal I Sept I, 19M. During the quadrl-

government and Latin-Ameri i centennlal eve. the city will be PUERTO RICO AND
; e'O : I .
i can natlona restored build preparing for the events and This precision controlled autoclave process!
\ lots art projected to contain both also sponsoring preliminary programs MILITARY INSTALLATIONS
perm.nen.nd rotating exhibits I that begin with ringing and exclusive formula tombine to product

Each Is a restored or recon In the year of 1M5!
WORLDWIDE Masonry Units that are !chejnicolly differ

....... --- _. .._ -_...-. from Concrete 1 11
r. __, ,_ p "" .. ent ordinary blOcks. These)
blocks ore manufactured to outperformany
CONTINUOUS, SOLID PROTECTION other masonry! material 6Vi the market.

Cultural Bridge Sought THROUGH THE YEARS .

i With Hispanic Nations Improvements of this .nature and magnitude! only. "

1", M' s display a- program of expansion'comparable" to"thoi t' :. .. "

Prompt, courteous, end personnel service to \, '
t. The purpose of the qulAlJltceol4lnnlal celebration and the of Florida buf olso the faith we hold in Florida's continued ..
holders PROFESSIONALrrrtd ,
restoration of fit Augustine la to focus national attention on policy u our

tile Hlspanle trlglna of America and to create a permanent and id this I/ltlll'. fut jorlh all of' growth and its future. '
: cultural bridge to the Hispanic.natlona ,
,our rfjortt;, /"
The purpose wu lauded by the late President John Kennedy
f In theee .words- ,

When J recall 'bow colonial WUllamsburg has served so r r "

effectively as a symbol of the bond between English.speaking
people on both aides of the Atlantic; I can see how valuable BOREE CONCRETE PRODUCTS INC

? U win be to hare's similar symbol of the cultural heritage ,:
which came to us from Hispanic.American aourera This can lJrt1.f $s mal l fttsiintntt Corporation! '

be the roost Important new aymboUa bond with our Latin 2036 Pennis St. Jacksonville Florida
American neighbors to the swath u well as to Spain across ,
Ibe .oean." OFFIC" :

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Fishing from the Jellies at Si Andrews Slate Park at Panama City Beach Is'a Favorite Activity- t :i j} e 3 r F r t i

Parks Offer VarietyB a \t I

N. E. MILLER JR. lion at Florida Caverns State cently completed fiscal year, reational Development Council
151.4.., held..d it Sews Park near Marlanna. Approximately overnight visitation reached the and the cooperation of other state t tI
75 square miles of protected astronomical total of more than agencies the State Park Board
Florida's stale park system extends living coral reef formations 623,000 nearly a l.OOO percent la adding to Its acres and facili / f 1 I
nearly WO mile from Fort! lying in the Atlantic acrID Increase Many would-be campers ties. '1
Plcbriu Stale Park on Pentacola off Key Largo>'Ve the focal pointof must be turned away during I I
Beach to Eahla Honda 8iat the unique John Pennekamp certain times because the campgrounds .if'mv
Park In the lower keys, Coral Reef State Park. are filled to capacity The following are examples ff )
'I actions taken within the past
year and a half: 267 acres In '
Every: resident.' regardless Tropical plant and animals attract Camping I IS dust one phase of Flagler County were donated to \
where he lives in Florida is only many visitors to Highlands activity In state parks. Well kept create the Washington Oaka Gardens
I. a few minutes from one or more Hammock State Park near and spacious picnic areas are a State Park; Xt: ares otothan /'
of tile 4S state parka or historic Sebrtng and Myakka River State must. Many provide facilities for were leased from another agency '
.memorial DOW in operation. Park east of Sarasota. The golden boating fishing, swimming, sightseeing at II a year to create the Gra
I beaches of the Atlantic draw nature study, hiking, and ton Beacb State Park; ttl.OM
thousands of people to Little other activities. was spent to add 120 acres to )
As the Legislature appropriate
' Talbot bland State Park' north O'Leno State Park: Ml seres
, sufficient funds additional areas of Jacksonville Anastaiia' Slate were transferred from another I .
4 wilt be made available Some to the W Park on St. Augustine :Bead and Steps are being taken to en- state agency to create the Jack I 'It \
public through Hugh Taylor Birch State Park at able more people to see more Island State Park; and (71 acreswere i
areas Port Lauderdale, areas of the parks, more conveniently purchased In Gulf County
out Florida are
and by more unique to create the St. Joseph Stale
: currently undeveloped -
& and un- 'The white sands of the method Bicycles and bones are Park.,
pure rented to patrons at Myskka River -
Visited. Cult beaches are the favorite of
At this park visitors may tons
patrons at Fort Plckeni, St. An- f.S Millloa Visitors a
also ride a small school bus out
Not only lsFlorida's drew's Slate Park at Paaama
to a "bird tower to observe. a Last year more than 4S million
park City Beach and John C. Beasley "
system extensive near Fort Walton Beach. huge rookery., people visited Florida's state
parks The time Is not far off
It also
.; I when twice this number will need
boasts of via
Glass-Soltmn Boats lobe accommodated. Groundwork
1/ -Miller__ forts rlety.to flowers From, Overnight Campi.gOvernight A Jeep-pulled wagon propels must be laid now to plan As Florida grows: Florida builds.'Today, 10,000 structures in

and front underground camping la 'avail sight-seers through Highlands tor this Influx of visitors. the state contain more than a million font of FLORIDA

to under water, Florida's able at"19 parks. These campgrounds Hammock State Park while Iminiature. STEEL.,.atructural 1 steel, reinforcing steel, iteel of IIpecial. :
/ parks can meet the demand are currently:: burstingat aoenlo railroad givesipassengers The overnight camping boom
and tastes of Just about every the seams and new ones are a three-mile So-min shows no signs of slowing down. f fabrication. The pioneer of steel manufacturing in Florida, :
( one. currently on the drawing boards. ute tour of Hugh Taylor Birch The time Is here when picnicking FLORIDA STEEL CORPORATION provides the only reinforcing "
As money Is appropriated campIng State Park: Glass bottom boats In the park Is a regular rit- A steel manufactured and fabricated in Florida to give i
Outstanding old forti are operating out of the headquarters
i areas will be constructed at ual. More persons than ever own
preserved it Fort Plckeni State several parks There none now on Key Largo give visitors boats and fishing gear. Shorter Florida a limitless source of quality-controlled steel right at
:Park, near Pen acola, and Fort exist Including Anastasia and a close-up look at the reefs at work Weeks mean more leisure her fingertips.FloridaSteel. -
.Clinch State Park at Fernandtna. Little Talbot Island. the John Penneksmp Coral Reef hours and more time lor recreation i
(Artistry and skill of landscape, State Park. Other tours are In Better roads and automobiles
(together with years -of patient the. off log such so a jungle make traveling to and from
icire have produced the beau. Meeting the demand for over cruise up the Loxahatchre RiverIn parks much easier. More parks
'tlful gardens at Killearn Gardens night camping f.cmtlea1as been the Jonathan Dickinson State are now open than ever meanIng .
State Park near Tallahassee. difficult because of the totally unpredictable Park south of Stuart. that more of these areas are
growth In popularityof
convenient to more people. I"!
this recreational activity. In
Underground Cavrnis
1932. Florida parks had only Through the generosity of prf-
The wonder of underground slightly more thin 32,000 overnight vate citizens, the financial. assistance Florida's state P&rltIinvlte you
'caverns Is the principal attrac visitors During the re of the Florida Outdoor Rec to be their guesla.s ,

.1I Better steel than ever before Still In the pioneering a

spirit, FLORIDA STEEL CORPORATION i is installing a new 1, f

low-level continuous cas ling process,which will produce steel of

higher quality than ever before. Two installations will be '

capable taming out four continuous strands of steel at the

same time.. FLORIDA STEEL'S new installation will probably 1

be the first of its kind to operate in the United State I As (

Florida grows, Florida builds..with FLORIDA STEEL.




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: Palms Frame Picnickers'Bahia Honda State Park Near Big Tine Key in South Florida I
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-- ---- ----

Ponce de Leon LinkedTo

;:fs Via. Ponte Vedra's Past

Nand I saboteurs unwittingly way AlA connect Jtduonvlll General James Oglethorp of

traced the path of Ponce de Icon and St Augustine by the eoutal Georgia when he tried nntueoett.

In bit search for eternal youth route appear to have heed on fully to take St. Augustine laj
u they landed at Pont Vtdra
during..World.War D They found the road between Bt Augustine 1740
FBI and and Port Caroline It wu ever
only a dlllient execu-
1 Plantation and sugar mill
ItF ,
Unit, that highway, the 111'11111 Florida,
were found la the Ponte Vedra
that the Spaniard traveled to area from time to time and the
A German submarine surfaced attack the French at Fort Caroline region flourished at Intervals between *
the white land dunes of
Indian raids but U remained *
the world famous retort on Juni
virtually unchanged from
17. 1M2, and fourl,I, kale trUoed. Early Missions :'!Wj'> Ponce dt Leon Vme until HISi '
for an extensive ooatnpalga" of Ito (
sabotage came ashore wearing The missions ot Santa Cha That year two chemical engfipeen \

bathing salts and German mill and (an Diego war near Pont discovered, the beach
lacy cape Vedas and Fort Diego war ..ltu.ted -
sands contained deposits of 17
west of the area
valuable mlneralt Including
'The spot It believed by many Fort Diego was captured by Uemlte, ruble and alreon.

1858 Travelers Paid $2 historian to be when the Spanish

_.. ,. explorer. ,De Leon, landed toll I The National Lead Company
vessel In 1511 la bin aeareh for acquired control of the property

llmini the early name for FlorIda named It Mineral City, and .carried
) and the mythic Fountainat en axtentlve mining opera-

-.Fora 15-Mile Rail Trip Youth. Ions during World War I,

NY Mineral City disappeared when
9Sr Germans land more economically featlble deposits .
of the minerals were found
AUGUSTINE, Dec :3:ze Bv HANK DRANK ment. traveler wrote that the The German landed about four elsewhere, and Pont Vedra took

Railroad have come a long. long' ...- .... Hill" 5,5.1 engine' wu still" to small "If a '>rTHE' mile south of the inlet, burled lu place?
tine the founding of the first, xploilvea In the dune referred
strayed tin trackt the
cow on :
railroad in historic St Johns : other In the 17.8. for the aame to In account of Ponce de Leon Development of Font ,Vedraat

County nor than 100 year as o. turn" engineer had to dismount and voyage u blufft), and donned i retort started out slowly
drive the animal off with a cattle -. .;aff.. Ivlllan clothei. They came to with the building of a golf course

The line. known an the St Despite the hardship and casts. whip Jacksonville where the FBI lot now acclaimed at one of the
John Rail*ay, consisted of acombination of thl* crude method ot traportatlon EVOLUTION' OF A RAILROAD 011 their trail > finest In the United States andplayed
the railroad prospered' Between IMS and 1889 the lit ,
wooden freight andpastmger I by most of till world'aDoted
principally because the only other tie railroad along lI'IUi four othershort
coach pulled by a The capture of the Nazi later golfen.
meant of travel between 81. line was acquired by When tile early paswngert Auguiune with Tocol Landingon !
team of mule acrost a ii mlle i Augustine and points In Nort Henry M. Flaglef. the railroadmagnate who patronized the St John the St Johns River U milesway. j but one of many hintorlo
ttreitch of tampland from here i! east Florida wu by horseback 01' (ho organlwd the Flor- Railroad after Wo* took g trip In Ian. the fare wu $>. events associated with Ponte Ponte Vedra Beach today It g
to Tocol Landing on the St JohnsRiver. oxcart on sandy trail through Ida Coast and Gulf Railroad, extending II Walt aboard a cart poweredby ..filch many at the time thought edra. community of fine hornet and

virgin forests. hit track down to Miami one horse. with the 'engi wu outrageous Between 1883 apartment stretching along ih.
then a primitive settlement of 260 neer" sitting atop baggage and 188ft the line wu acquiredby .. In lVi Jeai Rlbault and his oceanfront. state road ALA and
The railroad made lu first\ run Link <* St. Johns people' Ileft... This "train" wu known Henry M. Flagler who wu band of French Huguenots tailed tltelaloon.

In lift and continued In exist I The beginning of the St. Johns as the St. Augustine Lightning building a-tail line from Jack- lone to the Ponte Vedra shore ,
At the Flakier System rxpand Express Thing I improved aonrtlls to Miami One of the before finally! entering the mouth At times broken shards of
pore until 1M:. There it* a potiblllty Railroad, flue of the first In Flor.
ed, many of the branch line however. and a few years later first locombtlvn used by the of the St John Elver ancient Indian pottery or other
It would hate faded Into ,Ida. stirred considerable Interestsince were eirmarkcd for abandonment pasitenger were riding In an FEC wu similar to one manufurtiirwi PONCE DE LEON relict such u a gold wedding

oblivion had it not been for an provided St Augustine. Including tht St Johns, enclosed coach drawn by a hv the H. K. Porter The region now constituting First: at Foot Vedra ring Uuoribed In French are unearthed
with vital link to the St Johns
energetic and scholarly mechanl River a, the principal artery for which came to an end in 1RlS. train (top):.The !line linked St Co. (bottom).-- 'onta.yedra. through which high to tell of the part
cal engineer who In 1949 at the:: I transportation in Northeast Floro

age of e8, came to fit Augustinefrom Ida at that time,

Philadelphia Made Scale to Models retire I I

The engineer vat Grivlllf I be shipped tl point along the

Bathe who died here In March. I river. by boat Off the return -

He was the. author of alx hooks journey, the Uny train hauled "
and hit hobby of making tcale- I finished goods and a large number NOW
model steam engines laminated a of tourists. to the St. Augustine BARGE "

large number o( persona here area.Because ,

I of mounting interest .f:
Bathe became Interested In the
11ft the line Dr Wescott begin an
6t Johns Railroad through an
expansion program in 1860 whir ,
i s
article lie read In a newspaper.After of
Incorporated the laying new
extensive research facilitated
rails and purchase of a steam
by the Florida Cast CoastRailway
', engine to replace the mules
the $t. Augustine His-
tomcat Society and a number of |I I Book like many another railroad -?' ciOal ty NEW YORK j ?
private citizens he compiled con- In the South the St Johns line|

alderable data on the-railroad. war destined to eel the atlnt of TRENTON \ I
flue data, combined with oon the Civil War, With the blockad "I, '

temporary drawings. proved sndtlclent In force along the coast and the ei c i1\/ WILMIN3TON. DEL. '
for him to construct a aubaequent occupation of Jack. ';
or king model of one of the tnitvllle and:: St Augustine 1 1I hr lei- I t BALTIMORE "h hirAzpi

'. early steam engine and coaches. I Union force. the tiny railroad ; ; "
used by the line during the late I I was destrojed and Its iron rail ,,> "

jssoi 'I I confiscated

I The destruction to believed to
The model war mad from I I
I have taken place sometime In I
sketch by t famed outdoor writei -' s RICHMOND"t
1062. and it wu not until 18h6
of that day. Charles Hallork,,
/that restoration of the road was
author of a hook entitled, Camp
undertaken by Dr, Wescott with
>", Life In Florida.* who chancedto
I a coffee mill' engine often replaced
to ride the, train
.. by mule .team
In IM the centennial" of the I The primitive *tat of 'the
railroad. Bathe published decrlptlve struggling railroad following the y ( ''
of the railroad 1
war can be best described by
'* history to commemoratewith Hallock In hit book on Florid

facts, and a few fancies camp life. He devoted two pages FAYETT t tt' '
how primitive railroading was In ot the book tea description of the W'i

this early period railroad, a portion of which follow f 'Zd
a K
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The first trick on thick the .
+ +.
1 sw v TON N.O..
coach traveled were squared Nt Accommodations'About .

ooden atrlngert laid on tree I "' noon we arrived at To- '. ,
that were cut during the clearingof
apt, or u we afterward dUbbed 1
the right of way. The stringers! It, Decoy, 4S miles from Jacksonville + :>e7>rbN .
Here protected on top by thin i erheatrr. UGU
I This miserable apology for R $ s
stripe of Iron similar to that used
contains old tumbledown !
place one >, ,
on tires of wagon vhrels. la I house and two rough board cj Pt

shanties which litter constitutethe ,
The 15-mile journey, starting on
depot at the western t.trml" ;,
the west bank of the San Sebastian I '1 "
1 nut of the St. Johns Railroad
River here required four or

five bouit The mules. yoked 'Thlt l railroad It 15 miles 1 In JACKSONYI .
abreast between the rails often length and should make an flay '
ran wild or laid down on the job approach to St Augustine We MOBILE. : -"r:

Frequently, the engineer was thought we were nearly there. ', ,, ., >
forced to halt hit coach to frighten ,,.S'N : .
l but we knew more about It too W ORf.E '
away alligators or snakei to afterward. Could we hive fore S y g l

the mule could continue the teen the hardship we were togo HOUSTON' '
journey The rails often collapsed through we might hive de. s SANIy :

forcing the disgruntled aided not to proceed Two hour a }
and moagtuto-peotered pissenvert tlrolling about or titling on' log r r a wr r, '

to alight from the coach to under the ahadeles pine used ieig ",
help lift the coach bade) on the up our time while a little atthmatle -

track tea kettle of a steam engine 4
wu being tinkered into goIng -
Passenger. Price' condition" I

But the crowning Insult for the The year 1870 marked the tale r t'BRGWNSV

passenger wit the price of the ot-,the railroad to William Astor 10
journey-a total of 12 which of New York for believedto
sum '
even in these days of Inflation I I be tu,ooo. In UT3, the track ., -, MI 1/ /
would teem exorbitant Travelersoften
were relald with Iron tnd ana : -
complained of the price to''' percent dividend paid to stockholder ,
Dr. John Wescott surgeon, turvejyor *. A newspaper item of

and Confederate army that data slated that 5.000 tour- -' ,' ; ,: .
jor who founded the railroad ,
!Iota passed over the road both
the complaint of one ... way during the Visiting season, ..

and possibly other. Dr. W still paying the turn of $2 each ;i' .
replied\ In this manner; way "

HAVAN uyiu
"It may be quite true sir that I The railroad managed to tur .
you have never heard of a chargeof I vlve the money panic of 1973 and + rw '
$2 to travel I distance of 15 In 1(71 new locomotive and

miles Though I dnnt want to freight and passenger vans were
tell you this you will travel longer purchased, greatly enhancing It*

over ,this l line than over any I prestige Even witS this improve Yxa .CP

r RM s ern, ,
se.6e s..w

.." Standard Industry Size Container ',

4.w Both Liquid and Dry .,: .j ) ,

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PA Box 4908 104 E. Platen. Rd a .
P. 0 BOX 1625 ,
j f r Teletype 305.733.1320 Teletype 703-625-8310'
I" )1I $i( 4' o, r

3 ----- ..-- or, Phone RO 2-6581-2-2657 Phone Elgin, 5-45.43 Phone MA '25475'r

r Riverboat at Tocol Landing Oil St. Johns

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,:: F,t. St. Nicholas: A Bastion' Without a Battle 't I!

* *

: '1. ,< Land Where Assumption School's Pupils Now Play Once Offered Protection from the Indians :.i i iBy .:. I IWi

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CTNTHU PARKS,.Times.UnJ.. StIlt Writer So the governor decided to build a chain of torts, six or Savannah, and a ferry left the couth aids near the fort to himself up as conqueror and lord of Florida, apparently IB the
eight In Duval County, to aid his fortifications at Mayport and croat to the north aid (tat the foot 'of today Liberty .Street). styls of Hannibal.) ,
There'I a spot on Atlantic Boulevard where now bltek.rohe 1 St. John :Bluff. Tort St Nicholas wu one of these k kIt
Dominican Stokers fulfil their call, rearing children In the faith When Otlethorpe I Invasion came, however Fort St. NtchoM' The Spanish returned Florida In 17S3 lining the state was this threat that caused till fort to be abandoned
*1* saw none of the action.. In another mother cllijw,, ui*;)>,.Jrom England for a few Inconsequential Islands ,'and they re
tV I1or ,it ,. 'r. f;i, .Wttr* *-WTWihed drs of Aswftnpt tbd huolPlrtnenu'r .r1rri t "\,.BHtlsti.njlKbtoMftfVWI)! \\ : buy'the met" wen 'do-'*, built the fort In a triangular) shape surrounding It by 4 cantonment Daughters of the American Revolution, A boulder-marker on
/ Mass the Spanish once howled curse at the English, the English tented by IUneU'and treachery, even at the gate of st. Augustine. of offleera quarters and barracks Atlantlo Boulevard bears the Inscription: 'Fifteen hundred and

Imprecations at the Bpanlsh and the Indiana and a renegade and they beat a death-strewn retreat back to Georgia About that tin (1790)), the boyfUhter with Oglethorp had 4hlrty feet north of this spot stood an early Spanish fortification. \
McIntosh drowned all their screams In tin at the old. Fort Fort San Nicholas, abandoned July 4. 1817" i
drown to manhood John McIntosh bad become a general!, tat ,
It. Nicholas Jolla MchlMh ready to retire 10 cam to Florida with hi la family He wentto .

One of the boys la Oglethorpe army never forgot: he wu Ortega Point to live the ute of a country gentleman on a Thereafter it wu used to prevent river smuggling, but It
Knee the original die at Locarno: wu long ago leveled bya 14-year-old John K. McIntosh who followed his father. Capt. John cotton plantation Historian Davis even said he received an. wu not even successful at that Rev, J. K. Glenn a Methodistmissionary t'
respectable tanner much of the true part la cloaked In' Moor McIntosh commander of a detachment of Scottish Highlanders office by Spanish grant In st. Augustine in 1823, reported that Con John H. .
mystery Jacksonville historian T. Frederick Davis laid an old This Is not the John H. MclnTosh who led the lilt McIntosh bragged about fleecing the Spanish. guards with, bin ,
But when h* went to St. Augustine In. 17M to buy a cow. .
Spanish reveal the site a blockhouse but cotton
map as or post
Patriots of Florida and va director-general of East Florida)
he did not offer it full credence until Spain second occupationand McIntosh wu arrested at the city gate by order of Cov
John McIntosh would come that way again, with a lighted '
Queaada. Spanish soldiers In \are meantime, ransacking his
1U rebuilding 1784. flambeau In lots hand. home Bellevue were He once wished to peas two boatload up the river without ,;
at Ortega.
paying duty probably from his Ortega plantation He approached '

Dales le 17(1 But meanwhile, in na the British returned to Florida by Mclntosk Imprisoned the officer In command as:ala boat hove Into view, Say Glenn: I
treaty agreement and the Spanish pulled out. Fort Bt Mlcholat ''The commander put up spy-glass and remarked, 'There la
Others, though, believe JI'or81.. Nichols came Into being was a cipher, except for what Pleuaat D. Gold claim In his History never recorded for a certainty what the Spanish \too much cotton to let it pass' The general gave him a doubloon
when Don Manuel Je Mohtlano wu governor In st. AugustineIn "History of Duval County : "Cowford (Jacksonville>)> wu an governor suspected. but surmise concludes that McIntosh was He put the coin to one eye and the spy-glau to the other i I
1743. Don Manuel resorted to a chain of fort when til Important place with the south aids of the river of the most conniving with Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson for the United and said, "Too much yet." The general gave him another 4
"armada" failed Be had gathered about him a ragtag rabbleof Importance. for hero wu Fort st,. Mchola. which offered pro State to take Florida from Spain. In any cue McIntosh was doubloon. He then put a doubloon' to each eye and sold, 'I see '
half-drunk runaway slaves from Georgia Indians and Spanish lection from the Indiana." sent to Havana Morro Castle for a year'to cool his ardor, no cotton now." F
sailors and Midlers to fight the English. Gen. Otlethorp and his
Britisher kept deviling him. so he called their hand for a Mclntosh wife appealed to President Washington and though Ownership Change
fight Though the renegade band harried the English and Scottish Fort Was Stopping rise freeing political prisoners\ from a continental power wu not in his
planters along, the river, they lost to Oglethorpt. ,troops, miserably 'The fort was -also a stopover on the famous Kings Road.' bailiWick?he interceded McIntosh was returned to his home. By Spanish 1 grant the St. Nicholas property, wu deeded to ,
The British decided to construct, road Iron New Smyrna to without standing ,trial. put he bore the Spaniards an 111.will D S. H. Miller who wu deputy surveyor with I. D. Hart. t
Jacksonville founder. Miller u captain of the rural militia I 1a ;
On his return, he gathered a band of adventurer like himself helped plat Cowford in lan, the :year after Spain left Florida I

.. : .;"" ...-..._ Tfr"" "'"" lM'gL'-'M'rMS' tagwri4talMaatlgii 1 and he set the Jort ablaze' and also the Spanish war vessel forever. I
on the riveronce I
8. HudnaU the fort lands and lie used' III i
Francis acquired
I Historic Saint Nicholas aaald the Spanish rebuilt the fort Davis believed the. ,l
Cemetery at
: Patriots timbers to build hlalarm. The fort wu enclosed by an excavation
of 1812 might .have destroyed\ fort In their peculiar
100 feet square, and HudnaU built his home on the east bank I ,
unofficial status at Americana seizing a Spanish possession/ no
of this moat, uncovering some Spanish win In the digging : \
England ;
could not one Florida a* a base for attack even before
I the War of 1811 wu declared.
Place of
: A 'Melancholy Fascination A* a territory and in statehood, Americans\ began to streamIn
Fort Abandoned and the cove of St Nicholas wu described u "a beautiful
i little vlllag located on the St John River a thriving orange*
Even so, the fort wu there in 1817. Orator McGregor and !
growing community, that connected with the rest of Jacksonville /
"Con* but not forgotten' read decked with .beauty and with hit Carthaienlans' held! Fernandina and threatened Fort St .
several well.meaning Inscriptions bloom But oh how changed and Nichols (McGregor wu a high.living adventurer bent on setting only\ by ferry and steamer

on headstones In the (t. Nicholas faded BOW--Thou (illegible) and 1
Cemetery but now neither Is tenant of/ the tomb." Tourists became permanent residents, and hey built home* ,'I.
on the St Mcholu side: Asa Packer, Gen, A. J. Dives Thomas '
true Some families have gone
Batnett MaJ Durtree" Judge Van Valkenburgh L. H. Armstrong.
out of existence and the
sunken passed gravel and crumbled Of' the Platt family Florence E:. P. Holmes, Seymour Halllday, Darius Ferris and the Call

vandalized grave markers bear Ann wu the first nurse to graduate family i\

mute testimony that her lie 1 from St take Hospital.
many-forgotten._sine Florida She lived to be 17 In 1957. and Chapel and CemeteryFor

days of statehood.England many her Southed famllle recall th* winter vUlton of many faiths an Interdenominational
Mrdlik figure flitting
J chapel wu built and an area designated first u a family\ plot
through a sickroom. tiry and later a* the St. Nicholas Cemetery for chapel members I
and Spain stopped J f, t yt
J TR The cemetery U there today: en Olive street la a most deplorabl\
musical! with the
playing chain i
slat of neglect and vandalism
Several of Rogero
generations I
colony of Florida" in V21 The
are in the Roque Rogers plot,
last gesture of the departing During World War t on the fort site Mood Merrill-Steven
t originally\ a St Augustine family
crown of Spain was to bequeaththe ts when there difference nighttime and day
t yw, Capt. W. M. Somervllle aCana' Company. wu no
who St helped, Nicholas I. D.area Hart to the survey man ,.Jt uAt dlan ship'a captain com to retire time for outfitting ships for war I ,

and plat Cowford In ISO-David the ;Aihmead Capt Seymour plot way off Halllday in the: The land wu then bought by the Catholio Church and seven
Solomon Hill Miller Adrian. Mich, began Assumption air
far corner: H. H. Hoeg mayor' 1 Dominican Sister from
Jacksonville in 1MO and 'U and School lor elementary atudenta la 1851 Bishop Kenny High -
Rural l Hamlet one year during the Reconstruc School was added to the plant, and now then I* the Church f
lion; Mr. Alexander Mitchell of the Assumption, a convent for the sisters of St. Joseph one
Th Cove 'of St Nicholas became r whose Villa Alexandria wu the for the DDm\DlcUlllllltert and tb* priests rectory.
a little river town it *onilderabls showplace of South Jacksonville: r..
charm American from g Calria Slngletary. Confederate Aside from some street asm* In St Mcholu and VUyfair.

northern tales came for the winter \ States of America:' Judge Von Atlantic Boulmrd.Marker Is Seldom. Noticed there 1* no reminder of Fort tt MeboU ear Ox DAR monument
to Inhale Its citrine aroma Valkenburgn with star j..llllne".mothernl standing In th* parkway between lane of hurtling traffic
and travel the river by steamer hi* grave* Thomas >
Basnetts pink granite obelisk,
the urn shattered-all then
an A* Interdenominational the lilt]. community chapel grew "Roasters and blenders of quality Coffee since 1933"Prestige :'

was built because then were Recent Burial
few accessible churches Clergy
from Jacksonvillt took the ferry On the "new" side: Carl Randall .
Leavitt: Wright Belflower:
ever to serve the Sunday congregation ,
a Rhydon May Call Florida Or i
a, cult judge and tJ.S. District\
_"....0_ ....* 0., BIN r._ Judge; Jefferson Davis Watson:

Near the chapel wu a burial Mary E: B. 81'W11OIM D.; veterans -
round for D. 8 H. Miller heirs The Quiet Beauty of St Nicholas Cemetery of World War I and n, !
When mm of the winter residents Including the 19O death of John
died It 'wu very difficult Taylor\ !
In those day to ship the body have parted with thy mirth- But large star of tiny plot*. One
back North. It la believed that In Heaven 111 meet the again" touching grave '1s the 1855 McIntyre (
one of Millers daughter Sera baby aged one year, four U''Ih.. present state of the

flna decided to share the family Against one of the many tent months, six days "EDDY cemetery' In the midst of one 01 "
burial plot 'deeding It to the like oak rest a mournful statue. EDDY Sleep my EddyNo the city* fine residential districts
chapel and freely giving to any rude sounds hall break thy i* shoddy. Its Iron spike
maimed by time and ill'use The I
fences broken and lie atones and
rest Hen thy bale head shall
family In griefHelp marble woman mourn "Mary :
coping cracked William Mien'swife's
slumber Soft as 00 thy mothers
Fox consort f T R Marklllie often solace
epitaph some
who were parent to six, GIll "a breast who Hereafter
Wanted for those accept a ;
nameless aon : Then is to Jeathr'The
In the western half of the Near It la hie mother. Mary star co downTo m* upon ,
cemetery, the "old." naif. are Teaching Message Ann McIntyre. 24 year old at some fairer shore And BrightIn
burled Millers heirs, though he For like many eemeterie of bet death In IMS: 'Ws gazed Heaven Jeweled crown- Mi
Is not there. A few of his descendant that vintage St Nicholas bas Its upon her sunny brow When i they shine forevermore
are Jacksonville residents -
today and most eager to ;
contact any other descendant of ,

famllle Interred there to tidy up Blends of Coffee and Quality Merchandise :
the weed-strangled churchYard.

One of these is Miller great available to i
great-granddaughter Mrs Robert 1M"

B. .. Restaurants Clubs, Hotels and Institutional Users ,
Mclver"N '

.. in North Florida and South Georgia -
The chapel say Mr*. Mclver, ...
burned down Sunday when ,, "" "
one :
the stove wu atoked too full But ', ,.'', ." ,/1\ .P,,' '
made < . I i,I:: ,
the cemetery could be 1
beautiful and Mrs Mclver s -
brother. T Palmer Holmes. hu "
been trying: to contact families *

u Ferris well u her cousin Dartus "Where there is no vis Ion, the peopl perish" ', } I

I' : 24 Hours Service to our Patrons f
Ferris came her In 1M and .
found the cemetery in such a deplorable ... .,

himself to straighten the atones
and clear the weeds Judge T. 0. I
,,' ,\
Holmes hu helped too but care ? Organized In'1906, has provided Security ... ,
hu been Inconstant In a place of

melancholy fascination and Protection for more than 50 years ". ''i' I
,' I
1MI Grave / through i 4p4 ;i M We wish fo congratulate .:', : ..

; ,;. {
On the "old" aide are buried ALL PLANS OF I INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE '
the Palmer and Ferris families

Ferris and Palmer were lumber .' .. : t' c ,;E
tog partner and married sisters! .. :
y ihtJlori J c tncg t n.
Ferris lot Is a great tree iamb I
ripped loose by Hurricane Dora.

and the monument for Darius 4 On its' 100 years of Faithful Service .1
Ferris read: 'Wrapt In the 1
shades of death No more thy '. ,1'j : .. . >>- Licensed]In .
__ "
.' ,r \ ; .f \\v. tsLj
friendly face-I see- Empty ah J f" I\1' (, I "
\ 1'IJt\\\ \. .
r empty every place One filled L \I\\\tf.\\\\ \ ; -
.o wen by IbeV..' Ferris grave IS-S"t e$ ",> '' .&t' : '
the first one marked there, I II : .: : :, : : -'-: ; :; ,: : : r:: :
dated Allg II, IMS. The District of ,Columbia, ,. TJ! '\_Jl.Jr.'IiV! \ \ ,I. l
.':' \ *,' ; '* ,.; ,,, ; : ( : . s
and f, V*, ::
The present Ferris maternal Puerto ..Rico, : : : : > : : C'I-:
y i. .t-"">"<*h :" W- A-W: !; BINGHAM COFFEE COMPANY
grandfather wu William deLacy, '
Installations ; trie World :. / $
born in Marseilles, educated InDublin Military oil! over .,
resident of Georgia. husband .
to Augusta Holmes. buried
.n the St Nicholas Cemetery lots : i. .rW 5970 Ph'i Highway. e JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 32207 e' Phone 7334521Branches I

handsome IVJ.cutaton., toppled.,

Lile Insurance Company A

Another old Southald* name I 11 George Washington ,in: Orlando, Ocala and Daytona Beach, Florida i
Floyd On year-old Ida Louisa
'* atone 1* inscribed: "Thy Savannah and Vajcrosi Georgia

lOre with sorrow pain-. To



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uda _, IiI : ., ..,..J. .u... w;."" >J'G """ d.O.'.',,,,,< _'J r.j WO/.j. ., .. ,. ." 1' "' I. .,""'" .
: : ''.N':'Arvf,6. l :: pre roes/: : --

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I In RevolutionFlorida

e r I -Was Utterly English

* .:

St. Augustine King's Men Burned. ', ', .

ltY t r' IJy;: tlrgtl'dn( .

.x IYt il I (..IVUr.r.II'! Adams ..and, Han. ,'?fR ddn'J Effigy.

e.aFwrlh m ", "I'fr/tll/ fltdttIt I" '# ";* >..>'*i" 'I "iYln9u I ,

By CYNTHIA PARKSw..VW h said that every one of ed to help build the Xing Road In 81 Augustine. New Smyrna
..... (Trill* the 7.000 Spaniards, except three from New Smyrna through SI. Matanzis Cowford Anastasia Island -
men who missed the boat while Augustine and Cowford (now along! the St. Johns and
During the American 'Revolution hunting their.horses. pulled out. Jacksonville) to the Altamah at Pleolata and St Harks The
Florida loyally girded her Into a tropical wilderness. peopled River 50 miles north of the Georgia Cowford detachment was quartered
,+' i' r soldiers for"war. but It was only by Indiana, came Scot line He encouraged Imm at Fort Saint Nicholas la
i against Gen. George Washington and Englishmen congregating grants. and among the first to what la now South Jacksonville*
principally around Vie capital of accept his offer was Dr. Andrew
i It East Florida 8t Augustine The Turnbull and 1.MO colonizer for An influx of Loyalists who re-
There was a two-decade period city had an additional guarantee New Smyrna Royal grants encouraged tented their patriot neighbors
of British rule In Florida be- of Tory feeling through Capt. settlers along the riven brought Daniel McGlrth t* Florida
tween Spanish oecupaUoni In Frederick! George Mulcaster who -St. Johns Nassau and St (llcOIrCreek /Is named for
1763 Spain ceded the Florida. was brother to King George m. Mary The potential in naval him: he forded It on his famous
." East: and West'_ to Great Brit stores and crops appeared a sure horse. Gray Goose while escaping
ain In exchange for Cuba and )first British Geveraor way to pounds sterling r posse) McGlrth and
until 17S4 when the Spaniards The first British governor In Thomas Browne, a planter from
Patrick Invasion Charles Itt
Governor: Tonyn Mapped :, came back again, .Florida' ,was East Florida was Qen James When Grant returned to England Savannah 'were organizers of the
utterly! English Grant He enlisted the cIvic spiritA Lt.-Go.. John Moultrle Cast Florida Rtngtrt The. men
filled his place until Cot\ Patrick were M much brigands as rtngt
A REFUGE FOR TORIES Tonya came to the capital in era tarrylnf Continentals and
1774 Tonyn was governor of EM Spaniards, but they helped keep ...
Florida until he led the British Britain In power here The alenIni -
exodus before returning Span- of the Declaration of Independence -

I I- lards. in 1784. summer for signaled GOP Tonyn a nervous He be-

St. Johns Town Arlington's Ancestor The war-spirit 'was Intensifying gas to tnlliit the aid .f the tno>"

: I. In colonies It north the revolution of Florida but sympathetic in- ; ana measures and crack down on security

St. Augustine Loyalists to the 1 '
King burned John Adams and I' Fear* KeallxetlKtt

By CYNTHIA PARKS was Prince Street, Simple log huts silent, the warriors filed put the In Spaniards came to call John. .Hancock In effigy, fears realized
were whet
e II.t'.'.. HUH a,.., first: lined these avenues, but St. bluff town on their way to St. the settlement St. Vincent Ferrer, First Act .; War Gen ptkrlei Lee called the Continentals .'
I Johns Town was to grow quickly Augustine to deal with Goy:
I but there was no trade. ao their together at Savannah to
While Tom Paine pen was inflaming Iran expediency Tonya tatlve,in England Southeast Jut It represen gesture ended In luWIt). The first' act of war again Invade Florida. Lee was summoned -
waa neces05ry
e -
< the colonies aaalnst the the British was when the South to Philadelphia before he
to treat them despite
-Georgian Crown, a group of Tories' During the American Revolution unctloualy Spanish hold was so tenuous at Carolina sloop Commerce board could carry through his plant,
dwindling auppUea.Anolhpr
King ed the brigantine Betty and and Col. William Moultrle
aim loyal to His Majesty the Torte or Loyalist became that time, actually that"" confiscated was
George! ITI was carving nut a very unpopular with their JheEngUsh barrels of gunpowder put In hls'pltce, The colonel was
subdivision-on. the banks of the Yankee neighbors\ As the Revolu, cause of shortages probably could have remained The British gave chase but without a brother' to the first"British jov-
St. Johns River In the vicinity of lion began to go heavily againstthe tilcmmed from American prtva- unmolested but Instead success emorTonyo.

the present Arlington suburb It British Tories In Savannah teen harrying the coast. those brash new Americana Half of the St. Augustine regl stool cannon,ready.with
was called St. Johns Town and Charleston decided to seek a swarmed over the border to claim ment stirred to a call.to-arma and three gunboat on the St Johns.
friendlier atmosphere UOO Settler the territory Tory ghost town went to fight the Continentals in But his flotilla war not to be
The towering 'ro-foot.hlgb
be lancedI i Virginia,The rest were stationed tested then Moultrle mea sickened -
Johns bluff not the exclusiveproperty
was I
throughout history of In July, 1782. Savannah emptied with swamp fever and
1500 loyalist with their 1000tlsvea Even by the end of 1782 turned
ao back at Sunbury U miles.
either the'French Huauenoit Into the bluff town. Mid a St; Johns Town had s population if south of Savannah. '
U564-R5)) nor the Spanish con I
: month later from Charleston came of 1,500 along Its two streets with
qulstadors who wrested it from British merchants and, rich Temporary Stalemate
.plantations along the river
and held until I I
them in 1565 It 1763
Gov Tonyn raining/ timber and naval stores.
planters P'lot'ltla'a Crown
efforts both
and returned yet again from 1713 ShortChangedSettlers Military on \ aides
was delighted with the Influx of
.to 1821 were at a stalemate lor a while
arid felt it boded
his countrymen In the town of 300 hoiuet were The British were busy Ingrstlat-
There "al a hopeful tro decades Mil for the bluff settlement, also two tavern, a public house. of Bluff TownWhen inn themselves with the Indians !
era. t .tor j s then $t. Johns To"'I n belonged a livery stable a dry goods shop and the Rangers raided Georgia ,
? to England (1763 83)). i H.rtr Hardships I a storehouse. a tool ihop and a I for cattle and enticed deserters
Masonic lodge Rev James Spy St. Johna Town was evacuated at the return of 10 join their fraternity fort
When the first Spanish colonial Initially there were problems. moor.Tory from Savannah held Spam sovereignty In 1783 the British sued the Crew n for Howe was captured by Browne
period was ended In 17A1 by the of course Nine tailing ships with services laws From' the 372 claims filed one gets a fair Idea of what and hU Rangers, but a clear ao
English, William Hester bought 1.]no passengers and their belongings life was like In the shortlived colonial settlement count: Is unavailable since Brttsh .
XM acres around the blufl H. were stranded off the regulars reported rather condescendingly ..
sold it in 17711 to Thomas Williamson Coast of St Augustine Four lives The town was a flourishing communitY Naval stores-resin turpentine. tar arid pitch-lumber, indigo, on the. soldiery etprovincials.
.. and Williamson commenced I' were lost and many barrels ol counting ita chickens ef fruit grovea of orange. lemon peach, pomegranate and. fields ;
plotting a township with two goods ao there were shortages of the future, when the Revolutioncame of Indian com rice and sugar cane were raised
streets food) and clothing to an end. The colonists Loyalists continued to pour |ntthe >
were ahocked to find that they George Talleck, ship carpenter" "by' his industry acquired stale, and bands from the
tog Rut Subdivitlta were pausing back to Spain again a comfortable living which maintained him and hit family" Carolina formed their own regiments
The Indians, too, did not tin Certainly they were not welcome He valued at SO ariiiUlng Ma dwelling, kitchen market OB the These met padded our
'd Off wh bay "found to bat every way convenient for trade" He also the when In the of
Water Street! were hU bay) derstand the Engllsb no in Georgia nor South Caroline army spring
held In governmental lost a new boras "where he) Intended to settle for his life 78; Continental Brigadier-Gener
Continental General: Robert Howe 10.. overlooking the river At longer away among the'revolutionaries!
right angles with Water Street decrees. Regal and forbiddingly Americana. The only chattels time:and a boat valued at eight pounds, al Robert Howe .moved on FlorIda .

hey could carry with them. Stephen While lived II year In East: Florida a* Innkeeperand ,
--- ) :
y. r their slaves-were small use in horse hirer He left St. Augustine for the bluff town. buying Howe must have bad a clever
N. / Canada But It was unthinkable to a bay lot He had "a large new dwelling house kitchen, stables Intelligence setupfor by the
the British colonists not to be store house and a garden brought to a stale of good cultivation j time ba was ready to move his
> among their own-In "tome cor four Negroes '? three horses ..'. three canoes' These Items 1,000 nun into Florida he knew
net of a foreign field that la forever he felt merited a paymentof 524 pounds plus 'hoping for a the locations and morale of the
England" per annum turn on his leas of business\ British encampments

: Title & Trust of Florida Exodus Bella John McDonald tavernkeeper war another Williamson Howe.Continentals were met
Company indebted for three-quarters of an acre half down, ball in two It the St' Maryt River by
years Terms were eaay: Williamson charged 10 percent Interest irownet Rangert, who were
So they.went to the West In-. only if McDonald didn't pay bit second installment within ommanded by Gen: Augustus
dies or Jamaica or the Bahamas. the two-year period.
'revost stationed at Cowford.
Home Office 200 East St Florida Thomas Williamson even dismembered roUted.
: Forsyth Jacksonville his home and sent It British colonial Got: Patrick Tonyn had incurred governmental The Rangers were They
on to Jamaica, for it was aboutall expenses too For instance, a hundred pounds was owing Oed Into the cabbage swamps
he had (About 198 Iota were to Charles Wright Esquire as partial payment for a road from many dropping their rifles In the
i of Florida the In still unsold, and his credit plan the St Johns! River at Cowford to the St. Marys River mire and were rescued by the
The history of Title &: Trust Company dates Lark to year 1887 September eneralt brother, MaJ James

of that tear prominent local citizens organized a corporation} railed Florida Abstract and Title Seruritv proved unsound lola In time on some of revolu-of the"sold" Daniel Curvolsle submitted a bill In July, 1775, for repairs Mare Frevoit

Company The first 1o ,alctrtrt were issued on September ). 1887 one to A. M". Cor I.. lon,)i By 1785 the town wan deserted en the ferryhouite at Cowford (ISO years before the founding of Retreat It SI Johns Bluff
sell Jr, and the other t",. Dunrin U. flf'If'IIPr, bold |,ronnnent attorneys of this area. Mr Fletcher Only a lew lawless spirits Jacksonville That tame month Joshua Yallowly repaired the
later became Inited: slstes Senator. from Honda and termed with ars; lie like William Bowles and Daniel Cowford! road. Meanwhile, at sea Commodore

lived arrows the street from our other United States Senator James P Taluferro. rtcGIrt used the empty dwellings The Crown totaled tht bills up at 647,401 pounds, and paid Bowen was landing \hit ConUlentala .-
: for hideouts. leas than a Quarter of them near Fernandina. British
rasa wan caught wrinBlin and
Several years later a competing[ ronlpiny wet formed and operated by-different interest unready, to they had to retreatto
it was called Reslty Title &: Trust Company St Jaime Bluff.

II I The Continentals were also encamped -
F'., Those two title companion had 1 practically all of the available information with respect to I STEWARD-MELLON CO.or at Nassau Bluff on the
Duttl County land titles, including records of the vjnous Spanish grants which have always been ,, north aide of the river, so a Brit-
I recognized and given effect Thow conifamei' operated suirensfully and competitively until they 1 lab detachment was tent to rout
them did
were later absorbed #into Title & Trust Company of Flor
Bridge Ul miles northwest
On May 3, 1901 the great Jacksonville fire destroyed the Dutal County Courthouse and all Jacksonville)", they came
original land records contained therein, ; but the records held<< hy Florida Abstract and Title Security across no American cavalry,

Company were saved by Mr J, W. Spratt who put the most\ important ones ill a tail.boat and has served the Southeast for 36 years with installations of Th. British dashed for cover

took them across the river to safety The Honda Legislature Ister passed an act making copies of behind trenchea'and brush
those records admissible in evidence in the courts. MARINE DECKINGS MARBLE CERAMIC TILE: breastwork The battle was
fierce but short. American Col.
Elijah Clarke was wounded his
!Shortly after the. termInation of WorM War I, peojle from the IWth 'al1\l'\ to Honda in GRANITE COMPOSITION TILE TERRAZZO men were cast down by this and
.ronsidertble numbers and began investing in Florida lands, particularly along the lower Last withdrew. They never realized
Coant The city of :Miami became<< the focal point of a boom which gradually spread, first through how tenuous the British hold was
middle Honda/ and the citrus belt.then along the lower Rest\ Coast to stub towns ai Tampa, Sara- WALL COVERINGS and WALL COATINGS then or they might well have
pressed on to victory
and ft
sola Petersburg "
It turned out to be a hollow

In recognition of"the fact that the Jarknonvllle facilities for fruiilly supplying i title information Steword-Mellor Co was founded December,* 1928 by M. ,V, Cos Invasion wrangled for Gen and Howe.quarreled Hit about leaden
were being, taxed beyond their rapacity, Charles H Mann ant Rirhard 1. !Marks on :May 22,
tello; Sr who served as President until he becqrpa Boord ChotrmortIn taking orders from him (one a.
1922, obtained a ,rharlprfor Titter & Trust Company of Flon.It. -It had a' capital of $2 >000000 ? governor of Georgia, and one i
an.i immediately merged with and took over the operation of the two previously mentioned ahstrart 1951, being succeeded by J. L, Smith, both of whom, served in naval commodore), half his men

companies.. The new company 11'-.100 authorised to inure land titled, a prartx,*, which these capacities until I their deaths In 1954. were sick, and ,MO died, of disease

waa then coming into vogue and had not theretofore been used to any great extent. in this area, Mrs. M. V. Costello was, named as Board Chairman and M. V. alone

Costello Jr., as President, who arc presently serving in these positions In July 1771 the Continentals
The boom gradually moved northward and by the year 1923 it was apparent that property in Other officers o.ef : dragged ever the St Mary
the Jacksonville area would soon be aerjuirmg! a more or Iras fictitious value The activity thii dogged from behind by some ofprevast's

stimulated taxed the remurret of the new-title company and efforts were nude to increase and I 1' H Baumer, Vice-President men Land north warfare Florida
from then os was of
enlarge/ its facilities; thin was nVina to tome extent but could not be completed in time! to avoid P. B Costello, S.cretory.Treasurer 'a swampy border

imiih confusion during the short life of the :North Honda boom which, had pretty well terminated I. C. D Dale, Vice-President Peace

'. t' by 1926.Throughout. Restored ,

Florida was left In reasonable
: the depression following the stork market crash in 1929 and bank peace now. but for privateering
years Installations have been mode In Florida Alabama, Georgia, SouthCarolina and the fear of Spain (at war la
failures thereafter the abstract, and title business was active and the Title & Trust Company began .
North Carolina Tennessee and the District of Columbia. Europe with England).
to prosper because of the many mortgage foreclosures and other transactions' required to remove ,
clouds from land titles. By 1960 its capital tiirplut and undivided profits approximated $3- Still the Tory soldiers of Florida "

c 000,000.00. Then its title and trust departments were separated<< the latter being transferred to a fought on In other places,
separata banking institution, First Bank & Trust Company of Jacksonville. Now the two institutions Steward.Mellon Co. has contributed to the I local economy by near tome end with at Cornwall Yorktown to the Florid bitter

II. are closely affiliated but operate separately. Title & Trust Company hat numerous offices, ly $000,00000 In payrolls during the past 10 years to 100 regiments faced famoui patriot

agents and abstract plants throughout the cities and towns of Honda and com petes statewide for employees living in the Immediate area. toldlert .like Francis Marion
its fair share of the title busmen It doe. not actively compete for out-of-attte busmen. It has Plckens Sumter Gate. Greene

strong reinsurance connections which enable it |o offer ample title protection in all Honda transactions nd i"rance's Lafayette.

regardless of the amount involved there need be no time-onluming negotiations for When the revolution came tt
; excess coverage The company complies with all legal requirements. and has adequate reserves. It an end Florida was still British .-
I stand, ready and willing to completely serve the people of Florida 'In itt field of endeavor. STEWARD-MELLON CO. Borne 17,000 Loyalists soughtto
live among their own, hereand
Hart a new life They settled
t Main Officer 945 Liberty Si., Jacksonville,- Fla. along the St Johns River uUt.to. *
1/ x .. on the bluff there. and a
Doctor Lake.
b (

I" : : ? ,> '' '" ,I':. ,,;JI"V:;; ..,;,...... h, ...J_ ."!. ..........,)..., ". ...yl, 'C,W.'M ,. ". .. ....- ...... -"

......"i -' V" .' .....": .. .... '.. .... .. . . . :' '
:; :. ;:;;: .: '. :' ; ; :.'.:. :t": ,. '1 ::: ;: : : : : .: : ,. : ., : : ..

1! 1


Scoundrels, Astors Going North or South? r'I''I P ::1

And Saints' Called Take the King's Road?, !. _

"" \-

Fort Home f By DENA SNODGRASS followed ridge period. The road huIt ret I J,
George and highland I original name and, for mostof .
.,_.. welsh
where tree of Its length, exactly the MOM* I' I
Indian trail, foot path and fared protection route u when It wu laid. out<<
By CYNTHIA PARR rtmea-tiloa staff Writer trading trail threaded throughthe : and they In the mld.ITroII. <*!II.

Some of humanlty'i rllest scourges-piracy and Florida forest, skirted I' I' took advantage Beginning U 1773 the Brttlsi

slavery-md tome of Its gentlest pleasures-- .surf swamps and marshes and traceda of beaches built the road from St. AugurttoeJ
r the
and bird watching-characterize the romantic -, faint lacework pattern ever and shoreline ,
bathing land hundreds the capital) of last: Florida aoutavf
face of the' many swift
for pu."lI.alt.r
The southernmost DaM'1
history of Fort George Island. ward to plantations la the
of ,
of the coastal Sea Islands, Fort George Island year ago dark tona Beach area then on to VM' 1 I

earned approximately the same tender epithet from Them were the sinews of Indian jf These trail Smyrna and finally to the Indian t
its first settlers as from Its 19th century tourists. life lifeline essential for t-'v were the erigiSmtfiraiif River plantations In ,
hunting, for traveling la fish and nal highway of I tl
The Timucuan Indians called the island (really oyster sites" for visiting friend I I Florida, And they served quite From St Auiustlne. the' JClJ\I-\ :; .
AUmacanl and trading with them, lor trackIng Road built northweatwar6eowford to)
several Islands Intersected by rivulets) weU enough for the first liO wu
Sweet Land by the Sea. In the 1880s the eulogies of the enemy and for war. I I years after. Florida discovery mow Jacksonville(, t t

fashionable tourists were glossier, but in between the i in 1513. Adaptation by the Span followed the path of the presentUS .:.
influx of The Luxurious Fort George Hotel as It Appeared In 188S Geography wu theyrty factor lards during that time wu aught. 1. then veered' westward a
Indians and the tourists was a fascinating In selecting the trail route They bit, Joining what w. know 'todayU I'

empire builders, rogues and saints who gave the Early Settlement Old St. Auguitln Road.Ferry .

land an historical aura of I Its own. Is-I, A CHARMING.RESORT .!"# Crossing ,
The Spanish settlements were
TIM' first\ European recorded tc home were built On the highest confined to St Augustine, Pen The ferry crossing of jthe' St t 1
land on the Island wu
.ndSI, Marks, hallway
tacola John River wu from iftutruld*
bault, who sailed his three ahlpi point. observatory Mount Cornelia offered, a a three-fine THE SEA ISLANDSFort between the two Missions were to the foot of Liberty' street. 'I
Into the mouth of the St John story aid IN established at various points on From there the road cut northwestward
view of rolling porpoises
River April 30, 12\ He found the trail and at intervals along attain through what
both the land an4b.. bdlanhospitable myriad land and waterbtrdi.Every -
waterways in the eastern and later became the heart of the
tourist and George Wand In the 18W* wu a resort of such charm II southern part of the state city, to the route of today, Old J JKtnI'I
day the that not even the sophisticated CA. minister to Persia wu Immune Road.In J
The Tlmucuan wen dockside to trails
residents gathered Many of the original
"Nowhere! oa the face of the earth are there inch islands,
peaceful farmer for the me a i, await- the coming of the mallboat, he extolled, but the biggest Klllng point wu health appeal were followed by the Spaniards the Vicinity of Callahan, the
part They ten their primitive and the atjllih proudly exhibited u they went to and fro in the King'* Road turn toward the
history interred In two burial their equipages and .fine horses land. Gradually they were wld I east! u it approaches the St,
mounds: which were explored by then, An 1887 promotional pamphlet *A Winter at Fort George," declared I f1 r ened u pack horse or mule I Mary River, This portion of the
the Smithsonian! Institution In the at the outset that Ponce de Leon missed ills fabled fountain I passed over them but only thesegments road appeara on county. map but ,

18801. Bella Includlnc chalk.like After the mall was handed out of eternal youth by not Hopping here. ; of the principal trails i not often shown on regular

beads rtlll faintly red and blue, a whoop and a whip crack aig- I near the settlements were wide\ highway map At the St Marys 1
wen found, and a midden of OJTI- naled a mad trot for home,t Just two hour by "steamer Jacksonville brought the tourist enough for cart. River the road originally pronged

her Sheila, later wed for road The race over the oyster shell to Pilot Town"a mere row of cozy, picturesque cottage near rtthe crossing at old Coleraln 1 II
building was the history'book of road sent up a choking cloud of, the water' edge on Batten Island according to I, O, W. From st. Augustine the main' and another at present day King's e '
their crude ImplemenU.Bu dockside carried trail to the vest went tint to Perry a few mile* to the eut.
white dust, and behind the handsome Benjamin the Persian minister From one wu i "
only equipage cam the servant to the Fort" George Hotel where all the luxuries of steam beat, I tI Fort Ploolata where the St. Johns Prom there It .met similar roads ) I
landing later '
| to the Spanlnh forded and where
*, urging "their mule-driven gu light, electric bell and wide piazza were available River wu built by the British In the Georgiacolony
after Rlbault, the Tim. \
lour yean a ferry, served to bridge the The full length of the
ncuan were leas hospitable dump carts at top clip. stream From there It went to road in Florida wee' completed. .
CatholU annals tell of the Uw Death Rat .1. Alachua and then westward to In three yean. It wu a wide'
martyrdom of the first mis- Buslnem was depressed St. Marks, oad lor that day a carriage.
ternary sent among them In ISM however, by recurrent IOM'I I
of yellow fever, Both hotel It Wit on these piazzas that the ailing were encouraged to Modern highway maps", show road. ]
Spaniard M..ere4 foroed to close their. regain their stamina, goaded by such grim quotations as the following thee three name but po direct Why jftwfordt ,
I the J. .general report: Death-rate In of roads between
several years from D surgeon route existing The route which the Kings
effort to
The Massachusetts one In 254: In Mew York one in 473; In Florida them except for the portion approaching Road followed near Cowford h

fce w.- still 'not effective Frenchman bj1M Then, In IMS, a Boston hotel one In 1,447," St. Mark. From thereto was a well.worn one aa old Ttmuquan }i
In that year
determined' company assumed Rolllna' mortgage Pensacola tilt trail offered a trail. For many lone

to Dominic de his Gourguea Huguenot countrymen : and refurbished the Fort' The booklet pointed out that, in the world, "consumption la 'choice; one path near the coast' yean the Indians had visited this
avenge and DlGI'I'
slaughtered at Fort Caroline George Hotel The company still Hug and one of every four families aerified someone to and another higher up point for theyj/ knew that It wu
by Menendei de' Avllei He built an addition bigger than the the disease Florida climate pas better than other states' for r< eb N passable In, wet, weather. the short* and therefore the I

armed his own little fleet and original hotel be! Illness, and Fort George wu better than Florida f e ti Famed.TravelerOne easiest and safest point to cross

landed at Eastertide on the north A Brilliant SeasM of the most famous of all the river. They had used the 081'on ,
banks of the river (what li now "It Is a well-established fact that the climate of the sea.Islands American frontiersmen Daniel I spot to swine their cattle 1<< In"8t

Pilot Town on Fort Geor Island For one brilliant season (he I!I la far more invigorating than that of the mainland. ? Boone, visited Florida la 1765 their. way to market this them ".
Acgustlne And for rcagoo
i. opposite Spanish Fort San Fort George Hotel dazzled the' the bland are lea subject to severe and sudden change /In and It la believed tbat he traveledthe the pllClt'Wacca
Mateo on the south bank Enlisting South and lured the North A It- temperature*- The salt air and water" were touted as powerful path from 8t Augustine toPensacola they had, ''then
PUaika meaning
disgruntled Indian' to hit foot wide plant ,encompassed antiseptic absorbing the poisonous gases.and,impurities./ pr taking; the lower trail crosa
aide, he killed the Spaniards he three sides of the ateam.heated along the coast beyond St. Marks place'*when the' cowl :

found. Then he proceeded to the hotel, and there were big fireplaces ..Over .
opposite bank, the Indiana swlnv In the rotunda, parlor and Warm Weather When England fell heir to Florida The English( translated this
mint behind him, and alauihlered some room Entirely gu.lit, the 1k In 1763. there wu much Interest name into Cowford and maintained

ever panlard thereThe. hotel also touted electric bell The' weather In winter was 30 to 49 degree warmer than In In settlement and development a ferry at the place even ;
A complete ; J\;. in tbe' laying out of before Kinis Road wu 'built. f
There wu a
to summon service Hew York and ui summer, two to U degree "
Island mission was re-ea- boat house and stable for for August September February.March \ t.j >: plantation and In getting goods Florida's' first I(
fine list ot dally temperature ; :\ And so U la that
Juan water's
bbllshed and by IfiCMI San .., to town or to the edge \
and a glass conservatory Included King RoU,
guest the
Puerto prieste could claim the use and April wu ."" > .' 'for shipment to England Roads, real highway,
de ;
The JacksooMIlo can ; :
wu In the offing ot
; ; : } and the tilt
5W Indiana baptised In the faith : tile'WM'I essential,
hotel wu advertised u beta g odor 'j l look 1 back on a cdmmon beginning
the Intercession of asympathette The luxuriant pine and citrus trees were said to emit aa : "\
through .
chleftalneaa.The only M hour from New York, *both and.antiseptic,"' t t.j.f : ,(t Local RM Survives a meeting ground: the stratectcally -
prophylactic! the Cow- '
and It reveled in its register Jacksonville ewe King Road :located terry at
leveled where there were such name u Ft George Road Hain't Changed Since 1880s ford. ,
mission wu yet letter told of these healthful virtues In the date directly from thus British ; ,
A phyatcan *
satin by mauraudlng British in Calvin and Harriet Beech .
used Howe, Gen Sherman the booklet and of one more, oddly '' bard oyster shell I
1701 Get James Oilethorpe through the deep and, .
of tolling
for attack Dodge Alton and Mayo of New roads He explained
on the the bland Spanish aa la the 17Ma, alv- York and the. Cushion of Boa- : as smooth in many, hard other pavement place, ,In Winding Florid for, the mile invalid along hero the edge finds of a Growths S

tai the Island It* present name, ton the Island, often within sight of the sea and always within hearing I 42 Years ;

too sound of its breaker," and sheltered by oak,
first Rrfug. And then the caretaker accidentally
I ; upset hii- stove, and I- hickories, ferns, vine, palmi.....a voluptuous mass of vegetation. "
Since the shaky framework of the hotel burned to the ground 'I in ;
civilization had been destroyed Rollins remained at the Homestead The doctor aiso Included In ;these salubrious ambles the j _

the Island continued for a while fencing his 117 acre Rol beach, bardpacked and whitely firm ,to walk or drive on.
as the unobtrusive harbor for pirate Ito,' heirs some yean later Florida

*, runaway alavea and .fugi used the foundation brick of the were encouraged to try the climate J
: Not only pulmonary patient
law. ,
tires from
burned hotel for a at
but also those with heart disease,, because the Island I
American Revolution strain on the organs ,
During the la- With the hotels') demise and the sea level put an extra '
documents lint the railroad carrying tourist to the With a starting capital of one hundred dollars, ;? 1
land owner as J, Tucker. When Gambling' 'J' k i
lower Eut Coast the bland .No Drinking *r i!
Spain owned Florida again in (lapsed Into quietude for a time. \ fifty of which wu borrowed, Joha HampiltooChurchweU e (
1783, the Spanish governor at st. Grove too. received abut Company mentioned the delights l t '
owners Island also ;
Fort Ole ,
Augustine gave the land to a The established t dry good business! la ,
blow with. the great freeze no
McQueen. McQueen sold It to of buying property and living on the inland, IUlJ'IDteelnrthat '
John Mcintosh in 1803 ot INS, j Iota. would be told for aaloons or gambling culnos Cordele Georgia to 1911. Joined by hit brother,' :
th h 1
McIntosh i thorn In the At the turn of the century the continued this
wu :bird Augustus Franklin ChurchweU.he
shell roads,
'The Wand boasted rt miles of hard packed
aide of Spain. He corresponded Wind began to grow slowly on a heron -,
mallards cranes ,
with President Madison, urging more peaceful and stable but watching or hunting icanvasbacX, : and bau. trout, \ operation u a partnership In Cordele until 1922 "
wild turkey etc i
wild eagle,
the United States to buy Florida, In 1928 HeckiKher Drive United *, geese
and the Irate Spanish official the Island with Main Street into ahad, mullet, molluscs, etc), the highest Cornelia-M point of kinds land of tree; when they moved to Jacksonville, and established i

clapped him in Jail for a year Jacksonville, and about 116O! the miles south of New Jersey-Mount starved
unbeatable romance hi 1 legends ''a female slave I at KS West Bay Street.,
at Havana Morro Castle Hit ferry service linked it to May and an booklet, their warehouse ,
death in an old prison, according' to the
lime-brick house la part of the port -to One of the product.distributed with pride through manyyear
debt preserve now, and it la I
II I IA the "Real Money'band matched twUl shlrf and
said that his wife and stater-In- I *
,law were burled In nearby Aa the business grew, additional space war pant work clothing which 1* manufactured by an affiliated, t

tombs needed. This led to the, purchase of the property corporation\ 'The company.. Southland Manufacturing Company '1 ;!

In 1817 Mclntofth sold his land FLORIDA'S at the corner,of Bay and Market Street, where i is located at 741 Florida Avenue In Jacksonville,.and ,'i'

to slave-trader friend ZephanlahKuigsley. Its y the! company la'still housed. On January ,t, 192.1; wu started In 1931 by Mr Brent McKelvy with the backing'

attic.prisons, whose and borne rooftop with look -a the purchase from Covinglon Company; wu con- of the J. H. ChurchweU: Co. It operated at various"location ;:J. j

out la preserved today by theFlorida r FIRST summated, and ChurchweD Brother commenced, throughout the city before finally }locating on Florida Avenue, '1 i i

Memorials.Board of Parka. and Historical operation at 101-313 Bay St., In a four story, On January 1. 1944. Southland wu Incorporated and Mr. "
LARGEST warehouse erected la 1908. McKelvy retired because of ill health. With modern facilities r
Hmwftead Founded i
quality work clothing
the Company' continue manufacture t

b 1S43 the land came to neph- P h .
iw Xlngsley Olbba, who raised J Upon the death of Mr J-H ChurchweU: In January, 1953 ,

, and cotton his on son the both Island died, before but Glbbs the "s T BUSINESS During thU period ChurchweU Brother*:operated hit son. John H ChurchweU, Jr.. became president ''of ,J.'H.

Civil War ,ao In IMS the Island a chain of retail store In" Georgia and ChurchweU Co. When Mr. CnurchweD. Jr. moved to England :) 'I

was bought by John F. Rollins of FORMS Florida along with the wholesale operation. Since i In 1931! he wu succeeded by bin brother-In-law' ; Leonard

the Dover.Klngsley N,H. home Rolllna,' made moved a Into few U proved unsatisfactory to concentrate on both R, Pavelka, Who continues.as president' :. Mrs..J. H. Church- i I

changes, and called the Homestead type of business the partnership wu ,dissolved! weU passed away, In July 19o5, but the company, continues, i

MANUFACTURERLewis la 1930. Mr. A., F. ChurchweU went on with the to be predominantly family owned and operated Other

Rapine found this' estate and retail store and Mr. 't, H. ChurehweO stayed officer Include: 0.-T." Walker; ExecuUv Vice-President

others deserted on the Island he and but In the wholesale field. The Bam ,wu changed and Sec 7.Tret*,t. Martha C. Pavelka, Vie*.President; Raymond
for the freed alavea.
hit wife both were avid horticulturist to J. H, ChurchweD. Wholesale! Company and S, ]Rodger, Vice.President: and Miss Cell Ooodson.,

*, they put the Uegroe to '''. aQ'effort of this company were focused,in the Aist. Secretary and Treasurer, '.,
and grafting and f
work planting
Besides his lovely / Jt."J: wholesale, field. wholesale at JS.
eiperlmentlng J, H, ChurchweU 'Com.11111 the distributor ,

rotes his, Rolllna work with took the special Mandarin prideIn Lewis pioneered i In the monufoctur of Data '\ ': W t R t N 0 U I P.S:<,.I MJ, i'ii many nationally advertised brand of merchandise Thirteen 'I

orange and the ahaddoek, later .Processing' Forms Cords and Business Forms l.t ,'J A C K' 0 N tf I I u. 't ;,1 1 .. salesmen cover the Southeast and Nassaji la the Bahamas, \
the grapefruit A good friend of and to several foreigr'j', 1>,1 I retali"merthanta Veins the ,G
distributes' nationally I 0" LAM II 0" Th Company Continued operation through servicing the lit those areas.
bll, Dr..George Hall lint him countries. Current soles of over 57,000,000, ) -" ;Y., January 'that Bells and Satisfies," the company
many eiotlc planta from China .t"M A Jot J I the difficult depression yean and on ,, motto "Merchandise
and Japan and of the luxuriant spent In local purchases'and large. payrolls, j, '; : 1938. Incorporated under the law of the State pearly fifty employee realize, that good customer relationship t

plant that once honeysuckle flourished there ha *, ploy their part in, the Jacksonville story. : ": Y ATLANTA; ,I of Florida u the J. H ChurchweB. Company and courteous, efficient service are cornerstone Sowhlcfl
the rampant
made Florid home. \ I name it still bear The organization Into' continued: success In a highly competitive field. The policy
LBF capability and experience Is available for, ; for the welfare of his customer
department handling piece good and domestics, of fair dealing and eoncers
The groves werent producing other the solution of the problems of paperwork, In Nfl i4' ,, ,:, ; J B ChurehwiU In 1tl1, till permeatee tile at-
yet, to Rollins turned to //t ladle lingerie, notions, toys, ladle wear, men et by Mr. :
In 1883 he and business. Phone 355-2451 No obligations, 1. ; J wboldeale distribution business
of Income. '
mean Mr lyour ; \i' and boys wear, shoes and hat waa made ,and mosphen! of Ibis dry goods,
hla friend Dr. Hall and a. of course, basis principle to be followed by present ..
Porter formed the Fort George continue essentially the sam to date. and continue u the \

Hotel Company and bunt two hotel nn.nagen eat.Churchwell.

*; the Fort George Hotel (the tit.kll.hU IU4 \
site of the present Rlbault Club "
and the Beach House facing the i \jf \ "" .,
river. The steamer Water Lily ..\ \ "
wu the only link with Jacksonville Lewis Business FomIn : -... ,:, : -\ JH. ', Co.1 .- !

and yet the island was on :

its way to becoming a fashionable etNlaAt0//1211 @::1,,,, 'f: \, Wholesale Dry Goods
resort and health center for \ ;
ocean bathing 1\ JacksonvilleFlorida'

hisser Plaited Situ O//ICM la rrwlpot.' ';J}\i: \ 301-313 E. Bay Street _

,. ; .- ; < .
The lend was platted la lot*
from four to M acre, and eight ',


< '- ,. ,.. ...... ._ ... d... '

U'ftr, i,' :S "l y-i+ ,, ,! ltl,." '\,,,i' 1 '.f t' ,
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sill aw> #} last. .. .. ve. .. 1 r
The Homestead, Kingsley'j Residence, as It Appeared In 1887 After Renovation by Then-Owner J, F, Rollins Klngsley Plantation's Slav Quarters a* They Appeared in Days Following Civil War

Kingsley: A Man of Ability and Foresight

*1 * *

-.- _._ ,
--,_... .. -

He Was 'Fit and Discrete' But FloutedConvention' -'--- '. .. --. -.-- ---- ". :-._-,...

Bv PEXA SVODfiRAIS from the Spanish government of Florida.: brought In his own amsliamstes wllh the ordinary condition of life," Kinsley',.""Oak, a plantation near Fernandlna Beach when he anew Wigs r
I.. .....ul. II......... es teeThe slaves In his own ships and laid out the tint of his-several Fill wrote. He expressed these and other views on slavery In a pamphlet was one of his Nassau County properties.Xlngnley .
Ida plantations Laurel Grove. It was located on the Bt. Johns he published In 182ft a treatise which vent through four '.
plantation house that '.. llanlah' Kihgsley built on Fort. River or a Bluff south of Orange Park'a sits today. printing, attesting to Its popularity, took an active part In"public' ffairs. When Florida
Oorge bland in 1813 sDII stands today near the mouth of the became a territory, he was one of the 1J citizens described aa
81 Johns Fiver, looking out \board the sa He named It "The Laurel drove win Klngslry's residence. Soon he had two "'I' iaiiRht Idem nothing but what wss. useful." King/toy/ slid "the most fit and discreet" who, with the 'OVl'morwere appointed -
Homestead other plantations nearby Springfield where Sea Island cottorf was of tilt training he gave his slaves, "and what I thought would by the president of the United *States to compose the
grown and Conesfleld, a cattle ranch. Citrus was grown on the add to their physical and moral.. hspplness. I encouraged ai Florida Legislative Council. *
It M a plain frame house and rather small but It Is"quite prob-! home place as well M on still another plantation, Drayton's Island much u possible dancing, merriment and drew, for which Saturday No matter how "fit and discreet' Klngsley was In. business
abb the oldest plantation ho ..,urv1v1n, tn Florida.
in Lake Oeorge. afternoon and night and Sunday morning were dedicated. and politics, Sits personal life flouted social custom
Has Beet Restored their time wu usually employed la toeing their eon, letting a
From" these properties Klngsley reaped a bountiful harvest of upply\ of fish for the week, Before ha came to Florida he had married Anna Madglgene
Because of ale historic significance It was acquired by the\ /agricultural ,oode. He also had a fleet of boats on the liver Jot "In a foreign land where our marriage was' celebrated and
Florida Board of Parks and Historic Memorials and has been traveling retail stores they were-and settlers along the stream How Scare Reacted solemnized by her native African custom although never celebrated1
restored. The house ts not yet open visitors but the public may were, his customers. Warehouses were a part of this merchandising according to the forms of Christian usage,**- Klngsley
stroll about its grounds system and a store wu maintained at Laurel Grove. "''Both men and women wire very Industrious. Many of them stated la his will. He described Anna aa a woman of truth, honor -
i made 20 bushels of corn to sell and they vied with each other In Integrity moral conduct and good sense." Of her ability and
Zephaniah Kingsley was born of noble parentage In Scotlandon Beginning ol Slave! Trade drew and dancing, They were. perfectly honest and obedient diplomacy there was no doubt for she managed the Fort George
Dec e, tile and came to America as a child with his parent and appeared quite happy having no fear but Mat of offending plantation and many of. Klngsley'a business affairs during Ui absences.
They settled in Charleston; 8 C.. where Zephanlah. Us brothers Still another phase of the Kingsley 'empire" was a aubstan. me; and I hardly ever had occasion to apply other cor .
and sisters grew up and received Rood educations. It wan said in till! trade with the Indians. Amicable relations with them were rertlon than shaming: them If 1 exceeded this, the punishment
later years that Zephsnlah was a classical scholar, ItkMy Indicating maintained until about 113 when,. through a misunderstanding, gas quite light for they hardly ever failed In doln..tbelr work Moves to Haiti,
the early Training he vss rt\' n. The Senior Kmgsley was a well. -
the plantations were raided and the houses burned. Klnmley subsequently -
successful 'Very much against hit wish, Klngsley concluded that Ma
merchant and prominent ciUwn of Charleston. ?
and went into the
bought Fort George Island heavily
family would fare better in other land and moved .
"My object war.11I excite their ambition and attachment by some them to
How Klngsley spent hip early manhood has been teamed only alav.radl' sAt kindness; not to depress their spirits by fear and punishment I Haiti./ On Sept. JU. ten, while In New York awaiting passage to .
fey inference from his comment In later yean From this source Haiti to visit them Klngaley died. He evidently bad some fore
that time"atavery wss practiced throughout the world never allowed them to visit, for fear of bad example but encouraged -
It much can of be other safely peoples assumed and that lands.he traveled the world over and taw among virtually all peoplen.\ Kingsley believed that slavery could! the decent neighboring people to participate In their ,boding for he bad made bit will la August before leaving Florida.

J. be beneficial, under the proper circumstances. weekly festivity, for which they always provided an ample entertalnment x n, 1ey', life, when viewed in Its entirety, was one of use*.
Arrives la Florida themselves, u they had an abundance of hogs, fowls fulness. He was a man of ability! education and foresight far beyond .
"The Idea of slavery when associated with cruelty jnd Injustice con ant all kinds of vegetables and mill They had nothing to Us time and his many contributions to the development of
ulCJn' J and already eux'eeefuL Ha secured a 3, )-acr. grant of land ts associated with Justice and benevolence, slavery, .easily to guard against. Perfect confidence, friendship, and good, under. .... ,
a' i r standing nlgned between tut" RMiasloaary

I This Ideal! condition' existed Klngslejr Interferes said at Laurel Grove, A'TreacherousSlaving

i but Dolor long. "A man calling hlmwlf a minister! lot among
Seriiice I f then. It wu now sinful to dance, work their corn or catch fish
63r LyearA / : on a Sunday: or to eat cat fish, because they had no scales and
o if they did they were to go to a place .herethey would be tormented
with tire and brimstone to all eternity. .that all pas TeamWhat
tim or pleasure Its this Iniquitous! world was sinful.

with the tife Insurance Industry in FLORIDA Fort where George he reared bland and became trained Klngsley't his slaves home before and selling the plantation themIn strahge lore does a veil of Florida moss, a

the Southern states. "He prospered In all his activities," wrote fringe of palmetto, a mask of clinging ivy, hide? One
Philip 8. May Sr., In a definitive article on Klngsley In the Florida of the strangest stories comes, reasonably, out of the
Historical Quarterly. "New crops and improved types of old one. life of a man strange by today's standard* -Zephanlah
were Introduced Into Florida by him. fluting one year the Kingsley, a shipbuilder husband to an African
produce of his plantatioN brought him approximately $10,000, an princess. feudal lord of Fort George Island trafficker
return for those in Florida. ,
MRO-A 1ERICAN( enormous days
in human lives. I < ""' <

"After his death Us executor collected $77,332 from the U.S. country In south coastal Africa
Treasury for damages suffered to his property daring the activities One of his richest sources of Just above the Equator._
began its operation Jacksonville, of the Indians and the so-called Patriots." This rat One of slaves was an African king and an
King Gezo's sister attracted the
the many claims which the United States agreed to pay when English lord who worked together
Florida in 190)) In 1904 the Spain relinquished East and West Florida In 18U. as brothers-In-lsw to make one of eye of an adventurer and officer
the most treacherous round-up of the British Navy, Lord George
company moved to its present location, i' Other Klnfiley Property teams on the Gold Coast. Russell. Russell wu wounded at
the battle of Trafalgar and on
shown here. In 1956 the building t- v retirement from the service, he
was Iii In addition to the plantations named above, Klngiley owned Icing Genes wu ruler for 40
erected at a cost of $1,250,000. property al St. Johns Bluff; San Jose and Beaucler point, Whys() yean (!II -lR.>5) of'Dahomey, a, Africa outfitted for'a gold yacht and and adventure.ailed to

The Company-has grown and He found both In Dahomey. He
I was made a prince, and he plotted
now operates in Florida, Georgia, Alabama SINCE 1945 with Us brother-In-law, King Gem
and Texas with ee e. to get black gold. Gem had battalions
over $11,000,000.00 of Amazons who raided the
border tribes and rounded up the
handsomest young men and
.. women to sell into alavery in
'\ ; ::/ '; : Cuba and Tort George Island.'al
r n ,.,' / ,, l ee.ertrt v'oMr.Xa'_ ...., ,
/\I-.1";\: n -'-' !I III I' I"" t the mouth of the St. Johns RIver
.'} ; .: : .
\ t
:\ ( : ,: ., 1 1oJ '/ ... the Lord transactions Russea decided from Havana.to attend He

made frequent trip to the mouth'
of the St. Johns to, unl0e4 the
., -. alav..,

I He used Florida aa a bane be.
I, F cause it was unlawful from 1807
J : I to' Import alavea to Georgia and
South Carolina,; but as long as
I cotton was king, Russell and Gezo _
bad a bootleg market. The water. s..
way was navigable in small boats <
all the way to Charleston

l las.a Russell received good pay for
f : ti.t his quarry because It was good
stock in the first place and he
treated it well on shipboard.

Russell's Dahomeyan princess
le wo bore him a daughter, lovita.
Steamy summer tn Havana did
not agree with her, ae from June
to October the princess and her
daughter lived on Fort George

Ponies were lirnorted for the
girt, and she raced over the hard
white sands along the sea.. For
nearly a century afterward the
\ descendants ot these horses
galloped wild over the Island.)

o OUR BEAUTIFUL HOME OFFICE BUILDING TODAY I BARGE, BOAT AND YACHT REPAIRS education-aa The girt then English had a governess European

i STEEL OR WOOD TO ,200 TONS lion and,In at Paris ale 15. a convent educa -

LIGHT She was a beauty-haV Arab
glow of health and rigor from her
untrammeled rearing la Florida
in winters. At IS she was pro.
. BOAT YARQ rented to till French court and
Parisian society rant Its heart ta
JACKSONVILLE ti gy FLORIDA the young woman who, a few
I FOOT OF EVERGREEN AVENUE JACKSONVILLE FLORIDA short years before, had been aialfwUd ,
creature, Dying -011 a
sands foamed-flecked horse over Florida

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When Indians First Came to Florida,

Now Extinct Animals Roamed the LandBy ,I

f. I
DR. HALE t:. SMITH The Indians also caught fish will about 1300-1600 A.D. The mound \Into cups dippers! necklace and II
nets spears and bow and was constructed a* a foundation hairpins Florida Indiana tradedsea

a..e .d .. -..... dybM. arrow. To supplement !the diet for a small temple placed on shells to these northern I
hunter would bring into camp top of it.' groups In order to receive materials to r

deer, rabbit. bear and, other not found in Florida from
animals Alligator bones have Burial Mounds them. Carved alligator teeth were
11...._ bee found in the areas occupied also taken Into the Ohio region,
by the Indians so it appears that maybe by an Indian tourist The
they also ate alligator tall steaks Burial mound are generally Florida Indians received In return
before Columbus _
In the f
yean harder to locate because they \AiL
for this material which 1
discovered: America many Indians are smaller than the temple copper
lived In Florida and mad One of the favorite foods was mound The Indians of Florida was made Into pendant, braes- r s 4F
a living by fishing hunting, collecting gopher turtle which Is stUl used burled their dead In these mounds lets, bead. pins,, and so on
hell fish and raising corn. as a food by the Semlnoles The from about 500 B.C. to 1000 A.D.
These Indians first\ came Into gopher was roasted or boiled to After this Urn they stopped buildIng .' From North Carolina the early
North and South America from his shell and when done the mounds over the bodies and Floridians received mica which a N '
Asia across Uw Bering Strait thai Met legs were pulled oft and began burying the dead In cemeteries they used for personal adornment 4 I'i 't +t a4J
separates our continent from that eaten. or Jewelry F
of Asia. This migration ftartet : w

a long time ago about 1),000 The Indian village, temple this x+v rtw. 1'
B.C. The tools and weapons them Pottery weapon. beads pendants Curing early period aIlve11'
mounds burial mounds cemeteries and trade with ,'
peoples brought to thla country hairpins are found with was going on M etR
first crude. The Indian e.I and other features are the skeletal remains the Georgia Indians as well as
were sometimes hard to find today with those further north This is
this time did not make potter Since they have been deserted .
evidenced by the fact that ground
nor did they have the bow sod Village sites not of the sheD
for so many yean, nature has stone tools such a* celt and
arrow or grow any agricultural mound type can be noticed by
stain taken over and covered .
found in
axe art many areas
products They migrated southward the fact that the ground 1 II generally :
most of them with shrubs and
of Florida. Since these tool are
and eastward and eventually a rich black color formed '
trees Then too the building of
made out of a volcanic type of
arrived In Florida, probably by: the decay of animal. and
modern town has destroyed ,
orneof rock not found In Florida, It I II
about 15000 years ago. these When vegetable matter brought and
place whit men obvious that they were brought
began to dUo this country they left by the Indians Scattered In by man The closest source of
It Is now bettered by scientist often picked areas for towns throughout this-area are to be this type of rock it in Georgia LIFE WITH THE EARLY INDIANS J
found occasional ea shells and
Indians lint earn which had been Inhabited
that when the by the and Alabama where Florida *.a
to Florida, animals that art now Indians Jacksonville 8t Augur brokea pieces of pottery Sometime shell an also found .

extinct such u the mutadon, tine Daytona Miami and Tampa a or lost shell or discarded celt and arrowhead other On of the French' settler who of Indian lire In the New World Ings They were lint published and Plant" (top "Pre I" ,
were still living The mastadoo were once occupied by prehistoric object will occur' N.JroaCIIfWN earn to ft. Caroline to IJM was These engravings were don by in 1591, Their original titles paring for a eu'r( ) } \
was a* big as the 'present day people, artist Jacques L* Moyne, who Theodore de Bry who based were "Killing Alligators" (top and Setting An Enemy Ton I
elephant, and had large tuiki took back to Europe palatine his work on L* Moines paint- left). "Bow;They Till The Boll on Fire" (lower right).
and a trunk Harpoons and spear The mod obvious remain of When the Spanish first came The Florid Indians also traded
points have been found to wart the Florida groups are the high to Florida they found four strong among themselves. Th* coasts --- ... -
eua sections. of Florida which I shell mounds 1IIalbe Doted tribes present: The Tlmuea who Indian exchanged fish shell and I
were mad from the Ivory .f along the coast. TIle .moundI11'I' lived along the. Cast Atlantic pottery with the group IIv1n1'Inland. ..,
the tusks of the manunaLBunIJI owing to the accumulation Coast, the st. Johns River, and The trading of pottery
to the Audlla River, the between separated! by ;
of garbage from the dally: meals over group LINKED WITH PROGRESS IN FLORIDA
Appalachee Indians who -covered great distances Is especially
WeaponsSince through time The people would
an area from the Aucllla on the noted by the archaeologist. Due
bring their day catch home and
eat tt The shells and bones werethrown west past the Tallahassee area: I to the fact that each Indian group
the bow and arrow had the Calusla who controlled the
to one side of the house mad a distinctive type of pottery !
lot been Invented as yet, .the Western Quit Coast area; and;
and little by little Ute mound I I'I
It Is possible to note foreign
and a
Indians bunted with a spear various groups of Indians in the r
throwing (tick. The throwing began to rise Some of these glades Including the Tequesta of pieces In some Indians' 'china'' .
mounds attained a height of 30
stick was a piece of wood about feet or more When the garbage the Miami region. The Semlnoles collection., just as It la possibleto K x} w 3 nb I
It Inches long which had a hook did not arrive in Florida until
began to crowd the house they note today in a collection of
en one end' The base << the around 1700 AJEarly >. i' 1v I
placed in'the book moved It. and it* site) was filled antique dishes, what dishes came 1a A
spear was In with the refuse of later meals
in from England France Bavariaor
while the other end was held I
Many of these shell mounds are : Trade Route
the hand and by a nip ot the China.! .
used today for road material and
wrist the spear could be propelled -
with great force for 40 or consequently much of the prehistory III other part of the rolled
of Florida has been lost. So In analyzing the various
more yards. These weapons had States In prehistoric Indian sites
so much force that the Indians we find.evidence which Indicate Indian culture Of Florida we see

were able l to kill the thick.hided The temple mound are also trade routes were established between that they were not Isolated behind I
nastadons. easy to notice since they. are Florida and northern areas "Iron-curtains'! but that

quite large. The temple mound .at an early date. trade and probably came social
generally has a square base ana
The natives. at this time beside
Intercourse was going on between
is- several feet high some as
being hunters of deer, rabbit collected and ugh u the shell mound. .These la .the Midwest archaeologists the various groups, and thus we i
other' small animal, also 'I
seeds roots and oysten.There temple mounds were constructed. find Florida sea hells In burial can picture the lives and activities

were no domestic animal present by the Indians of Florida from mounds.These shell were made of he first Floridians OUR FIRST PLANT IN 1932 OUR PRESENT MODERN ,PLANT
aside from the dog so all the
carrying of loads overland had

to be on man I back. Tie horse sin
did not come to America until OUR 60th YEAR OF SERVICE! The Colonial O3 Company was chartered in Florida city of 7000.000 gallons and the Company is

it was brought in by the Spanish 1932.. Bf 1935 the storage capacity of the Jacksonville averaging isles of approximately 3,500,000 gallons '

Terminal was 945,000 |allons. Rolling stock for per month. Colonial now buys direct /from the (
ft appears that the earnest Florida & South tarolina
natives lived for the most part Serving Georgia delivery consisted of only 3 transport trucks and 2 'refinery receives its products' from ocean gang. 1

along the coast and waterway small delivery truck. Sales averaged 500,000 tankers and delivers them D} means! of some I IS.

of permanent Florida. They villages did but not roamed live In O gallons per month and there werebut 6 or 7 transport trucks. ',

around from one place to another Company operated,Service Stations. A complete canning plant is maintained and

supply as and they game exhausted in a particular OK food r ._ A BUSINESS BUILT AND Colonial now operates some 44 Company, motor oils distributed throughout the 2 ,States..

area. For protection from the operated Stations throughout Florida and Georgia., Colonial BOW hat some 13 wholesale sources of

weather they probably lived In "3 MAINTAINED'THROUGH Today Colonial maintains ill own Terminal facili- products) throughout Georgia, Honda, and South
thatched hull or
crude palmetto
domed circular tentllks structure QUALITY AND SERVICE ties, the Jacksonville Terminal has a storage caps* Carolina in addition to its own Terminal

' made of deer skin.bdtsa :

Patton : Truly Colonial Oil Company hat grown ,and prospered together with the
The art of making pottery was I Is

brought Into Florida about 2000 :
BC. This knowledge may haw
originated la Asia and been ESTABLISHED I IN 1904 JacLonlli1l&I
brought to America or It may

have been Invented torn place BY 'S H. MORGAN SR.
to North .or, Central America.At , I

the time when the pottery I
techniques earn Into Florida, Uw f
bow and arrow also arrived and COASTAL EMPIRE

replaced the throwing fuck. I'i

The first Florida pWry was
very crude In Its manufacture SUPPLIES MACHINERY

clay was mixed with Spanish 4 'Sf E tii rf ,
d R
moss When the Indian women AND PAINTS."SPECIALISTS .
baked their pots In hi fin to .. < _' _
make them hard the moss kept "

the vessel from cracking but the s -' .'t;r. s---- i
moss itself was burned out. The

later IIIc1an.1lied .and, grit or IN ONE OF OUR MODERN" SERVICE STATIONS
shell is the tempering of their EQUIPMENT" OUR FIRST SERVICE, STATION 1932 .

LIke Flortdlans today, the majority .
of the Indian lived along Inc. '
the sea coast where they had :
an abundant supply of food They ,
ate an sort of shell 11 suoh i

at )oysten and clams. They 1903 E. Adams Si. Phone 353-9047 Jacksonville JFla. ; I i
even captured the small coquina 3529 West B.QY.I St. 111_ West Broad St. ,
and mad soup. Enough: coquina '

Or a bowlful of soup would reOdr Jacksonville 5, Fla"f Savannah, Georgia Orlando and ForJ Pierce Florida 1 3 1

the lilt of a tier which DISTRICT OFFICES. ; .
Phone Phone 234-2271 Wayeron and Camilla Georgia
the 1ntlanlllrobe.bI1lD1dt la toe ,389-8891 ,

form ef a bas wore basket If'CENTENNIAL


,Snsrr4Va( ").\ .,, .
5,1"iIAN e.y. .q / o ,1\ I r I I' '
1'\tJ't': : : : '" ". ... . : . too iii. .. ... .. ..".... _... ................. ... ." .., .




Indians Make r u. ..e.er City Once Site

Major Attack t aF, tRut ..r0a Of. Timuquan.

On Mandarin Indian VillageBy

ft? JOB: CRAMkSHAW, Times-Union Staff Writer
w>I ytY
"Because Jacksonville wa a strong town of 250 person, the DENA SNODGRASS '
BemUio'e-Induninie-veT launched! M attack against It during the jMtlOTl BfcUriMl sew
war which bears the name at their tribe. But they did wile In
the wood outside a VJiailrr", the unsuspecting or Four centuries ago, before the first white men looked on
defenseless eorlo:11 1tII St. Johns, as/Indian village flourished near the river"on the
alto of present-day Jacksonville. lbThe
One of the first attack on record took place on Sept. 1],
1836, when a small band attacked the strongly defended Hlgginbothara Indian picked this spot for the lame reason white men
resident which was located seven miles west of what did hundreds of yean later The river is narrowest here, easier
wee then the town limits but which! is now In the metropolitan for crossing men and animals
am. -
The Indiana belonged to the Timuquan tribe the largest of
The HliRinboth'am family beat off the attacker and the elder 'all Indian tribes then living In Florida They called their villas
men of the family quickly spread the alarm all the may Into JackonriUe. Ossachite. -
...A party of settlers and militia was quickly formed and
set out in pursuit to drive the Indian away Their village site was given recognition In 1931 when the Jack.

lonvtlle Historical Society erected a marker on the northeast corner ,
Johns Burned
of Julia and Monroe street (now the Robert Meyer Hotel location -

The pursuing whites found that not all of the families In the ) bearing this legend.: "Site of the Ancient Tlmuquaa Townof
ana bad been a* successful as bad the fflgglnbothams. The Ossachlte from Earliest Times Until About 1700" (This marker
Flemmlng Johns residence on the Tallahassee Road had been Is now on the poet office ground at the rams intersection..)

burned to the ground and the charred body of Mr, John Wu In the
ashes Mr. John wu nowhere to be seen. Extensive Lands

Filled with anger the party spurred It* bone on Until The Timuqu (or Timucua) were actually a family of tribe
they came to a second homestead There they found Mr. Johns ,I- and at one time probably! numbered as many a* 15,000. Their land
alive but painfully wounded, She eventually recovered from her extended over North Florida westward to about Taylor County and
wounds and lived In the city for many year This Version of an Indian !Massacre Appeared In a Book Published In France In .1870 much of the northern half of the peninsula. LIke those who uo'ceeded -

them. they preferred the coast and lived as far south a*
Wagon trains! were ambushed. Messenger killed and farm.
fields against Jack Eau Oallle on the east and Clearwater the went
era scalped In their but no major foray any

sonville area settlement took place until late In 1841 Ponce de Leon, Florida discoverer In 1513:was the first to

Mandarin l has always been a peaceful settlement situated tee the Timuqua on the East Coast. On the Gulf side, later account
In a wide bend of the St. John River In 1841 It wa a quiet 1835-37 The BloodyYea of them were left by two famous explorer. Narvaes and
farming community of 40 er 50 families who no longer feared : rs-- De Soto. But it wa not until the French came that the Tlmuqus
geminate were described .In detail
attack by marauding

River Protection Jean. Rlbault'wrote of them in the story of his landing at the
mouth of the River May ((81. John) In BW. Rene de laudonnlere.
The confidence of the Mandarin settlers was based on the By JOE CRANKSHAW try and an artillery battalion the builder of Fort Caroline in 1564, wrote extensively! but less
fact that the river protected their settlement and fields on three along with some englneeri happily of them Probably most Important of all, Jacques LeMoyne -
sidesIntrusion by Indian on the fourth aide wu unlikely TUrn-liM Uttwtal Writer a unit of Indian the artist at the fort, drew picture of them. These draw
because the same would have to pas through territory controlled scout and a Florida outfit furs of the Timuqua, later engraved and published In Europe,
by the garrison from St. Augustine. .Mention Indian wart to known aa "Morgan's were the first paintings of North American Indiana by a European.
the average American and Spies." and headed straight {Copies may be teen at Fort Caroline National Memorial or at
One Imagine that the settler In Mandarin were preparing '
tie Jacksonville Public Library>
It conjure up bright pic Into the peninsula.
for the Christmas celebration a* the month'of December
hires of colorfully painted
opened. savages In feathery war i .Other Source
actions succeeded
festive air of the village prevented the settlers bonnets swooping down on
Perhaps the circle of In bringing the major Indian Sir John Hawkins, the British seaman, gave his view of the
from unnatural hush that must certainly have fallen a wagon on some
noticing an
arid desert. Or he force to battle at a small Indian when he visited Fort Caroline And 30 or more years latera
In the woodlands about the community about the 18th and or10th
creek which now bears his Spanish missionary 'Father Pareja, taught the Timuqua at
think of General Custer
dar of December. For about that time a strong band of
arid the 7th at the name near Lake Okeecho-: Mission San Juan del Puerto near the mouth of the St. Johns He
Seminoles crept Into the region and cast watchful eye on the Cavalry
Little Bighorn. bee. After a fierce two-hour learned their language and wrote religious book for them.
peaceful tillage. battle the Indian fled. The ,
And so It Is that we In Northeast Florida have many sources
victory on Christmas Day,
On the morning of the 20th the Seminole scouts carefully
Few realize
from which we can. learn of the Indian who peopled this land
counted the men who. gun In hand strode cup| of the village and that one of the longest and i ;tt 1837, was dearly bought before .
Into the woods en what probably wa* a last big bunt for game bloodiest Indian wars In y,tV Twenty-six officers and men

for the Christmas feast America was fought out on had been UJlJI 112 story is one of change after the Europeans landed of
wounded. All the Indian
the peninsula of the Sunshine rebellion against their captors and wan among the tribes: of
Negro CapturedAn dead that could be counted
State. enslavement, of epidemics, and finally! of decimation and assimilation.
were nine braves and one
old Negro servant of the William Hartley family,,, the Negro. By 1725 the Timuqua had all but disappeared from Northeast
.first to learn) that the war party was in the vicinity He was cap While Jacksonville played Florida. Two tiny village remained near St. Augustine until
tured aa be walked to a spring for water <_ only a small direct part In about 1740 when they too seemed to melt away. (The Seminole
the Seminole War, that un- The significance of the Indian In Florida today are not the descendant of the Timuqua
The young bucks took the Negro servant to their leader fortunate conflict served to battle was not. however lost for they the. state from Alabama and Georgia In the,
The two Indian chieftains spoke good English and told the old show the strategic locationof on the Seminole. They knew mid 1700 rneln)
man that they were captain and colonel of the attacking party this city and helped start that tt Pr'O'edbe white
Then they asked bun if there were any snort men to the bowel It on Its way to tta present man' military superiorityIn Fortified Village

nearby. stature as a major Florida firepower.Thus It was The Tlmuqua of the 1500s when white men first encountered

When the old man said that there were, they told him belied metropolis the last major, organized them In Florida, lived principally hi fortified village made up of
and that they knew there were few If any. Indian battle ever fought I cluster of small round huts thatched with palmetto leave The
Officially of the
cause east of the Mississippi chief house wa oblong and was placed In the center of the
When dusk fell, lamps within the houses wen lit and the Seminole War was the fact 1 River, village. A 12.foot palisade of log circled the Tillage and gave it
Indian could see women and children moving about In the that the Florida Indian. a degree of protection. Site for villages were chosen near water'
warm ;yellow light -Stealthily they moved nearer to the borne tribes "resisted" transwrtation w that a small stream could be diverted into the village for use
to the Oklahoma Gea Jesup Wounded When the enemy was near. The Indian did not occupy these VII.I .
Creeping quietly up to the William Hartley home the Seminoles Territory reservations In
I age the entire year. At times they roamed and camped. along
pointed their rifle In af the unsuspecting occupants who the year 1834-5. Further the .
In January 1838 Gen. the waterways and through the forest'
were just finishing up their evening tasks In the living room. Seminoles conducted a' series Jesup was wounded ta a
of attacks against skirmish at Fort Jupiter, Within their borne there was no furniture'Platform were
Massacre Begins America civil and military now known simply ta Jupi- used aa bed and benches. Household utensils for preparing and
acuities_ and personnel, cooking outside over open fire or in pita Included clay pot
Inside the Bartley home were Mr. Hartley and her ear. ter, and shortly thereafter.
old -identified Gen. Taylor took command and vessels basket and sieve- woven of reeds or palmetto
child Doming Acosta and a man now w Mr.
Malphus. A volley from the Indian rifle slaughtered the adults. Cause of the War of .the war In Florida. wooden spoons, stone knives and various stones for pounding corn
Into meal Cups were made of. wood, shell or dried gourd. Womendid
The baby ii reported to have died when the savage burned the
bolas after it. Unofficially the cause of an the housework and the raising of crops but the men did
looting the war lies as much at the doorsof Osceola, 'from a Painting by R. M. Sully Gen. Taylor prosecuted the the heavy work of preparing the fields for planting '
Malphus. who did tot die Instantly apparently ran Jhlrty the white! a* the Indian war with vigor and success, His
yards into the wood before expiring, for his body 'was found actions earned him the nickname Dignified Appearance
White settler wanted SemInole lowed and many a scalp was that would stand them in good
then later by a rescue party. I"Old Rough and Ready" and
These Indians were tall and graceful and possamed's stem
lands Slave holding plantation soon smoking over the frel. stead in future times
launched him his to the
on way and dignified In winter they kept In furs and
The rifle volley alerted the families in nearby residences and owners wanted to recover runaway White! House. appearance warm
these fled to safety only yard ahead of the rampaging Indians Negroes who had sought Skirmish In Duval skint. In summer they won almost no clothing; the men had
the far
By 1837. down
war wu breechcloths of braided grass or leather and the women draped
The home of Nathaniel and George Hartley wen burned to shelter with tbe tribe and bad
the ground. become either valuable allies or On Dec 18, 1835 a contingentof the peninsula from Jacksonville The war dragged on for several themselves In Spanish moss. The men had long hair pulled tightlyto
laves to the Indiana. Still more, Duval County militia reportedthat and it appeared to be almost more yean until 1842 when the top of their head where a knot wa formed. Often the tall
Although he was mortally afraid, the Negro servant succeeded their wanted to get their hands they had exchanged shot over. Osceola, Co+ adJo and it was finally agreed that the remaining of an animal was worn falling from this topknot as an ornament.The .
In making the Indians believe that there were soldiers on the "free" Negroes who had with a Seminole band at Black Coacoochee (Wildcat), a chief! Seminoles would be allowed women let their hair grow long and wore it hanging looselyto
quartered In the center of the settlement Fearful of meeting chosen to live with the Indian Point (at the present site of who wa cited by Gen. Thomas to live on lands In South their waist They wore beads and other ornament
superior force the Seminoles; retired to the devastated home Jetup as the most able of all Florida. '
and Who could have been old
where they killed several hogs and ate them, hacked up the Into Jacksonville Naval Air Station), the Indian, met at Fort Melon Both men and women were fond of tattoo. LeMoyne the Frenchrartlst.
captivity If they were cap- Ten dan later a group of Indians shows many with their bodies almost entirely coveredby
new orange grove and then retired further into the woods. now called Sanford, to discuss
tured. said to have been led by immigration to Oklahoma with The Total, Cwt Intricate design The tattoo appeared even more effective bya

Spoils DividedIn The Seminole on the other Osceola murdered-Indian Agent Col. William S. Harney. glistening coating of bear grease.worn by most of the Indians,

the woods, the Setnlnole divided UQ the spoils of the and, desired to leave neither his Wile Thompson and Army Lt. About 3,800 Semlnolei had been
transported Nothing in the dress of the early Florida Indians remotely
Constantine Smyth at Fort Brook to Oklahoma. Costof
raM! More than f1800 had been taken but the servant reported own black slave nor his free An the Indian said that traditional !
near what Is now known as they the operation,\including mill resembled the clothing of the Indiana who lived lathe
that they appeared most happy with the gunpowder which they black allies to the mercy of the might go to Tampa and take ship western part of the United States
Tampa ttry expenses was set at approximately
bad gathered from the home This latter prize hey carefully whites. No permission had been after some matters were
divided among themselves.In granted to. the Negroes to em- straightened out. Coacoocheeeven $20 million. Nearly The Tlmuqua worshiped the sun and other celestial bodies The
migrate with the Indians. The murder of Thompson was 1500 soldier bad been killed and chief of the tribe was highly! respected as the leader and be was)
an unexplained action, the Indian freed their captive laid he would bring In an
measure of the senseless killing even more wounded. An accurate
> of lesser who
surrounded by warriors authority were la a sense
and into the escaped Negro slaves to outposts
disappeared woods. the
The first evidence that a deadly to come for he was a .true count of Indian and civilian noblemen.
The alarmed whites, in the meantime bad evacuated an often fratricidal war wu tIthe friend of the Semlnolet. on the St. Johns River.. casualties was never possible

women and children to a schooner in the center of the river and making came on Nov-SO. Language Remnants

were prepared to fight off the attackers if they appeared again 1835 when Charley Emartnla, a On the same day Dec. 28. a The slave exchange never took The Seminole War did have Much of the language of the Timuqua It known but the sound]
Seminole woo was friendly to second and lamer group of Seminole place although Col Harney estimated tome good effects The unknown: of it, its pronunciation, has been lost. Many of the word commonlyused
It Is certain that the Christina of 1841 was the saddest such I the white men was murdered by attacked a contingent of that there were 2,500 peninsula was opened and partially were short and staple aa the following sampling will show.
celebration ever held la the peaceful Tillage on the bank of his Indian associates. Small raids troops under MaJ. Francis L. Indians In the woods around mapped and thousands of

the mighty 8L Johns. on Isolated whit! settler fol- Dade. Although the contingent Fort" Melon. soldier got a close look it the arrow-alul* earth qlsa mother It

consisted of two companies anda future state The Army got valuable seer -ab. % ?!!"* Mte-chlnl
six-pound cannon, the Indians
Indians Rescued field experience and a lot of be.r-tr.hel JlSeSu rtto-tgl
killed all but two
men. young officers with blight future
brother-ami flea Ibiglla sea-owes
In May 1837 Captain John were trained. "
On the last day of the year, a Page started for Tampa with the chlldres-tlglsosi haute-pah* laau-yole'
skirmish between Indian and a Important Indiana, .Mlcanopy eaiM-(Ice fcand-huena low-Wet
force led by Gen Duncan L. :Jumper and Cloud. Before he Only the Seminole did not nl'll-er\b-ebo\ pal king_Una turkey-caya
Clinch took place near the With. got then a band of Mlkuukle benefit. deer-toaost mouth-olplts woodpecker-tlnlb! *

lacoochet River. swept Into camp ODe night and
carried the three Indiana and

,.qp" 3 WL r ;:! ititr Y4 r 9e ?rbs. 'rVw Despite the war ill Indiana their retinue off into the wilder.seas. -

agreed to be shipped west and
were sent by water from Tampa
under the supervision of Lt Joseph In June Gen. 'Jesup asked for
W. Harris. Only' 399 lived and got 700 Florida militia to
to retch Oklahoma and the experience help suppress the Indian In
to disturbed the aena!- July ha captured 103 Important
live lieutenant that he resigned Negro allies of the Semlnole.
his commission. He' later came In September Army headquarter
back as an Indian agept who wen moved from St. Augustine
tried to help the red men. to Tampa. .

Bloody Encounters July brought with tt Col. Zachary -

Taylor, a reknowned Indian

4 The year of 1838 wa marked fighter who arrived with
a mounted unit of Missouri mllltl .
}trl by many small bloody encounters
} aS+rY/nL and some half hearted and tome troops from tilt

negotiation It wa also the yearIn west
which the ambitions of-Gen,
Edmund P. Gaines and the territorial Indian actions further promptedGen.

governor Gen. Richard Jesup to order Cot Taylorto
Keith Call, forced hasty actions march from Fort Gardner on
against the Indent. Gen. Clinch the KiMlmme River south to
beaded the army In Florida until drive out the Indians In the

Gen. Gaines, the military district swamp The action helped establish
I- commander. arrived. Taylor as a man of

strong measure and set him tithe .
Gen. Gaines Immediately let road la the presidency of

If. out on a punitive expedition but the natoo.) Ft
was lOon replaced by Gen. Scott.

f. It was. but .on of the many Taylor's Campaign
changes In command that would '
tee many good officer and men Taylor took the Missouri nd.Btla .
Burial of an Indian Bran Killed in Action gain battle experience in Florida three regiment of Infan A Fortified Indian Village in May-port Area as Viewed by IA Moynr"I


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I Jacksonville Is BornBy Ah 1825 Newsman Sees : l. ,


cow. e.rsea r a.rd.r ad..erxr. t..r.wCa A Town with Potential I' { '
a fl flWbat
ansa.nr aaan.vnand..rd .
sons. [JJ J9 .8,0 ['ElI] ,

(Editor' Note: Mr. Craig' It m
fait frulttut e/ tins Tacfcott Jacksonville needed In 1321 wu about sixpublicspirited try.* tt wu open to wind and rain at every point of
$4 $4 Thla the belief of writer
men. wu a the compass.
tills HHtortcal Society and i*
V1z for the East Florida Herald. His article, published The one auspicious building la town the courthouse
member ef the board of the
a r Dec. U 1825 Is the earliest known In Us formative skeletal condition, and i
Florida Historical 8od t,. Hevai a y newspaper story was
a reporter and columnist' 9 c=Jlrc)61r. D'D about Jacksonville. bad been that way for .year. "It will probably remain
for The Tlme -rtol /or manyfeor For a town laid out and planned u a trade mart In the same situation for Many' years, a monument I '
and il lh author os Jacksonville was a grave disappointment, he reported.In of presumptuous enterprise unaccompanied by I ,
aawS tiT the whole town there were no more than eight or perserverance and industry; of a momentary flash of
article the All ,
great on
many JlICkI."pt11or. \ 1 ten buildings, crude log huts that barely resisted cold public spirit, speedily quenched by apathy and Indolence
torn 01 / ) and rain. There wu not a sash window in the Jot, and. ," the reporter wrote. i
ida.) ,," j iy((< cJB'g, only a few of the houses boasted a chimney. The worst part of tt all he declared wu that the :
The reporter held the vice Indolence responsiblefor city-possessed great potential. Elevated and picturesque s 1
r.'i the slipshod state of things. The one store.In town above the St. John River and on a deep natural 1I
Jacksonville did not develop by fracsrrN Syr N "wu not open the whole time be was there to attend harbor, tt could be developed Into I notable port ,
accident. Neither gold nor oil the late term of Superior Court of Duval and Nassau dty. "Halt a dozen men at public spirit enterprise '"
vu discovered ten. AH It had 0 qIO -counties. He granted that It mljht have been a wholesale and industry might In a few years, render this place t
for a start w. a narrow bend [ ] 2 r Z J eras JL- q house, but far Ihe condition of the rest of Jack the mart ol all trade of that noble river." j '
In UM 8t. John River which, sonville. The writer saw Jacksonville as a potential fanning ,
apparently weary after flowing There was no blacksmith, shoe maker cobbler or area and a good place to raise cows and sheep ,;
In UM unusual direction of north 6A'I $7 tailor. Not a single garden plot wu'under cultivation_ cheaply! Also It could be "the resort of.stranger at : '
far Mine 300 miles, abruptly there were not even any chicken ar milch cows, all seasons of the year. Hundreds nay, thousand j 1
turns to Uw tart and after wendIng ,only a few razorback boga'rooting In the dust. The of emigrants would won pour In from the North,, ." 1 I I ''itl
Its war far another 20 miles only thing* growing he noted, were native pines and "But none of these advantage will ever be at- f, t
..mptelo the Atlantis Ocean. blackjack oaks. talned" believed the Journalist "as- long as the pop. '
.. sy t r.rra. The building where court was held "would acareely ulation. > remain so deficient.In industry and public 'II
sI' aG4dVS Lori be considered fit far a barn In any civilized coun- sptrtt. f f,
Tbat spot where the river ends !t ,
was where Jean Blbault had "
,. _'_ 'M'V TaII
tended with a band o< FrenchBuguenots
la 1561 IB search Our City as It Was Originally Surveyed In 1822 .

for a new land. but elected AND EVEN'WANDER DOWN MEMORY LANE
Instead UM coast of South Carolina that while waiting their turn to est neighbors were Francis Bag- son' army during the Creek _
as the sits for his colon be ferried across the river by ley,and William Craig.. War. Jackson, who wu the On .
that met with\ disaster. Brady; the idea truck them that I military governor of territorial On the Streets.of Jacksonville Youa I
this would be a rood place to When word became widespread Florida, never came east of the .
business Wbate'fel'he Suwanneel River during the year x
The French came arm la 1564 set op a that terry service wa available
and this timez reason the Buckle ft Dawson and that the Buckle Stephens be served In that assignment.
; did make an effort store was epened on the South store had met with Instant success Can Take Trip Around the World
_, to colonize side of Adams Street Dear Market many person with pioneerIng Thus Jacksonville became a -
Street and was an Immediate spirit packed their belonging town before Duval County wu
i success because it was the only and.Headed for the cowfonU created by kht first Legislative f
store between Femandlna and St.AUgusttne. Council In August 1822, being By BETTY WALTERSIHmCita of a "floe old bay". tree on a oceans" of water which periodically GUmore, Poet' Flsk Lornat :
i Among these was a young man named for William P. Duval IMCUI wow busy waterfront corner. Inundated area. and Rosselle are all named for ; I
f then residing In Kings Ferry on the first civil governor of .the for' Market and engineer who worked with Le {
.1 1iE the St. Mirys River Isaiah territory. Paris London Acapulco. India Porsyth Is" the namesake of The names Baron. Forbes 'street got Its ;F
About that that Florida time It became would apparent David Hart. Coming with him ..U well knows .place. Oen. John Forsythe tJ.8. minister Church. streets are selfexplanatory name from John M. Forbes the :
soon '
And also the of to Spain who negotiated this Boston millionaire for whom lverslde I
be acquired by the United Stale vu his brother, Daniel C. Hart There #were older settlements names streets '
Jacksonville... nation' acquisition, of Florida. Mats Was pine was plotted In 1889.vMcDufl .
from Spain and in anticipation Neither of them was a strangerto In the county at the time. In the .

of this new settlers came. In this section having been herewith eastern section atop SL Johns A study of a city map, In fact, Adam and Monroe In early Jacksonville the business Knight, Challen, Tal- 'i'
Craig when the Span UK there were 10 'plantation the Patriot In .lia Bluff wu the "Town of EL reveal many unusual and little district was on Bay from hot, Hedrtck, and Richmond- ,
destroyed the French fort a within a radius of five mile of Johns," as It was called by the known things about our streets. Adams wu named for John Newnan to Ocean: :Main Street streets in Avondale which honor .
year' later la a surprise attack Cowford. J. R. Eogaa wu In Isaiah Bart brought the enthusiasm English who first settled tt and ,You can take a mythical voyage Quincy Adams, secretary of wu then Pine. old Jacksonville famine' '\
led by Don Pedro. Menemdea de the northeast in what ta-now and leadership the new by the name "St. Vincent around the world without state who wu influential get-
A vile."8t. Augustine\ was founded part of Springfield.' To his east community needed. Arriving on Ferrer" during the Spanish oc ever leaving the county: Una this territory, and Monroewas Hogan St.reelot Its name fromL. 1I1o Indian names adorn
by Meneades for a base' of wu Daniel L Barton, sol to the May 12. 1821, Hart purchased II cupancy. In the western section for James Monroe, president Z. Hogans a city pioneer. m streets.-Ortega Forest has ,
operation against the Trench. wu St. Anthony changed to 8t. Jamaica, Java, Normandy at the time of the acquisition. When the town of La"Villa Rohm Eood_. King Richard and
Antonio by the Spanish and to Singapore Bahama, Brazil, Burma became a part of Jacksonville Vanhoe among other old English
Monroe for, President James Capri. Hawaii Yukon even In 1887 the ell,'aamed two new Sides for tts ,itreet
Although they bad occupied Duval Is for William Duval !
P. ,
when Florida wu cededto Zion are all'right here In our streets after presidents Jefferson
this part of the New World earlyIn Monroe the United State This today city stmts.You '. the first civil governor of Flor and Madison and honored Confederate Pioneers HonoredAt
It* history, neither the French ida. leaders Jefferson Davis least two streets in South
nor Spanish bad any part In the 1* Mandarin. can also visit Granada, and Robert Lee on the followingtwo side are named for early Jack
founding of Jacksonville, nor did Cambridge, Canterbury, Jericho Newnan street was named for streets. I INamd" sonvllle pioneers.These- are Hen-
they contribute In any 1r&10 Contributing to UM growth 01 Jerusalem, Lexington, and Bunker Col. Daniel Hewnan. who wu drtcks Avenue for William l l
the cultural heritage of this city Jacksonville was Its selection u HID. On your trip you can here with the Patriot and who for a Marquis Hendricks who received an earlySpanish
The Spanish however did maintain the county seat of Dual by a use Alladln. who is also here. made the famous campaign Talleyrand' Avenue wu named grant in the section.and .
an outpost in the area-Fort. commission appointed under an1KB against Indian King Payne- in, tor the Marquis de Talleyrand; Flagler: named for Henry M.Flagler. f t
San Nicholas on UM south aide legislative act. Somehow In the excitement the Central Florida. whose' vaunter boot wu' on the railroad builder and .,
founder forgot for while to '
of the river across from down a Laura end" Julia streets were river near the end of 26th Street Florida developer. yI
give the new town a ,
town Jacksonville-off and.on for Flnt CosrtbMseIn named for daughters at Isaiah from 1868 to 1873. In' tUllarney Shores there are .. : ; ,' ,
some 100 jreara. Jacksonville's''original mala D. Hart called the "Founder of Riverside Avenue wu originally street appropriately designated
4r 183 John I* Doggelt earn street wu Bay. Historians still Jacksonville" commercial Street. F. Francis St. Patrick. Leprechaun. Emerald ". I
of here from Massachusetts and speculate on the inspiration for LeBaron. aa engineer who: Isle and Blarney Stone- -
Florida Briton had possession platted Iris portion of the easten U.I designation: It parallels the I Ocean Street originally'might worked on constructing the Jet- .
from 17H to ITU. and part of the downtown area whim harbor, whlcb somewhat resentbles -, cave been for Osslan Hart, son flea at the mouth of the river, There Is even a place In Test '
left one permanent reminder-* he purchased from John Brady. a bay; also, In Webb' .-History of the founder,tb there Is also I surveyed, laid out and named, Jacksonville for sentimentality
Xlnc'i Road, which passes Dwelt who became a leading of Florida" there 1* record speculation it was for UM some of the street In Riverside Memory Lane.
through Jacksonville aid which
sss figure tat. the 1 arowuhof early
contributed In a large measure r
Jacksonville, also took ever the
to this city being where It la,
for that road provided the only ferry operations from Brady. It ,- j
land route to East Florida and. -syn. C. fnlnM B....' Blitarr .> ,__ nj VtahW also wu Doggett who constructed ,
this wa It* "(late,..,." the first courthouse sod turningto '
in 1843 Foot of Broad Street law wu appointed Judge of JnJfJlrieJ. .
Our City : the county court, a position beheld One :.7forIIa nwer
s .
In the yean that followed until his death of
more and mare American ml south, E. HudnaU. Between Hud- acre bounded by Market Street f feerbag
grated to Florida and they came nail and Hogan wa John and the river from 1.. Z. Hogan By UI2. Jacksonville' early ,
alone the- King' Road, whichcrossed Brady. To his west wu George Within a year be had persuaded civic leaden felt that the young ." .
the St. Johns River from Atkinson's grant and adjoining other leading property holden town, then with a population
what il now the foot oLllberty him was Robert Eutcblnson. that the town's growth should around 300. was big and strong j
Street to Fort San Nicholas on be orderly and when Brady wu enough to manage Its own affairs
the south aide. Surveyed Jacksonville Induced too donate land for and tt wu Incorporated by
jtreett. the survey was made In the Legislative Council In an act
June 1822 by D. S. H. Miller approved bJ'be governor .on
Wacca Filatka Beyond McGlrt Creek (Ortega under the 'supervlatn of Francis Feb. U of that year.
River) was 0. 8. H: Miller who J. Ross. Benjamin Chalres and
That Barrow bend In the river was the man who surveyed Jack John Bellamy. bid the foundation Ifi
Thus wu i
was where the Indian had sonville and the plantation of *
crossed with their cattle, calling John H. Mclntoab In Ortega, From that survey, Hart' map for other pioneer who IDbe
the pot "Waoca Pilatka," meaning although McIntosh had moved wu made and this today is the ensumg 132 :yean have had a r
"cow1 crossing." The Eng back to Georgia by' then and his plat of downtown Jacksonville. band In directing the JI'OwtIADd 4+F,
Rots gave 1the leas poetic plantation was occupied by Philip development of the town) Into a 'Ii
d '!lIIatloD' of Cowford, a DelL air's Namesake = 4
aojriquet It wa unable to shake thriving metropolis that today
until long after U had been officially The name Jacksonville was eienda far In very direction 'IiJ
desUnated'u Jacksonville Biggest owner d property on chosen at the suggestion of Col. from the narrow bend In the St. J
the south tide of the SI. .Johns John Warren, who bad served asa
wu base Hendrlcks. His near- volunteer la Oen. Andrew Jack .John River. .r
The first known white resident
of what la now Jacksonville was
Robert Prltchard: who obtained
I a concession of 450 acre from '
the Spanish governor in 1791. His ;
land was located on the north SINCE 1958 ,
side of the river just opposite
San Nicholas. He cultivated It '

His for several heirs abandoned years Until his It during death. A PROGRESSIVE FLORIDA CORPORATION t t1

the Patriot Revolution In U1I. t A: r, v \
t ., r w a { I
Part of the Pritchard grant r sJ :

was obtained In 1814 by Mrs. = GREATER FLORIDA = ,
Maria Busier Taylor, widow of 4 $
Purnal Taylor who bad been a a

killed 11be Patriot uprising. PAST'PROGRESS INCLUDES
Soon after obtaining the land. /
Mr,. Taylor' wa married to MANY FORMS CONSTRUCTION '
was living on the south aide of .PLACING OF REINFORCING STEEL IN THE: I'
the river. Moving to the north -
side, a site was cleared and a .CITY HALL OF BOX BINDING AND STAPLING WIRE
the -
louse erected near present
intersection of Forsyte and CIVIC AUDITORIUM f


(John Masters), "skipper of the ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR: .i'
boats of the Royal DomaIn

obtained a Spanish grant adjoining the Taylor land at what is CENTER
a now house Market and Street.put his Be land, too,under built GENERAL ELECTRIC PLANT GAINESVILLE ?. '. OTHER PRODUCTS$ MANUFACTURED INCLUDE; 'L t

when the "boat of the. Royal MILL EXTENSION, PAIATKA I
Domain" Her recalled, and ) MERCHANTS WIRE
First Ferry ServiceIn 15 TO 50 TON CAPACITY '

Isn John Brady"who became : MOVING ,
ene of Cowford'i most PRECAST &; PRESTRESSED ERECTION'' .
nfluenttil. early settlers came : INriTE'lOVR INQUIRIES
here and look over the Maestro The management and employee _/ Slats corporation are grateful to those ice FLORIDA OWNED AND OPERATED .

cabin at Fxrsyth and Liberty have been priviltged to serve in thtf pad Wt join with others in pledging our t" '

streets.the first It permanent was Brady wbo commercial started beat tfjortt to build s progressive; prosperous end responsible Florida.. \ : j'

lorry service, sculling passengers PRODUCTS 1'\"I-
across the river from the foot CONTAINER WIRE CO. '
of Liberty Street to San Nicholas .
tnady also provided quarters for BLAIR CONTRACTING COMPANY :
traveler and their balls.In .


i and Georgia Stephen William E. O.Buckle Dawn -, 'JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 32206 1 P.o. ,Bolt 1227 'Phone 388-3554 \

oasis the ink ever tt e King'slead ,
I to Florida, tt la quite likely ..

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'G..:Toddy Me ran 'look)luck. MMI' jiiidf and fare the future. :; ,:" .'", Forts-four district offices in 21 Florida l' cities; onus. its ;

with cOti)lridl1aJ'r.C i ] 1IN> v.f know (Jut our t'flmpal134 limit on a f district office buildings .in-'eight of llio-c cilic

solid! foundation of I j\I CESrEGRlry: "'. SEHYlCE l fun.h-, o )[ore than 2,000 cmplocs share Inikpciultnt Life's Florida -
nif'lItd1tritJd'Trs|, ) to' which. i\e hate continued to adhere }payroll of. over S13 million a y ar. ..

O Last scar Independent Lrfc paid S10.8 million to its policyholders '
] roni our 19M '
] their beneficiaries i in Florida. '
II.li(in of,IMJLl'KNDLNT J> : L1UL:: : in loridj:Georgia,.Alabama, South, .
0 Independent Life has 816.1 million invested in mortgages on,
Carolina, North Carolina, Trnneiisre, Aliwij i '11 and Oklahoma, and,of
Honda real estate '
our uli.,>llv owned MilM.liarj: ), 111 Ul.D liFE 'l\SUH,11CE CO.. inirgtnia
0 S.J.7 million worth of Florida scrurities (school; and road
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hOJll( ct J) arc held by Independent Life. .
huH Ordinary and \\cckly Pirnnum in lIral'H'I".



Independent Life has approximately a billion and a quarter dollars worth ,of life insurance in- force. -

Independent Life's' assets are almost. $ I3 million and represent nearly $118 for every $100 liability.


''Ukcrc h no 6uo&litidc for Lea JIlJ rallcc"I I


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, .' Home Office Jacksonville, Jf..... : ." '" i>' ','

I FOUND'E 1920.

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-Cotor 1111 Cors. Rai/ort/

Lone Union Sentry on Roof, Army Wagon Just Unloaded from Offshore Transport Can Be Seen in This 1864 View of Bay at Foot cf Ocean Street

The 1860s : A Nation Is Divided

Tlmes 1 -l'nion Special Writer *

Four Times Occupied by Union Armies, Jacksonville Is Ravaged by Fire and Shell'

A Jacksonville political meeting overwhelmingly resolved of military reverses there, and the Confederates realizing;
In May I860 that "the right of the citizens -of that with the force at hand Jacksonville could not be defended -
Florida are no longer safe In the Union and we think she ordered the city evacuated.
should raise the banner of secession and tnvUe her Southern
slater to join her" When Mayo/ H. H. Hoeg announced this decision hecounseled
citizens to remain in their homes and to pursue

Two months later the Jacksonville Standard announcedthat their ordinary activities I but there was panic and hysteria.

U "in consequence of northern fanaticism the Irrepressible
conflict_must, come, we are prepared. meet It." Exodus Begins ___

Families hurriedly packed their belongings Into wagonsto
By the next spring the city was supplying enthusiastic move Inland, at least a< far as Baldwin where the Confederates
volunteer troops for the new Confederate Stale of America were establishing a 'line of defense City office
to help "defend the South and to pro\'ctlt1 rights." were closed and public records burled.

Early Military I'nils/ upon orders of Brigadlpr.Gon. James H Trapier commanding .
Confederate forces in East Florida, eight sawmills,
Several military companies were formed in Duvil a large quantity Of sawed lumber. an Iron foundry and i
3 workshops a machine shop and a gunboat under construction -
County. One was Jacksonville LlRht Infantry, whose captain. 4 ; '
Dr. Holmes Steele. was one of Jacksonville's earliest physl- / were destroyed.

clans editor of the Jacksonville Standard and the clty.'a The famous racing yacht America which had recentlyrun

mayor In 1559rAnother a blockade Into Jacksonville was taken up the St. Johns

fCKt. to Black Creek and sunk to prevent Its being captured.A .
well known fighting Unit was the Duval County q. t rt t
Cow Boys, commanded by Capt. Lucius A. Hardee and later tl few'hours before the Union forces arrived Confederate
by Albert Drysdale. It was stationed at St Johns Bluff. "rri\. alora," mostly refugees from Fernandina and St.
d Augustine came Into Jacksonville to loot and plunder property

The St, Johns Greys were commanded by Cal'l.i J. J. belonging to STisprrted Northern sympathizers. Stores
and warehouses -along the waterfront and the four.
Daniel The Milton Artillery, organized for the defense of tory
Jacksonville and the St. Johns River, was led by Capt. Judson House hotel were burned. ?

George Acosta. Brief Occupation!

Still another puval County unit was Company H, lot Jacksonville was surrendered to the 4th New Hampshire s
Florida Cavalry, with its commander Noble A. Hull. later Infantry on March 12 and Union sympathizers In the city
clerk of the Circuit Court in Jacksonville. who had been In hiding urged the federal troops to occupythe
city permanently and fortify it as a stronghold. But the
By the summer of 1861 several small forts had been Union high command considered permanent<<: occupation'
established In Florida Including Fort Steele, constructed of military mistake and ordered the evacuation pf the city,
palmetto logs at Mayport near the south Jetties. It was allowing the Jacksonville Unionist to return to Fernandina
designed! to protect the entrance to the St. Johns River and with the federal troops.
was llllllned.by the Jacksonville LIght Infantry until i
There was very little military activity during the first
March 1862.
occupation Several federal pickets were killed and a brief
skirmish occurred near Three Mile Creek Just outside Jacksonville
Other forts to defend Jacksonville were built at Dames
Point (Yellow Bluff). St. Johns Bluff and on Talbot.Island. with no casualties reported. 1

Jacksonville was occupied for the second time by an
Invasion Fieri amphibious force of 1.573 men aboard four transports convoyed
by six gunboats which Hilton Head. B.C., on Sept.
On March 8,'1862 a federal squadron consisting of four 30, 1862. Earlier that month the Federals had made two unsuccessful
armed launches and a transport with six
gunboats, two attempts to dislodge Confederates occupying St.
companies of New Hampshire troops aboard set out to occupy Johns Bluff. Superior firepower now forced the Confederates

Jacksonville for reconnaissance purpose, to abandon their positions on the high bluffs overlooking the
-Color by Cora lIal/or
Gen. Robert E. Lee had ordered all available army
units, la East Florida..to Tennessee without delay because Union Officers: and Their Ladies In a Signal Camp Just_ Outside of Jacksonville Circa 1864 <(

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------ ,


Eliza Hudnall :


A Wretched Army

t jt I A Remarkable '

.//j( : -

,:;. Woman's Saga Of Forgotten 4 MenBy

: ,

y /11 JIM WARD structure, with a spacioua purrs JIM WARD ...........

+ 'Yuo..v- Miff ...... extending across the front of the { S'I; a' rt.wu.t,. wn we. -u__I! l -a.:;'79'oW. ._. .
lint story. Upon the firstfloor

M, Tourism! 'In Juksonvllli \began are the handsomely furnished Of every ill iiptund Union
parlor and the well.appointed loldltri sent W the/ Confederate
with Federal Uookidi. "n 1
I b y a tpaoiou military prison at Anderwnvillt, I -
empty lardw tnd I pall orp f :ZIf'W:separate
Southern Irted\ thicken.in t* the large 0*,< Mly tn* survived\ one War
dining room i ,1 .," Between CM inlet,

tho spring of 1161, u the
threat ol Federal occupation became "A :I Tint lurvlvort-tUihUy more
wide ittlrritt toads -Ia I the than I,MO of thim-wm released
a reality many of thAlive I
second floor, which eontaina M
In ft swampy prison ana
In the area detected their well ..
appointed sleeping rooms
lat leek and
Lake City la Aprtl
and Joined forcer with
masters With aoeonimodilioni for doubts
their to Jaeksonvilliwhich
the Union wimp, Mme! tlttaenor mad way
the number 4If gue ls An 'ICIII|
wu it that time oocupltdby
Jacksonville, strong them! leut Cuisine ";1
Francis Bhelton Kudnlll, fearing .1fi a Vnltn army, fill !IncidentJi
that their awn levee would runaway see tt the least known .h....

took them Inland together 'Jdr: IfUd all'. It. .Johns House lore in loot) history, .

with wagoni, fainting implementi wu but one ol the several hotels

and other furnlihlnti. which attracted tourists to tht/ ,. fi 11, .f. The Ctnftdirftt tutherlUei InAndtnonvUJi
'. bad dittrmlntd Infcanh
oily In the late Seth century u "
Hudnall moved bU shame and the wonder of the Florida cUmU "t'_..., that the only logical wuritf

property U Mlddleburg, plsnnln wen remembered by the' soldiers ,, t Milan would bt tin parole
to return U hit wife and children wh had come help. In the war ......: t h if lilt nmalnlni toldltri Into
11' soon M the slaves were and their nelahbor who earn tt .b Ftdiral handi.Kiekufil, Prisoners Start March to Jickwmrilltof

Milled However, the Federal find If such wr ,really true, '" j"i&

troop moved Into the territory I' An Mthmgt wu Amigttl arranged for iichanii, In Thomasvllli, how band," Negroes who hid been
between.. Mlddleburi and Jackaon
And ,It had begun with ever It wu learned that the frtid by raiding the surrounding
villa, and he-vat forced U remal an .i' TT.J r- April 4th In )'rJell, On., and the ,
imply larder and perhaps a will r : prisoners wen msi-cnid to Thorn- I Federal tomes In till area had terrtttry and who win now grv,-
when /ho vatAinu\ end way that wen a .bit mori 1164 Map Phowi JackionvUU ForUflcftUong uvllli, whore trains wen to be destroyed 10 soles of track belonging bit In the ftrmy

with CWldiV thin .Just ordinary. waiting to take thorn \011.* point to the ....nna" and Gulf
.. Railroad, making the transfer 1m- Commirot anti trade were bare

Therefort, on the morning II poalhie. ly ixlstlng In their. plan enemy

March "It,. 1862, u the Federa person hi the city bartend for
fleet moved acrost the bar lithe A Ltni Mirth dally bread and I .pilot to nit.rrwtrali .

mouth of the at Johns River and '
Rebel Nellie's Own
anchored In the harbor appositethe TIlt irlltitri weri !first City
city Mm Milan Hudnal marched ta. Macon and than to
and neither of Uittt
Albany, ft*
found herself alone with ill chlldren itookade It WM Into. this JaeklonrUIe
lawns had ftdiquat nor
and three grandchildren provWoni, U was dtoldtd tit tend that the/ lurvlvon usenet Into a
At If to tompounrl theflutoer!., ** i thim iouth> Uk City by train oily vet kroitrkto mtodlng. and unotrtiln .,of

the demesne stance took advantage
of the situation to seek the The facllitlM for handling the
And thus from that trembling'moment
.. protection it the federal army. She Wouldn't Forget the Federals Were Enemies prisoners sufficient then win,than If anything In the ,Dior.less if eompitilonato, disbelief

each of them rotund to
gift towns. No atockadti had
Food In |the city wu In short bit own Individual pndleammt.
been built provbloni were hardly
tuppl, and Mr, Hudnall fount i wherein war had defined certainly
her Own supplies if food and By JIM WARD of the mtliri store lit Bay, occupation ef the city laid\ the deed, the men took special) ... eompletely unrounded (the houses adequate for the Confederate garrison for the last Umt-Iht word

other necesslllei dwindling away. Kim.C>... ton wxNfie I llretl. The elber-dlurhler, Virginia surrounding countryside.Toward light! In leasing her Jos.te hear used by Mrs. HudniU,. loon a Nonetheless, merchanta and.. tatolcmbl. For II the" prisoners
was married U William her belligerent novena and the quartermaater aorta
detachment W the** soldiers, had witnessed and known the dls-
Then u she watched the bruises of Muss Hudnall] White a West Point gradual ila- the end of thi war watch the quick, determined lost lemmindtd by Negro afflcen, much ft* th., could to mitt the.. Integration if mind and tMdy.

Federal tbtpt In the harbor .the Improved greatly alter her visit Cloned aboard the troop transportV3 Mn Hudnall persuaded Capt K her heal didII\ fatt ..u.IIIdhi. bout seeds of flu survivors of Andttonvult this people hid] lien and despaired .

made her decision t. tht Federal vessels Iq Ih.Jack.onvl1)e Mahaska Howard to *ecur, Nelllii lift with drawn rifle, the physical\ dtttructlon of

) harborIn return through the Federal\ lines Ont morning, however, flito.. their home and property and
00 I am rjolnf to cook tome West of Jacksonville By Monday April Hth, tt wa
However, tven with her goad undemandingMlliM\ < she" The tfflcen demanded that sbvioui the situation that Intinglbl tract whoa lud-
/' chickens and snake fame caket and the months that followed, fortune, Mrs HudniU continued: ftelllt Eichangetl humour of the/ iltuatlon, Mr. Hudnall and Nellie torn that wu had din depirturt lift tnly Isolation.On .
getting want prisoner
sot to that
ihtpt I
pies row
iv* of her daughter married to worry about her youngest Nellli had came down tt lam with them It pas tvident from

i for and the exchange thtnit |the hove food IIO\.t" have Mr*. Union officers. Mrs Jack gliaw, daughters VUgiult, who hid gone Finally II\ was arranged with breakfast and Capl Celt Interrupted their manner inn ton, that th/ i bean north quartered ol pie town to I and swampy hail area ban II l the toldlirt, tburvlnc

Hudnill spent day frying her widowed daughter, mariiedapt. t* Mlddleburg with her father al t the Confederate commend In, her shores' with the tornment -I noun wai t* be horned, left mare tr lea It their iwndtvleii the !Intensity With' wluoh !they

J chickens 1 \\n.th piaterlra. and Frank Howard, .the keeper the beginning! tt the last Federal Mlddlebuig, Bin wi (\8 be that Lincoln had keenesasutneted. I On Thursday, they ware were observed! as they mend Jnitinotlvtly -

.' putting up lama and Jelliet. brought to the Confederate picket Nellli, assuming the Midler were In t. inert unoondlllonilly released by the toward thi river, *xclaimed -.
line and eiolunied, On the appointed -: that ha wu merely balling her, mood that anyone would rejoice Lake City eommand and providedwith "Wi art dirty and rag-
flaws It Fleet day, Howard went to the replied in her usual sharp manner la the death of Llncol, I' a train which look them to ltd, but i wt sot loyal yet"

+ exchange. point and met Nellie, ; ''Well, what in riii going Baldwin, A Confident scant as

I I At twilight, wills the youngest Whom bt returned to her mother' tt dst Fin tht* runt and $Uluml- that Mr she. Hudnan, a..ln.be perU I ompnl4 them tn .loot ft* farM The pathos ef hit words Mn bo
and her
child In her arm and her II pate the iityr daughter wen found in the beef that was gtntnUy -
But if Kellie'i brought 1 Whit Howe,
< Wt $ ., retura \ did not arm with lilt an)
held by Was inmattt of
old she cut
year ton rowing, set
momentary happiness la her Colt WM ,Ihosis:, "B yiutnean (Uiri But in* did ask that they
in ft row boat .wanth. the" prisot U Aadtrtoiivtmi to
lock Fogged
i i mother, It brought wewid
soon an equal U rtloto In LinMlni! kf to Change their. Inthn
anchored fleet wit. thai the North had stonily
!meaiurt of unhapplneu\ .' for death, I ihail' lot mother lad put M their halt,, I
Nelllt wu ft rebel- rebel lot \\.I At they walked out of the uftg. orgottm them Hid Ml them Hurt
., On th bow of the boat, she bit* tn ibis IIIUII, Angry new mired captivity many wereweak tt (U*.
.1 likely to easy reconstruction, The fleir
he itoed tielalmlngi 'The agreed and the hero
had attached whit cloth
ft large, ppuuck and slot from malnutrition
1 J' to how then that she lat tq cvn She hoi only hated Its faith Met t that t i taJamlty *tuh| women retreated lots the "'UII, ir from wound tot long ignored, .... .,a&l', Pant
friendly mission. In lUadi | I\I"\ One safely Inside, they raced
general and Mia officer vhs Scurvy and diarrhea had also takin -
for the/ bask door, srosaed the
boarded with her their toll, Sullen days had ThttontinddipUllflhtlrhettillty -
When she asked to com ticular, thi aloe ::ge'inT: ItslU\ AwayCole vaeant lot that fane Bay Street, blackened their faces from itandIng It f.llnllII\ a poem writtenby

aboard the ship, the renewal tontempl her listen who bad and ran t* the headquarter ef tea .les tt the pin*.wood] a acrfleant wh had served. hi
wu lowered and she climbed up. married Tankeei. ''i mirehed angrily lutsldi, the ijuartermastor general. fire which wen the" difference the 147th ennsylvftnla before his

She told the astonished crew "J) i l' i when hi found Mn. Hudnall I* > between lit* and death, Their one* capture and Imprisonment, r. T.
am come en a mission of peace Throughout in of then days, whom hi related Nellie actions, "1'1. Hudnill demanded an proud unjtorm win reduced to Hyatt The poem, Ironically Was
I would like to exchange the Uri, Hudnall tentlnued\ t* prosper i threw her the prlc tt the/ meal! immediate Interview with the Uttl more than tatteri.. written. day before ht died la
food J have brought with me- The two housei wen filled and stalked dews the Kept onto leneral, and the declilveneii if January lisa, 1II 1 entitled simply

fried, chicken ens, milk, cake, with Union officer iniloui topiy Foriyth street, her manner and tan.,10' them a wu nearly twilight 11 Wet Bumtir 'rtson, 0.," '
dty for board n Iwo his offing with it delay
her began to inter Jaikitnvtlltthrough
pies, jelllei and Jams, for the ply\ with pnciou ration News of the teeming dander the gate on the take I Hyatt wrote thai MWhea our
'necessities! which I sorely need" s 9 I Irm. tickets Nellie finally began to 1 against the slain leader spread 'Sav Our Home' City turnpike.. country called for men wt came"
r help her mother the preparation through the ranks of the solders from every tort of endeavor to
The officers seeing the freshly and: serving :food, althoughshe I stationed in an area now bounded Once In -Ihe office, the explained 'They came through the gatesall "vanquish aQ our Union foes or

prepared foods, were delighted never allowed the officers to I on the east by Main Street, on I that Nellie's remark had that sight, the following day fan where othen. fellt After
In return for her offerings, they forget that they were the enemy the south by Bay Street on the been but the natural and unknowing and the day after that, until they months) of Imprisonment, he could!
her flour, tea and
give salt west by Begat and on the north retort of a child.
were all settled In a temporary only end each stanza of his work
tugar Officers Amused i
by ,Adams
e' 1 the bank orhi St. with a variation of this refrain:
= + camp on
# w" "1 T 'i .4 4tsiBe i "
Act if Kindness ": She wu ever the rebel, albeit "General. she continued "you. Johns River.. > Oat :ye who yet tan san III,
The St. John'! House, Circa 1880 to the general and continuous I Tees Shoals sent colored officer to bring ui will yon leave nt hen to diet"
Then, noticing that the young amusement of the office,.. In TIle soldiers 10 you Tt hold this humiliation, Exile From Time
mostly Negro I
boy was without shoes, the officers ", w* have come ourselves to
fitted him with a pair ol explain this tense situation that All who' watched the wretched Last Prison fcsu

brogans, which Immediately won has grown out of a supposed jest bands were filled with indignationor

him over to a previously distrusted l Jacksonville Occupied Four..Times I at the expense of Mr.. Lincoln. shame:; but there were few The USS Clyde arrived In Jack.

cause who did not feel the. bonds of vllle on Sunday April 30th, with,
"I ask you to save our home, compassion also. For they were clothing and stores of goods. Then
This trip to the Federal vessels
which the Negroes an threatening all exiles from a time and from and only then did the soldiers
was but the first of a continuing
(Continued from Page B1) to burn" a land that would never he again throw the last
number of exchange carried oul The presence of Negro troops particularly Infuriated the ; away of their prison
over the next few months, Confederates under command of Ceo, Joeepb Flnnegan who were a clime remote from all but Incessant Issue. a pint of, meal mad
stationed about 10 miles west of Jacksonville TIle general replied that he was .memory by grinding. corn and cot togeth
Later, when the officers visited river and on Oct. S Federal \troops landed at Jacksonville, occupying sure no offense was Intended, er,
her plantation In what It now the city for about five months Confederate scout and raiders attacked pickets, ambushed re-' and that he would give her horn Jacksonville, like 'much of the

Southslde, they taw that the clrcumstancei tonnalstanc group and shot lone soldier wandering the woods. tb* protection' of his officer South. was a city nearly destroyed "0n y i>few days igo:'*'laid
It was desolate, nearly empty city they occuPied. Cspt
of the Federal Invasion The tnhra command agreed to' the evacuation! by the aH-embraclng demands one of them, "It was worth IU
of Jacksonnllel .
Valentine Chamberlain of the 7th Connecticut Volunteers describedIt -
had reduced the family to women and children and When the citizens! of Jacksonville of war. Three times m as weight hi greenbacks"Early
as a city where "grass and weeds grow rank and toll In the on March 17 they wen transported with'
miserable straights. So they to Lake strong Confederate many years portions of.It bad
City. During the next few days then
principal streets House with blind closed attest the absenceof wen several
moved HudnaQ and sympathies heard about the Inci- been burned to the ground, to May
Mr* her Inmates Stores wltb shelves but no goods, Churches deserted skirmishes in the outlying area west of Jacksonville!. they wert transferred
family, together with her furniture dent they were "'an11'I. than by steamer to ft jparolt
and gloomy. About the streets darkles and
and possessions to a large yon see a few women Gen Flnnegan lacked sufficient troop to attack the city but ever that' Mrs. Hudnall had Now, less than two week after camp near Annapolis, Md., where
veryjew men, The men you are told, are away up In the country,
house on Forsyth between Laura but hi thought. ht had enough aunt to bombard tt. Hit chief ord turned, Yankee. the surrender of Lee In Virginia they were prepared and treatedfor
know Rebel
they the
you are in Provisions
and Hogfta streets, where the officers scarce and consequently dear" army are very Dance officer, Lt Thomas E. Buckman, later& a prominent Duval Confederate soldiers were returnIng their return to their hornet.
began to take their meals, County official, suggested mounting a ja pound rifle gun on a However, there art no recorded to find their home and property and families
paying her generously for the 'I railroad car to "* "".Ited' a locomotive to the waters edge misgivings about Nellie No one either gone or confiscated,

service Third OccupaUot.In or Jacksonvle, seem to have doubled her loyalty their families destitute and bungry. ., To Hyatt haunting refrain

Within a very few* months March. 1863, two regiments' of South Carolina Negro volunteers XsJIroM Cu Tried to the Confederate Ideal the answer had finally been given.\
under Col. Themes W. Rlgglnson and reinforcements from the It came ta Jacksonville And to
Mn Hudnall bad taken chargeof Sixth Connecticut and Eighth Maine again occupied Jacksonville, On March a about t ajn. Buckram and Private Francis And perhaps tI1aI1I'8I1bo aaftttcount. The Federal command: was nomposed the majority of those who heard

an" adjoining house both of reportedly to "collect Negro recruit, to plunder and probably to Sollet took a detachment of gunners down the railroad to ft point almost entirely of "contra. and saw II, it wag not too late,
which were filled with officers about a mil and a half from town and started firing Tb
Inaugurate tome vague plans of 'loyal' political reconstruction' tun
who paid her $3 a day board and very llttl damage and U.* future effectiveness wu diminished

gave her their- ration tickets' when the Federals destroyed much of the" track leading into Jack
besides, I sonville,

lavesls Profits Federal troops evacuated the city again by the end of March.

leaving the Catholic church K. Johnt Episcopal Church and .ft
Mrs, Hudnal Invested the third of the main business district ashit
money that she made In the 'tr
boarding houses In property In 1 '. n The fourth and final occupation of JacssonviUt ta February..
the downtown area She bought UM, was conceived by MaJ. Oem Q A. OUmort commanding
a plot 160 feet In width, running Fort Royal I C., and auctioned by President Lincoln

from the old Btabee Building on '
The plan wu to establish ft supply but at Jacksonville
Bay Street to an erstwhile cigar
start on Forsyth. and from there push into the interior and gain control of the
eastern approach to Tallahassee. They wanted to sever Florida
which bad become "the Breadbasket of the Confederacy
It was on this site that she
destroy vital food supply lines to other
Confident ttates.
built the St Johns House, one
of the first hotelt to be built The Federal also hoped the 'Unionists could organht ft

after the war and the veritable loyal state government Lincoln ml John Bay .* hit personal
foundation of the tourist trade in representative to Jacksonville.BrMstworts.
the area in- the early 1860t.
The St. John't House, located H Th Union l army pushed westward but wu stopped ta -K* I '
at 41'W Forsyth St., was begun plant by Confederate force at the Battle of Olutte. korea of I + i/11/ k, r 1

luring the test dart of the war wounded federal solders were i brought back to Jacksonville and
and was retarded M the oldest churches and private homes were turned into hospltali. A lint

,hotel in the cty| of breastworks wu erected from Bogan't Creek to th" area
around Union and Beaver streets. then west t* Darts Street and
A description of the' St John southwest to McCoy' Creek to meet an expected Confident

i, House Is given In Walton. Webb attack Additional force wan ruined In, bringing a total of
Historical, Industrial and Biographical
12.000 Onion soldiers into Jacksonville.
Florida," which Was JACKSONVILLE WAS BASE 01 Federal army 1 that sirs/' Lfi .

published In 1885 ,tat New York met disaster at Olustee on Feb. 20, 1864. Art- By tht end of March heavy draft wen being mad en

City ist'g Impression o( the battle depict the fightIn Northern force encamped in Jacksonville and many win withdrawn

; from the Federal vantage point (foreground By July, 1864, only a until occupation fore remained in
Jacksonville and except for occasional f
t'A Storks raiding parties from
Note fanciful trees the Con.
). palm over
Fernudlnft and St. Augustine then wai no further military'
"AI It now appears, the hotel federate lines. The Federal army at Olustee was activity ta the city tt wasnt until 1869 that \h.I1aIt! V... troopt

k a two and a halt story wooden composed largely of Negro troops. wen withdrawn fromJacksonvUle. Jacksonville Street Scene 1861 Note Union Soldiers


61 1.b,9.. .- ....... ..'..'..--....-..-..,.....-.,_J ."w,fI".o\" ';.'.."...., .. .....".,... .....;.-..::..',.....,,t\i..\...... r'......<"oIIl" ..J........ -. ......:... .. ..' : : ," > ,..

.,"" ,. '., ----.. .. . .. .. . ." .. .. .. ... .. . . .
..' .. .. :. : .




: Federals Raid TRENCHES REMAIN ; .'1:

I' Yellow Bluff: Town '

1 I

3 Plantations; Once Hummed with J '

Slaves Freed ": f L a Tourists, Fishermen \

) ,. '
j' p, ,"
By CYNTHIA PARK grant from the Inset of Spainfor
During the War Between the States federal troop occupying 400 acres to farm Appanntly

Jacksonville often made raid Into tile stat to engage In minor Tim-tutu milt WrtM his plan to work six: slave*
\ clashes with Confederate unite and to round up staves, called "000. i never materialized because the
trabands" 1
tint permanent settler.found the
Gray u a Confederate Jacket
land virgin.,
The siivfts were given their freedom once in Jacksonville' which I 'wen UK moes-garlandi that hung
f nhbi collection Y ever Yellow Bluff In the early
: center They wen urged to enlist in the federal First Settler
t arnur. I : P days of ,the War Between the
States, Southern men sweated
Hill they were overtaken by f I", s ,and dug, sweated and dug &I That settler was Dr. Henry
Hero lien account of inch I Capt. Bouse cavalry, numbering the trenches deepened and Von Balsan. He left his homo-

' raid from the Florida Union of tome 32. A fight took place widened that were to defend Berlin Oermany-tor Mew York
March U. 1865: which- lasted about two hours them from Union rtlUeiT From there be visited New Orleans

The trenches are then today and practiced medicine a t
on that rectangular: pent- while, but his feet tlll Itched
1 "A party consisting of a detachment "The rebels were defeated with tula that Jut* into the St. John for new land He came to Florida '
of the 3rd and 34th U J. '
and bought SO acres of II&.
-Daraet Point\
n killed and two wounded The < Just off Heckscher '"
i Cavalry Troop left Jacksonvilleon lost en our side was one killed Drive But to the casual passerby Johns riverfront bluff land from ',.1;
Thursday the 7th Instant on and two wounded. The casualty it la gently rolling country, the original Spanish grant hold I,, I

i u expedition into Rebeldom. on our aide was occasioned by almost like a glacier had ridgedIt er hit grandson., David Von ,4, J

I the treachery of a rebel who surrendered '- softened now by filling leave Balsan spoke d It u the "Brown 1

'"They landed the morning of and afterwards fired and time with only a marker b)' Spanish grant") and called it j .

i the 8th at -Orange. upon his captors killing one and the United Daughten of the Con- nostalgically New Berlin., ,

, wounding another. federacy' to tingle It out for hi. I
tory- In methodical German fashion,
"The party here divided a portion the doctor laid out northsouthand

going by boat and a person succeeded in east-wejt streets, naming the
party : crossing -
by land to opposite Palatlca the St. Johns River and .. But It wu not always so In main one Caroline Street for his j
Here again .united and Yellow Bluff Once Its potential
they proceeded reaching St Augustine on Sundaythe wife a Virginian and descendant ;
the river to Fort Gates was exploited by fishermen and
up of statesman Henry Clay.
12th with all their booty except -
where they landed and struck: out tourists, and the little town I
five mules and two prisoners
into the Interior, bummed, he bunt hospital There I'
I who were lost in the Then a
-Color by Core Kat/ort
fight; having marched over 300 lie tended those stricken with yellow ,

"They lOOn reached the plantation miles" ,A Shell Bursts Near Fort Steele, Site o>( Today's Mayport Naval' Station Earliest record of the area Is ever, when' the war reached I
him. be extended. his nationalist
of Mr. Mason Here they In 1803 when Levin Ounby got a
sympathies to the Union soldiers ,, !
found two Rebel soldiers planting
I The doctor'sgrandson. David n
whom they made prisoners They
was Interviewed In 1937 by a t
alto secured a stand of arms. I
WPA worker, and he make tt I

Gunboats Met with Alarm clear: that a* a naturalized American ;

"At the plantation of Mr. Wtl Rejoicingthat citizen, the doctor was unmolested '

Hams they captured two contrabands 1 by the Union troops

and one horse They then

struck the bridge over the Ockla- Entrenchment" BuhlDuring"the 1
waha River where they encountered By YVONNE PARKER In'Jacksonville;"their facet calm threat made against them," he "the more candid and sensible ,.' 'W he could quickly give the 4._

two pickets belonging la and stolid, while their Very souls wrote. portion, composing at that time impression that several mark war lilt Florida
Capt;House company, who fled Tten-t'rto BMtkl Writ* were ready to bunt with joy at the majority of the community' men were aiding him. I Confederacy! fortified Itself with I

to Cot Marshes plantation the thought of the deliverance at The term "Union man" was applied -were opposed to secession. entrenchments at Yellow Bluff, 1
where they were overtaken and When the terrible Yankee gunboats band rather indiscriminately In '
TIle town marshal tumble ICI'OUbe river at St. John
shot. "able to run anywhere the South before and during the A special session of the Florida
cross his warning system one Bluff and on Talbot Island Brig
there was a heavy dew, -
Fernandlns In March captured of "011. did they not struggle to Civil War to anyone believed Legislature met at Tallahassee in night while chasing a runaway Gen. J. H Trapler .was commander

"At this place they made a 861,and tatted toward Jacksonville keep from shouting aloud for loyal to the United States. I960 and "in our county (Duval) lave and reported to the town at Yellow Bluff I

haul of 21 borne and mules awaited with Joy" wrote Calvin L. Robinson, we elected two men to represent that "Robinson had some dId -
they were outward honored
with their equipments and 75 alarm and much secret reolclng. -' who tad seen his property burned some men in the us who pledged themselves go go Infernal machine about hit IB March 1862. Southeast Department t
contrabands and burned 75 hogsheads and family threatened for hit state, such as ex-Governor Call for Union to the last," he wrote. i house' and "that it would pot commander Gen. Rob-

of sugar 150 barrels of loyalty to "the Old Flag we of Tallahassee Judge Marvin of When word reached Jacksonvillethat << do to go fooling around then al ert E. Lee sailed up the river

syrup, 400 barrels of whiskey and Many families hurried to'Lake toved" Key West, and Robinson of Jacksonville the delegate were working I1IIbl." and ordered Trapler to pull back
sympathized with the
the ttlll and sugar works. Tale City and_other points along the Union. for secession a group of merchants to the mainland. They left IS

wax accomplished by three menThe railroad as soon at new came "But' though their countenances I met and sent Robinsonand Merchandise Confiscated cannon behind and the Union
rest of the party had been two others to Tallahassee- soldiers swarmed in. Apparently!
thai the federal troops were at wore the expression of an apparent Robinson said that after the'
left to guard the bridge. Induce them to change their hey didn't think much of their
the mouth of the St. Johns, and studied
Indifference election of Abraham Lincoln course "We found It was useless He was not threatened by thevigilantes
yet it was impossible that the slaveholders and "be but lain, for they left on April 79. .
politician as it would have been to plead gut again much of his
'The expedition then set out Others secretly loyal to the i rebels should not see the effort ten to use their Influence and utmost With' the lampposts." RobInaon merchandise was confiscated and

en its return. At Lake Church union or suspected of being "Un they were making to bide their endeavors to arouse and reported. be was prevented from selling bis In the summer of 1862. Con- >' f'
ion men" and abolitionists stayed delight, and many were till 'Or* the Southern Heart' but, good in Savannah. federate batteries wen set up /

Reign of Terror again and witi tile : crossfire I.!
from St. Johns Bluff they ben, u I
When federal gunboats
wen ricaded the river against Union V i
The Ordinance of Secession
sighted in the St Johns Robinsonwas
gunboat (or a Urn*. One again, \" r
-was passed Jan. 10, last, and warned by friends that the
,..t' ,ra h >e'nN however, they were forced out. ,
py "the number of adherents to it Confederates were to turn the

rapidly Increased. Gradually the mills at JacksonvEl and "youhave
reign of terror gained full swing Calvta L. RobluM got to leave at once or you Before the Union soldiers ar I'

and the time came when for a will not nv. to tee another morn rived. Capt. Napoleon Bonaparte '
Northern man to utter openly his Ing" Broward ST. (father of the gun.

love for the Union would be almost to arouse the people for the I runner governor) galloped along

suicide It would be dim Southern cause he said and ontor the river warning the citizenry
cult to give- an account .of the "charmed their hearers with Having burled his cash and In their unprotected plantations.. '
belonging In hist ,
many garden
occurrences from this time forward their glorious portrayals of the
be took his wife and two small
to convey any adequate delightful state of things they New 'Era Dawns ,
Idea of the situation to one who should have when the Confederacy soot and escaped' In a boat across
the St. Johns
hat never witnessed the growth IOU established and recognized When the war ended, a new
of secession In the midst of a by the civilized nations of era dawned for New Berlin Itwas

people," Robinson wrote. the earth, exhorting an to great Fearful of "some of our tealous marked by the arrival of anrislunan

can and diligence against the friends of the Vigilance Committee by way of Savannah

"Gradually: one after another, traitors and the Importance of ," Robinson and his family Capt. David Kemp. Impressed by

your neighbors would come out compelling every man to show pent the night bldlnl in the the towering bluff In 1865 'be 1

and Join the current sentiment, their hands" woods In a drizzling rain, watching built bit home there, and founded -

moved by various influences of his warehouse and store being ; a shad fishing Industry that !

business advantage, personal Influence burned by a mob across the lured fishing smacks all the way
Under the Union
popularity or notorietyand pressure men river. from the northernmost states. i i
Joined rifle drill but put up such 1
some Impelled by the very
1 .
"careful decided
a and opposition
force of the prevailing excitement Feared Murder turned to
'' when it was proposed that Capt, Kemp then
until one hardly knew whom to sblpbullding. Hli yard turned out
ail wonnern born residents 01 -
trust. Jacksonville talc a loyalty oath "Now we knew that they would the' famous tourist transports, ,

to the Confederacy that the idea murder us If they could find us the Kate Spencer and the David ,
"Soon It came to the point that
was coon quietly dropped. We began realize the hopeless-
silence was a crime For this
11. less of our situation Driven from
reason many who were heartilyIn our home, property destroyed, The little fishing town bad a
sympathy with the Union VlgUaaU Form our hiding place probably known respeCtable danc hall over afish I

+ would utter sentiments of hostility no way of escape." bouse, a two-room school 1 1boUIe
to the old Hag, especially to Al feelings became more bitter and the Gray hotel a

r, 4 wi, rw the presence of those who, they "the drunken Idle and brutal Deep In despair the following warding-house for summer visitors

knew were watching them and many of them scions of pretentious morning, the Robinsons, who bad from Jacksonville AccordIng ,
eager to catch something from families now becom impecunious Joined another of refugees to another WPA Interview
their own lips that could be used from Indolence dis
and : spotted a pair of schooner masts, with an old resident Thomas
against them sipation" formed vigilante groups moving slowly toward' them: J. Grey. Kemp store was next

and terrorized the Northern born waving the Old Flag to his home: and It also soused

Vilonlstt Plight business men, Robinson laid. bad not teen for ert:1: lilt post office In ,1875.

Keyholes and doorcracks had )'ear.." t
to be checked for eavesdropping Told that they bad "decided to Doctor Moves

Color by Cora Rat/ort spies Before staunch Unionists confiscate my property.and to "Never did greater Joy more

Sight of Federal Gunboats Like One Above Cheered Jacksonville Residents In 1862 would discuss the war, Robinsonsaid take care of me" Robinson said suddenly take possession of Dr. Von Balsan had since
I and several of them began he dared them to come ahead hew In deeper despondency moved to' St. Augustine and his

going aqulrrel bunting together and vowed if b* were killed he Never again do I expect to feel Old home was occupied on week'

i so that "we could gather under would take some of them with such rapture, 't11. perchance, it ,' ends and during the summer

- some wldespreadlng oak and talk him so permitted I pass through the months by the David Von Bat {

Union Talk: freely with none to Pearly Gates Into the New Jerusalem ant of Jacksonville who probably

A Resident by Accident molest or make us afraid" Robinson fixed an elaborate ," Robinson wrote, is a earn on Capt., Kemp mall-

warning system about his home Union fleet moved on Jacksonville toting steamer '

Public meeting were caned at and stationed guns at various and the "old flag again /

the Court House In Jacksonville window and under the house to flew over the city. By 1885 the town was flourish-
Inl. Orange groves, logging, cat-
One of New Berlin's longtime residents came by accident He Grey Sacrificed an honorable discharge by Jumping ship with tle and Toombs' awmlll prospered

jumped ship to save a brawling Irishman from being clubbed to. Ms friend Casan, for he still had three month to serve, but be _., .,.. The river'was speckledwith ,
death with a belaying pin and decided: the little fishing vlllagt valued the friendship! more. r'7'T' I fishing boat netting the I

was not to bad a place to settle alter all shad and ship waiting to be repaired
The two decided to team up when Orey: reported that his at Kemp's When the tour I
mother had taught him to cook and scrub and mend a little.
In lilt
Thorns* Janus Grey was Interviewed In 1l8'ry! a WPA Isis were population
They took up residence In New BerUn I
welled from 87 to 150. A. W,
worker The Boston-born Grey was then 84.; but be recalled that I
eventful night In 1875 when the government revenue ship, Reliance, < One night till homesick Bostonlaa was wandering the rutted RMu' Lawless handled their mail
ailed into the mouth of the St John* from its Boston pier streets when be beard the sound of a piano. He was drawn to There was an Episcopal chapel
a little house when the Methodist minister had Just moved in. and a Methodist church (later

/neck-Dswe, Prig-Out 'The itinerant evangelist was from Tennessee by way of his uome destroyed by fin)J.'

in Connecticut and his daughter, presumably, was trying, out the !
Crev'i good friend Stephen Casan bad a quick tongue and a piano, which had Just come off the ship. I Shipyard Close

ready flat, and the English coal-passers on board brought both r fa.ASrt
The lonesome seaman knocked and found himself welcome. '
these characteristics to full flower There was a knock-down and But then Capt. Kemp died Mene
It was good to talk: to someone from the East again He told his
drag-out brawl on shipboard by the time the Reliance hove into took his place and his ship !
WPA Interviewer became friends
"I soon fast with the family,
the mouth of the river. closed
yard Since shipbuildingwas
and lilt young lady not quit a year later, became my wife"
a chief outlet of the saw'm1S

The first mate had slopped all the fisticuffs be was willing New Berlin! became his town, and Grey loved it He loved it too folded. After a decade .

to to after a long talk, the mate connived with Grey to haul tile giant tree and was sorry later when lilt sawmills literally even the shad began to play -
bit friend Casan off shipboard when they landed at New Berlin. ate them up, never to be replaced. sot By 1930 lilt school closed: ,

and a few yean later the post
When be ,,&1'able, be bought two lots adding up to 440 race was abandoned Two
The next morning they anchored and first mate U. -Wright other W
feet In depth on Caroline Street named for Von Balsan wife),
major) factors killed the
eying Grey meaningfully said "I am going to can on Capt. ton
Jtem ." and brick: pavement ran along the property Dne. (This was later the automobile which mad river' j V
washed away, and. at the tune of the interview la 19J7. be traffic less Important and a Hv-
feared for bl house then feet from tile
only IS edge) enstraightening
As soon as fits back was fumed Grey hauled hit friend off project that r

the ship. There was a cursory search, but In a, few day the Casan settled down, too, and married raising a son and a eroded many feet of the ,blun.

Reliance left to continue her voyage down the coast daughters,
New Berlin residents today use
Some It yean after their escapade, Ony ran Into exLt. the post office and school
The pair wandered aimlessly about for a while also exploring Wright Main, still on the Reliance but now its captain, and they ties of Oceanway. Once ladtt.,
Mayport while the Reliance was still at anchor.: They plodded over had supper together. Ore)' proudly Introduced his three sons partly because of again

the vast dazzling expanse of sand dunes Grey remarking now and they even went to call on Casan and laughingly reminiscedover lilt development nearby Industry -
housewives would be to find to much white of Bkmnt
pleased New England their accidental landing In New Berlin. Island and
sand to scour their floors and cutlery wEb accessibility to Jack
Grey and his wife lived to New Berlin together for 47 ,.are. aoovllle. the area, promises te

To their gnat sunrise they stumbled over something of She died and I II burled there, a* I* Casan wife Casan died of a become a community to' rival

brick and found tt to be the chimney of a two-story house brain tumor, and Ms friend Ore)' 1III'mIIed.It( was) probably what cant Kemp knew ti shad
Inundated IIIlbttInIaanda. from an old injury received In one of hit brawl in lilt Navy," Moss Was Used to Insulate Officers'' Tents at Yellow Bluff Near New Berlin fisting day.


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i i I [ i i i n ii ,

1. Mrs. Stowe's Fame Spreads II J, I:, :Yt',;,' '

iil: y art 1F r% ,

L. Her Activities Helped Bring Fame to Mandarin : <. t : t t'I'

Mandarin waterfront Ultutratlni Other things have disappeared .
FT DAVE WHITNEYtlmnVMM the growing need for traniporta- from the Mandarin scene In the .; ;
( tine to handle the enormous citrus past few years. The same burrt-
: \ SUN Water crops of the area cam tore up more than 20 of the \ ". ,i'
moss-draped live oaks which ,, .
When the first edition rf The lined tilt peaceful Mandarin Road
florida" Union came oft the press 4 t tli The following September a through the center of the community ter t
;, in IBM Confederate: soldier lath storm hit the community tearing r
mill community of Man- up giant live oaks and completelydestroying
all the boat, wharfs Tat SK .-
dorm on the St. John River uf
south of Jacksonville were rem and docks along the waterfront. In April of 1963 the old poet
>\lclfi over a succejfiful torpedo office and general store operatedfor
tlttkad they bad laid across the nearly three quarters of a
titer Twe yean later a harsh freeze century by"Miss Agnes Jones and "11.1'' '
which dropped the temperatureto her father before her cancelledout
22' degrees for twi days, it* put as the government
The Southerners., protesting1 a brought a halt to the lush citrus moved it to new quarters on
Federal occupation of Jackson- crops of the previous ,ean. A State Road U.
tUIe and neighboring cities. rain which followed the cold snap
strung )2 torpedo'fashioned from froze on the citrus trees and all
hollow iota and containing 70 U the oranges in the settlementwere Mlsi Mary B. Oraff in her his-
pound 01 small-grain powder a lost. tory. "Mandarin en the St.
afirow the* river channel from John,'"' sums up the quiet river

Mandarin Point to -Orange Park village:
on the went shoes PepulaUe Crows '
I "Mandarin keeps like a charm
1881 the at the
By population
the richness of tradition. Though
Three federal supply ships the ,
community had risen to 1,200.Mrs. .
Maple teat, Hunter and Harriet Stowe and Mr husband Cal much has changed there is a
Reedwee mink by the crude The Stowe Home In the 1870s vin taw a need for educating the UmeJeMneas In the giant oaks p t4
with weird enchantment of
bomba before the federal garrison < Negroes of the area and begin I
called moss: and the wide expanse of
in Jacksonville. the vicinity 11 contains about were to bring a century of fame teaching separate Sunday schooldunes the at. Johns measures It* tide
titer patrols.At
200 acres of land on which Is a I to Mandarin. for them. alike in the record of the past
fine orange grove the fruit from and of the present;' Mandarin Waterfront, About 1870War's

the end of the War Betweenthe which last year brought In $2,000u Mri. Btowi put her pen to Out of Calvin's Interest In religion
States Mandarin was Ml without old at the wharf. It li righton work Immediately upon arrival In grew an idea for a church
a single clock on Its once-bust- the river and tour steamboats and became of the to be located on the river
Florida one bank'i
ling water front. Orange-grove*. pans it each week en their relations Harriet Beecher Stowe
state's first! real public I
long neglected, were In desperate WIlY to Charleston and Savannah. promoters She published a book. Initiative and began laying plans Last Duval Casualties
need of pruning and fertilizing If There is on the place a very "Palmetto Leaves which war a for the construction of the present .
the community was to return to comfortable cottage\ u house go glowing report of everything good Church of Our Saviour in I
Its prewar position aa citrus center out there. ." Mandarin
of the South.Northerners she had experienced In Florida. I I What night be called the last Kastport now In sight of Heck- seen to strike a slight blow with The captain had come upon
;. War Between the States casualties ocher Drive. his'ax and the next moment as what was described: u a torpedo -,
She created the Mandarin in Duval County' occurred his wife aye .he wa enveloped \- "of the cigar shape, barrel-
interested 10 ke- In addition to the book the Amateur Dramatic Association to many months after the war was 11a cloud of smoke which variety" which was probably: one
coming fruit growers, willed on ThU earns year Mi*. Slowe wrote an arttcle for the Semi- put on plays In an effort to raise ended. Cap! Arey wax In command of was Immediately followed by a of 12 such torpedoes placed In
the river bank after the war. purchased aViut 34 acre of the. Tropical magazine pleading for money to build the church. Land the schooner A. Richards of Bos terrific explosion throwing the the St. John River by -Confederate
With their .knowledge of{ or i orange aced culture they made slow I home In Mandarin the first and another article admonishing plans for the church were com H, Arey of Thomaaton, Maine, Richmond. Vs.. on Oct. It with Urn frightfully, and killing 40 days during the war. -these
progress ID restortn the productivity of her moves that was to leave the New York Herald for com pleted la February 1283. and his chief officer, Male loo ton of coal and two locomotive I him Instantly. The mate also was torpedoes sunk thru Union re**
of the early groves. Sue- an Indelible mart on the history. plaining that Yankee tourists and Charles Hopper of St. Thomas engine! for delivery to the thrown some distance and shockingly tela-the transports Maple Leaf
eras finally came with time, pa- of the community. settlers In Florida were exposedto West Indlei, were killed by a Florida. Atlantic and Gulf Cen. : burned and died of his injuries Hunter and Harriet Weed. Four
\ llejjce and ,experlen .. ill treatment by the natives In November of 1883 the last naval torpedo near the mouth of tral Railroad. HI* schooner entered (' the following day," men were lost when the Maple
winter the aging BLowN spent in the St Johns River on Nov. went down with
Dunn. Creek at a point Inn Leaf lank: one
\1nu..1 H"me Florida! -the Church of Our Sa 4 and while navigating the river the Hunter and six died when
Mrs. Stow Arrives 'Tourist Days viour opened ita doors tothe on the following day, a Sunday' the Harriet -Weed link 01\ ,1411
Episcopal: congregation of the ran aground at the mouth. of 1864.
i t.
two each week boat I Dunne Creek. ,
An Ironic twist of fate brought The Slower enlarged the house community.
brought mall to Mandarin from
Harriet Beecher Stowe. often Jacksonville. As Mrs. Slowe'afame
blamed for Inciting filings which Stone described It as. 'built spread Industrious tourist Calvin Stowe died In lAM Mr. Party CMS Ashore The death of Capt. Any and
started the War Between the around the trunk of the tree (a I Stove requested that the windowon Mat caused considerable
Jacksonville began Hopper
States with her book "Uncle Tom giant live oak, 15 feet In girth) I promoters In the river tide of the churchbe While waiting for the tide to Jacksonville
Cabin. to the waterfront Man i i"l s 0 that our cottage has a peculiar t:o sell tickets on vessel which reserved u a memorial to Ilrult Use, the captain, accompaniedby alarm and among A searchwas
the andjromiwd shipper seamen.
darin'in 1867. .and original air, and seems passed Stowe home her husband. his wife and Mate Hopper, other
conducted for torpedoes
I as If it wen half tree, or some I passengers a glimpse of went ashore for a look around. whether
the; famous author. 'at but it I* not (known
thing that had grows out of the Carrying an ax he led the way.
She had been visiting In Orange i any were found.Meanwhile .
Park and rowed serous the river!! tree. We added on parts, and Chunk DestroyedLast I his wife remaining a distance be- -
out and hind the two What followed'waa
have' thrown table men.
on_ day to pick up her mall at Often u a boat rounded the I U 14
the Mandarin chambers, aa a tree throws out September.Hurricane Dora reported In The Florida Union -
post office MrstStowe lend and came Into view Mri.
at new branches, till our cottage Is brought a crashing end to the t : the captain of ,ar-
was Impreasiad by
once Stowe, busy elsewhere la the
the like nobody else', and yet we Church of Our Saviour and the loUt vessel in port and local
quiet beauty of the amall '
louse, would to the porch
It Slows Memorial "His attention attracted by merchant and shippers passed
settlement. She wrote settle into with real enjoy window. Uprooting I was
+ after her first"visit shortly meat ." with pen and paper and assume one of the giant oaks described what to Urn must have been a 4 the hat to pay for the burial of
r' : I anintense writing position to In the original! deed to stnjular looking object, lying Capt, Arey and tots mat*. They
I satisfy the river travelers: the church property, the hurricane near the edge of the water partially railed t3M 11:4 after paying all
} "We are now thinking Seriously, From this unusual house, Har- I winds tossed it through the I covered with barnacles and expense $269 left ever
of a place In Mandarin muck riet Beecher Stowt began directing -I In the spring of 1171 a wharf roof of the church completely do- Confederate Torpedo weed, which be stopped to ex- Watt Capt. Arey renal' whlcb they presented to UM bertaved -
{. gore beautiful than any other in j a stringof. acUnttes which and boardwalk were built oa the straying the building and window. amine. While doing so be waa widow.

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4. .if e s e $ ,, a a oaf

We're Paid to Work Here! aWe

are proud to have made Florida our home sincq The perfect climate makes our people delighted ,to Il

1952. Our national headquarters is now an interna- c'ome'here for training. The progressive spirit of the '

tional for Tupperware is sold in "
headquarters now *
state has inspired us. The beauty has made our home "

20 countries ,outside} the {United states and manufacrr. ; ,.C

tured in four. We have found Florida the ideal cen- office a tourist .attraction, with great public relations, '. 'J;

ter from which to direct, the development of this benefits.' It is a privilege to he a part of Florida's : i<;.:.\ ::';

worldwide business / business growth.'k: i:: J; ';;' !, : .

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,. : .',< 'i '( +'4 tpj: ., ,
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l.;z:, :, '' "! : '' \' '.:A'f,' r ; $ :;
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r. .. INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS ,: r'u: : ; \ ;\ ; ., ;
,4. I, 'lj NII.'
.. I 'i.i i 'i, ?If I
14 ':Miles South of Orlando, Florida on U.S. 17-92-r441, x I .. i '1''" teii./, ;I .\M;; I', I'I

I SALES OFFICES: :Austria, Australia,' Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Holland, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Puerto Rico, Sweden,

,. Switzerland, Scotland, Ireland and South Africa. .

I MAMJFACTURiKC PLANTS: Blackstone, Massachusetts Cowansville, Canada ; Wigan, England; Erembodegem, Belgium; Melbourne,' Australia.

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.. "' F T tP

4 ? ffGreenridge' Road Home, i t 1"- !

f1)r Built i l in 1854, Still ,

I.t [ Bank'A' Charming Place/ 'IE- I Ito

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S By JVDEE BRITT name of Colonial! Manor in reference thai same staircase Is being wine of the house and the boys
to the old manor home. used In a lovely 'JlCk onv1)le) la the other,
{ *llMi.l< Kill WHIM "
home today, .a

t Florida wu a wilderness ownedby The real estate company After the War Between the
(. the Spanish and ruled by the brought In dredging machinery Another enclosed,+lree Is States when the slave were free,
Seminoles when Red Bank Plan-, and pumped sand and silt up located at the center of the the PhUlpsei! found It difficult to
.taUon wu born out of a Spanish from the river bed extending the house. A wall hu been removed operate the large plantation and 1
land grant In 1793 and much of property line frontage a hundredor and a wide arch Installed between large portions of It were sold.
Couth Jacksonville growth can more feet. So Red Bank, the entrance hall and living Professor Hiram H. Palmer, who
be traced through the wide corrldora which In the early days wu only room throwing the whole was superintendent! of Public Instruction .
of the old Red Bank manor I short distance from the 6t. half of the west aide of the house for Duval County, acquired
house which Mill stands at 1230preenttdge Johns River la now seven Into one long room. the home place and lived
Road, In Colonial block back from the river there with his family- for many [
Manor bank. The second floor arrangement! years.

I Is very simple containing four
>Th. present residents Mr. and 'The house, bullion heavy bedrooms all 20 feet by 20 feet, HUBM Alllgstor 1.
Mn.- Edwin ,M. Clarke have 1 1liveif' hand-hewn Umbers, conforms to A wide\ hall goes through center ,
at Red Bank home from east to welt with a wide A daughter. Elizabeth the late
the of Interior
a* the 'four-pen style i

still of the is history called.,however since 1941., wu Most recorded I openings with a large opposite hall on eaoh all way sides and to floors window on at the the second cut floor end.are The all the Mrs days O. Z.when Tyler she Brq said lived that then in The Elegant Entrant as It Appears Today Window Offers a View of the ,St. Johns, i ir

the hardwood they used to hunt alligator In
'or\81nal and time ii
during the 100 :year give cross ventilation. Each
eonUmiou and the rearing of many generations the swamp between the house\
ownenhlp by Judge room contains a large fireplace.
Henry: B. Philips' lamlly. The four room on the lower have left their marks In and Jacksonville. Drain hays j
the uncovered floor, ,i been put In now and the lowest
floor and the corresponding four ,, ". ,
feet part developed u a beauty spot( ", "i': "'I', )". '' .
above ire each :10 square. ,
The first house on the plantation Chlldrea'i Center la the form of a lake. -
The walls are It inches thick,
wu frame and built by
both the outside and the partitions. 1,
1 1e
0. Philips. The
present I
house wa constructed In list ." "I raised three children la this SUckton Whatley, Davie and i a
with brick molded by hand from home," said Mn. Clarke, "and Ce. secured title to a hundred odd I I
ctiy obtained on the plantationand Slave Quarters the upstairs hall wu their favorite acre of the property, and the
burned In kilns by the staves spot One winter when I wu manor house In 1914 from Hiram
The home centered the 430 acre Originally, the slave quarters sick a great deal we moved our Palmer's widow.. Nothing was I
land grant with seven mile were back 'g( the house to the living area Into that large hal done with the property until ins
frontage on' the St Johns River. south. The! kitchen wu a treme and even did our informal enter when the subdivision. Colonial I
A sand trail bordered by an building with a covered way taming there." Manor, wu started. Realizing "
avenue of tremendous oak trees leading to the dining room on the potential of the manor house,
from tie southeast side of the house. the company sold the house with J
ran the main country road Because of the spaciousness 01
What wu formerly the music the"esndluona that the
which wu the Old San Jose Red Bank it wu always popular
room now hu been convertedInto would purchase the lots on either
a kitchen. The stable were u a fathering place) for social aide of tile house and agree to s. s
affairs particularly\ dances. In 5 Jt
down near the river with the restore the bouse., In 1937 UM s,
Colonial Manor the old days U wu I three hour
sheds blacksmith shop and carpenter T. H. Effliwtoos bought the bom
shop coming up In a semicircle Journey from Jacksonville over under these condition
the terry down old Hendrlcks t
to meet the slave quarters. i
The demand for estate with '
Avenue and the private lane to -
tomes along the river resulted the bouse which leads off this During the 10 years between!
In sales of parcel of land comprising road. For this moon guests at the residence of the Palmers and
the old grant from tints "There wu a beautiful open evening parties! and dances had the Ellington, Red Bank did not e'i .
to time. Finally, Stockton, What- staircase going up from the front i to be accommodated overnight. always sit Idle It wu developed!
ley, Davln and Co. secured title entrance," said Mn. Clarke, "but I The tremendous rooms blendedin Into a rather elaborate dining .
to a large acreage nearest the this wu taken down and sold' perfectly for such occasions u place The Candlewick Inn at I
city limits and developed It Into separately before the house wu : extra beds were! let up and the one point. Later it became John
I residential section under the put on the market I understand girls were" taken cart of In one son's Chicken House. ,

*When wt took over the property I JI
and put in electric wiring '
lJ and modem 'plumbing. It' wu
1 rI" quite a talk for the mechanics
' M to eut through the heavy walls," I rt ,
related Mrs. Ellington is. a 1940 .n.rmtm- N u n.r

Interview, "In fact, they just had The Spacious: library In Red Bank Manor .on Greenrldgt Road i
to use pick-axes to make the .
proper openings." I It
I t

Hone Improvements

furnace with ducts l* each room,
: I II redid the downlt.airlI1oo/'l,' put a -It '
small complete bathroom In the ," 'l' 1.
library and one In an upetaln ,
I ; bedroom making L-ahaped rooms I
I out of them and added a two-esr I
\ garage. ;

J'' When the Clarices bought the ,

11 home In 1941, they built a separate (
room for the furnace takingthe I
apace from the dining room.
They also added another! full bath ,
In the sewing room and a half "
bath in the ,Irll'.
N. Closed

There is no attic: and no basement l a 2"7vR
in the house" said Mn.Clarke .

"and when the house was I
Milt no closet were Included: u
the old mahogany: wardrobe were
An Archway Was Installed Between Entrance Hall and Living Room used then. Storage space had lobe >
made by putting In false wails r
downstairs and between the bedrooms -
for large closets. Two I
large lintel/ _" were added ar .
In the upstairs ball, ,

"There are four windows !la ,
each room and none of them are
> standard size," she added. "It la ,
quite a task to get shades er
curtains for them. I utilize my
sewing room by making all the
; curtains and the shade have to
be specially eut." ,
; ,

b Mr*. Clarke's bedroom! which
fa one of the II feet by II feet Pinebreeze Farms, Inc. was founded in 1911 by E. O. Irvin and his two sons, J. 1.. and H. D. Irvinas t
h room a large Hug size bed with
,, a footboard blends! In beautifully a family farm.

,I. ., with the spacious\ room. ', I
-,' ,: Today, Pinebreeze Farms has four egg-processing plants 1 located in Callahan, Sanford High
some of the original fireplaces I with the most modern egg-handling! machinery !
.:,24\,:,:, ; have been replaced but I Springs and Fort Lauderdale. These four plants ,

:' .. \ \ ,. think the ones In the bedroom I pioneered in Florida by Pinebreeze, have a capacity of four and a half million eggs per week

.. ? and the dining room are the'' This automated egg handling allows better quality control, which in turn provides, better eggs t

'" Pahv he originals.mantel I chipped la ,my bedroom the paint I and elf : tot the consumer. Pinebreeze Farms has pioneered many innovations for improvements In the I

;,\\r ; It look like beautiful pine wood.I Florida egg industry, Including the first force
\,;It? !:; finish original bop them.someday mantel" : to to the restore wood aid the I' trolled genetics for breeding chickens.. I

.. IW.e 'l Pinebreeze Farms supplies Winn-Dixie stores from Fernandina Beach to Key West, Florida with I'
) Jt, '1\. Old Well
: farm-cooled eggs, delivered In refrigerated trucks. .
.. :;t Another' project Mr*. Clarke I
: *; has in mind 1 II to restore the old Pinebreeze Farms has'expanded an even pace with other Florida development and has kept I

"'{',''! : well which originally wu located] pace with the trend toward industrialization and automation of agriculture. This increased serv- ,
f at the back of the house but In
: { now in the aide yard next to the Ice and rapid delivery allows the consumer to have eggs on his breakfast'tabfe which may have i

dining room. The only evidence'of been laid the day before The cost of eggs is" no higher today than it was twenty years ago, due I

: ::, To our business friends throughout FloridatWe .. la the the old earth wen where Is! a the sunken fill spot'dirt to Increased efficiency in farm management and egg handling. ;

,"; hu settled over the years.
org proud that our services, such at m 'al'amp- 4 I Bernard Johann, President of Pinebreeze Farms, Inc. is also President of the Florida Egg Dealers
"I can remember when I WAS Producers Association member of the
Association past Vice-president of the Florida Poultry ,
ing forming lteat I girt and seeing this big old I
machining, -treating, welding house sitting off the road by itself Florida Egg Commission and of the New York Mercantile Exchange. Other officers areY.: F.

+\ (heluirc-arc-ipot), wir 'forming, and tumbling him ." said Mrs:Cbvte, "and I Pumphrey, Vice-Presldent; Lillian Johann, Secretary, and Joann Cooper, Treasurer. ,
never dreamed I would live In it .
i ''i\'j; ): :t\ :' ., made it possible( for you to make a "complete" product -, but my: mother used to say what \

,r"f : a marvelous place It would be to : I
\I '. in Florida. The policy'"Buytin, Florida" can '
cll ldren.
RW" < .
: result in continued mdwtrialrou'h. x' ,\ i 0ft; .
i only :
tl1t" ',,:.. : : Reef Bank Is no longer off by ''fi ; ,
;,' itself but Is a part of the buy: Florida ERR. Sold Through 'Wlnn.DlXle Stores I ',' ; Gk A1i\, \1a ;I
community: it-mothered. Today I r r J. r 'I' :
Frank //. Peterson, President the house on Greenrldie Road,
Identified by the sign under the p. O. Bu 65 Telephont o7W4 l
Diversified Products A//f. Co. eaves on the I left side of the home.i

8330 Atlantic Blvd. -, "Red Bank-1854." Is only a few Callahan Florida'I" J I
minutes drive from the center of I -
Jacksonville, Florida the city which developed around "
his Spanish land irant.

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--"'--- '

Fernandina: From Pirates'


F Lair to Pulpwood Center


II' Bv DAVE WHILST: fronting on a park In the center Florida HKhvay AtA. alllO> overlook the Amelia River and e

: tni..-r>M ...11 grow 0Ib' present Fernandina known a* the Buccanneer Trail. today's fishing fleet
r;' I The. highway! winds south of the '
y Bv thernid'Wth century thetitle Yellow Fever city acrOAA Bit and Little Talbot -
letup \ town ot Fernandina on the Inland Na.uau Sound Fort For the weary traveler the
;' Wand of, Amelia 30 miles north- The following 'tar a yellow I George Island and cross' the oldent. till operates In downtown
east of Jacksonville., was loot fever 'ppldf>mle utrurk kllllnt 8t. Johns River by ferry at Palace Saloon, billed as Florida's
1\\ *mergln* from three centurlM !people by the More. It .u one Mtyport. Fernandina Beach n ha retained
',i. of conflict Wider\ eight different, "of the several yellow 'fever epl- tie donor of the 11190e with r
, flap, '.f4'n9WS"j: hal, plagued the town a mafiMye% oak bar/H pound bran "j
until ('Jftnv war ,on the mosquito Rlatnrle SIAM cuspidor, and ceiling fang. The: 4
wa begun by' Walter Reed building was bull In 1878. 1 r
: The !harbor town In- the lipner-
IlInlOMI1hf'IM corner of Floridahad Mitch of the 'plAl lUll remain
r UlVKiwR S. bt. viewed In Fernandina
been for the governments i Former President la !
a pawn
Grant visited Fernandina In 1MO.! i Beach. Fort Clinch boo 'beenluraed Towering ever the bland u a
of Great $rttafn : !
,f Spain. beacon for the seaman 1* the
(+ Into atate. of l.DM
the tame rear the jettlex were a park
lco. Florida Pa.Irioui -
,: Tram, 1M '' Amelia bland Lighthouse! which
of tbelettlei turf fishing and
and the bemin. The completion' I icre* Including
:i United the
has cut Its beam over area
the harbor deepenedfrom bathing beaches
"u"dl. saw
_i, Confederate since It. 12 feet at low tide to 30 for more than a century and a
covered by Frenchman Jr.an W-- quirter. Situated on the highest
I' ba.ul on May 3. \\62.: feet a up depth to the which city dock Is .maintained I Oldtown iitlll stand north of point on the' Mand, 70 feet above
I the main city and many of the se a level the. light atill innr-
old house remain tn their ria'Inal > the' original knees, ground In
The hut mission, Santa' Man, house When first Installed !
The military staff at Fort farms The old pilot France. they
I 'HI a bll hf'd on the bland In I' Clinch was bolstered once acaln [at White and Estrada utreet still were rotated by kerosene but in
1598 and Fort' San Carlo WaJ In 189fl 'l'hpl1"1', *M declared inland* and the P1u Lot around recent years have been wired w
built In ififll near the site ofhat aver Cuba More than 10,0110, which Fort Safl Carlos Will '1111II1 operate by electricity.\ Union) Troops, March'Through, New Fernandina Following; Capture of Fort Clinch
tt now called Oldie"" I troop were moved Into the al'f'a'
north oi the present city of and the town blouomrd eut in

"side Fernandina of the on blond the Amelia River I Ir all direction !". ...."'. '>\; a '1 '' '' a '' .' ) 'I' W "
Ii i I 's I : 1" ) ;: ;" ; : ; .': rf' :"11 .
I After the war the town-dimin i. -TI ",.t; ., .,:', :iW rit> '" .
r For tins next 2m :yemSpan.fsh ished to a sleepy port exporting fjy ., ." ",i\i; ..t: ;.1 ":
, \i.,: !
French Entllnl), and tree cotton and other product of the 1.tl; c:, : : V'I\ }. :
I ,
patriot 'lotion fur the inland Immediate vicinity. Most of the; ,
port an outlet for contrihindhipmenls major shipping and rail traffic I "
\ ,. >. '
; ,
j including African .I had moved to the neier port, .,': ,: ,rl: eft,:\ j .l
\. .
; r \
r. "
I, .]area. of Jicksonvjlle! I. i } ," ':',';f' i$ *" ..

, t : ve .... ;.. : :' .; ij .
Busy Waterfront ,, p \ :,
A Pirate Lair f A J '\t,; '\'{' tJ.. .'I"f'

In 1913-14 shrimp and oyster i A ?L ..fJfi :', ; :
I.. Pierre and Jean lalltte. notedptrslea cannerie. fish fertllb plant, .' i: ''f
1IOO''ound and a large phonphale. elevator :,
of the early
l'I lined the .atar front. The Hah '
.;:. pin Fcrnandln their trade. an excellent and. innve place Illicit ta iinn i I : the.la.il lndu. try.V)ha year pronpered with tjirtmp)thereIn .,. \ 5- !''JtILUI\\ \ I 'H I .," '/. 1,;;><;1I \,;\:.1' ,

traffic They moved freely amonaliif ) : ) I i '
and oysters found offshore, andmrnhaden 'f" }
rmzen .of Gldl W1)) i a fish! sued in the : 1 ,
.: _. _. t
,. -- lircduction of -4 rtlll rr'*r -:0 -
metlc and oil. found 111 abundance & .:
In 1001, Florida eroded from ,
the Union jnd the town of Fernandina In the Atlantic Ocean off Pt1Jffllk IE ii
followed lull A nevfort I[ Georgia and Florida. I t "l
Fort Clinch had been tondtructei II Ii ,
I The Container Corp of America g
In the IBSOs. On MarchI. t .1 { fU', l\1 IJ.
came to Fernandina In 1936
captured by
1863 the) fort was db
+ t
and built a M million plant for 2
Federal troops and the area remained I ti
In US. hands for the : the making of Kraft paper and 1 .1
duration of the War Between theSUtet. boxes. It was followed by the .
Rayonler! Corp. In 1937 with a "
' plant to produce rayon pulp from
t M
t pine trees.

; At the end of the war the ]I
, I 011'101" than
The availability
economic life of Fernandina 1111I I
' wrecked The docile and in million acre of the mot
barvea, hope and l'al'f'ho\18" rapidly growing timber In the.,
f had been destroyed and trow- world within a radius of 150
mile of Fernandina and artentan
ben and bridge were roltlni on I
Ny the railroad thai had been built water lees than 4noo feet prier w t+,
the surface has made the town
port accea-
earlier to make-Jbe
f! 'able to the test of th. aisle, an InduMrle Ideal location for pulpwood

In 1 13 To. built the Ecnwnt Hotel, an Bearh, combined by Incorporation Tiles of Timber Are Stacked on the Docks at Fernandina Waiting to Be Loaded Aboard Sailing Ships In the Early'1960sunbeam '
elaborate atnicture.' of 7S room In lost are aerred by
IJ;, .---- ----- --

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0 .. I r in the : :

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: :
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;::1 R, Our new Sunbeam bakery of tomorrow," now under construction In Jacksonville, will soon ."t:," ,(.. ,\'

;f\\ be ready to serve our many friends in this area. t S"lln6ea4tzz I,! "I"f ; '" .,I, : .



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'!; ; ."' rt'.; :''1' "' ',:(r11,;,'( :.:'/- __ : 1 '" ',': 1.:.,".."..">',' -- Mrs. Holmes Finds City i

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Unsullied by Civilization )


The citizen of Brockport, N TV, broils, two satchels, overcoat Moat of the houses were dilapidated I
probably thought they were read. tippet and copy of "Tha Last recalling the War I (
In I about an undeveloped 'colony Chronicle of Bar et"-aU for 25 tween the State which Be'I l
1 of the crown when they read. cents. She dotted "behind him ended only three.ye.re before, '
very..q S about Jacksonville In 1868. N,.. through ankle-deep sand, then "
J. M. Holmes "the popular determined,,to stay at the Stickejf .
The thing Mrs Holmes waxed
authoress" wrote her home-town .. House '
ecstatic '
paper an open letter about her over were the trees.Though
trip South, and it vat reprinted ah* couldn't Imagine how
; In The Florida UnIon on April Passing through the towii of they survived the sand she mar. :
; IS, Ufift. 10 that people here 1.0000"b.1I of( whom are North. veled at the live oaks, magnolias,
might learn how they looked to .trneri'l'....ne noted that It washer oleander, cape Jessamin and
tourtsta.Mr Yankee countrymen' actlvt, orange trees. However, the er.
... If and enterprise that made "the ante were very sour only for
Holmes halt-charmed, streets present quite a busy, live orn.ment-and Inert were fewer (
flowers than she had expected.
ly :
appearance. Buildings Were
half-exasperated with Jackson. .,
under construction orange trees
vllle'i backwardness and believed !
,the tows ass not prettyby were being set out and she prophesied IItlckne,'. boarding house was I. '
Northern standards but better that Jacksonville would the oasis In the landbed. It wu I ::1
than aha had expected. become a very important city 'In run by "a very pleasant (en. \ :
Honda someday.The tlcmanly man'" who was former- \

Her boat drifted to' the wharf, ly an editor in Detroit and wu :; I
and "the usual number of darkles bane of the city was 'the a cofounder of TM Florida I '
I elamorled( for the baggage." land I A horse, she declared had Union His wife wu tidy and :' .,
She was just aa well pleased ton to plod 40 minutes to' pull his energetic and kept a bounteous
find the town unsullied by the cart a mile There was no grass table .for her guest, ,
high slate of civilization represented w 11the yard up north, to lAs
by the express wagon, mltlgat the problem. Only plank she rocked on the piazza, i I
omnibus and hack Here. Instead sidewalks along the streets -. the wondered why everyone
4 a Negro loaded onto his dray "thanks to the Yankee element" "didn't coma.to Florida to live, \
bet trunk, shawl,.fur,. muff um :"made walking bearable. where, even the rain wu warm.

....-- 1

-. ... '
; ; (
i '
It Her Visit-to in 1868 ''r ; ,. S''
East Bay" Street as Mrs Holmes During City I If '

1- : ., : : :< ; ':>,.. ,
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1 "' t. : "'l .,.,'r .
l .IA
1876Reminiscences ..
h i. ., \
\ ,; __ w tsa

,. ,
By YVONNE PARKER the St. Johns Bank was erisnIzcd -
ddlUontl steamers Irom' 1 a ,
.. ;, Tim -r.... Malt WrMr Charleston and Savannah and one J. II IIr f
direct to New York were put- on + fI.
In 1855 Jacksonville housewives and a new hotel was built, the 4 (
--" Tmhed to the-bank..of the- St. :yrsT Judson "General prosperity was
John each morning to meet the S evident"everywhere" I.l I.
fisherman and buy fish for S to
10 cents a pound. The War Between the State
halted the boom and the citysat
MIlk wu scarce and vegetables .- and waited "lor exciting wd i r I.t
"scarcely ever seen except war new." ,
'collards and sweet potatoes. rt ,
Impact at the War .ass w A" y as t,>,oq.wr w t
People came from N la 100
miles In cypress boats dugout The Old Citizen wrote that the
and "country cart*" to trade news of the attack on Fort
cotton sugar and syrup for other Sumlcr "at once suspended all
food In Jacksonville business with the North, and the
n\ mills with but one exception
1 These and other memories of ceased operation and general
the city: were printed In the Jackjaonvllle k buslneiw gradually diminished In
Trl-Weekly.Sun war y the spring the Second Florida i a ti,
t'oltft .d Regiment composed mostly of j w ti '
f nary. 1176. in a ti t a 1 xtA
:"Reminiscences of an Old dtltn. t volunteer from the city and

.* .. .... _......:.......-....., ."" .... vicinity and was soon mustered went to Virginia.Into senrk -
Early Year An Unpaved Downtown Street Lead to Ferry Landing About 1867 or 1868
The old citizen: related that the CARTS LIKE THIS one provided a means of transportation "Soon the mall ceased coming L .i
real growth of Jacksonville began In Jacksonville during hard times and the tGn' began .to subside
In 1451-5 when several large right after the War Between the State. This, Into Inactivity." ,):
aw mill were.built and steamboats old photograph; circa 1868 is titled "Yankee '
wen put on from Savannah "_without Many In Jacksonville !hoped for 'I
Visitors In Jacksonville, Ha. portfolios -
i and Charleston torn sort qf compromise and
or carpetbags. even after war broke out they
"The town became' prosperous thought Jacksonville\ safe from
4 although >somewhat checked by from Bay Street! Wu made, a thorities would! not allow Savannah attack, he said OUR THANKS TO -
the smallpox In 1853, the butt portion of It wu wet and marshy steamer to land here or
.' lire which destroyed some 70 the weather wu hot and sultry, pass up the river "u the disease But the Yankees did come and .
building on Bay Street In 1854 exposing the fresh dug soil which might be Introduced. they, and Confederate troops and
i.and the depression of lumber in created a malarious atmosphere :"vigilantes" as well:burned and '. '
1854 and 1837," he laid. which developed a malignant Steamer Under Fire i destroyed most of the city. THE FLORIDA 'PUBLISHING CO '

fever which readily extended and yON
The city government wu became epidemic," the "Old Cltl- A Capt. Nick King whose "Fences, house, yards became ..
: simple with official receiving no sen" related, steamer carried the mall paid no dilapidated; .wharves rotted and .. '
salary and crime wu controlled heed to the warning. So a party the charred ruins of burned property 100th ANNIVERSARY '
ty a patrol of citizens and "a of Jacksonville citizen ant. an all betokened a forlorn. :;;: ITS OF.
pillory and stocks which at rare Most people left the city and old cannon, a 32 pounder, and desolate ruined lows What a : .'
interval were successfully Used businesses closed except for one fired two shots through the forward contrast to the thriving busy: city ;.i,, : ""':, .' ', : .. .
drugstore "The streets were deserted of 1860," Old Citizen wrote : .
for white thieve and no offenderso I.nl.lilt/ grazing the '
punished wu ever known to and grown up in grass, neck of a servant who was .. : PUBLIC SERVICE THE : :
stay in the country: afterward" the steamers did not land here lighting a hemp" A Sad Scene TO ; -. r
and the city was Isolated from .
"It former citizens scattered .
In 1857: a yellow fever epidemic the world. "It wu not exactly a legal! way Impovel1ahed.'.ome dead others .
struck and "fresh dug soil which of enforcing quarantine but it wounded, other captured and In W '" _
... created a malarious atmosphere" An early < frost brought the proved very effectual" the Old prison: many who had occupied ', \ 'CITIZENS OF FLORIDA '..
wu blamed. epidemic to an end, hs said. Citizen said.During luxurious home living In log .' 'J

house, suffering for the necessities
'In: the summer of that yearthe When Savannah suffered a the 185WO period a railroad of Ills;. but 'by 187J the
excavation of the railroad out similar epidemic Jacksonville au wu completed to Lake City, city had recovered the Old au.zen .

related, and It once again
"Is a prosperous young city.
Disorder and crime Is rare."

: 1965 "Notwithstanding the ominous ;
prediction of croakers." he wrote, SOUTHERN
;"J./865: "each succeeding month and
year, the population business
and building Increased and new
: f .. FROMiV ', ', Industries were Introduced." '. '

"At this time (U87IU the street COMPANY OF FLORIDA -
:,\; ; ;: : :, ,: < ,.: -,: :, ONE ,' and buildings and reach a full two I.
"' mile east west and a mile
:; ]; j: : TO' north and south" .

., ,i :. ANOTHER r court The and city the expected state capital the to 11 be S. HELPING; BUILD AN. EVEN BETTER JACKSONVILLEWITH

brought here and Jacksonville to
become "one of the most prominent _
title of the South." .

'.1'-i What Was LackingA QUALITY READY'- MIXED CONCRETE ,)

literary association and
LUMBER EXPORTING public library and more "esprit ,J;
< de corps" among the businessmen l
: t ALSOPRODUCERS were the city' only lack.\ ,
the anonymous citizen said. CONCRETE BLOCK AND ACCESSORIES" '

OF "I mat add that among our t
citizen may be found native of .

r' WOLMANIZED BONDABLE LUMBER every portion of the Union of ,
Canada of the West India Islands -
and Europe that socially there ,, .
{ITS "PRESSURE TREATED" la no ostracism on account of
t ; d> birth politics or religion the old Concrete Block Ready-Mixed Concrete''
resident' and newcomer the
. '}
Protestant, Jew and Catholic, the ..
Republican and Democrat !live
: '
'. -{ and work together in harmonyand "One' Unit or 'a ..Million" 'J\1J\ "One Yard or a Million" I:
't we may wen claim that our
citizen in this centennial year
are at peace with each other and
with .U," -reminiscences ,353-7376 .353-7373'" '

<.. I. HTM[[ ., WER[ & EXPORT CO., INC. concluded.The Old an DUaen's the work article of someone obviously

',, f
L. who experienced th* event re 'T
,: Generaf Offices ', ported from the 1850s through .. SII ,
> \ : ;
; ", \ : I; <: : : :> : -
1I7S. Who Old Citizen wu has ,: ;,, Office : .: ; "
t-r'f: 7778 W. BEAVER ST. JACKSONVILLE, FLA PH. -389-0366 never been determined; nor do '- -" :;: -\.'':'' : ji r I/''' >'; ." .,.... ."' ," ,i..r"'t., ". .:. '
local historian agree upon the \ : jr.1) : (f i"i ( ',, '', '' '
,' 1"1' i in
.,:1,1 I v" -, V >'.,. value of his article They eon- 41: I 'rflM.IrJj:}: V 1751 Marshall St. 'iJt/tJ; ,; ;; ;i ;
; \ ,: .
a .
< .. : "
: > ( ,
,;. ( ... lain some obvious error, but on \ r, .,'.'r'I', d. ". ", ;; I iifI' ". .
the whole tend to catch the ', ,/, ?, J"", ,1',1.\; / II: -1',; II r
', ;I ), '< 1 t-- ,I'' '. ,I' .;
spirit of the year they cover. 355.5457
Plants end trenches .
Jacksonville's major historian T. .
L Lr
BEACH Frederick BavUi I quoted from
Old OUzel and credited him with '
being a generally reliable ource.
.j 1 1r


,.1J'i fiI' .- .>> d..;:.........:. ....r -.',.;......."................. :.""' ,.:.. _c ; 1 ......:::....-....... .. ...-........--.... __........;... ........;,...................... ....___.;....-.......__....-..--_....._ .......... ___ ..JCENTENNIAL
........... .. ,"-4..t .. _.... -' -

"s" ,."< rvi if WI'i"; : i HfTTVVV\ .,,,.!'i '''i'; ....:.."! >! > h 'MmV: T:"' TO"; f"' 'TO \V ?1\o\/I:' ?' t '1I''ffi'r' \ : '''Tr' ..,,'r. ,,':::1"' 1 ?> 'f fJ1 n I '1I1j!,')>'?< ;" : ''1 '''"" /,-" "." "< '.""

r _


i" Was Jacksonville in the Laik :



k1u: { !!i6rjwrf0l164'W fl re. { { < { { 1f zeervee ,lte'' 1' t C !C, .

> r II;, rrc r rc rcro rrcrrro ewe afJ +

#; IDrIf10tlllAlfiCt ;i' 'fl'1cJ +: : : + ,'a { { 1 1 { r{ 1 1 'i t t M 1 ,' 11 ,N 'i, Qw

"AafiVmnrl />iil>oT Home Rco,ota SlrceJ Lnur Stress &la'H,".' JThnrvn'


Throng Falls Silent r HURLY-BURLY JACKSM(

As Lee Visits City ,: g:15.y. A Dr. Jekyll and Mr

By RICHARD A. MARTIN. the 'Slates when Floridawai beauty, the gayety of -visitor

| of Col. Sanderson, at the( northeast i could l have no place !In t reception Cs.t.eet.l g. By BETTY WALTFRSrt.v.t.or corner of Ocean end I 1 of Oen. Lee" andUki sufferers They the lavish expenditure of more

.,w.t Korsyth. In; the Isle afternoon n Jacksonville In the mid111701vu came to the state in large number which many of them Indulgf
Oen. Lee wu taken for a drlvi Lee'i Dealt a Dr. 'Jekyll and Mr. Hyde for health reason only. But the seeming ease and great con

about the eliv/Ht large reception kind of town. It was an exciting, by the mid-1870s the fame of fort which they editor, the
"A complre( and utter Silence the peep/ ,till retarded him It hu been said that on* reason lusty and violent place where Florida's climate had spread and seldom care to think that thn
fell on the throng, a silence ol I, with awe inA respect. for the general'a slow recovery wealthy tourists rubbed shoulders Jacksonville was well on the way to Is another aide of lifea, dti

admiring reverence, u U the was his depression and mortification with hardened riverboat men, becoming a world-famous "winter reverse to the beautiful medaDIo

people thought It would he worse f at the horrible suffer burl woodmen, sleek eon mea city In summer land" Conti which they carry with pride. ,
than discourtesy" to applaud the morel leg which the Southern people ind their women and criminals eental-style hotels with every
Still wailed tot
old chieftain who embodied in admirers were enduring, largely at the of every. nailing Incredible extremes luxury war built In the city, A Hurt?-Burly Tees
the Bees when
-"Ir eye the cause for. which 1 greet they re- hands of the carpetbai-scallawag of poverty and wealth equipped to eater to Ute most
to It* Nick late that
r [fief had fought j I fight King. government. clashed on every hand yet It wu refined or Jaded taste The dark reverse wan poverty

I It Impossible for those 10 Inclined crime and vice,
I As H ass, the Florida visit) wu to ate just one aide of the town Cattle I la Streets

This 1* the description a* It t to be Oen. Lee's Jut long trip. and not the other. But JacksonvlU could not Jacksonville wu" a place when!! ,
the the
.njx a red In Un weekly Florida Early next morning practically every merchai
change overnight from a frontier
__ Union of the -moment jet Ben, steamer_ left! for Savannah.In In the afternoon of Sept. 28th ofthat In November of 1171 Icrlbnrr'iMonthly town to a lophlitleated tourist stocked a whisky keg to se
Robert E. Lee's appearance lifo same year he W..IIUlhl, carried an_article describing Ital. cheap drinks to the thirtty I Iwai
In the cold and wet his CI
fore a large crud of Jacksonville on way Jacksonville to a nationil i place where brawl ww
from Veatry meeting of Grace '
citizens on the afternoon of Ms next fetter to hint: wife, Esplscoptl Church at Lexington.R readership: "Jacksonville.: Primitive log cabin still stood frequent among woodsmen ar
April 13, 1870. tha general spoke of the hospital the article said "is filled with la the downtown section, pig riverboat sailors who were sour'
Itv he had received In Jacksonville pleasant bouaei where lodging and cattle rooted 111he streetsIn used to living out of society the
wu late to tea, ind when
and of the delightful Florida he went to his place to say grace, are let: and from December until uiulghtly and unsanitary piles In It. Pickpockets. profession

Tim general, accompanied by cllmite. he could not speak He died October April It* population Is doubled; of garbage. And 10 it was that gamblers, eon men and pros)'

his daughter Agnes, was travel j 13. 187(1.( loclety It active; exeunloni, the town rough and tough on one lute were attracted to the tow I
ling in Florida for /his health. Robert E. Lee parties and reeeptlona, occur almost /hand and genteel and sophisticated by the easy pickings afforded b'>
Earlier Florida Trip dally; gayety rulea the on the other attracted all tourists who had too much mono
hour For it ia not Invalid who kinds of people In the manner and naive farmers and laborer
crowd Florida but the who had too little to
nowadays, of gold sense protest >
H,.. and Ajjnes hid left Lexington camps
wealthy and the well. themselves
11'I 1111 in late March. They travelled Lee tin no stranger to Florida ''.' ,., < Th. Dally Union on DM. 30,

through Richmond and Warren I In 1149, u secretary ef thecommission i; ; The reference to Invalids recalled 1171 wu not beguiled by the One beautiful eon womr
ton Springs, NC. where he I of United State ,I; the time before and Immediately gliding. An editorial writer observed achieved a degree of local farm

visited the grave of his- IU.h'j i Army officers, he had explored after' the War Between ; "Amid the fashion, the by victimizing boarding bow.r .
'Ii ter Annie.Allalong. part of the Florida coastline and tt: ; 'iL". ,' ,{ .'I'v, Wr." 1'i'V;: \ d. r. ", : ?_..ijJl1.'I'/ ,
+! i.4'
commented on the I r rnllltary ", *"" ,- vy. ..? ..:, ;, \' 'f! ,
1,1 value and economic potential ; /i"v.: '.'. I. : .

Die way In Charlotte\ I ''&; ;' iJo1 .' ( :, ,-;: '.' :. _

s Salisbury. Savannah crowds and :.. .101-1'!' .. ," '. '<,1 "

bands had gathered honor the In the fill ol 1861 his task In .,-'r,4-vL I
general At Columbia crowds 'the Confederate Army had been 1'; ( :, .ii. bw'r' Pt? 'r"5r v'

i'' stood.ln-the pouring rain until to Pf'rfecthe defensei of the Atlantic .....1"t\' .... -, vain + af"g 'rf'tiaj
< t ?
teawr 1 4
I r r+ 4fl
hit train had left. Lee wu genuinely SesNiard. .Its November 14 K6
1', u. i t': ( w.4y na
i I. moved' by these den, I' 1861 and January of the next R I
I' onstrstlons( but nevertheless wu year he had Inspected Fort 4

ve reluctant to show 'himself.-"Why I Clinch on Amelia Island. .
should they core to see me?" )
be would say. "I am only a poor.1old .
Confederate" a sz. x T s UJ: ,
,j I The reason that there had been x

I no official welcome at Jackson

ville for Gen Lee wu\ that In e+r ( Y ai ,t ottrit, >tOerA ,.
The steamer Nick King 'i.11J1\ {the municipal elections held just i< t>)j/lieleiJltgg4e01 +, '+ i
General Lee and Agnes aboardreached a week before his arrival a carpetbag 1g J y- ,
the Jacksonville dek government had bees h "

about 4 oWockTn the afternoon, placed its definite control. ..ti

a Wednesday. ______ r

This was the race of which :
Welcoming Comnilllte 4 real, a
Judge Jeremiah Black, a noted y r
Union statesman and purist said, 1'1'r 1'r '
"They were unprincipled advernturers
Col. John P. Sanderson. 'Col. "
Who sought their fortunes
J. J. Daniel Col. U I Fleming
In the South by plundering the :
Dr G. Troupe Maxwell and H. disarmed and defenseless peo
I. went aboard to welcomethe .
Bay "
ple. They were so called "not
general, while u many from "+ _
I because the name was euphonious z _
the crowd as could streamed _
beads but because they "had no _
aboard. With uncovered 1g.
other name whereby they were k .
they were Introduced and shook ] '..
known among the children oaf <
hands with General Lee. i "

II I men ...............

After tome persuasion the general I
agreed to '10 to the upper As historian T. Frederick Davis

deck; and show himself to those said "This rabble of course The Sanderson House at Forsyth and Ocean Streets in the 1170s Grand National Hotel (left), Built In! 1873, Dom

who were on ihore.

"Not a word wu spoken: not --1W I< 1[ -....._,.- ____,__11I .-- __ ,......- "' ,- -',....

a cheer wu uttered: but the very 1 1J1Pi" '

deeper silence wrote huzzas The of could feeling the Union multitude have than reporter.the expressed spoke loudest,"a :c 'The Sand Is Ankle-Deep in the Streets' I t : ;, ;i';: 'o ;. ':...

E Eesset1y t'

a< ,,\

The general looked tired and B; AIDREV BROHARDInkHnttU ter of the streets.In groups and was to become a standard! procedure I warned that 'anywhere and unfrequented streams In lower them. She spoke highly of the ,

weak, but he said that he wu singly But with the exceptionof followed by moat of the everywhere, the fan 1 Ia poor, and Florida and shooting alligatorsand I accommodations to be found and
feeling better and enjoying the MtUrkM IvMr one or two streets, the city physicians of that time and Jacksonville not suited to the; wants ofh.. coming back a few months; I described the beautle of the

trip. He declined several offers I looks very shabby The sand Is soon became a haven worn out, famished consumptive. later 10 collect their lessened landscape gardening which blend
to stay overnight Ja kaonvUle. ankle deep In the atreeta and for ." .
Jacksonville by the early 1870 I I consumptives teeth and selling them to curiosity ed harmoniously with artistically
After a stay of little more than there Is very little brick sidewalks
dealer who offered from four arranged walk and pleasure .
beginning to show signs of
was .w.
half an hour the Nick King from the desolating mostly plank. The to eight dollars a pound. promenade.
pulled away for her destination recovery houses are mere shells and Dr. Robert Spier In his book Unler'a Description
near Palatka, where Lee was to effects of the war : put up very quickly and cheaply "Going South for the Winter"

visit with an old wartime friend, The depot. Is not over 10 (With Hints to Consumptives A few years later Sidney Built .. Order fem: pIIUa Cit,

a Col. Cole. Although Jacksonville usually feet square, and only the ticket described Jacksonville at this Lanier who said that hi used to

of as master occupies It. There Is no period. be a "consumptive" and out of
protection from the rain. There Is his desire to do something toward lanier found Jacksonville a city 'Silvia 'Sunshine" escribes
During the war the Nlrk King having been no baggage master At the steamboat lessening the wretchedness ot built to order which made many Jacksonville ai being a cosmopolltsn -

had /had an excitin career is I under carpetbagrule I landing then U ncr covered Pretty Ground those who arc now being or an : provision- for employing the city. "No costume however
blockade runner on the St. Johns In the early wharf or warehouse," to be "consumed" wrote a book leisure of winter visitor He was peculiar; appear out of style,

River In those days she had been : 1170s, actually H. said that a number of on Florida which contained a well pleased with the "very good or the wearers, as In Mine other
known as the St. Marys and she she gained storehouses and neat cottage* chapter for consumptives. circulating library to be found in I places, obliged to seek Protection

had once escaped a U.S. gunboat I many new desirable i" 1 .Mr. LeBaron went to have recently .been erected, and Aitor'l Building, at the comer at from the pour Celebrities or
residents on nay
'by ducking Into Trout Creek. that "the Bay and Hogaa street1 wblcs.was I millionaire walk the streets witheut -
who were attracted that "cowi and their calves also grounds attached to the
to the run 1 louse In the street and new houses are prettily laid out He described the hotel In Jacksonville opened to strangers for borrowing creating any tensatloa. The
with walks and shrubs and the which he said were well and aald that current Mormon, with his four or 14
general thing they
u ,
a are} poor
Sunk Her Crew town by the !
by wives, can come from Salt Lake,
| and tired looking. Milk at thi greatest variety of flowers, which appointed In all particular The papers and magazines were supplied
gloving accounts -
of Mi] I season 1 Ia rue" can be cultivated and bloom all larger hotel II were open only during by Ashmead Brother at City take rooms at the St. James,
winter." Bay Street near fin. enter all the frequented resorts
II the winter and he quoted the
In Feburary." 11164: her crew diem who were Browsed I with the same fear of molestation
rate of
the National and St.
had sunk her In McGIrth's |now stationed here during and after that a genuine Florldlan feels
I 117 Population James lit charging *4 a day the
McGut's) Creek to prevent her i the war. I "The character and appearanceof 8t. Mark, S3; the smaller houses .Silvia Sunshine" In her book of being Ku-Kluxed. Any strong- .4 .A 8e
being captured by the Federalgunboat' I 1.90 to IS and "Petals Plucked from Sunny minded market woman can don
Jacksonville, he went on U a day from
Norwich. She lay there According to official figure 'to' the Bloomer costume, make and
110 $20 a week. I Climes written In the late 1870s. t.tIC
Business, revived slowly, but say, "is being changed and ; .
ogle Y4'I'
until 1865 when she wu raised I In 1870, Duval County had apopu- said that a trip to Florida was sell sugar, brown as her own
and eventually placed on- her old with the aid of Northern capital lotion of 11.121. of which Jacksonville modernized. In fact the whole I IL.nlrr the popular move for everybody bun-colored face and peddle vegetables
town I Ia being rebuilt and
rebuilt and begad madea
run to Savannah under the name sawmill were had This verdant as the Idea which
lVll. period
which made It possible New England town The rush enjoyed Bay Street whether u Invalid or not. She
Nick Klnl.J marked the of the prompted her to forsake the flowIng -
I not only for building In the town to Jacksonville is often which he laid wu the main tusl. said that "too many invalid,
trade In Jacksonville UItteaJi robe of her fair stiteri, and
tourist and
before coming to Florida, wait
put the exporting of timber and that If the whole new center. He described the
l many new hotel were constructed the town should turn fruit stores and the until they have) already felt the assume the half masculine attire
J out their palmetto
; Lees spent the night at lumber which soon brought many
The : The St/Jamea Hotel In 1869, downy flappings from the wingsof of the sterner sex, without
houses would not furnish braider and Intrigued with
Jacksonville. room was
' ., Cole's,) and It wu reported schooners to
Ol St. Mark's Hates) In 1870. Tremont for the of consumptives the curiosity shop which were the unrelenting destroyer and attracting any more attention\
Bat! they ate orange from trees Mattalr House In 1872, the Grand army than the busy lounged 111he
Items heard the voices from a spirit-
who have found( there way hers. locked with such u sea-
'I tier for the first time. Jacksonville In 1W. National Hotel In 1873 and the He remarked that it wu quite beans, alligator' teeth, plumes ofherons' land calling them, but came too market-house. The eltUsen are so

Windsor Hotel and Nichols House difficult to find milk butter, and curlews' feathers late to he benefited and take a accustomed to sight-seeing that

s The Nick King left Palatka J, F. F. LeB ron, visitor ID 1878 fresh eggs and meat. ''crane'i wings, angelfish and new tease on Ute" an nothing honest would politician astonish them but

r II_ with the general and Agnes from New England described coquina-flgures, He was fascinated *
aboard! the next morning and arrived Jacksonville In January. of lone: with Ihe alligators' teeth ..
again In Jacksonville at 4 "Bay Street hu quite a business General Robert E. Lee'i visit He said that Ihe consumptive which he said were mad Into She wrote of the bedlam on Ending on that modem note It' ,
appearance. Brick front and fine to the Clly-In 1870 was a social would find more comfort and a whlatlei. watch chains and the arriving at the Jacksonvillewharf would seem that Jacksonville by '.I

" pm.'The looking torei., Some druggist event without parallel. HI* physician better table on the steamers City like and *ug ested thai a poor with the officious hotel the end of the 1170 bad made a ,U. .,- .........
stores which would compare had ordered him to a Point and Lizzie Baker, or Dicta I half-Invalid of limited means runner who screamed into the good recovery and had laid the

same five men met the favorably with any In Boston Southern climate In an effort for tor than could be found on lit, could add to his Income by wandering ears of arriving visitors to patronize groundwork for becoming a great '
tees and they went to_416 home Large live oaks grow In the cen him to regain his health. This, shore at boarding houses; but among the numerous small the houses which employed business and Industrial center A Jacksonville Kesident with i


' '" ..... .... ,
U. w'S "I .. kt.M .

.. '': :1. .. t -, t' .. "" 'J'iUI' i!J.!!!;!!:'!i f J.t;;,SSA -:;::: 'j.wJt :f!' L -: '::; -'I;;;,'.'"::::'... 11..0.; M ::..,W..M: !.,..... .ti. .......-,..... ... ......... ....... .. ....."......-..



u_ wu


1 I

yr i1.1 y

9 s

Ocean Street Market House Opera, Haunt 11'1'11)11 Street. Cv/rton House ,Market Street Boat Club lloiu

,. ,. _-,,,,,,,
.W! M'III! __ --, -1 ::

II1 -

-VlLLE'S 'DARK. REVERSE' l '"\I 2- New Hotels Open

Hyde Kind?' of Town j
'( t
. .. ':' \ To Attract TouristsMany

keepers and mrrchinti Her routine In Jackaonrllle In the 1870s( and all progression These
wu to stay at i boardinghouse whereby. whole families labored buildings are not occupied u I Jacksonville residence tint time in the 1870 wash stores, veil filled with goods
and run up Mill, then move from dawn to dink and even stores for they are. not titled for f a In the 18os had fairly large yards a pleasant surprise, If the person presenting an appearance of
without paying She was always through the night In their own .legitimate business of any and visitors complimented the I was traveling by railroad he:thrift, and business capacity on
,dressed. In the height of union, homea Many children worked kind .., ". The only! good the people on their attractive yards.I passed through mile and miles l the part of the; owners, which
and. according to newspaper reports long hours and did not attend paper could attach to the slums 'One writer Sidney L.nter.ln his.of, dense pine fomti Suddenly 1 1j would do credit to most any city
was M beautiful she had achool at all. A citizen wrote to was the fact that they made the book "Florida published In; hi* railroad car would breakthrough of 15,000 or 20,000. s
to weir a veil to bide her "ex a local paper: rest Of Jacksonville look 10 much 1179 said The grounds attached -j into the cleared area
pressive countenance" When she better by eompariaon. to the new houses are and there before him wu the
laid out with walks and cltv If the traveler arrived
eouldn argue her war out of a prettily by
tight spot, aha turned "III her "It la strange bow few parents .Imll>>. There U the greatest variety .(boat he would see many newly "The principal business at
Charms. earn to care ho.IIelr childrenare Local people tried to lead a of flowers which can be I constructed twoand three-story present I Is the manufacture of
growing UP. whom they a soclate genteel and normal lift amid all cultivated and bloom all, brick buildings In the foregroundwith lumber. There are eight or nineaaw

"Sht distributes her favors \a ,with, or where their leisure these contradictions, amid a winter. ." 1 the dark green of the. pine mills scattered up and down
ill will credit." hours are spent Then are many town with! a< many visitors and forest for a backdrop, the river,, thetwo extremes be.
who give a reporter
boys In this city In a fair way outsiders iwelllng Its population Another observer described ing four or five miles apart
wrote, adding: dry of being completely ruined by each winter there England These manufacture 40 million feet
house haa been let In for season u were Jacksonville u a 'New :
goods absolute neglect on the part of I lumber annually .
native residents. There was at torn In the South. Main ItI'cellflf :
She got two gold rings both
some Pit T1A Terminal point for trains
those who should watch over,
least one literary society, a new the city were of dirt construction t
from Jeweler and after wearing ind beats was a wharf on Bay
protect and guard them from art gallery opened on Bay Streeton On each aide townspeoplehad i
them for two three weeks
or Street
temptation These boys chew a 1876 there sailboat laid down springy plank
thanks to the captain| of police Feb. were Most of the cards sold here
tobacco and drink atlmulanta the lawn sidewalks to make walking easier
she was induced to take them eutlntt-en rivet, except hay, grain and lime
like veterans! carry loaded revolvera > and at this Mont of the streets were borders
parties, teas time t come-from New York. Boston
off her finger and return them.
A the railroad
few from
t Studs
generally and lilt profanelanguage with witw-oiki Some of
croqueting by moonlight was reported young hardly doe her share in furnishing .
strong enough to drive aa the latest fad among these were so large they formed station, across Bay Street the goods for this market Bait "'
Cent Police captain (long facade of the Grand fatlonal -
I Methodist preacher frantic. the young set. complete archways over the more and Philadelphia do something
Hotel elevated Itself Should
But not even the gallant cap- street i the passenger have arrived at : in the line, but not

lain of police was safe from the RoUea Row It wasn't until the lots IMOa Rear View of the St. James Hotel ((1875) Arriving\ in Jacksonville for the, night he was likely to have heard much \
woman charms While he and 16<0s that Jacksonville's sound of muiio coming through
attempted to lecture her about The Trt.Weekly Union deploredthe roughest exterior was finally the brilliantly-lighted windows
her crimes she succeeded in bore congregation of mean ahan worn smooch by a combinationof that opened upon a wide balcony 'J, Bold er Galloa'

rowing five dollar from the ties then at one end of Bay progress and a growing *f man -- where many people could be
worthy office*. Street and known at Rotten Row. ai the last vestiges of a frontier : ;; : : '. : seen walking In the night air.
"Like original sin they the town gave way completely to the ",, ; .' : Jacksonville was not a puritanical ..

There, was t considerable shanties stick to earth and to dominating Influence Of the settled \ t'kI.. '\,, ,,' i\j,1 t, city u evidenced from the
mount of. home manufacturing man, defying all the elements and successful,metropolis. IJ'I'Ht t. ti1 !fW' I Popular Hotels 0 observation of one Northern tourist
I .<; .\ ", Every grocery store
,keeps liquor to sell by the bottleor
. '-:0.: r IJI -.- -- Further back In the city a few gallon It la common u sellIng -' .,
hundred yards. situated among tobacco in any dry Mate In
user fine oaks which bordered a new- the Union. And yet one doe not
lyplanted public square..
Park), was the St. James street or It* effect through night ,{
HoUI This: hotel was one of the brawl, than la witnessed In torn
w. most popular atopplng-ofl! places cities er town of this size t
+ for Northern tourist. elsewhere ." \

r 3.+ The Grand National and St' Ten churches,. six whit. and
O w James were open only during the four Negro were Incited in Jack.' :
winter.\ Rough planks would be sonvflle in 187] and this number I
placed on the windows and doors grew to It by the end of the
of these two hotels in late aprlhg decade,
or.- and they would not be removed
4, e until mid.fall. I

Jacksonville! hid a public school

4a ; system with..grided classes In
-.5 A quarter-of.I.mile downtown iddlllog there. were two excellent
from the railroad depot wa the private schools One of then
St Marks Hotel. n was located wu the Episcopalian Academy of
between Bay and Foriyth St Mary Priory and the other
streets and remained open likea wu $t. Joaepha (Catholic)
number of smaller hotels Academy- I A Conservatory of
throughout the year Music vu also operating la the
latter part of the decade

While the' Grand National St

Junes and St Mark dominated % library wu In operation In
the scene during the tint half of I the 18701 located in the Astor
the decide, two new hotels were Buildup, corner of Bay and
erected during the second:: h they i ileade" 'fioten street In addition to
ol the 18701 to challenge. books the library had available
current paper and magidnei
TIM 17111111h From the principal cities of the

Bitlon. These wen supplied the

Bay Street Looking East from Lauri ((1875) The Windsor House wu built In library by Ashmeid Brother at
mates This 1875 View of the Jacksonville: Waterfront 1871 and after a successful initial corner of Bay and Pine.A .
season expanded to double
III housing capacity for the second -

season second spot& where the publla
could stop and enjoy a leisure)
1 I period of reading wu at Ambler )
I Town Holds First FairThe I Carleton House wu constructed 'i Bank, ore of three privately
Busy i -In 1S7I with It* front facing Owned banking Institutions In the'
Bay St. for 138 feet. This .hotel City, Located on Bay Street thebank .
;accommodated fco guest, was i maintained a reading room
L .. four stories high and featured,)for ". both customers and

By BETTY WALTERS fair was to last a full week. work.-There was, an art gallery, gustlne came one night, solemn among other thing a W by 40 Mends. ."
""' ,... ... iMrtil Wr.ir It would be on a JO-acre plot In an orchestra, and an abundanceof and curious. In the full regaliaof foot dining hall and a 40 by 40
the Competition
Fairfield, two miles east of the machinery on display A photographer war paint and feathers foot parlor Meeting .
than a additional
Not much more the St James added an
J city. There would be machineryartistry set up a studio on the 'Cerlositisa'
after the War Between the States wing to increase Its number
animals and entertainm ground but no samples .of his
little town tying
Jacksonville wu a Other Eveati of rooms by 30.Boarding .
to row big in a hurry. The .nt--*omeUilJig for everyone.in work survive today.

was 187S and there were the itate. '"Florida curtosltlei" those i
:year sou-
with all !
Along the displays, the
to be ,
still scan from the war venire now available from Key
Avepve of Teals home baked goods, and livestockand
i Houses and Shop
seen around the town but new Vest to mid-Georgia, were the
Skeptical Response I
the music of the binds there ,
construction establishing record lock and trade of many storesn
The ball faced east toward the were for the children croquet
as boarding houses" residences Jacksonville during the 1170s.Several i
shop and hotels sprangup Citizens of Jacksonville at drat river. Steamboats running every games, a greased pole to climb In addition to hotels there
to replace war-damaged buildIngs were skeptical and apathetic hour from 930; a.m. to 11;00 p.m. and races of all kinds-tub, sack were many boarding house ac.tlered' ,
were to bring visitors to. the running and horsetrot. There were throughout Jacksonville
or time-stained sharks and Less than a month before the I
cabins. fair was to open an editorial in dock. Big tents on either aide of regattas and ladles' and men's One of the largest a three story downtown stores eaps-.
The Florida Union noted 'It is the hall formed an avenue leadIng walking matches A major event building, wu erected 'in 1871 at 1 dally: along Bay St, carried it

From a population of lull In in unfortunate set that the people to the main building. The was the Martha Washington tea the corner of Fine and Duval. ride" variety of these "curiosl-
tents contained some of the latestof party costume ball. streets. tie. and specialized In then
1860 the number had grown to of Duval County hardly
W. A. hiring the winter season theseurioslty
Florida products.
'912 In 1870-sn Increase of more seem to realize 'the great interest ,
Jacksonville showed his shops were an impor.tant -
Young of
than 300 percent. The stores along which other portions of the
new patented pencil sharpener QSftt the favorite displays of then I part of the city's economy\ ,
were number
( Bay Street were busy and state are. taking in the enterprise Though
wharves and docks were a focal (or) how much these other Samples of the furniture shoes the blr wu a city made of cakes of twe and three story brick
point of activity as steamers and portions expect from the eltlaens and clothes manufactured In and confection! concocted by Rlvu buildings on Bay Street these
rlverboiti loaded and unloaded of Jacksonville This expectation Jacksonville were there J. Smith and Koqpman, two French were centered within II few the visitor amid find t wide
cargo and passengera has been only partially realIzed of Lake City displayed hit new pastry bakers from Jacksonville blocks In other sections of the variety of Item IIIII.... stores
.e alt and cow the managers find citrus fruit pIcker. A Metropolitan They fashioned a bright, bustling street Were older, less impressive Including tea beans, alligator
levJr < Wild West Set** themselves with the fair near at washer, Fairy Queen range, community upon a candy rock, buildings and several! vacant leelh. heron plumes and curlew
hand with their work only half and Alcorn and Majestic cook floating on a river of glas There lots, gather, crane wings angel fish,
stoves were there. tiny candy people in the and walking-! :
For all of this the town wu done and no means at commandfor were mangrove orange
still prtmitlve-stlll not much Its completion ." streets and miniature animal in cameo coral branches and hind
more than overgrown villsii For entertainment there were. green grass plots of filigreed Tlie post office fruit stores, 'carved coquina figures.
A colorful candy algaona
Josh Bllllncs, famous -comedian glass
curiosity shops
The streets were like somethingout Then momentum gathered By wall of a building of cake read, palmeUo-bniden
and Mrs. E. A. Taylor a popular
of businessesand
of the Wild West-and Bay and the regular run
Sunday, Feb. 12, opening day, I "Jacksonville, City Built on i
lady elocutionist.
Street Itself looked like a settingfor professional offices were located Bra-beans came in many airs
v huge building 120 by 72 feet wu Rock. There small
Gunimoke. on Bay Street. Al the and shapes. were
complete. On that first Sunday more than farther ends of the street, on the round red beans much like ...10.

In those early lean it wu IP- 1000 visited the air. In Jacksonville History does not record what east side, were the eight or nine buttons, a medium-tiled\ variety
parent to Jacksonville merchant This was the main exhibition every room in every hotel happened to this exquisite displaybut taw mills that supplied. tim which' usually wu split and
1441 that something bad to be hall. Bemlgothie outside,. the ball and boarding house was .taken ] there was' no doubt after the ber for shipment to the North,. mounted with cold for sleeve-
done to popularize the city and Inside was light and airy There People crowded In from all over oak had beta eaten and the uttons. and the large 1IerflCt.heart..haped .
stimulate sew business, A Boardof were high windows and chandeliers the stale-farmers with their 'people had gone home that Jack. kind more than Iwo
trp > Y Trade or Chamber of Commerce to make the nights brilliant large families from the panhandle sonville, tf not a city built on a Though lumber manufacturing' Inches In length. In addition there
had !been tried, and failed Local florists decorated the hall and southern parts, merchants rock was it least on the way rte vat? the principal business, there were the rare beans that could
. # In 1871 a new idea wu put to with festoons and garlandi .of politicians bands from becoming a Fair city Aa a mat were some 300 mercantile and be polished to resemble' velvety

... the test. Why not Jove a state mom- evergreen and flowers various communities and hunters tor of fact the venture wu so professional establishments leopard skins.Alllsator .
fairy i front the swamp, successful that the first state fair triting within Jacksonville

...... ...;t. .. A.: t, There were tables laden with set the pattern for many others 1875. It wu noted by visitors on-I
The Florid Fruit Oreweri' Assoclatlon fruits table luxuries,, floral collections 'Even Indian prisoners being that were held in the 1870 and Jacksonville Jn 1871 a .. teeth, were mad Into

lit Donkey Cart, at Bay and Bridge (Broad) Streets In 1870s sponsored the project. wines, and Indies banc held by federal troops at St. Au- 1880. In Jacksonville ". Then art some good .! 'hlstlee' watch charms and plus

'. ,

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1874: 'Play Ball' :

Lees Wrapped Up First Game 89-11 f '}

.. ..

By DAYS WHITVKYTM ; "Jacksonville bearing the tame of a progressive and lively .7JtI\\ ,

".... Miff PoS.e little city seems delermmed to take the lend In thin M well an .; -- "
in everything in Florida, and MM now two eluDe, thee R. I: Lees : ,; j -
and the Stonewalls, with, a fair prospect of raising a third name
'Play Built"! was heard In pmal County Just 10 Mint year ai yet unknown.
after Gen Abner Doublcdar invented the game of baseball M a
forty of exercise for hit troop In the War Between the Stain, ,'The Male ttumplowhlp

I According to the Jim It,' l Ift,4. edition of The Trl.Weekly *Both clubs are composed of good materials numbering. uo<< dome
Florida Union "Tb baseball clubn of this city had a meeting of Ole bent and most active young men of the city: The R. E tee
last night I to lake some! action: toward laving out a baseball ground
In the older of the two having been ortaalzed about six weeks,
en I the shell! road to Brook!)'. tin the vicinity of Park and Le*
and themselves
express aa determined with a few months more
streets Indavv Probably the boil to challeng the Tillsbajve -,
mean practice to cam the! champion belt of the! stale Their lint nine
and other crack clubs have been invited to play a match tarn with the Island City
B B, Club at Fertiandlna, and will! probably accept
Thus In the first recorded notice of the existence of tome form
ef organized baseball trams In Jacksonville Apparently'Uier
Larking orianbatlon of of league play In the''
were other team In the elate prior to U74 the any form
early! slices", the baseball teams of Florida simply took turn
challenging one another with (the winner receiving a bell denoting
The Robert E, Ue them u Mat champions. ..

The first team vu called the Robert E tee Bas Ball Club
TIle Lees continued to practice with their third game ending i
of Jacksonville and was ipllt Into a first nine and a second nine
in favor of the first nine 20 to 14
for local competition. 'The game lasted three hours and 35 minutes with the lees had eighteen members composing a lint and second nine. Outsiders
edging the Tallahassee team 14 to 13 for the first game of the were freely: admitted I to its games and the writer has seena
They played their' first urn July 4, 1874 ,.itll'the first nineof .'aame between the DeSolos of tike City and the Garden series, congressman behind the bat and a Chief Justice picking up
the Le* club talking all over the second nine to a tune of Clays of Tallahassee wsa scheduled for July 20, 1874, in Tallahassee. 'daisy cutten' aa !short stop, In the friendly matches of those cool'.
Pi fun to 11 The jams vu played "on the ground at the head with) the champion belt at take, Uniforms arrived from New York In time for me second game summer evenings The 'first blood' and a 'broken nose was recorded
.f Laura Street" ef the series, Sept I. In Tallahassee They consisted of white upon the acore book of. that club I to the credit. of a present
r.tand L.a. Club" flannel 1 ahlrta trimmed In red. white pants with red stripes, white member of tile Times Staff

IK t return\ match: July' I, the Second tune fared little better belt bordered In red plaid stockings of fed and white and redcaps
taking a fi7 to 20 shellacking on I field at the foot of Hogan Street. A Fat Man's Club w as oiganlzed and challenged the R E. with a white star on top and a blue button in the middle. of "The Magnolia! drooped and faded and the Garden City dub
The Florida Union of July M carried this notice: "Just at J>e. ta a game. It ua played July 14 and lasted 10 hours the star*' grew out of I It. one of the best amateur clubs that ever swung the>
this time baseball deems to be the rage not only in our I town with the final score 46 to thin favor of the Lees. mite,. The R, E. Lees were organized In Jacksonville and shortly
and state, but In all till principal cities and towns of the Card,. City Backs Union these contests had many benefits, with but few attendant evils.
The Florida Union called the game "amusing" and In -IW It established friendliest relations between the young men of OUt'
July 31) edition ran this account: "Much admiration wax expressedfor The third game of the championship! match wow scheduled for widely separated clUes and brought out prominently the fad of
the graceful: and deliberate ease with which Hon Si-pi 24 at Mono-let Sprint. The Lees gathered with a crowdof the superb physical powers of scores of Florida young men Per.
mould toddle after the ball when baited anywhere !In his direction some ton fans at the appointed game time The Garden City haps we have none of them left, or t.halthe set of youths who have '
while the remarkable degree of agility displaced- Cob Club failed to show and under the rules of the Florida Base Ball succeeded them cannot boast equal powers Savannah has challenged -
1200 pounder> U going: In oo the home run astonished Association the Tallahassee team forfeited. the game (-0 givingthe us very pointedly and Orange County has responded What
and delighted everyone, and brought down the house--ground we Lees the championship
.. : will Jacksonville bovs dot The Times hopes It may not have to

mean '..... record regretfully the fact that our.young men had not the 'sind.
The,; 184 season ended with a game on Oct 10 brUeenlne to respond. -EO.TIMES."
On Aul!.. 1. J in4. Uw Longfellow Lean Mena Club was fonnrd second nine of the Lees and an unidentified nine called the Atlantic ,
to best the Fats. No one was allowed Join. the team if they *. The Lee took It 41 to 13, closing out the first season of Paper Offer Prize
.t were under six feet tall baseball in Jacksonville.
The Florida Times offered engraved champion bat U the)
Members the H. E. Lee club'went -to take IStyl watch! The U R season opened en March 31 with I game between the" top team In the stay and within a week men In Jacksonville. organized
the second match between the Lake City and Tallahassee clubs for Duval second nine and the Green Stockings: Drat nine The Duvall a team-called the Mystics
s the champion belt of the state The Tallahassee trim won and grabbed a IS I to T victory while citizens of Jacksonvlll were
I the Leei immediately challenged them with the belt at takt.! urging the reorganization of the R. E. Lee club
The Mystic claimed th* bat and during a abort season de-
feated the reorganized Lees and aa Orange County; team called
Flat Juvenile Clubs By 1882 baseball was beginning fade out In Florida A man the 0IIce01u.
from Oceola wrote a letter to The Florida Times asking them to
help him In promoting an all-Florida team to play other state
The ,luvenllf baseball club also came Into existence) duringthe After the regular! season the Osceolas disbanded and reformed
summer of 1S74. the Duvall and the Jacksoiu In their first teams. as the Orange County Club. They Issued a challenge to the Mystics
>r game the Duvals walloped the Jackson nine 34 I to 1?. for the champion bat of the tale and a series of games was set
Bivball HNory for December of 1882
The R. E Lees set their match with the ClMen CIty nfTallahassee

for Aug 21, 1874 at thru- new field at MonctM As an Incentive to get the game going again The Florida Dally The Mystics had disbanded following the regular season and
Sprint The Lees had ordered new uniforms from New York Times printed the following\ history of baseball In Florida: hastily regrouped to accept the challenge but only three of their
but they.did not arrive in time for the game and they borrowed regular players were on the mater when_game time rolled around
the Lake Club uniforms
City t "In the year 1170 a Scotchman In Tallahassee, Joseph Bowes,
organized for pleasure and recreation the Magnolia Base Ball Champloaahl Game
A crowd of List spectators gathered all p.m. the 27*, for the duivtht first regular club of this kind. formed In Florida It
... first of a series of natch games between the two clubs for the
champion belt The game was played: Dee. IS at the Jacksonville Fairgrounds
I and the Orange County Club took the Mystic U ta 1 and carried
off the champion bat I to Orange County: ,

l! 1904: City Quick to Leap
) Th* Florida Time was oncs..more prompted .. raise issue
t In favor of organized baseball The day following the Mystic defeat -

,\' t 42 years of service to our dealers -" growing with Florida On Pro Ball Bandwagon they urged '

"We need an Amateur Association not a 'league' or anythingthat
Jacksonville was quick to jump through stock subscription and shall savor ot professionalism but an association: of amateur
I on the profemlonal baseball bandwagon reentered the International clubs, banded by a constitution which shall prescribe the conditions .'
after it started rolling in League in 1964. of all challenges games, series seasons and matters of
1903 with the organization of the expense Cuba Inside the organization should play with ao club
t 'to American: League and National The Suns once again bounced which has not signed the constitution and assented to its rovl-
.League major baseball circuits.: back and captured the pennant aloes and conditions It would give an Interest to the tame
;: 4 last year giving Jacksonville a among the playerurf It and result in a more intimate acquaintance: ,
,: \' : The_SouUuAtlanUeLeatnierldass word! of five first place teams tsprit and fraternity,
.1" ;, .-.-. A minor circuit: had a teamIn In Us last 13 yean in professional :
Jacksonville by 1904 for the baseball circuits.In Ball Park Propose
f f cltys first taste of professions '
m& .aJSIoJ Atoi tttti...,4 46 years of professional ban '
ball.A Jacksonville has fielded teams In "1\ Is proposed to organize ben (In addition to the Amateur
magee team called the Jam played the upper division 22 of those Association a semi.professional club which, it is intended shall
; here from 1W' to 1408 when Its 'ears. League pennants have 'join an association of clubs of other Southern cities Players are
name was changed I to the Scouts'or been won in 1906, SAL 1912 SAL: to be imported and provided with situation in bulln.... A stock
O\JUITt ,Cq'Er the 1909 10 and 11 Karons I 1927, SC: 1953, SAL 1854, SAL, company li to be formed and lands near the city leased, fenced
In 1911 the team was renamedthe 1956, SAL; 1962, International, and duly arranged Inside. This Is, of course: a aid Issue, as
Foxes who stayed in the SALor and 1964, International. it were and cannot affect the proposed amateur association except
Sally League until play was that It might take away some good members who, as professionals
suspended In 1917 for World In their 46 yean of baseball would be debarred"
# War I. acksonvllle teams have won only
a 40 more game* than they lost
Thue,12 yean before organized professional baseball came to
t Florida State League with the records showing 1067 the seed which
Jacksonville In 1904, the Florida Times had planted
game won through the 1964 season Baseball of Jacksonville, Inc.
grew into {today Community Owned\
Anew Class D circuit, the 1IorI opposed to 1047 lost

Ida State League, was formed in .
I 1lte.m with Jacksonville I fielding a
called the Scouts. They
played again in the FSL In 1922

M the Indians. The city and were went then without disbanded i We Move the Earth !

professional baseball from 1923
I to 1925. '

The Southeastern League
Founded in 1922 by Frederick T. Kelly, the company has been serving the dealers of Florida I Clans.B circuit, came to town In a i -

end South Georgia for 42 years with the finest of hard and-soft surface floor coverings. and 1924 with remained a team until called 1930 tin when Tars I Moulding Florida! Raw

'once again Jacksonville dropped ,
from the pro ranks .
Wilderness Into -

I From 1931 to 193t t.hree'.em/. .
Wt are proud In represent such outstanding manufacturers/ as the pro leagues were formed In the .

:clty-the City League, the Northeast -' Beautiful Sites
I Florida League and the north -
ALLEN INDUSTBIES-Producing America's MAGEE CARPET COMPANTf-For 75 years: I Florida League-and kept baseball -
I alive until the Sally League I

only complete licesf carpet cushions. America's top manufacturer of quality returned in 1938. .

carpets and rugs. I Jacksonville Tars I

Perfectionists in .
CONCOLEUM-NAIEN, INC.-America's The old Jacksonville Tars once I :
NATIONAL SPONGE CUSHION CO., INC.- 'again took the field this tint in I .
oldest and most progressive manufacturer the Sally League and played until -
most copied manufacturer of activity was suspended In 1942 Site"Preparatio

of resilient floor coverings.DELTOX fine quality cushions. for World War n. They returned i
sponge after the war and continued I to '
play: In the SaUy circuit until 1932 '
fUNS.OCEAN IMPORT COMPANY-One when they were renamed the I : And
RUG MILLS-Araerica's oldest and 'Braves The Braves became the

best-Known of the world's top importers of f Oriental II Jacksonville Jets in 11-Uie last ,
manufacturer of outdoor and year the city was a member of : Heavy ;Construction
Indoor fibre rugs. floor coverings the Sally League ;

Triple class professional baseball I
ROBERTS CONSOLIDATED INDUSTRIES, I came_to Jacksonville in 1962 ,
t with a shuffle of teams in the International :
COMPANYINC.Universally recognized .as' League. The cIty field machines go .. .

I Americas leading manufacturer of metal pioneer in carpet installation materials ed the a Suns privately-owned which took flrst team jilaco called la I _

1:' mouldings. and techniques. league their first circuit year, la the toy minor Industry Grows!
-<: .
In 1963 the Buns returned but .
toppled from lint to last place '
i In the International League leaving
the ownership of the team in CARAWAY 'CONTRACTING COMPANY -

: F. 'T. KELLY COMPANY' a to position sell where they: wen forced ,

\ 1\\,' WHOLESALE: fLOOR COVERINGS-. I Community Baaekat 7645 Atlantic Blvd., Tele. RA 5-6300

Baseball backers In the city began .

I. owned baseball team of Jacksonville ,
'lI' and the Buns wen boughtby
r members of the community


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The first >Baseball game played In Jacksonville against u out- the crowd and wu unable; to'If. all the action; He described
f-town team wu a gala affair and certainly a far cry from the the game: .
Wgularly-scheduled International! League tonnes ol today. The Lees Receive RosesTeam .j.I.IJ

sw the ban widening through Uw air; heard the strike
The Robert 1:. Lee of Jacksonville meet the Garden City of the ball but could not see the triker. I saw men running
Grasshoppers of Tallahassee hi the trot three games tar the state springing,' dodging and tumbling on the ground. I could hear
namplonshlp belt Aug. H, U74, at Moncrief Springs nothing and not understanding the game eould only lurmlse that

It wa an exciting one. 1i
Plays Its First Visitors Moncrief Park
A special excursion train from Tallahassee brought the Garden at :\
City team to Jaclponvlll arriving at I pin. the 26th They were "Soon I saw men clapping their hands t heard the shouts Mil Y'
met at Union Depot br a delegation from the left and escorted the cheer from the great crowd. The ladles waved! their handkerchiefs r
lathe, Grand National Hotel where they made their headquarters. .. BT DAVE WHITNEY and clapped their hands. Some one had made a lucky:

*' or unlucky strike, and the band played, 'I Wont Go Horn Until

Enthusiastic, Reception TIMES-UMON STAFF WRITER X, X Morning

A far The Florida Trl \. "I heard the cheen. louder ban before while the ladle standIng -
bewspapef reporter Weekly Union described
the arrival of therival, team "At the-hour an Immense- fir u the eye could extend wan me continuous train ft carriage, in, has been raised to about 'lhfOt and t \pure and beautiful up in their carriage and On the stand waved and cheered.
crowd wu In waitings Members of the Lees, with blue ribbon ef every description besides carts, with mules and oxen. Scores sheet of water Is constantly flowing from It. sufficient In quantity Even the little tiny lying on the grass threw up their bat and
their horses and on their coal, were galloping up and down full on of people, men, women and children on loot were all> bound for to supply the whole city of Jacksonville," the reporter wrote hurrahed themselves !bares u the news reached them that thof
The band Dixie and the spring. ,", lG r.e ohoppprt. were badly beat by the Jacksonville boys." .
eI enthusiasm. wu playing Old John Drown '/1 ; I 1.. .
,.1"JI .Y.to'e )"Lar6b'a44'pomntodto;
1'1: described the property furlj!|
and ether fancy tunes and the. whole crowd wu decidedly joll). \ t ( liar; i '
"At the ton gate, \the'la keeper with one assistant, cocas busy bathing bourne are being built which when "completed! 'will be thud T i '
u a bee. Greenbacks and eolm stock out and Jingled' In' their most substantial ones In the country: Also dressing rooms with Local Team Win .
"The committee wa joyous .and prepared to welcome hands and pockets Three miles moreover u fine a shell road fireplace. ,attached ,Lo them, 10 that people can bathe In the 'j
the Garden1' City Club with- their bout of friends Including scores u there Is In the country brought us to the spring." winter" The game had !lasted I !hours and SI mlnutm with the ,'Lee ,
of .beautiful ladles and troops of merry children," the reporter taking the first of the eerie 14 to 11 from the Tallahassee club. '

recalled' 1 More than i.5K people went to the springs for the balltajne. The Lees, as wu the custom received a 1I'Mth of white roses .
\ \ !Spring! Described The baseball\ field wu roped off and carriage and other vehicles for their win, .h .
After the train arrived, the Garden City Club;, wu escorted lined the playing Held. Bleachers-were set up along both baselines is
through the street of downtown Jacksonville amid the noise and 4 Moncrief Spring had been discovered a year earlier In a dense and they were jammed with women and children who spilled After the ballgame the road scene Wu repeated m Uw trip
confusion of the crowd end horses' and carriage1 which lined and almost Impassable wooded area by Peter Jones tt had been over on the gross to watch the game. The weather was warm and from the springs back to town: After the two team reached town
the way to the hotel. Ms dream to build the spring Into a health spa capitalising on pleasant-suitable l for a good game. The marshal of the day and and had a chance to get cleaned up they attended a complimentary:
what he thought were the healing powers of the spring water. In his assistants were mounted on spirited horse and rode about ball given In their honor.
All the available horse and other transportation from local lefts than a year he had built the hell road and wu well oa his the Crowd keeping order. Ko liquor wu permitted ,in the park.Jmpr..iG. ,
had been rented! the day before the ban for to realizing his dream.
livery: stables tame way
The ban lasted until! hint before 1:30: a m. the next morning
Moncrief where the. set for 1 .. W the Game
the trip to Sprints tame wu p.m.
then the Garden City Club wu scheduled to leave by special
"After passing through an arched gateway we entered the train to Tallahamee. The Jacksonville team escorted them to the
The Florida Union's reporter told of the trip: "We were on the grounds some forty acres of which are all fenced In. In placeof The new game of baseball wu unfamiliar to the Plorids Union station and sent them off with three cheer for the player and
hell road and traveling tow.rdhe spring at a rapid pace.: A* an old leaky wooden box, the spring li now handsomely waited\ reporter and apparently being a short man hi got caught up in, three' cheer for their fair ladle 6

w.J; '\iI"" hNCn27"its 'OO'I'lnrrJl.IfJ"'\ ... !'Iu" : t, ,GI\tII\t\ ..I....... ........ _ -- -- -- i

I Moncrief Springs: ,'It Is Wonderful'Mayor .


Leaves His Mark r r"M aatlMr+g 4;ti+G' W'.T"itwM'yrw! ,f."r" p', .P .,da'rdsCtt"', /' tcos I I .. "J.l 5

With Fashionable' ResortBy I TH'oolieFLORIDA:

CYNTHIA PARKS Times-Uatos Staff Writer 1 .1

Moncrief Springs became a spectacular! resort hereIn GRQ1 _

the 1870s due to the visionary enterprise a Jack. -
sonville mayor; but first the springs exacted a legend-

ary i toll from a crafty French pawnbroker and an .1
*- ll : "' '
avaricious Indian maiden. J -
Jewel supposed to be lying By -. i

around loose somewhere near .
Before the springs became a Moncrief Springs... ... i ,. ; !,
spa for, the fashionable In 1874 e !, ,

rewinding race horses,with splashing the thunder fountains of, Hunter's. ParadiseBut SERVING THE COMMMflNS\ INDUSTRY J

dancing feet and the splintering
smock/ of a home run, their namesake .., > j. Vi : : -C. iJ
was plotting is faraway7aVendee I Itlt the venture got Underway ,
France on the bank wu never heard offor
of the Loire River, the spring wu to yield a treasure }
of a different sort. It bubbled on .a ', .
in obscurity! for some 80 year ,'j
Washington bring In his sketch after the Moncrief Incident whena .
"Subterranean Religion" tells hunter. Peter Jones stumbledon

about a Moncrief shrewd pawnbroker who for year, Eugene : it. and he and his family. whipped THEY'RE OFF: Up through the turn of the century,

respectably fleeced his clientele up a sharp trot to reach the ARCHIE i DAVIS INC. ;
until he bad accumulated nine Peter Jones wu destined to spring "A far u the eye could thundering, hooves pounded an exciting tattoo \4 +

wooden chest of ring, breut- lear his mark on Jacksonville extend was one continuous train every week at Moncrief Race Course in what Is
'diamonds, brooches and la the, following year, 1175 h. of carriages of every description, J' ,. "
fins inch..On. became mayor of the city for the beside" cart, with mule and itow northwest Jacksonville. One of the greatest i
fourth of six times. In a letter to oxen. .
races was that held Feb. 3, 1876.The Tri.Weekly'Florid. '
the Union, a friend who accompanied .
April M. 1793, he wu Jones to the hidden spring I Men called out to one another Union announced that two prizes of $200 1000 Riverside/Avenue Phone 353-5687 ;
borne away from his native tells of the mayor's enthusiasm: deriding the other'i favorite !team
loG would
and $ be given for the best runners
shore (but his tear-bedewed eves "A wonder spring Not 20 '
and made token bet on the d *
found comfort in resting upon the In Duval County have ever men.. winner. In five heats. On that date, Col. Caulk'i Dixie JACKSONVILLE FLORIDA i
,aloe wooden chest" or heard of itl Why. it 1* ,
derful I I Intend to buy it, and raced against: Robert Terrell's Tom Field andC. Ij
Jacksonville shall reap the benefit The ladle conversed discreetly: .
W. Field's Picket Dixie the winher on
Buries Treasure of the purchase. In leu thin from adjacent vehicle while the was I \
11 months I will have a shell< more bruen one moved from the one-mile track In 2:46.25.: But, by decree: of >
road running from Jacksonville, a carriage to carriage, their voluminous
Exactly! two mont later his toll gate, bathing houses, restaurant skirts swishing u they the Legislature, horse racing ended In the state jl
galley, the Esperance, hove into nine pin alley, race course, displayed their laced fashions. 1
the mouth of the St. Johns' On baseball ground, and this will be April ,. 1911. y J
July I be buried his chests near the most fashionable drive-and. ._---- ------ ..eAc
the springs aparkly u. French resort la the stale," The lady at the toll gate had
champagne one "assistant and a continual
Jingle of coin busied their hands

his heart. It tot nlJeln about his tint
And then he lost
visit spring the. writer,
Wu to an Indian maiden. Sun The writer gaped In amazemeat.
whojtgned\ himself simply u.Thomas
Flower. He hastily unearthed one He recalled a briar-tangled
told of his
of the chests to adorn him bride, spring enclosed In a ratting wooden
visit on Aug. &1. 1874-
but when Sun Bower beheld her box at the end of a circuitous
bedizened image he wu filled cow path. Mow though an eight-
with greed Instead of gratitude. Resort Opened foot circular wall, JII feet In diameter RELY ON EXPERIENCE
Shi. and her Indian lover GunPowder ,, had been built a lOUd
schemed to rob Mon- It wu three months after the sheet of'water flowing aver Its
crief, and It wu thereby the opening of the spring as a resort side The dressing rooms of the
,Frenchman also lost his scalp. and a big baseball game betweenthe bath house, according to the e' <' o"
> Garden City BaseballClub correspondent, would have fireplaces tlrs Sen'Z'1gFlorida

"" The Fate spun behind Justice,, 'and the Lees of Moncrief Springs attached to them for winter
wu to be Hayed. Everybody wudoing.
'though, and sun Flower and Gun .-
It tantamount to
wu a
Powder were drowned while sailing
In a canoe on Trout River. Gator Bowl game today. Every The omnipresent spirit at the Shipping
mode of 'transportation
The other chest, apparently, wu spring that day was Mr Jones, 4' -
were never ,uncovered, pressed into service"Thomas" "lame and scarecely able to walk
scurried\ all over town caught up
.quiet and unostentatious, heseemed
In the fever of going to Moncrief to comprehend at a ,
A Item In Springs, but even at Thrasher
June 17. 1874. news glance that the arrangements bad
Onion Stable there wa not boot to
The Trl-Weekly Florida a been admirably carried out"
declared that "a Joint stock company be had.
1* about to be formed for 5 V
the purpose of bringing to lightsome He wu about U give up when' d
ef the magnificent old at last be secured u equipage! Great 8lleeea.

When the resort tint opened In
June the Union christened it a
success, marveling that "In M
minutes one can drive to u pure 1, +' a1
r water u ever responded to the ",
"" rod of a bulrush Moses or fascinated
the poetic longing of a

Deleon." &,
.hr A: kM t
The spring wu supposed (o
contain remarkable medical -

properties.! DI'W&1.lt: flourished.
even after the toll gala burned
down In 1897.

In 1178 there were trotter races
and that track must have been
the forerunner of the Moncrief
Race Track opened In 1909. Meet
were held until 1911 when the
it' Florida Legislature outlawed
horse racing. '

After the closure of the track
the spring began to fade a* a
resort. The pool cracked the
dance pavilion sagged, the weeds


Then in IMS! Mil. Eartba White I
of the Clara White! Mission bought
U acres of the springs tend hop 1935 E. BEAVER JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
b loa at the time to restore It for
recreational uses and to noun a
museum of Negro history there. 38483I fr
t ELgin

Part of the land U In UM today
for playgrounds but lack of fund
W 911 ha* hindered pool repair. AccordIng -
to Mis White, the springs
will be the sit of a 7MOM ret
bom and Mercy Hospital u wed r {
Poke lone: He started a Resort a* a recreatlona.l.emler.. .


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I in.proDI1essToday


: ""

the Jacksonville Times Union; celebrates' Sea-land knows Florida, ,Its people, t ;;; .;
its 100th Anniversary. Over the long span of its products, Its needs! 'ir"I; .., r 1' ':

those years, this outstanding, public-spirited Sea land Service makes available the lowest I ,t
newspaper has made great contributions to 1 -
possible rates for door-to-door pickup and' 1 ,
the growth and progress of Jacksonville, and delivery of freight both .trailer load and '" j 4 i, ,

to the State of Florida itself. less-than-trailer load. ;a ,. II r Yr '
Sea-land Service isn't quite that old (Sea-land Sea land has the experience and the equip- I *4
made its first call at Jacksonville in January, ment to move Florida's products to market at i
1959, although our forebears had been serving lower cost. Citrus juice, frozen concentrates fti
Florida since 1930)). Yet we, too, are proud of paper, fruit, canned goods reach the con +.
our role in the growth of industry and com signee's door safely and on schedule! r II

I merce in this great city. Sea-land. maintains a network of modern,
.. I Those among you who are in the transportation efficient truck terminals throughout the North-
industry know us well. But for the east, Puerto Rico, and Florida to handle LTL
thousands who benefit from our services, un and TL shipments between East Coast poets, 1. '
knowingly we include several facts of interest. Puerto RICO Houston and Jacksonville A sealed SrAUND Trailer becomes I shipping container. .
..... .. .
- --
Thus whenever you see our trailerships on. r ,
the St. Johns River, you will know we are SEALANDSERVICE
playing i part in your progress .bringing into I
you products from East Coast ports and INC. J
Puerto Rico and delivering cargoes to those .... '
same places, and to Texas, all at lower cost. ,*i':;.i i a ,

Sea land Service today extends between Jacksonville :: fI{' .. J i f. .
and New York; between Jacksonville" < 's .>:: ( .
:. and all ports in Puerto Rico; and from Jack't'
sonville to Houston, Texas. Y.[life. .*. <*,. ,"'s'.'.,
Sea-land Service has handled 79,488 loads .. ; _
ever Jacksonville since service began in Jan- Am"'''', Stago/ng Motor Cirrltr '

vary, 1959. Additional tonnage has gone into t i
; ,J the State through other, Sea-land Florida ports. JACKSONVILLE 356-0081 j

t ihlppsra tin in till SH Gne lew T coil note li mikilt. M (key pf wilt, ,, Apiiiibit, iiltirii ftii unkri ."' g oes'ria tow waterway rates then completes door-to-door delivery

1 1 17 Tr i Wrlrrw -

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A.M. Reed and Frequent Visitors, Many Parties and! Regattas in St. Johns

Kept Plantation Life from Being Dull Where NAS Is Now ,j

Mulberry Hill! .;


IMer'l tlol,.' This describes Mulberry Grow ptatiioUoftto nounced by an tar-pllttlng blot of the: steamer' whistle. wh,.- room where tin family mod often Congregates! : and a lari Reed 1* very proud of this excellent water supply (from U
the term of s letter from s Ruest there ta her mother inaorttem upon lilt entire Reed family, except Mri. Rd who la ill and dining.room distinguished 'by two Immenae glau.fronted ecn- artesian well) which bI says hu proved to be most convenient
o elt,. The guest fictional, but .B Information u aonfuwd to her bed, quickly appeared on lilt dock -welcome us. target containing the dishes and taw terviot A door lead toa. and reliable even in times of drought H* plan very toon
pantry for supplies and onto A wide center hall lead to to install bathtub with running water to the nous* and build
tfrtiimrom actual record Brother .... of _II. immediately Milled In the lodge the italrcaM to the second floor, ,when there, are two large aa outdoor swimming pool.
which \t the exclusive domain of the family young male*. dormer windowed bedroom overlooking the river and a itoN

,* *'\ )I" Reed and Charley Feanon Louisa* MM by her lint marriage.frameago area which la reached by Main leading trn tilt back Sine the house I* built on aa old Indian mound which
I 1 wu installed\ In, th* main houae. a rambling twwtory .
slopes toward the river, the back section of the house I II high.
structure painted;,white' and located about 100 feet from the
From it* elevated back porch a boardwalk leads to the two
Mulberry Grove Plsitstl river which it facet. Louisa two daughter Sarah and Harriet An ell off the main Motion of,the first floor contain mar story ledge which contain two bedroom and a garret. Long
wn Interested spectators a* I unpacked* content ofmy bedroom and Mr Reed library which coiulat! of two room: stairs reach don from the porch Mh.* yard and a wide
Yikea Florida trunk with lilt help of on* of till haw maid Giggling a sitting or reading room with a large desk and comfortable brick walk lead to the brick kitchen when all the cooking

May U,' 1881 and chattering, :: young girls were quit taken with my ::rinr''e book-filled library proper which alt contains a 1* don, I think this arrangement 1* most practical here tine
hat and they treat fun trying them on before the pier
to a mail porch Needle to lay, these it serves to keep the main house cool and free of cooking odors.
Dear Mothers glass. room art Mr. Heed favorite retreat, and It I* hen that he
Issues his dally I Instruction to the plantation hand and pen
1 wish that you could be hen with brother and mi. Mulberry The plantation house while not prctentlou Ji very com- his diary entrtei. New Pond 1* ServedAt
Grove I* beautiful the Florida weather is warm Portable and certainly suited to the Climate hen with large fin-
and sunny, n: the dI'e most hospitable in the true dow admitting the gentle breezes from the river.. A sSadjL- Southern manner. oak'lined avenue carpeted with trimmed grant lead from kitchen. to the main bout and serve tt from the dining.room
the dock to the steps Of the :.n'veraddab' which surreundesince' art heater la the room which do not have fireplace, pantry adding to the menu such item u preserves pickles
arrived three days ago aboard the steamer I. Draper and shades till house on the out and south Idea, U 1* not uncommon to have freezing weather-re. In the WIne and ale from the storage shelve in the pantry,
WhichWe pile the St John* River from Jacksonville, delivering winter, and the hard pin floor are carpeted with woolen run
tot only passengers, mall, and. the dally newspaper, taut cargo On the first floor li along living roo0lo containing horsehair Louisa tell mi that these rue an removed, beaten and etoredlat Another brick walk meander acres the lawn to UK green.
of all kinds got the numerous plantations which line tilt river and eventuffed furniture, a bit black walnut rand piano and in the spring and'nplaoecl with matting for the lummer.In house. Louisas domain. Then the tend a bearing pineapple
bands t a hui fireplace! thre with pouter bed iwaihedla many respect th* plantation more modern than many
gamunt plant root cuttings, and starts seedlings Often Joined by herfather
a fine netting u protection the gnat* and mosquitoes house* In lilt lano dtki. Poe Instance, then I* running water In and
who takes budding rouser
Reed great delight
Docking al Mulberry Grove wharf eur'pre_ wu IDo which are ferodou during the warn weather a small sittingIn the boust, the kitchen and nearly all tin ou -bulldln,., Mr performing various.rafting experiment with exotic plant

Adjacent li her flower garden now bright with bridal

.. ... wreath roses lants nna, bleeding heart, cockscomb, marigold
w' and Unnlaa. It la fenced to keep out till family's dogs which
an kept in kennel just beyond the garden Reed and Charley,
.. f''f.' ; have several hunting dog, buth.* favortt playmate, of the

": >-:;; :. .''J 1, Children 1* a handsome colUe called "Porch."

PlantatiiHi Outbuilding

')II Scattered beyond then buildings are several outbuilding
and the old plantation house when Aunt Nancy and Uncle
George Reece live with their family. Free Negroes, Loulea
tells me they have been a vital part of the plantation since
GAZ they came drifting( down the river in a rowboat and tied up at
the Mulberry Grove landing shortly after Mr. Reed bought tile
plantation In the '60n. Mr. Reed promptly hired them and later
their children Abram attends to the cattle and the milking
Jack who learned the carpenter' trade in Jacksonville does
all the building and repairs on the place: Frank" and Joe work
in the fields: and Ike and Sam, the youngest boy, are houseboys

Under the Reece house la a alter In which are stored .
canned fruits. Jellies and preserves, and perishabjeii, the latter
placed in clean cloth bag and laid on ice delivered by
a river steamer in 100-pound blocks, and Insulated with sawdust.
ace r o

There Is a smokehouse, built of oyster and lime tabby,
where hams and bacon are stored and smoked and dried beef
and mutton Hangs from the rafters; a augarhouse.'*hlch contains
the huge vat in which the Juice of the lunar cane 1*
boiled down to molasses and brown sugar, a "cotton house"
which hu not contained cotton in Mr. Reed time but atlll ha
a few trays from the silkworm culture once tried then used
now for grain and seed storage: a dairy house where milk
in separated and butter churned; and a laundry where the family I

Arthur M. Reed, in An .1856 Photo by Brady Artesian Well Is In Front Yard of,Main House! at Mulberry Grove Plantation washing and Ironing la done. "I

Then are several barns a horse lot and (tall*. a buggy A
I' I and harness house wagon and tool shed, and a carpenter t
shop. In addition ihre is a lime kiln, a charcoal kiln a tar
kiln: blacksmith hop,' and 25 small houses former Slav '
quarters, which are used for storage and the lodging of hands.,

A 'Modern'" City Bank OpensA. Extent .f PlHtaUo

Yesterday, I rode with Charley and Reed viewing these
buildings an neatly-kept and in good repair 'The plantation
Itself Is ,about 1400 acres: 800 acre la cultivation about 300
acres la pasture, and the- rest timber.land.

M. Reed's Institution Issued Its Own Paper CurrencyBy
; Orange and beef are the plantation main products but
surplus sugar vegetables and other produce an. occasionally -

IRENE SPERRY Mrs. Reed'. melodeon, the only 1869. Harriet and Peyre were graduated from the University of On Easter Sunday, 1884, Harriet < Reed remarried and rcturvei sold in Jacksonville and Sanford.,
one In town along la service to childless the South In Sctannee Tenn. The died at Mulberry Grove al with his wife Margaret to- Jacksonville .
TtaH.tlilM Hid Witttt ralied'hsri. in addition, to include peache
the hymns of the tutoredat in 1927. residing at 4652 Fruits oranges
accompany con girl of the family wen the age of.42.Ih .
Connecticut Yankee by, birth gregation. Tragedy: struck both )young matron horn and later attended a Ortega Blvd. until his death in figs quince limes, lemons? grapefruit Then tangerine also, apple,
Is a pecan
and persimmon
in 1870 u death took their country school on McGlrfs 193S. three yean before the last plums, pomegranates
but Floridian by choice wet Arthur 1888. !the Reed town house grave a vineyard a strawberry patch and ,some guava and
Strong Abolitionists the Reeds husbands Harriet never remarried Creek U8 acres of Mulberry Grove were
M. Reed, a prominent Jacksonville Ocean streets to cultivate successfully.
at Forsyth and wu pineapple which Mr, Reed is striving
banker. businessman employed seven house servants, but Louisa, with two young sold to the government for Jack.
an health
down by the city
former slaves who bad been ae.; sons to rake wed William Tell Maintaining business Interests burned aonvllle NAS. The site had previously
of .
plantation owner the 1890's.A cepted as payment of a debt by Pearson another brother of her In Jacksonville, Mr. Reed often authorities during a yellow fever been leased 10he<- military Field crop and vegetables Include sugar Cane, potatoes
Mr. Reed. He considered them late husband in J878 To this attended land and tax sale therewith epidemic, Mr. Reed filed a claim for Camp Johnson mustard peas arrowroot yams, buckwheat, con, squash melons
young man when he Ural for $1.800 reimbursement. beeti clover millet; bean. tobacco rice tomatoes rye;
free and paid them salaries for union wu born Sarah Louisa In bit friend. A. D, Barnett -
glimpsed the settlement destined their work. 1878: Harriet In 1881, and Arthur The Family Line turnips cabbage lettuce and cat*. Reed remarked wryly that
to become till city of ,Jackson. Raynesford In 1889 The Reeds lived well their Now stocky and frequently unable "planting and harvesting, la a year-round process hen."
vllle from the deck of a Saran A* war clouds loomed on tile clothes being tailored U New to ride the plantation rounds Sarsh, L. Pearson, now deceased .
nahTlcolata steamer plying the horizon In January 1861, Mr. Tell u Louisa's second husbandwas Torte City and their eyeglasses dally, Mr.. Reed asked his grand married J. H. Richardson Livestock, Fowl and fie
St John River la November Reed purchased from a Col. called,wu of considerable purchased from an oculist. They sons Reed and Charles to decide and their children are Mn
1815, he wu en route to 81. Augustine between them which one W. H Bunch (Jeanette of College In the cow, pens and at pasture now are about 120 headof
to organize and pen at would prefer to operate the plantation Place Wash; Louisa of 2811 cattle, many of the bumped Brahman strain which Reed '*
office for Southern Life Insurance 11114, 40 woof The choice wu easy for IroquoiS Ave.! and Mrs. 0. M tan survive the beat well 'and get fat on icrub palmetto. if
and Trust Co.Prospering Charles who was living in Jacksonville : Orter Mary) of St Augustine necessary" Hogs chickens turkeys and geese are also raised
R f already and working at in pena for the table and fish and crabs abound In the river
In his new business the Drew Co., Then a hardware Harriet Pearson deceased, much to the delight of Mr. Reed and the girls all ardent' fish
he married Harriet N. Douglas store Thus In,, 1889 Mr Reed wu the wife of,John L Hall Sr ermen.
In the Episcopal! Church of st.. 41 executed his will deeding MuP I Their children an Mrs- RobertC.
Augustine on Dec. 23. 1838. Rev.. berry Drove to Reed. himself : Sharpe (Mildred) of Miami, Truthfully, the plantation la. almost wholly self-sufficient -
Raymond Henderson officiatedThe taking lease for the rest of Ids John L Hall Jr. of Collins Road: providing ample! variety and quantity of delicious food forh..
bride was the daughter of natural life and Mr.. S. J. Ford (Louise) of family table u well u for the families of the hands who live'
Connecticut born Florid Supreme Pompano Beach on the premise -

Court Judge Thomas Mn Reed, 111 for many years
Douglas who bad settled In the heart trouble passed away Arthur Raynesford Pearson, n is wonderful to see the mutual respect and affection
ancient city in 1827 after some 4 YKI1 la 1893, and thus died in 1952, leaving a daughter which the hand and their employers evidence toward each
at the plantation
years In Indiana. ,II tiiA' Reed George Miss Gloria Anne Pearson other. Weddings are cause for mutual celebration and death
I saw
never and of Albuquerque, N.M. are times of grief for all, Sarah, Harriet and little Arthur play
Twin "daughten Louisa Burrltt t lY/fir /PHI//lir. f) wb Charles Reed born Banford.May 19 born 1897 Feb. t, with the children of the hand In great harmony and Mr.
and Harriet Douglas! wen born 1903. Charles S. Pearson who died Reed display a most paternal! Interest in tits well-being of

to the Reeds on Jan, II, 1842. i In 1959, wu married three time, all the hands' families

Reed' Death his third wife Mayme,now residing affectionately c&11'Mr. :Reed 'Mlu Harriet."
The negroes
M.re I* Jacksoavlll at 2054 Camden Ave. Hit
I Hfckman a l.wn-scn plantatlot assistance to Mr. Reed In man. rod n a buggy ordered from Children are Gen Harold Pearson Louisa "Mis Lou," and the two young Pearson sin "M1557eReed
TJU85S. the Reed family moved on tilt bank ct the It Johni aging the various project and New York and rod hone from Arthur M Reed, the patriarchof of Bellevue, Wash; Mn and Charley an called "Captain" and "General titles
to Jacksonville nettling in a spacious River la the area now alld Yttkoa planting of till plantation often Tennessee They spent vacation the family died at Mulberry Walter Enter <(Cbariene) of Miami derived from their military schooling I gather.
horn on Forsyth Street, directly lilt ails of JackHDvlll NaVal supervising a* many u SO hand. In South Carolina and later Be- Grove the morning of .Aug. I, and Charles Reed Pearson Life Rarely Dull
behind the Bank of the StJohns Air Station One a cotton He also bad a way with horses, wannee, when they built a cottage IBM. of Chattanooga, Tenn:
which Mr. Reed established .. plantation, Mulberry Grove derived -. a notation.in Mr. Rted's diaryon and traveled extensively via Contrary to what I expected, plantation life is rarely dun.
at the corner of Bay and Its same from the snot July 1, 1877 reporting that railroad. Reed wife succumbed to yellow Sole surviving grandson! of Arthur Guest are always arriving or departing, either by boat buggyor
Ocean streets, when the Florida berry tree on the property, rem "Ten Pearson performed' an operation fever in Knoxvllle, Tenn. M. Reed la George Reed the railroad which run through a corner of the plantation
Theater now lands Mrs. Doug- cants of an ill.fated attempt al on 'Florid, cutting" out Smallpox Throat barely two month after the birthof Pearson Sr, a Jacksonville printer property
la*, Mn. Reed widowed mother establishing a silkworm Industry a .etf ut en her back Florida their ion Charles la l o.1. Reed who resides in his titlefather's
also cam to live with them. there. Mr. Reed retained the wu Mr. Reed favorite man In 1S83 an epidemic of smallpox decided ,to live to Knoxvlll and Ortega Blvd. home. He Table conversation la Quite exciting with everyone very well-
name, but stocked Its acres wilt threatened Jacksonville and began to sell parcel of Mulberry and his wife Lira have one son informed on national! affairs, and even fashions from the ton-
Mr. Reed bank was could' cattle and planted orange tre Becomes, Showplace\ the family and all hands wan Grove acreage In 1903, always LI George Reed Pearson Jr of tlnent. During the day, the men are always planning or supervising -
Bred to be one of Jacksonville's vaccinated. That lime year, Mr. stipulating that any silver discovered Seymour Johnson AFB Golds- some new and Interesting plantation project or handling
modern and substantial financial A year later m ,April when U Hold signed the right of way forth on tile property revert to boro, !f,C, Its commerce Louisa devotes part of each morning to tutoring'
establishments and it Issued Its was obvious that Union troops By this time, Mulberry Grove, Railroad of Florida to run the Pearson. family line It wu I her children, and now with Mrs Reed ill lilt also! plans the day I
own paper money u legal! ten would occupy Jacksonville, the with It* whit, rambling main through a corner of his property. believed that Mr. Reed had burled : The plantation era of Arthur menu with Aunt Nancy, who reigns supreme in the kitchen.
Reed family tied from their townhouse house, lush citrus grove, large and Jacksonville health author- somewhere on the plantation M. Reed Is now only a memory, Usually. Louisa would spend several hour tending her flowers
der.A to Mulberry Drove Mn cattle herd and expanse of field lutes burned down In Infected ground* a liras th* a trunkful papers diaries and but now she 1* more limited In her leisure! time especially
now-ran $5 note Issued by Douglas broke a leg In till nor crops, wu a ihowplaot. Excursion building owned by Mr, ,Reed, family liver, None of r'bf: mementos but his descendants with frequent visitors from neighboring! plantations to entertain
topped to ;
boat regularly
the bank on Oct. 1. 1859. was of dug and the broken bone wu Mliy and awarded him $10. been found there to dst. IIv.- n In lilt space age. every afternoon.
Intricate design and featured a a doctor from a Federal guoboat permit sightseers to set the plantation
moored In and prominent people Social Activities
team engine> especially ilgnlfl the river new '
because tile then held the plantation from Washington, DC. Mw the river;
cant bank northern cities Then are frequent regattas and yacht race on
and other
a large amount of bonds of the York fain circuses, exposition and theatre productions in Jackson-
, Florida Atlantic and Gulf Central Rim; Cattle wised win frequent guests thtr rill*,, and numerous evening partita for the young people. Last
Railroad. the first railroad light Reed and Charley hosted a far"danot on the wharf
built into Jacksonville. Northern troop used the Reed Family birthday "marked rub colorful lanterns providing Illumination It wu 1 a,m. when
town bout u headquarters during the oak-shaded the lut to departing ueta.'
with picnic! IB 'n at lut waved greeting
Although th* bank closed Its till hotUlldi, and Mulberry avenue leading from dock to main w"Ix '
doors after the War Between Grove cattle were ..!led for food. house; minister from nearby Ten. Louisa husband says the hands will be planting
the State erupted Mr. Reed continued town alternated la Preaching range trees and oat tomorrow, so I think I winjrd out and
to redeem these bank notesat .Then, on Mov. I, 1SM bin Sunday sermons at the plantation elicit the procedure Brother 1* going hunting tt dawn with
face value for yean afterwards daughter Louisa married Charlie : till steamer S. Draper and Reed and Charley who promise to show him some huge UJUatari.
paving for them from bit O. Pearson of Orange Spring, numerous ether vessel called ., '
personal fortune. near Falatka. A lew month later man and luppU and toflueua -
with ;
but will send
daughter Harriet married Wt expect to return home far about two weeks
and malaria were usual
TIle Only Melodeon Charles'.brother. Ptyrt 0. Pete fall illnesses. rou a telegraph message from Jacksonville when our plan
ton. are more definite.. Trusting you are well. I am

Entering fully Into the clt)"', Your affectionate daughter.
social lift: the Reed attended Born to Charle and Louisa j, Reed and Charles! were educated ,
St. John' Episcopal Church. Every wu John Reed m Sept. '. 1887. I' at Porter Military Acid- Blzabeta
Sunday, a servant carried I and Chula Sanford in August ell1.1n Charleston I C.. and

...... '-". .. ."' .-., ; '. > Y
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10 ,


I I 1865 : A War-Torn Fire-Ravaged City

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-Color by Cora Kalfort
\n Artillery Camp in Downtown Jacksonville During the War of the 1860s

-to Unless You Wore, Union Blue,

13rs .

You Had Time of ItBy : 1
; Rough v : J Je

RICHARD A. MARTIN, Centennial Edition Editor -

Jacksonville 111 Ap'II 1 of IWt. was a uarlom and lieravaged city The War Between the States was In Its last days and
al, ads Southern firings-es wen. returning to their homes in the city What they found on their return vat appalling

P blip \butdings store, wharves| I otcis )wisher mills and many private residences had been destroyed In the course of the
four ,,'pa ate invasion Jacksonville had been subjected) to during the war. Many of the buildings still standing were occupied by
f\'dl'I'al t oops as barracks or hiartqiarter offices A few boa)'ding houses were open but the only patrons who could afford them

1FrdrH.l' offices n who had greenbacks lo spend

Bi>II1I&$ was almost oiexistent: steamboat laden with, goods no longer plied the once busy St Johns River Food clothinj
and iUppIKs of all Rlndk'were scarce for those who did not wear the Union,Blue of the occupation forces

Jacksonville In the last stages of the War Between the States had been a collecting point for slaves-called contrabands bv
the Federals-who either ran way from their ownel-s or were "emancipated" by Federal raiding parties into the Interior..Tte
newly treed Negroes were recruited for service in Mr, Lincoln army and many Joined and became part of the Jacksonville -Color by Cora Rat/art
\ occupation force But most of the Negroes believed their newfound freedom entitled them to tree food, shelter clothing. and
no work These Negroes crowded Jacksonville streets and it w as all the Federal authorities could do to care for them, A Signal Tower in What Is Now Hemming Park During the War Between the States

>= ", se __"'"' ja8g! me r ___ '
The demand for food and abetter in the city \\'L :n Tom _- /
wa further Intensified by returning Southerners who :

had fled the city during the war Many found that .
the homes they had left were no longer standing or .
w Use 1 were occupied) by hoops or government asents : Ambler Bank Spawned Many in City
The penniless! own' ,whfi t had worn the Confederate
5ras mere often than not found their property con
fucatrd or r>\ e otl the auction\ block to pay for taxes, :31

By nvrillf PARKSTMMlillMi ,of the tri.weeklv Union: "My I88f( caused it to be called the I Bank in 1878 when J, C. Greeley, I one in the San Jose area next national bank In ,Florida to' open '
O adiially, along the banks of the, St. Johns River Wall name 4s Diana Klngsley I live Ambler, Marvin and Stockton its' treasurer, bought( out the presIdents year Barnett has facility offices a savings department.. It ab
and on the outskirts of the town a "tent city" began WWW I' on Cot Sammls place 1 have Bank share From 1889 it was I at Naval Air Station and Cecil sorbed the Fourth National Bankin
to build The homeless built flimsy 'shcltcls of .wrap worked for four years and have operated by trustees Field 1913, bought out the State
wood packing crates and canvas. Rags were the Jacksonville banking historygot put my earnings in the bank Amoeba.like, the bank grew I Bank of Florida In 1913 and drewin

fashion of the day; hunger was' a way of life timeweighed Despair off territorial to an ignominious days but in startdurti the It was all I had I am an honest and split up and made more On May 1. 1877, a Kansan, w.1 The 1885 State Bank of Florida the American Trust Company
hung like a black cloud over the city and { woman, sir God knows I have banks J. L. Marvin started a B. Barnett and his son Blon and was a private concern com in 1923.
all too heavy on the hands of Jobless bread have last decade mushroomed some 'IS In new the banks Jacksonvllle worked hard for the money, and Tampa branch, and In 1885 the one other clerk went Into menced by Henry A L'Engle,

v.IJII\er\ with another now they say I caa't get it back. National Bank of the State of ness Their Barnett Bank 'bus-I reorganized In 1895 with John C. Today the Atlantic National has
pending area yet I had saved $91, Here is my Florida was under the directionof the oldest bank still L'Engle as president, and its accounts four affiliates: Southslde i960),
The railroad tracks torn up between Jacksonville book" D. 0 Ambler and J. N, C, city today bought by the Atlantic National Springfield I 119251 Lake Forest

and, Bald 'm during the war, were restored quickly. In 1837 the Bank of Jackson i Stockton In WIO Marvin bought Bank in 1915, 119561 and the Westslde Atlantic
01'' July Jl I, l 1165. the first through train from Lake vllle was" born by petition to the I Hint My Money' the other two partners out and Like its falling predecessor, the Bank (1962).
c'uv snored in Jacksonville<< and there was a 'gen. Legislative; Council Bit by its elal'tlshed the Merchants Na- First National Bank of Florida, In 1889 the Southern Savingsand
1",11, I celebration of the event Prewar stearuship second year the president had Said the reporter: There was tto al of Jacksonville.Suileusol I It too began life in the old Freedmen Trust Company was begunby I The tool Florida Bank and Trust
hues restored service at quickly as possible and flown, having accounted to the no tear in her eye: no trembling 'a Bank In a day when the 8. B. Hubbard Changed to the Company tame Into the hands of '
the Parhngton I' in her manner Her lips came Atlantic Bank whole state had only six banks Mercantile Exchange Bank In
kiss return of such steamboats as council a net capital ol $112, and the Florida National Bank Ih 19.10
and the felon Getty formerly the St Johns) cheered Its bills were worth about 10 together with a snap I felt her I with a total deposit $353579'' 1900, it was finally bought in Since that time the Florida Na.
ptoplrs hearts :By Sept 1, 1865, The Union) could re. cents on the dollar. I long bony fligers twining about Ambler and Stockton still held Jacksonville ( residents livedin 1905 by the Florida Bank and tlonal has sired the Florida National .
;,vct viral buildings under construction ,*nd the fillY vitals' She' said, 'I want my the National Bank of the Slate 200 acres of city, and three Trust Company later the Florida Bank of Arlington (11955).
s'tablishment of A number of,new business firms. The city was then the prey of money She said it In a low toneof of Fldrida, which was the nucleus other banks were already in operation National Bank). at Lakesbore (1962). the Florida
Tin paper obsessed'The some fraudulent I shinplaster I voice but I heard the thunder. of a 1103 buyer, the Atlantic Na I but Barnett aaw potential Northslde Bank of Jacksonville
ol hundreds of voices of poor unfortunate
tonal Bank here. Two short-lived attempts were
bankers from Maine and Maryland (1957), the Jacksonville National
lion but they were exposed by men and women who the Dime Savings Bank (1890- Bank U1 and bought the 1954-
musk al the Hie and drum omenpfare
I have been deceived by those in J. M. Schumacher t and his Barnett Nationalized 1893)) and the Commercial Bank
the cheerful found of the car. the New York Herald before they Instituted Florida Dealers and
to more
hammer and xau, which are brim drained any wallets.Earliest whom they had trusted as in father.in.!law, F. E. Spinner, ex (ila93-I914). Growers Bank in 19S7
prlltcr' think tHattIe i their Cieator secretary of the U.8. Treasury, In 1888 under national charterit The Union Savings Bank of 1902
I gorxislv plied : Bunks should have Created a going con became the National Bank of was consolidated with the People
and tl fl by Some Bank
prospect /t i ertiencouraging file dit i Of several private banks then cern In 1874. It was for a while Jacksonville, and In 1908 It be 's Bank and Trust! Company in Failures
few tweet-will be left ol
anotlll'rng/ instituted, onh) Amblers Bank -East Florida first national came the Barnett National Bank. 1911
oilier Then In tall! the Bank of
.itrolls and dextrin'life fires. I1mt| the
Charleston'set herewith r 18704 had staying power It was bank. called the First National! Today it Is still family-operated In a 15-year period, five banks
the people an
driven up agency
,a anri ol tsar, that have; the latrttt A, M, Reed charge The oily three years old when a nationwide Bank of Jacksonville-but due to In its same location since 1898 Unit Savings DepartmentThe here failed, The GuarantyTrust
their homes and laid In ruins
)Irvin little noney panic aiannedthe faulty Investments in phosphate though enlarged in 1962 to stretch and Savings Bank (1905) went
and what: at no die establishment In a corner of
portion ol lies the Mr. Reeds store closed public but Its' doors stayed it folded In 1903. from Forsyth to Adams along national charter for the from receivership to transfer to
in was in
tant day toilhe apples the lalretl city loss:; by a state -law forbiddingother open: A reorganization in 1874 The Florida Savings Bank and Laura Street. It fostered an alflllate Atlantis National Bank came the U.S. Trust Company which
South state banking agencies in changed the name to Ambler National Real Estate Exchange of 1874 became the Murray Hill Barnett through in 1903, and in the fol. closed:: in 1923 The Citizens Bank
Florida. Bank. and a partnership in known simply as Oreeleys Bank, in 1956, and plans to open lowing year it became the first (1905-1932)( ) began with DuncanU
A return to normalcy was evident in November Fletcher as president When

of 186s when the Stone. Houston and Murray Circus ar At this pOint history draws a __ it failed in 1932, it was the city's
animals, daring un last bank failure
rived In town complete with wild blank: no bank-yet B H Barnett The Peoples
to thrill and cheer a Bank (1906-1929) closed when
acrobats and comic Clowns the
has a dollar bill issued July 7.
people who had their fill of warn deadly seriousness 18ot and signed by John Clark, boom did.

and suffering president and George Washington
cashier, of the second bank The Germania Bank, began in
Municipal Rovenmi I was restored by the occupation Of Jacksonville No other evidence 1912, lasted only five years The
.authorities on'Nov 2) 18h5 Mayor Hooted H extals of It I Heard National Bank lasted that
Dozens same half.decale. Heard bank
Hocg resumed control over most! city affairs
of new or revised local ordinances were passed coon Reed started another bank the was one of the largest banksin
afterward in an attempt to cut down on the numberof St Johns Bank hi IBIS, When"the the state at the time, and
freed slaves and wandering soldiers from both War Between the States began, three years after its 1917 closure,
Hides who continued to gravitate toward Jacksonvllle Reed, authorized by' early banking all depositors received 100 per
long after the end of hostilities In an attemptto laws fled to Lake City with cent on the dollar. Later they
reduce fighting In the streets among the drifters, the funds to avoid confiscation by t were even paid a dividend. Both
the jobless/ and the homeless who had too much time Federal troops (Hs notes of 15, these circumstances were uniqueIn
on their hand! and too much bitterness in their 20 2j: cents and $1 1. M, $5, $10 U 8, banking history, -
hearts, It was forbidden for unauthoriZed crowds to and 120 bore a bowl of cotton In
gather on the streets Barb and taverns were required the center and a locomotive palling In 1118 a Jacksonville branch -
to close early and a curlew was decreed A box cars in the corner I of the Federal Reserve Bank of
law was passed foi bidding people to bathe publicly Despite his caution, the war was Atlanta was established,
within the corporate limits of the city-a sanitary the cause of the bank's demise
measure made necessary bv the number of home- Later Blanks
lean people still camped on It' banks of the St Johns Frrrdman Bank > it i 1 t 1M

and using it as a public bath and toilet. In 1942 the American National
Alter the War as a part of the Bank became Southslde only

federal plan to aid ex-slaves bank. Recently In May, it openedan
One of the City Council first developmental pro)
through the Freedmen Bureau
affiliate, the American Arfing
of 1806 with the
was undertaken In January '
Freedmen Bank established
was Beach
ton Bank. The Boulevard
for 110, of property that became Hemming
purchase In 186&, Originally supposed to
Bank (1961) is an affiliate too
park. The land was donated to the city and the $10
encourage thrift among the Ne and American National has a
used to clear the title, z
fee was genes, the banks became a synonym t 'r.T facility at Mayport,
for swindle, Northerners
As 1865 drew to a close The Union observed: We demanded .an accounting Too The State Bank ot Jacksonville
notice'on every hand a spirit Improvement late the unwary Negro learned bf r opened In 1955; the Southern Industrtal .
New houses are being erected, old one repaired he'd been duped by the very or Bank in 1958; the Central
and dilapidated fences overhauled" Local progress ganlzatlon- Instituted for his benefit National Bank took over Central

was so rapid, in fact, that Jacksonville was on the The cltys Freedmen Bank Savings also in 1958; and the First
way to becoming' : major tourist resort only two Closed In 1874, and 1608 deposl Bank and Trust Company ol Jack
j years after the ;', The demand grew to rapidlythat tors nearly all Negroes, lost sonvllle. was established in 1961
a huge luxury hotel, the St James, was built their life savings.One ,

,and opened In December of Ifttd In that same month -Color by Cora R J/or4 Exclusive ,of the beach areaJacksonville ,
rile Union boasted proudly that 49 new buildings of them told her pitiful tale has attracted It
I were under construction In the city, ,with dignity to a special reporter Even in the Late 1800s Forsyth and ,Laura Was a Popular Comer for Banking; banks since 1955



.. .. .. .,. .... .. .. .
... .
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Federal Tax Agency ,."H, ''8:' ''t"f" I

:'11C' ,

I r .

I Grows as State Does

tr LAURIE W. TOMLINSON functions performed by the menu' and payment due on re-

,..... DMrM IMmtar It htanrt agency are: tune

a.._ I, Collecting and accounting for Automation I II playing an increasingly
aQ federal taxes paid with some Important part In the
A little more than one liunint I million returns filed annually service activities

year ago and shortly before by Florida taxpayers, ,
the birth of The Florida Automatical Advantage : :
Times Union Congress enactedthe 1, Furnishing advice'' and asslstance :

Revenue Act of 1862. With to the state citizens in Within the next five yean, lyi ll
this legislation there cam into the preparation and filing of data from the entire nation tax r u rl ll 1 1I
being what 1* DOW the"blfgestbiulneu their returns returns will be fed Into magneto (iph n I111t

in the world-th* Internal tape master files kept in the I I Illinll 11 11,1111,
Revenue Service S. Collecting delinquent' a> Marti naburg Computer Center : I
t It
count and securing delinquentreturns. There are several advantages to n u ll llr; ilit;
.' > 'j&\ > the taxpayer stemming from automation Nt lib ( l. l
Beginning with a commissionir principally in the area
and one clerk, and eventually 4.' Auditing tax returns for socur'Icy of improved compliance and by

adding about -UOO employees and compliance with the untiring that all taxpayers are 11 r r'' 11 t s a
the service during that first year law *> treated uniformly and fairly under w 1 ba t
collected about $100 million in 'the tax lawa
taxes In the hundred or si years t, Investigating and detecting
since then, the IRS has grown to tax frauds, With no end to Florida growthin
an organization of (0,000 employ light there is every Indication -
eel stationed in a thousand-- 'Of the more than 111 billion that Internal Revenue actlvitles ,

flee. and collecting more than we collect every year from FlorIda will continue to grow and
$105 billion a year '* citizens about 97 percent Is keep pace with the unabated

paid voluntarily in the form ef population and economic growth Ambler's Bank: Ancestor of Several Today The Barnett National Downtown Jacksonville Newest Bank: Building
The phenomenal growth ef withholding, estimated tax pay of the state. t'

Florida during the past 100 years

gas been closely paralleled by CITY'S GROWTH 'STABLE _
Internal Revenue -
'i growth In

ti, the the state population A* :

_* iK H exploded the economy aaa Potential of Jacksonville

expanded and .

j u the business
{ community ,

r I found Vernal broadened-tt Revenue leces-> As Center : .

Banking BrightBy
I lary to grow In
TOMUNSON sire and complexity
to keep pace with the

growth of the Sunshine State_
RAY E, GREEN nearly every country the world The importance of the banking Banks. state and national sky to smash an enemy or come
MM Cwrtnltor have dropped.anchor In the harbor Industry In the growth and de- creased from 199 to 343 or roaring from the aea to attack
Trends, In tax receipts are nor.molly I velopment of a stale Is a known I from December 19jO;; to tn-I the enemy whether on land 'or
a valid indicator of the '
and established fact. The commercial ber 1962 The rate growth sea,
economic progress of an area Will Rogers said once Florida The spawning of the railroad In. bank is different from 72 4 percent for the period
and this fact is very evident was the thumb of the nation duatry Into Florida launched the other financial Institutions In that I

la the growth of Florida. An example -, There Is .no challenge as to the development of the Sunshine State tt .la a multifunctional Institution At the turn of Impressive Statistics
of how tax receipts have strength of the thumb In providing by men of vision who saw the centurythere
grown along with the states I liability to the hand state great potential through the i wen 23 state chartered There were ill stats banks and
-economy la found iiusome statlatlcs .. semi-tropical lands of Florida The unique growth Florida has banks In Florida trust companies operating tram
going back to the year Florida today Ir demonstratIiItr -- experienced -since. World War 'I 1 a Today there an Jacksonville to Pensacola. and
1920-tbe first year for which Will Rogers vain.t wrong In Rapid Growth II la clearly show-n- the- assets 228 state chartered .- down to Key West as of June 30,
these figure are available his statement as It Is related to of state and federally chart- I I commercial 1963. Total assets were listed at
the role Florida Is playing\ the Certainly"Florida and Jackson- ered banks aa well as other I and trust $2342938051 Demand deposit
banks and trust
Some Ups end Downs development of the nation Florida ville have not faltered In develOping financial institutions offering speclallzed :y [ companies were reported at $1036668477
Is a vital factor In the nation Florida during the last services, while time and saving deposit

'* defense program Its aerospace decade has moved Into ninth position As of June 29, totaled $730,262,626.National ,
In the 1920 and in the
year activities, Its production in population Jackson Key Factor I 1940 then were
aftermath of World War ,I. Internal -
of food and its recreation vllle das continued to rise In Indurtrlal 0 three slate chartered banks In Florida reported
Revenue collectlona from
the state added to $15.1 mil- financial and general Population growth. resulting In I banks in deposits of $4, O.894.ooo
Iron Following the up Florida boom Standing as the gateway to our business development, heavy Increases In services and 'I Duval County for the same period.
line state Jacksonville has led demands on existing banks has with asset of
and the
during general depression the In the Industrial Its skyline reflects of been factor In the GREEN $2.553.585,
of the 1930s tax collections Uncle Sam Knows You The IRS Flies way and I a story a key growthIn There wen If state bank
financial development of FlorIda. and stands numbers and u..ta' of all
reflected the decline in the economy progress as a witnessto operating in Duval County and
Ships flying the lags of the of tomorrow. banks In Florida. total' '
and total collections for fls potential operating There wen a of 114 state they reported asset totalling

ft cal year' 1931 dropped .on to $75 banks and trust" companlea scattered $120109006
million throughout Florida with assets
totaling _$116168871 Demand Florida ranked first in the
( deposits totalled $57579,854 South excluding Texas aa of
In 1940 with the nation on the Growth Creates Tax ProblemsTHE and time deposit were. listed at June 30 1963 la deposits held
World War
verge of n. Florldlana I $27106.387. by banks The total was $5 8 billion
were paying federal taxes at the which also makes Florida
rate of $M.T million per year,
Total .In Billions tenth In the nation The popolrtics
growth and general development
Last year reflecting the tremendous STATE TAX DOLLAR I National banks reported assets of Florida since World Warn

expansion of the "PUI Structure Geared to:* State's Demands of $960915000 as of June 30, has resulted In the deposit rate
decade citizens of Florida paid L 1- liriiifiTuJUeint I 1950, and combined with state in Florida being among the highest
federal taxes at the rat of more jl 8.1 chartered banks the total---- was- -- In the nation,
than $6 million per day for an h $1712131000: ,
annual total of more than $I.J Retail sales Swdil to TU TlM tl>M tlonaj faculties, and this has resulted tangible personal'property tax: Demonstrated StabilityThe
in Increased demands there la state ad valorem tax
on no .
billion During this same period &UseTax TALLAHASSEE Dee" St-The Florida began Its post war
the state Green said He added on real and tangible personal
the annual coat of collecting the tax structure of state government era march In earnest in 1955. It liability of the growth of
revenue has Increased from $132,. 200 has been geared through the there were many challenge still property and provides a homeowner I I was then the Industrial growth Florida and Jacksonville la indicated -
to be met in this homestead exemption
000 to more than $9 million, Tax yean to the economic develop. area. from taxation a began to play a big role in the In the fact that aa of April
most of which is in payroll and ment and population growth of except assessments states economy by providing a 150''- 1964 the 12 state chartered
During he first of MFPtke for special benefits,
which in turn, has been fed back -20.0g, Florida' Comptroller Ray E. year up to third kg for an economy which banks operating In Duval County
state contributed slightly the assessed valuation of $1000
Into the -.tate'a economy. Green said ;yesterday more Ih&l$39 million to the bad leaned heavily on tourism had asset of .$134455662, while
and agriculture the total assets for all Florida
counties In 1963-64 counties received n is Green opinion that the
Fear Divisions of IRS The comptroller pointed out tax of The full dollar value of the nation chartered commercial bank and
slightly more than $246 pattern state government
however that the accelerated defense and $230BO. Increase
aerospace program trusts wen an
which $15 lora not penalize ,
million was roughly: IndustryThe
Cigarette growth of Florida during the to of million over the
The Internal Revenue organi million more than the sales and comptroller explained tt at Cape Kennedy began I $170
sation In Florida is divided into 5.4 last decade pushed the demandsfor use tax produced the comptroller have Its Impact on the state as comparable period last year,
four divisions, each hiving sep. Otter Receipts public service and aid to said appears the current tax structure industry marshaled its best ,
rate areas of responsibility The art State Taxes cities and counties beyond the will produce sufficient revenue brains to develop projects to Jacksonville which has earnedthe

Districts; UOO employees are distributed TK revenue producing ability of taxes Aid to counties In fiscal lft>3- to meet the 1963-65 budget,' meet the needs of the nation. title of Gateway City, will
throughout the state to 4.3* 0 24.8 which go Into_the general revenue 54 was approximately $114 million but the question remains to be continue to play a prominent role
20 office from Pensacola to 0 while It soared to more than answered aa to whether the In- Thousands of workers moved III the future growth and development
Key West with headquarter In Motor Veticle Tax r..+ vs ; .w.+ $300 million during the last fiscal crease will meet future demandsfor Into the state behind the delicate of Florida, Its p*
Jacksonville., Among the main 8.6 Green sail the expanded and Green pointed out. additional aid to cities and equipment and tools which wouldbe tentlal as a financial and Industrial
new tax Imposed by the 1W3 counties and for state government used to put a man In space; center is one of the bright
I Legislature was the results. Major Revenue Producer services send a missile darting into the spots In Florida and the nation
He explained there had been I ,
only five major tax increases In Sales and use tax la Florida
state government from 1931 until major revenue producer tt II
r1nh 1963. The gasoline and race track followed by the gasoline tax
y i % taxes were passed in 1931 The which does not go into the general

beverage tax was voted In 1939 revenue fund, being used exclusively 'With
and the cigarette Us was approved for road and bridge Jloriida .

In 1943. projects rowing

Sales and lie Tax Next In order as revenue producers .
during 1963-64 bever,
comptroller wen
The said the isles
ue taxes $55 S million: cigarette
and use tax was passed In 1949
$5S I million: intangible tax,
and was expanded slightly in J
$271 million and documentary
1957 when coffee went to 11 .
$21 million,
stamp tax
cents a Cup and again In 1959

kits live Cigarette cents tax In 1949 was and Increased Incorporated to. The comptroller laid during the THE NO. 1 NAME IN
last fiscal year receipts (income ,
communities, towns and cit
s from taxes totaled $793923.339He ,
ies were authorized to keep the
explained however; that only MILK COTTAGE ICE CREAMCHEESE
tax collected within their corporate
limit $362.092.9S went Into general revenue -
+ a for the operation ef state
government The remainder went
due requested additional aid
for roads trust funds and other
In 1963 and the tax was Increased
projects and activities
to I centa."Orowth .
Education Demands I
is- necessary and vital
to a state cities and counties if Education Is growing In Its de-
they are to aurvlve"' Green said mands, the comptroller pointed .:
"WhIle growth indicates a healthy out; and be added education Is I r .
ecooomIo condition, k also create receiving about tiUIf'rcen( of
problems which "must be the funds appropriated in'the I"
solved,"' 1963-65 budget. He said education

health and welfare, receivea
The comptroller said state government combined total of approximately
made Its major step Into M percent of tilt slightly more
the field of aiding counties with than $960 million budget for the
(Sock row) Jului Conor, Gxxg Wit' Jimmy ltd Bo .n, ttony Ctlta the of the gasoline tax current two-year period.
rant fowl Adtlo,d> and John f.Ambrm passage
in 1931 Counties were In critical :
financial condition dueto the General government, which Includes .

They called themselves "Ambrose the Printer"This collapse of the land boom which the executive legislativeand
left them heavily burdened with Judicial branches is receivIng eal tan
road bond programs, be said slightly more than S percent ed Quality makes
photograph was taken In 1920 -, seven after John F. or about the same percentage It. ...N ....
years Race Track Funds received la 195152: the comptroller .

Ambrose) opened his one man print shop at 425. E. Bay St. Today- The comptroller explained each said the difference

45 years later the picture at Ambrose has changed. It's gotten county race track received fund the$9.221 first from year the it While motor vehicle llcenwi

_bigger., It has more employees, new end ,larger, was county in received effect LIlt_$234000.fiscal each wen revenue the producer second biggest during the general last .A delicious difference you can. taste
fiscal, with $631 million only
quarters, more presses with greater capacity and part of the fund goes Into gen-
The 1947 Legislature approved
f eral Green said part of Service Throughout Florida
speed all to serve Its customers better. But over the Minimum Foundation Pro. It is earmarked revenue for a school construction -
gram MFP, Green point** out -
the years the most Important thing hasn't changed. this was direct aid to countiesto trust,fund JACKSONVILLE; ORLANDO TAMPA

The Ambrose quality. 'You know John Ambrose dren assure a minimum Florida education.school chll Tax ,Summary MIAMI FORT MYERS ST. PETERSBURGWEST

really started something utumo oooo IMMIUIONI nwa mi In summarizing :Florida tau PALM BEACH 'MARIANIUTALLAHASSEE DAYTONA BEACH
The population growth of FlorIda. lion, the comptroller laid :Florida
Which to now ninth In the Is prohibited from levying an la- I PENSACOLA CAlNESVlUECENTENNIAL
. nation hat created tremendous come tax: It has no duplicating
.. demand on counties for educa- Inheritance tar. It levies an'In-

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BANKING'S on. a Firm Footing


Today Jacksonville -

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As history records it, Jacksonville's first bank opened in 1837 began operations'in a building at Main and Forsyth (Pine, at Banking hit its stride after the turn of tine century. Today, "
with a nominal capital of $75,000 as the Bank of Jacksonville. that time) where the Diana Shop now stands. with 20 commercial banks,the business of banking in Jack.
", Two years later, on direction of the Territorial Council, this Of interest to all today's high financiers is the following notice sonville is thriving and progressive. Modern, electronic equip. "1
bank closed its doors bills worth i0C: the bank and handle
( as its were. only < on ment and well-schooled officers employees
which at the pf the bank's :
was published beginning operation
dollar. financial transactions with ease, speed and efficiency.The ,.
"Deposits received from 5 it upwards, and interest '
Nobody was too arfxiois to get into the banking business credited 3 times a year at the rate of 5%. Special banks of today are a strong, contributing factor to the
again until 1849, when a storekeeper A M. Reed, opened an rates allowed to business men and others who desire city's economy Combined deposits and loans reflect the importance
agency of the Bank of Charleston. His banking room was a to deposit on short time" of f locaFbanks in assisting individuals and companies .
;bl. small space boarded off in his store Mr. Reed's banking in their ever-growing financial'needs.
.: business did pretty-good As a matter of fact, it lasted until W L. Coan, Cashier
;t". 1856. But then the roof fell in when the legislature passed a "THE BANK THAT NOBODY KNEW" might be the title of an Fifteen suburban banks have brought neighborhood banking
I\. law affecting bank agencies of other states. doing business in services closer to the customer and along with five downtown
interesting anecdote about earlier 19th century banking in
"F Florida. banks feature such special services "as drive-in auto
Jacksonville. The possible existence of a Bank of Jacksonville '
Was Mr, Reed discouraged? Possibly. But )just before the #2 in the 1850's was flimsily evidenced by a dollar bill issuedin tellers and parking facilities.
outbreak of the Civil War, A. M. Reed organized the Bank of its name July 7, 1851, and signed by John Clark as president Customer services and conveniences are the keynote to all .
,\ St. Johns. It did pretty well, too, but then came,the war. As late as 1924, the bill was reported to have been in banking today and Jacksonville's twenty commercial banks
j, and again Mr. Reed was left in the lurch.' possession of the late B. H.Barnett.No other f fecord,however, will continue to play a vital role\ in making this city a'major
After the Civil War T- and just a couple of years after the has been uncovered as supporting evidence of the existenceof metropolitan center of business industry and finance in the
Florida Times.Union began publishing, the Freedmen's Bank The Bank of Jacksonville, #2. future years.

\ 1\ill EMBER: : : BANKS I


: I

''1< The Atlantic National Bank, of Jacksonville. Westside. Atlantic Bank S

i The Barnett National Bank of Jacksonville Florida National Bank of Arlington '.' S., '' ; .
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i; The Florida National Bank of Jacksonville Florida Dealers and Growers Bank ,
.f "
: Springfield Atlantic Bank Riverside Bank of Jacksonville :" ,: :,'

The. State Bank of. Jacksonville First Bank & Trust Company of Jacksonville. ,/ "

Central National- Bank of Jacksonville S Florida Northside Bank of Jacksonville "

Murray Hill Barnett Bank Jacksonville National Bank n ..
Southside Atlantic Bank Florida National Bank at Lake Shore .
Lake Forest Atlantic Bank



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-Color ty Shtrrtl Xhoadtt

The Smoke from Germ-Killing, Bonfire Lingers Over Jacksonville in this View of the City Looking West from About What. I* theFoot, of Catherine Street Today

Yellow! Fever: :, ,I A, Killer Stalks the Streets I

I By RICHARD A MARTIN, Centennial Edition Editor -fafa *


Only the Rattle of Death Carts .Broke the Uncanny Stillness in 1888

An unusually hot summer gripped Jacksonville in 1888 chairman of a powerful JASA executive committee that with :34 deaths. On the next day 37 new cases were reported entry to any save authorized persons Similar cordons
The breezes that made life bearable In the city during virtually held the power of life and death over every citizen and from that time on the fever swept like wildfire through surrounded major communities for hundreds of miles in
the day and which cooled the land in the respite.of evening in the city throughout the epidemic the community On the one day of Sept 19, lIe new cases every direction. Many people caught on the roads when
flowed and then died away completely. People took broke out and 20 people died of the fever In all, 4.700 people the epidemic hit were forced to wander aimlessly or live
to' itaytnc Indoors to avoid the heat. business ell off In the months that followed the JASA dispensed hundreds were stricken with the fever and 427 died. Most of these in the woods for weeks and even months before finding a
and the streets at noon showed little sign of life of thousands of dollars In relief money, clothing, cases broke out after the mass exodus from the city was over haven. A Times-Union correspondent wrote from Mariannaon
food and medicine to Jacksonville needy and fever sufferere and while the population was reduced to approximately Sept. -'My: advice to the people of Jacksonville Is to
At the railroad station and wharves there was consider. The money and supplies came from the federal 13,000 people' This meant that approximately one out of remain at home till the fever scare subsides The further
abl activity, however, as those who could afford passage to novernment and from contributions sent by cities all over three'residents who remained in the city caught the fever you g* from the infected districts the worse it gets" It is
cooler climes gathered their families for vacation trips the United States, and of that number roughly 10 percent, died. much safer to fight the fever than to light the fear of.It:'

Most of the tourists' who swelled the town populationeach As- the number of yellow fever victims mounted. Col. The whole nation, and particularly the rest of Florida People could still leave the city if they agreed to goby
winter season had long since gone Now the few Daniel rallied the cll"s remaining Inhabitants Let us,"_ and neighboring states; was panic-stricken at the thought way of any 'of the refugee camps set up in the surrounding
holdouts followed and on their heels went the gamblers, he said "show the world that we have confidence In our of the fever spreading beyond Jacksonville Citizens of countryside where they lived in quarantine for
con men and shady ladies who. played the tourist circuit own resources and that we are not panic-stricken people. Waycross Ga., for example threatened to !tear up the railroad 10 days. At the end of that time if they still got a clean I
from New England to Florida the year around. Hotels and but that the old spirit of 'never fall still prevails in the tracks passing through their town if refugees were bill of health, they could travel out of the state
boarding houses closed M did many shops in the downtown breasts and conduct of the citizens of Jacksonville" permitted to pass through their town, The fact that refugee '
section while their owners headed for the mountains Even trains ran through the city at high speed with locked windows
the mayor of Jacksonville, C. B. Smith, and a number While contributions poured In from an alarmed and
Meanwhile the fever gained momentum. By Aug 21' and doors apparently made no difference ,
of other key members of the city government, gave some 45 new cases had been reported with eight deaths. sollcltlous nation New York City alone sent 1108,199), the
in to the heat and left the city On Sept 2. there were 25: cases in a single day with two A shot gun quarantine'" was set up around Jack. city dug in grimly for its siege
deaths bringing the total to that date to 259 fever casea sonvllle Armed guards circled the city barring exit or
The traffic was not an one way, however. Late In At the height of the epidemic an uncanny stillness settled
July R. D. McCormick a Tampa businessman, stoppedIn over the city at night disturbed only by the rattling
Jacksonville to visit with relatives. He checked In at of the death carts The drone of mosquitoes reverberatedover
the Grand Union Hotel and on July 28 was reported sick the heads pf unsuspecting victims plotting ways and
Dr. Neal Mitchell wai summoned to his room and diagnosed < means to defeat a disease that was rendered even more
the case His findings: Yellow fever. .lethal by their Ignorance

Those words wen enough in the lions to make a ghost .
( "\ fT'"'' Some of the methods taken were extreme. In the dark
; '
the In like Jacksonville
town of largest city. a community '
dependent on tourists lor much of its income yellow fever I'/V', !\ ; ,.} 1/'j'f' 1 concerning how to combat the disease, people believed thatif
could mean the difference for a businessman or hotel owner i ,. "I' ',i' j / 'i."f'fI. \ they stayed Indoors from sunrise to sunset they could
; .. it. But shut in their houses abroad at when
between a profitable season and bankruptcy M \4'N ,?da '" ( "' .t.l 1\\I"'i, escape or night
the mosquitoes were at their worst, they were probably
ri I' : { .
Dr. Mitchell knew this He called in the city health .pif c"rste '. .)I: 1JI: ;" ) .;' making themselves more vulnerable,

..officer, Dr C. J. Xenworthy and another doctor. J. Y. 1,.' ':' lVJ\1iI\ : : i I
Porter of Key West to verify: his findings They agreed with !>i i ,'. "'U' .$"'I One method that produced results *as that of "concus

the original diagnosis Now began a battle to isolate the :l'4/, ;: sion" It was believed that the firing Of a heavy cannon
fever and prevent It from spreading.But h i ; > M: 1--1 would stun the yellow fever microbes and kill them. Cannon

on Aug t, four new cases were diagnosed: The I were fired with the only results that windows in several
victims were moved by stealth at Midnight to St Luke churches and other buildings were shattered,
Hospital and the Band Hills Hospital in an effort to pre.
vent word of the fever from leaking out But secrets of ." ., .' But exploding piles of gunpowder Indoors probably did
such weight can rarely be kept. Overnight a fullblown kill mosquitoes and safeguard Inhabitants-and many people -
patio developed and on the early morning of Aug I the .. did Just that believing concussion would kill the yellow
beginnings of a mass exodus from the city was under way lever germs

In abort order Tallahassee Palatka, st. Augustine Fernandlna '
An anecdote current during the epidemic told of a
Savannah Charleston and Mobile declared quarantine
Negro who walked down a street in the city and failed
Jacksonville. These towns and cities were ,'t
to notice a cannon until it was fired within so feet of him.
but the first of many that would bar their doors against f Pt
man, woman and child from Jacksonville The quarantines b
the "Good Lawd. how thick dey do fall," he was reportedto
cut the lines of trade and commerce barring .
have exclaimed as the dust settled over him thinking
transport even of machinery timber or newspapers from *'
the dust cloud of dead fever ,
was a yellow germs
Jacksonville by rail steamship or wagon a

B was DO wonder that those who 'could flee Jackson Huge flits of pine and tar were kindled at night In t
vllle did so in. a panic. On Aug (. the day after word of 1 different parts of the city to purify the air and prevent the
the fever leaked out. The Times-Union reported: "Every spresjd of infection The Times-Union was filled with ads
train and steamer going out ((01.town is loaded to the for miracle curt alls and yellow fever remedies
utmost capacity and drays carriages 'and wagons laden

with trunks, furniture and people roll depot-ward all t e An enterprising tourist spot advertised: ,
day. Refugees on foot congested every road out of the

city. Steamers threatened to capsize with the numbers of Citizens of Jacksonville who desire to avail themselvesof
people clinging to every available space above and below
the advantages of a health resort while the yellow fever
decks. prevails win find Highlands N.C.. all that can be desired.
Within two weeks Jacksonville was cut off from the rest Pure, soft water Invigorating air and beautiful scenery far
of the world. Business was paralysed Many of toe thou. removed
sands of people who either would not or could not leave
lava were Jobless. Food became scarce. Some people took advantage of the .lull in business and
the suspension of normal activities in the city to go else..
The city desperately needed aasistance'and leadership, where and continue in much the lame fashion as they
yet many of Jacksonville political and business leaders always had.safely. removed. from the ravages of the
were on vacation or bad removed themselves and their fever '
.families to safety.Fortunaiely f'

there were men 'with the moral courageto The Atlanta Journal on Sept. 27, reported typical
"The Jacksonville Refuge dub, .which la oom-
stay and the know-bow to take over in an emergency. group
These formed the Jacksonville Auxiliary Sanitary Association
men and elected Col. J. J. Daniel as. president and A Patient, Stricken ,with Yellow Fever Is Carried to St. Luke's Hospital4 Continued on Page t-C-Columa J)


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Paving Blocks Float Away with Rain

* *

A Pioneer Arlington Resident Viewed Jacksonville of 1.880s as Anything But Promising


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I At Left It the Jacksonville Waterfront. It Appeared in 1884, Looking East'from Liberty Street Toward Commodore Point While at Right the View from the Same Area la Toward Riverside I IB

y NANCY CAMPBELL When the fever became an epidemic, Hawley recalled general He didn't remember whether or not the friend contracted the leased to the Tmetla Corporation during the real estate boom la
Toe.-u.N. awl WrIMJacksonville exodus to Northern cities. Remaining resident who were still attending fever, but "I know be had a large headache the next day." 1925-26.: "

to business walked in the middle of the streets to avoid Onv
contamination, Lack *f Lead Reuse Malbtrry
wu viewed as anything but a promising town by
William Frost Hurley one of Arlington pioneer resident when Many rumors abounded about the causes and prevention of tha Among Hawley's complaints of JscksoovUl la th*days before Oat of the spot around JaeksonvUlt that most impressed
the fire till lack of "food lunch Hawley was a 1.400-acrt plantation la the Tukoo section known
for health reasons, he settled her In IBM fever. of 1901 was rooms.
.u Mulberry drove.

The tact that the town wu but a patch oa the map and naval Concussion Theory ."Bettillnl's wail Ugh else saloon and winery with aa adjoining Another showplace la Hawlty' eyes was on the south aid of
store and timber were the two main businesses teamed unimportant lunch room, but no on. could eat there without ordering
the St. Johns exclusive residential section.! It "Villa
now aa wu
to Hawley. at the taw. ClImate wu the big itenu He wu "An eminent authoress. Mrs, Ellen K. Ingram supported thetheot'1 drinks. A man by the name of Otis started a lunch room on East Alexandria," hoots of Mr, Alexander Mitchell, one of the
escaping harsh Nebraska and nilnoU winters ta an effort to re- that yellow fever was caused by microbes She further Bay Street but because hi wu cranky, It wu never very popular, founders of St. tuke's Hospital Mitchell wu Florida's first millionaire
advocated the extermination of microbes by concussion theory
cover his health which hid failed after a siege of typhoid complicated
financier of Chicago and. Milwaukee, a railroad organiser
by pneumonia. also attributed to Col. Luck "Concussion" Hardee of Jacksonville "The first real nice place wu operated by a man named ,
and president of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul
'- Accordinglyclty officials had four cannons-brought from Elliott In the Everett Hotel. When he left the cloy, hi sold out to.: "- -
Hawley took a Job at a lumber camp for ll-a-day until be the fort at St. Augustine.\ These plus one from the Wilson Battery -. one of Us waiters, W. P. GUbreath, who operated the pIece to Railroad.- -
became 'strong and sturdy" and then became the first stenog4 In Jacksonville, were set off at Intervals in downtown sections style for many years. He described the house u "not so prepossessing from the outside -.
her ever employed by the John Clark; Orooery Bud Ship after nightfall. The result wu great damage to store windows but elaborately furnished and finished with article purchased
Chandlery store at the corner of Bay and Newnan itreeti. and front while_the fever raged on. Even GllbnaUTs vans disappointment after ate Ore. on Mrs. Mitchell's trip abroad."

Tar was burned in barrels on the street as a disinfectant. Starring-Hawley dropped In to find an empty restaurantand
Interviewed la IMOs A Trip t* Pabl
Authorities sprayed homes and locations when fever raged with nothing.In the kitchen but a few crust of stale rye bread."Hokey

Many of ht early impression of the city wen related In aa mixtures of copperas, sulphur and lime. The Grand Union Hotel Other of the old resident's tunHf-tbHta1w7 reflections recorded
let cart pushed by colored la
where the first case originated wu condemned and burned by Pokey" cream men Mis Included to Pablo Beach the
interview conducted by ROM Shepherd, a local woman who wu a by Shepherd a trip on
started steward In
"nice white suits" wen by a Mr. SlmpUns, a
member of the WPA wnten' Program during the 1930) the fin department. Fourth of July via, a ferry to South Jacksonville and a train on toMa1Po
the St. James Hotel who operated a sea food restaurant and

He described Bay Street-"the principal business street"-a Another rumor held champagne u a preventative.Howley started the first block ice cream business In Jacksonville. :. 'I '

bordered by retaining walla on the Southslde-where the St. Johns "There wen several! coaches and three long flat c..... TIlt
recalled purchasing halts dozen bottles and Invitinga Eventually, Hawley recalled, "Slmpldns opened a very exclusive -
River came within half a block and scattering strings of Negro latter were fitted out with board benches running crosswise on the
friend to bill room to "vaccinated. eating plac In the Aragon Hotel Building. which wu
and stretched the top to keep off
shacks on the northslde. 'car a tarpaulin across sun or
sudden showers. Aa the train left South Jacksonville, the fireman
-- -

Bay wu paved with cypress blocks which Hawley recalled u ; :;it started shoveling In the'-', the cinders flew out, streaked back
causing ntolel worry to the city fathers After each big rain ta a steady stream and set fire to the tarpaulin, dropping through
the blocks would float toward the St. Johns River In a wave of and burning holes in the whit dresses of the ladles."

flood water many of them washing Into the river and others piling
Hawley also recalled the first Oyd nn* steamer that cam
up on the kvrt at the foot of Street" ra'1'' {S',
\ m F A rr12 to Jacksonville In 188$ and berthed at the foot of Hogan Street anda .
railroad that from Arlington llayport with two
The Riverside section was then mostly marsh; "One had to spur ran
1 cross railroad tracks and horse-car tracks to get then" and once ::: trains each way per day.

you arrived the odor from the sewage disposal that settled in O k "Alexander Wallace developed this section and bunt the road
coves and sloughs along the river was "very offensive." for cash. He bad planned to extend the line to South Jacksonville -

but died before plans were completed. After his death, the
Fairfield Fairground property wu involved In much litigation and in the end the service

The (fairground located In Fairfield <"a town ID Itself"), wit 7 Q wu discontinued\ the iron rail ripped up and shipped to Cuba

among the Important landmarks In Jacksonville ta those days It rG f, after the Spanish-American war."

served as one terminus of the mule-operatel'streetcar t line. The Hawley's: Later Yean
latter was considered a great boon by the Fair Association (com "
posed of Duval County's most prominent citizens) as the line 1l' After marriage to Eva Cuzner In 1890, Hawley worked UTears
replaced steamboats that formerly had carried people going to the Y >R's for the Jacksonville and Key West Railroad Co., now part of
fair from the foot of Newnan Street to what was later named Com the Atlantic Coast Line, u secretary to the superintendent, C. :0.
modore's Point Ackerly.

At the time Hawley talked John Clark; into purchasing a type Hawley. went home to Ollmore (near Arlington)) each Wednesday
writer and hiring a stenographer all business In Jacksonville and Saturday evening.
e was credit-usually 60 to 90 days and "10''" of old.timers
settled their bill only once year" ""I would walk to East Jacksonville and pay a Negro M centsto .
row ma to Arlington. From there. I walked the four miles
An honest face seemed all that was necessary to establish home.
credit as Hawley found out when a clothing dealer (Alexander
Bite-Waller). known u "Ritzy" to some, -"outfitted me from the Upon his retirement in 1934 Hawley moved to Commerce
skin" Street In Arlington to reside with tall daughter, Mrs, Mu Kenyon.
In 1935 ha began publishing "The Arllngtonlan" and continued
Although Florida's mild climate and sunshine proved Hawley's ; printing the weekly; for 14 years although the paper wu financed
salvation health.wise. the yellow fever epidemic In JacksonvilleIn entirely on donations
1388 posed a temporary threat.
Interested In the history of the area Hawley spent much time
Hawley Is Slrickel .r doing research and recorded !hi* findings in the ArUngtonlaa along
with th* news.
Hawley was one of acme 4.000 citizens to contact the fever but
recovered shortly and wu Issued an Immunity card by his attending Hawley wu born In New Orleans, Louisiana, ta 1861 and died
physician A. T. Cuzner, who later became his father-In.law, Bay Street from the Everett Hotel: 3-Story Building at Right, Became Home of The Times-Union In 1900 in Arlington Feb. 19, 19SI. -

I Fire Gets to First Hospital Before First PatientsBy I

JOHN R, .BARRY The Ladles Benevolent Society had four beds and some table and III statement of policy contained Ashley Ttan-lUM SUH 'WrIM first got busy in December 1872 and chair. A far cry from today the following commentary: ; A 60-bed two-story hospital wu a new building. In 1677 a yellow philanthropist WllUam Astor upon action to open oa a yearly baste
.and promoted a fair to raise US-plus-bed medical center at St. built, It never opened. In July of fever e >pd> e m Ie hampered his death in 1892. wu taken at a reorganization
funds. On March iI, 1873. a two- Lukis, but It wu a beginning. "The hospital Isopen to the that year, Just before receiving progress on the hospital but after meeting of the association oa
The War Between the States room frame dwelling In East sick and destitute from all partsof patients, the building wu' destroyed It passed, the epidemic only Hardly had the new hospital's April 4, 1882. -
bad ended and In the eight yearsof JacksonvUl between Duval and The name of the founding organization the country and) In no can by fin. Fortunately, the laid stress oa lbs need for the doors opened when, in March
adjustment leading to 1873 the Monroe streets opened Its doorsto wu changed to Th hu admission been refused to association was insured and muchof hospital and Its progress spurted 1879, a new ward wu added; The 1682 reorganization
permanent population of Jacksonville shelter th* sick. The shelter Relief Association of Jacksonville those who, upon examination by the loss wu recovered. The forward once .,aIa. In December In 1880 adjoining property wu constitution provided
a authorising
rose from 2,000 to If --.- I I a physician, were pronounced Dally Florida union\ called the 1876 the new hospital wu opened acquired Vor,future expansion. a hospital superintendent, a
000 Tourist and convalescents subject for the hospital fin a "dastardly act by an incendiary. under the name St !ouk.'. Hospital -
seeking health cures multiplied .'* and Infirmary yearly Opentloa Starts Introduction
( this permanent resident growth J 7 Hospitals Serve Area I Ladle Tend Sick
many times each winter. New site Foul Having demonstrated the need Oddly enough, an this effort wu Istratlon of the association for
I i Ladle of the association tended for the hospital's existence and for the' support of a part-tun the first time However, the
the sick and local doctors donated sun another alto wu purchased also the stability of the organl.zaUon. hospital. During the first nine ladles maintained control of theI8IOC1at1OD"
New faOa 01-\he Jacksonville :Duval County has seven general hospitals serving the Jacksonville their services, In a little this time on Palmetto be association began to years_ of Its" ,operation, the hospital ,
scene Included war refugees, area (now estimated to have_a population of 800,000)), more than seven months afterIt Street between Monroe and :Du receive annual contributions from wu opened only between >
veterans seeking new opportunities val and the continued efforts of wealthy donors. Its' first substantial Oct. I and 1. B not
workers for the growing The total general hospital bed In :Duval County, accordingto opened Its doors, the deficiencies wu Final Reside
the ladles of St. Luke Hospital bequest. In the amount until that
1883 the hospital wuSt
lumber industry, tourists and the latest data of the division of hospitals and nursing tomes of the two-room "hospital"became ,
health-seekers. of the Florida State Board of Health, Is 1435. quit apparent.On :The hospital by this time listed

seven medical and two homeopathic
There are another 63 beds available at Hope Haven Hospital, Oct. if. 1673, a meeting doctor on lit staff. A pioneer
Florida's climate had been reported which Is general hospital also but which Is primarily a children wu held and St. Luke Hospital '" female physician, MalvlnaReichard.

widely u being beneficial hospital. Association wu formed Mrs. wu employed In 1681 -
to health and wu particularly Alexander Mitchell wu named
Improvement Noted U' the first resident physician
advantageous to victims of tuber president and In* ladies really
.. : hospital superintendentNurse
culosis. Many came to Jacksonville 'I Th 1,503 general hospital beds (including those U Hop rolled up their sleeves to meet -
on advice of physicians Haven) average out at three bed per 1,000 of population, an Uw challenge before them.
.Borne of these sufferers soon depleted Improvement over the SJ per 1,000 figure found in a 1961 recruits. were bard to
their finances and found "' survey of Jacksonville-area hospital needs. However, planned Mrs. Mitchell, who -remained! find In11.. early 1880s but in
themselves destitute and under way are expansions at Duval Medical Center and president for X3 years, held 1681 a class with tare students
I Baptist Memorial Hospital.In many benefit attain at her villa wu begun. One young lady

Concent Triggers Action I hospital beds Jacksonville has on the Southslde in subsequent It- finished the course and remained
addition to the general continuedand
u a nurse. search
But that tint
wu aa
I one osleopathle hospital with 21 beds two psychiatric hospitals ; If" more attractive program
Community leaders were awareof with a total of 66 beds, and 35 nursing homes or home for especially busy one, The ladles .: were offered, including two yean 4
the irowlng-number of indigent the aged with a total of 1.113 beds. There is another, unlicensed, began organising for a fair to beheld :: of tnIDIa,. This effort launched
sick and concern led to action alcoholla It buM In February 1874 and the effort ._
psychiatric hospital serving patients primarily
f"i ,' ; -iI. : in 1893 recruited six ,o\lDl1tcl1et
produced U'I2O.u.Art :
A spark that moved several bedI. ; and the effort won the respectof
dedicated community women to i' the doctors. St. Luks'a Hospital
Occupancy: Rate. objects, linens silk and ;.
the challenge occurred
meet finally wu a complete hospital
when a frtend'-e81 and penniless According to :Dr, C. L. Nayfleld. director of the SBH hospital such items wen donated by the entity. -
stranger died on a Jacksonville and nursing horn division, occupancy of the existing general wealthy including Jacksonville'srich
street hospital beds rang from a high of 97 percent at null (59 winter visitors HouMwlvti ';"
n beds), private Riverside Hospital to 71 percent at Brewiter contributed cake, >plea> candles, The Job next confronting ttos
Hospital (166 beds). Jellies pickles, needle craft and 'rr b association leadership wu to
Public action cl7l1aI112ed'U a other article Mr. X.: Hudnall, keep St, Luke's Hospital operating
result of this chilling Incident and :Data from the I9M report of the Florida :Development Com, proprietress of the then new St. in pace with growing media
In December 1872, the Ladles mission, Division of Hospitals, shows that the hospital bed needsof Johns House, contributed a popular knowledge. This wu DO easy
.Benevolent Society wu formed. the Jacksonville area are for 1,317 bed, or 41 bed per 1,000 Item-teent doughnuts that task In view of several generalfinancial
.The: founders Included Mrs (based on a population estimate (1962) of 403.000)The report sold for a nice >profit.> caIam1t1tt which beset
Theodore Hartridge, Mrs. J. :D based on 1902 figures Indicate Jacksonville needs another 1029 the nUn community. But way
Mitchell, both wire of physV bed and that 55.56 percent of the need hu been met (These The drive for a larger hospital were found and Bt. Lux*'* it today -
clans: and Mrs. ArisUdes ::00,. figures showed :Duval County had 1J88 beds, when the report went forward and by 1674 a new a keystone la our community
gull, wife of an attorney. wu being ccmptled.1' .) site wu, found at Market and Luke'i Staff Poses Before Hospital on Palmetto Street in 1880t hospital


I' .-/ 0\ a a I.iii


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'"::' f' '" "r71, ', .'rf'TF f' r::';:':: .t p e( r .J"f "IIl"t' trr:1..Y:::; f ;:: S r ';: +i ry J,: .'_::"?r ,:,.,t:-.::;." ;',:':'::',;:',1; :: ;... '4 '..:,. .o' ':" :::'.:_ ..: : :. .., .. .. ., ., ..: ..,."' .... .. ." .:. :" :, r\ir.; :;.".'..:.""J :"';. )": J: ,
r I ,




EpidemicOf 6 ::1:1t 1 19'q'A4 1F 1M

4 ? t 5 P

-h n x'j ,,

Fever ,'

__ -a ,


Fells City '1 1t

(Continual from Page 1O % ; ;t q

posed of young men of Jacksonville temporarily In Atlanta _
win tender Miss Hattie Biker a bat and reception at the ti"ra. Y

Grant House Friday TI1 _

L1 .:
Others-th* heroes of the siege-stayed to work tire kaa
leanly and anonymously In any capacity they could Col.
Daniel and 15 other members of the JAM died as martyr
for the city and people they loved All of these men had the

mean to leave Jacksonville, and a* business lowed and e
finally came to a halt, none of them stood to fain mattri.ally .

by remaining Yet they stayed, answering with their '

Eves the Christian question, "Am I my brother's keeper" ', __ ,, k m1Pa

,*' Many othe.... In'every calling and elation In life stuckto '

their poets and died tarrying out jobs that had to be

On Nov. 26. 1888. the temperature fell to freezing and
the epidemic was generally considered at an end although
deaths from the fever were still reported la the first few
days of December.

While refugees turned for home and streamed back Into

the city once again hundreds of squads of health workers
fumigated every dwelling In Jacksonville process that
lasted well Into January. ,The fumigation has since been
credited with preventing a recurrence of the fever the following .

rear by completely exterminating the mosquito ,
carriers of the disease that tad managed to survive, the
cold *;

By Christmas the city was well on the way to becoming -
normal. Not a bright Christmas that year of 1888 not
one for making merry. Built was a Christmas filled with
thanksgiving as the survivor of the yellow fever epidemic
in Jacksonville turned optimistically toward the new year
The yellow fever siege of Jacksonville had been lifted
at last. Possibly for the first time In It* history Jacksonville -Color tjf Cora Rallori

gloried that year In a good old-fashioned "Yankee"
winter-the colder the better. A Sentry Stand 'Shotgun Quarantine' Duty at Sand Hill Hospital During the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1888

____ __ _ _

, Col. Daniel: ATrailBlaaerAnd .H A Grateful City


a Martyr in EpidemicBy f Gives Reward ',

RICHARD A. MARTIN a huge hotel and every modern Daniel wrote to Influential men to offset the damage of these o> m ,
C. U. UI MHMi San facility for the entertainment, around the nation promoting rumor and his promotional campaign + + h hr To Dr. PorterOne
CoL James Jaqueltn Daniel recreation and comfort of guest Florida pitched into high gear with ;r Y S a a ad l

who died a martyr In the Jacksonville and residents several full.time employes work' a

yellow fever epidemic of When the Sub-Tropical Exposition lug under his direct supervision., 7y 5A ol the heroes of the yellow first volunteer physician to accept

1S88, was a Florid. pioneer in The colonel also founded! and opened an event of unpar- At this time he. was also: a contributor -' fever epidemic that struck Jacksonville the city's call.for profession
more than one tens of that directed the East End Shell Road elled magnificence at that time in the drafting of "new fa 1888 was Dr. JosephY. al aid Members of the emergency '
word. Company, which built a toll road Daniel headed the official greeting city health ordinances active In Porter of Key West who was City Council headed by
skirting the St. Johns In, East party for President GraverCleveland the creation of a state board of later to become the first state Acting Mayor D. T. Gerow, who
He came to Florida In a covered Jacksonville It I II In the char. and delivered the Address j health, directing the financing health officer fa Florida. had remained behind omen many ,

wagon IS year before the acter of the man that a* president to the President speakingfor and construction of a city sanitation of the city fathers left the city, l
War Between the State and lived and one of the company the city and state He referred system working1 for Improved While on a visit to Dr. Neal greeted him' warmly f /
In a log cabin in the wildernessof principal stockholders, he was In- to Florida people as "a city streets and road, > e6 Mitchell at Jacksonville.: Dr.
Nassau County before movingto strumental fa winning for the people who represent not only anew writing a history of the Episcopal Res Porter was called In to help diagnose Head Relief Service

Jacksonville fa 1847. For many traveling public the battle to re- South but a new era of Church fa Florida drafting a one of Dr. Mitchell case "
years be wa a surveyor of virgin move toll gate closest to the American life." revision of the Episcopal Council The diagnosis was yellow fever Dr. Porter said be "consentedto
woodlands owned by the government city '* constitution and taking en e ,. tatia the first authentic case' recorded assume charge of what was
that fa the IJ 88 epidemic. afterwards known a* the Government
In this state. In But be couldnt .top' working the Job of managing the states
capacity be trail.blazed vast largest newspaper. On May 1. Relief Service"
By 1887 despite the efforts of to advance Florida, not even long
areas of unexplored Florida territory 1888. he was named president of Dr. Porter returned to Key
men like Jaquelln Daniel, California to
the He
enough enjoy fair and
and his contemporariescredited the newly organized Florida Publishing West and In his absence the Dr. Porter took direction of all
competition with Florida of River
colleagues the St. Johns
him with being the first Co. publisher of Th epidemic began to take form. By nurses under pay of the government
was becoming keen-and Floridawas Bar Committee ,
a groupof the loth of August at least one and soon assumed fa rapid
white man to sail a boat acrossLake teen to be losing the fight Florida ,Times-Union..
visiting U.S. senators aboarda
Jacksonville physician had fallen succession the command of the
Okeechobee. for[ tourists and settlers. The
new river steamer here to
argue In the middle of May. Daniel' victim to the disease and many sanitary cordon the control of
Times-Union aroused Floridians
for more federal aid for the aA other were stricken Physicians medical supplies for the Indigent
Florida Booster work as president of the Florida
about the situa'
to do something
Jetties and st Johns River bar. '
Immigration Association\ cams to were needed desperately and a sick, the supervision of tilt city
tion. Among other things the Legislature I So successful was he, that the
call for help was broadcastthroughout hospitals, and finally the "en-
But It I* not in this sense alone passed an act creatingthe a bead when the association met
senators passed a resolution callIng -
the state, tire onerous burden of dll1nfect-
that CoL Daniel wa a pioneer. Florida Sub-Tropical Exposition hi convention here. "The causewe -
for one million dollars for
log every house fa the city where
fa Florida development have fa hand, is the people'scause
Be was a pioneer
Incorporated by, among
the Jetties work. One senator fa
Dr. porter was following the a case of yellow fever had occurred.
It I the interestwe
and promotion others Col. J., J. Daniel ThisWorld's people'
: closed the meeting with a toast footsteps of a colleague he had ."
Fair of its day was located to "the Old Flag and a big appropriation. have" been delegated to promote admired when hi answered the

Col. Daniel wa among the In Jacksonville near whatis ." "Never mind the be said. call for help. That colleague was The doctor also beaded similar j
founder of the Jacksonville now First and Main streets Old Flag" a local citizen Francis Jacksonville in
Dr. P. Welford a relief activities Fernandlna.
Col.'J J. Danielfor
the forerunner Yellow Fever ,
Board of Trade, J
and attracted worldwide atten
snorted. "Just bring on the ap physician and president Enterorlae Macelenne Sander.
of our present chamber of com-tion. I propriation.'' of the Florida' Medical Society son and Gainesville::other :fever-
merce. He was Its first Tic president But even while the immigration '
In 1877 during another yellow fever ridden spot
' and second president ImtnlgraUo Convention convention wa in progress, the purposes of this article, off of his career fa Its full bloom epidemic at Fernandlna, Dr. y I
I Heads Tlmee.UaiosRumors yellow fever stalked the city Ina the fever would take Co!. Daniel was a los not just to his family '
Welford went to tile stricken As .urgeon.ln-chal'lle of government
Was Political Leader few short weeks the worst '* life.Daniel's. but to the community h* loved.
On AUK. 1 1887. at the Invlla- '
i clt, aid over the protests of relief measure fa the
of yellow fever as the epidemic fa Jacksonville's history For he was a man who could
Uon of Col. Daniel a* president colleagues and friends. whole of Florida, Dr. Porter !
As chairman of the. executive of the Jacksonville Board of summer approached put greater would thoroughly undo all the death wa mourned and did bridge the past, present found little time for rest during
.committee of the Conservative. Trade there began to arrive in pressure\than ever on Daniel fahi work of promoting Florida fa the throughout Florida and In other and future a man of Us times A HereKsighlHe the beetle day of the epidem
Democrat party of Florida for this city delegate to an Immigration *_ Immigration work He had previous year More significantly part of the nation. The cutting and ahead of his times ic.

the 2nd Congressional District in convention. The state's died, as Dr. Porter later
1876 Col. Daniel led one of the leading business and civic leaden i noted "a hero-knight battling In When the epidemic finally I
toughest and hardest.fought political came In drove to answer the sacred armor of his profes came to an end late fa 1881 Dr.
campaigns In, the historyof CoL,' Daniels call. These men Road Health .Ion," Porter asked to be relieved of
Duval County, ending Re- formed the Florid Immigration Bumpy to his duties. The grateful citizen*

construction In Florida HIt efforts Association, creating as the nucleus While Dr. Porter was to survive of Jacksonville voted him their
contributed to the successful an executive committee the Jacksonville epidemicand thanks and drafted a resolution

passage of annexation legislation composed of one man from each go on to a brilliant career praising him "11 one who loved
In 1887 that brought large Florida county Col. Daniel was as a public health officer, his his Yellow men and accepted for
part of the county into what named president of the Influential 7C willingness to enter the plague their sake a delicate official post

Is BOW the city of Jacksonville., executive committee.. spot was no leu courageous than lion during the trying hour .of
Dr Welford'i and In the same noble > the epidemic."
In 1S76 be was one of the There were great problem to Dr. Sowder Recounts His Department9s Early Daysor tradition of selfless service,
founder of the Inland Navigation solve. The first: work of the executive r More thai Thanks
Company, a steamship line committee wa to obtain In his memoirs "Looking Backward
that opened new commercial outlets more attractive rail and steamship By WILSON T. SOWDER, M.D. right direction until the counties datory that county health department the erection of a new court Over SO Years of Health Along with the city's thanks I
to Florida and to Jacksonville rates to belp lure new business a.N SHU crane began to adopt their own regula- be established. And this house. Work fa Florida published fa went a 11.000 timepiece designed
in particular In 1877 he and settler and promotetourism. I hone for the control of epidemics. concept fit neatly Into the The Journal of the Florida Med' especially for the doctor.' It
was engaged In the work of It did not matter that Dr. John P. Wall, of Tampa ",tate'* rights" principle which Helpful Legislation teal Association, Dr. Porter described struck each quarter hour with
bringing whole colonies of Northerners Col, Daniel was counsel for several I addressing the Florida Medical County Beard Abolished has always been a basic tenet In his part In the battle to delightfully toned bell chimes.
to Florida for settlement railroads, be was Influential Association In 1873. said "The the South. Actually, the growth In 1931 came the passage of the raise the yellow fever siege of Attached to the watch was a heavy
duty of preserving the health and Health Unit Enabling Act '
On behalf of a group of New fa !helping obtain the lower rate j This was particularly annoying of county health departments County Jacksonville.He i gold cable with a" charm atone
lives of Its citizens word for is Department
from the to candidates for public office Include all (the newer Unit '
York businessmen whet called which would towns end representing a lifebuoy
cause of disease is as Imcum- who bad to travel' while ). This wrote Into law
Florida campaigning and rural section within sold he received "an I of the kind
themselves the St. Johns In 1887 CoL Daniel was called cities Urgent ships carry. In the
bent the state Is the recommendations which
Colony. Daniel helped locate and on to head a reform movement on as suppression t There was special emphasis their areas, began In various major lelegraphle call from the Duval middle of the lifebuoy was a star
of and been "on the books" lor 10
purchase a grant of 20,000 acres that developed la the wake of rapine murder on the exclusion of travelers Southern states with early public had County Board of Health to come made of diamond and on. the
This bill satisfactory
en the 8t John River 20 mile a local political scandal. Be accepted and goods from suspect health efforts for the control of years. was so to their professional -assistance : opposite side a ruby "P."
In 188S Dr..WaD was still persevering areas Written permission was often hook-worm. that It has never been
couth of Palatka. And he helped and found himself at the
when he pounded the table required for persons or merchandise amended.But !

the' Immediately Dr. Porter's devotion to' hi
these settlers'raise, literally overnight same time back fa politics again summon* *
at a meeting of the framers to cross county lines. Misplaced Economy Dr.. Porter wan the calling loyalty to his state and
a whole new Florida com beading a reform movement: organizing money was still needed andIt ,
of Florida' new So Dr. Porter recommended and ,
munlty. A local editorial commented and beading a statewide came In a substantial amount professional competence made
: "Within a few month promotion and development program itate constitution the Legislature soon approved the As early as 1921 Mere was a following the Social Security legislation him the logics. choice to bead
'fib and demanded abolition of these county boards. to Introduce county health the Elate Board of Health when
at least five or six hundred resident ; building a railroad and of 1935. This gave the
will Have settled upon this beach resort; maintaining a prosperous that It But he still felt that you must department Into Florida with a state funds which could be used It was organized fa 1881. In the
contain" the
old grant. Thi shows what can and demanding law practice have a public health representaUv full time doctor, nurse "sanitary to aid county health units. From yean from that time to his retirement
,be done, and what 1* being done, representing railroads, phrase "Thekglalature In each county.. He selected Inspector" and clerk.' The State 1935 through 1M1. 33 counties fa 1917 Dr. Porter was
towards settling the unoccupied steamship lines and banks, sitting shall practicing physicians who were Board of Health would. pay half: were organized. World War H destined to play th* major roll

land of the slate" on the boards of a score of v, estsbllstt State Board of designated ts county agents. the county commissioner would slowed things down a bit but 19 fa the development of Florida
bushiest enterprise and holdingthe 4 Health," B was They recorded the prevalence of be expected to contribute the other county units. were added In 1946 health system.
Beack Developer presidency of the Jacksonville smallpox and other commune half. But the state legislature and 1947. By 1952 all counties
not until the fa th* tame year cut the State Over' the years, through the ,
Board of Trade which fa J cable disease, but apparently did had Joined the State Board of
year following Board of Health appropriation great Jacksonville. fire of
Over i the yean Col. Daniel continued Itself was one of the most demanding the disastrous little else. Health In a cooperative relationship
from one-half to one-fourth mill. when the work of a decade was
lively Interest except St. Johns and it "en-
to maintain a positions a man could
Seeder yellow fever gist Enlarged The administration bad been burned to ashes, tilt State Board
and promoting tered the fold" fa 1960. The only
In developing take on fa loose day.
epidemic ot 1888 that the Legislature ,
Us law firmprospered elected on a promise t* reduce Independent city health,department of Health made an increasingly ,
While I
Florida. ,
did establish the State For a long; time public health
the state mtllage--and so they bigger to tilt growth
1 Jacksonville's.It
example, be found Promotes i
for Florida Board of Health-and a new services were provided primarily '
did-and all from.he State Board and prosperity of Florida. During
time to become a director of the phase of public health work began by employee of the State Board '
the ot Health!, aH sounds very simple that time. Dr. Porter kept his
6t. Johns Bar Telegraph Co., and When scandal subsided, which stressed prevention rather of Health. At first, there was only establishment of 17 county health watch aear him as a memento
4t toe Jacksonville and Atlantic when the reform ticket wa than a part-time assistant to Dr. Por
cur ''There began a long period of departments the bails on which of the epidemic that remained '
railroad Co., both venture designed swept Into office when his termof ter. Later a* many a* eight dis j
health '
,struggle complicated by the depression *o much of our public activities a milestone In his career.
to serve an expanding office on the Board of Trade From the beginning the first trict' health officers were. employed. but the first county operate today. But tt was "
Jacksonville and promote further had come to an end. Col Daniel state health officer, Dr. J. Y. Occasionally nurse and health department was organized a long bard road. B Involved SOB Gets WatchIn
.rowth.Jh* railroad project wa* returned to the work of .Immigration. Porter, Insisted that employeeof "sanitary officers" wen also fa Taylor County In 1930. salesmanship. The county commissioners
connected with an equally ambl- the State Board of Health could staff members. Clues were Ire wen the one who bad 1957 the watch wae'prs
hose undertaking the develop not concentrate their activities fa to establish their own health department Persons who were fa pubUc to be convinced ,sented by Dr. Porter' heir te
inent of Pablo (now Jacksonville) Prom his local Immigration office the Jacksonville area. So the first and that of Jacksonville health fa Florida early day the health organization h* guided
Beach. The railroad of which In 1881 a flood of literature legislation was followed by an enactment Is s* old as the State Boardof will remember the struggles to Today Florida I* acknowledgedto fa lie Infant day*, B can UO
Daniel was president cooperated, began to stream out over the that authorized the establishment Health. have a county; health department have one of the better state faithfully chime the minutes and
in the building of a resort > the nation In addition to his newspaper ot county board of It wa obvious that In a state considered as important for pub health department) to the United hour in the pleasant tone the

seaside tennlnu,-complete.with letter to the public CoL health., This was a step fa the a* bic a* Florida, it was man- Bo funds H Isle cholera vaccine 8I&te. Dr. Joseph Y. Porter doctor knew.Iff .

Iiiftt..li e

.WLlJijl 'J ": '':'''Jt... :: :: r Mf iLf W, +'': W altfuao.+:.a6r!t' t .i tii tl' ,, :. r '" r.'>.u..afy'rwf I:\.t"a... ""1 ,.,-'\ "....J,, r-.oL, ,w. ",use.os4w'i' .n. r A

,.. ''"'' ' '. ... '' <" 1,. til""l'
: '' '' ''7 \ ."r' "'""" "'''1'' IW''I\'II''I' : tr 1




'.\' \-,'.! j',. 'AA 'I ;!\. '';'" Dickens' Son Sees River I '

\ \ \ ,:i1{" : ,

i" .)

r : ... ;:. :: :t" :' "' ". :.1;. '.- As 'Glory of Jacksonville'ByJUDYCAirtl

er February, b 1M It wu er con men) and local pickpockets 'I board while on the other side of

.... a refute for thousands et North- the wharf a group of Negro boys
t M -Vllw' WfMr '
inter during the winter months tine both of these articles by are flshlntj-an Sea' sport since
r rI L the water Is so. clear and the. nail
Charles Dickens the KntUsh! Ae he etrolle along Me' day Olekens were written for an English 10 plentiful.
novelist, wu also the editor of magazine there are numerous
r rv "All toe Tsar Round" a weekly Dickens eemmente tit.bow.. eoemopelltM eempaituns of the Englishman I Alongside the next wharf are
I magaalne tint published la IMS seem the people wbe with the Southerner. The BritUher two schooners flying! British flap
ro I Ilet. Most Dickens' novels appeared crowd the streets ef downtown Dickens sayt.il superior In ,They are from Nassau and bays
serially In this periodical The Jacksonville. Characters with very way-including his, dress, come to Jacksonville with a can
eldest son of Charles Dickens, lout heir and odd clothes from way of speaking manners,, and CO of bananas coconuts, fancy
Texas and the West walk tide horseback. seaweed, coral, and shells
Charles CullUord Boi Dlok.ns- ability to ride
by side with the latest "dnas"or :
better known as Chrlijr"became .- mashers tram Nsw York or Feet; Office View [ Farther en le the oyster wharf .
an assistant till fatheren where three or four boats art a
Boston and ladle In Part fashIons -
the magulne Right before However, one Southerner wu forced almost to the water edge '.
share the Idewallu with
Dlcksni dtalh la halo 'he made tusked u eaylng "You want a by the weight of their cargoes
laughing eelorei girls la
his son, Charley, the editor and gayprint deal of licking, you Britishers, Negroes are rapidly shovelling
bequeathed "All the Year dresses before you can be made to understand oysters bite bucket and then Into

t L Round" to jilm. There are alee the active Flor there others In the worldu ayour' barrels A crude counter is setup
and that u good
where plate of these
Idlans er "craokiri" Intermingled a ocean
In two Issues of "AD the YearRound'SAug with a large number ef Britishen : own dear selves. Whileyou're delicacies can be bought for '10
II and Ass, 8. The Englishmen have a W&1'' thinking of turning op your cents and eaten close by in the
American bu got
eoat auffs.
IsU-Chirler Dickens two .
of rambling
aimlessly and looking ." -
his pin down and branched.
articles about his impressions 01
rather out et place and Incapable road Aplealy
Jacksonville f baa he visited here of even living .In this The most complete picture of
country. Then I the inhabitants of Jacksonville in The fish market is just a.
Dickens thought thai Jack**. have (ulte i alt. peoplemoney la lets was to be found at the Post small shed and not much varietyIs
vllle could be seen at lit beaten their pockets and are easy came Office from t to 11 In the mornIngs. available, in fact, mullet is
A Hone-Drawn Trolley Arrives at the Wlndtor Hotel at Comer of Hogan and Ivionio Streets t bright sunny day to January for the wlto" men (gamblers Dickens wrote. He described practically, all a customer can
long line formed with obtain. In the meat market, see
BO preference to color, wealth, or can find an abundance of juicy
clans. A ragged Negro worker steaks, mutton, fowl turkey
stands between a New York millionaire coon venison bear squirrel and

I in Jacksonvilleaboard. and an Impeccably. rabbit Vegetables are plentiful
Dueling Days dressed gentleman from Parts: .a too (even in January-tomatoes,

eolored woman covered with jew pumpkins. eggplant, potatoes,
airy wearing a low-cut red satin and cabbages are'oe, the
dress and an enormous bat with counters.

By RICHARD A. MARTIN It wu after this taxi forthwith proceeded to apply the and proceeded to administer a are the d-d scoundrel who goes street A few day earlier the an ostrich feather may be stand. .
c.r.wd ..UM aee.e dent that Codrlngton publishedhis whip to him. ." ," 'i: stinting lesson In chivalry and about the country Insulting help- [ merchant had charted the mayor Ins behind a nun all of them Outside of the market large
card In The Union. good manners to Borham, Use women I mean to chastise with setting Art to Us even property waiting expectantly the mall quantities of oranges are available
Union deplored policyef
The 'Ou.." and thereupon Behind these two women, a young to tbe highest border:
The general publio would not ) begin to la order le collect on the
CepL romO'l Card "eowhldlng gentlemen In the Horsewhipping could get started -
Boston dressed in the high-
slash Mr. Eastman girl
souses the Insurance. The
now tolertte public executions.In argument occurred In 1885, there were many beau
but added,
What happened next wu described streets or ever almost any kind ef realor head and face with a cowhide In the merchant glare eat fashion wait impatiently with
fact, the trend la the IBMsis In a lighter vein: The captain and tUul hotels in this city a* there
to do away with Capital In another card signed of the Spitfire evidently believes Imagined' Insult took place met or whip, with which be wae The mayor Invited Us antagonistInto roughly clad settler for the line are today. The st. James Hotel.
anywhere Iwo antagonists
by Cspl Farrell and published armed." the street to settle lo move forward.
altogether the mat Carleton
punishment In punching the heads u well and at hand House Everett. and the
Iq Th Union en Feb. M, to wit a whip wu near ter then and there When the been Windsor were luxurious,'but cost
u the tickets ef the passengers. I. G4nerallcramble The St John River has
But ta the 1870e and ism
a Ttttt intuiting language used On March 84. 1181 a mill owner merchant declined the challenge, railed "the glory of Jacksonville" ly. Even with entertainment,
sterner sttttude Will prevalent by Mr Codrlnirlon Thursday evening Lee_ !In! Chhslry from Minnesota, W. W, East.man Eastman attempted to defend Mayor Bowden served notice that and this phrase wu particularly musical programs, and continental
Perhaps this was partly because to the officers of the Spit Another rencontre on April 19, was, dining with friends In I himself with a thin rattan Walking the first time tie met the merchant appropriate in 1J8J "Looking up menus time hung rafter
living conditions were so much. fire was such that' I could not 1877. Involved two Negroes E. R. the plush St James Hotel banquet stick which be broke over In public he Intended to the river from the railway station heavy on habitue of the hotel
harsher in those adults days and because I passlt unnoticed I consequently, i Griffin a clerk at the Post Office haH It was the dinner rush his assailants bead. Meanwhile, horsewhip bun.Bowden It Is as though one were A complete, prolonged breakfast
so many had grownto on meeting Mr Codrlngton thefollowing I was his girl friend hour end the place wu jammed crockery, food and furniture flew it the bead of a lake whose other -with The Times-Union to read
maturity In a society where : morning; upon the home when Enid Borham came with customers, many in formal all over the area while guests Gees Bunting end is lost la the horizon. And luted no longer than a coupled

-violent\Inevitable duels when were men accepted disagreed is street;showed him the additional en tbe scene, drunk, and used attire. nearby scrambled for safety The Early on the morning of June night! and d&1' the river Is hours. Then an hour might be
insult contained In the\ card be some Insulting language. When two men Were finally separated 24 armed with churned by the commodious little passed en the veranda eonversing -
as to politics morals or manners a horsewhip -
had published in The Union and Griffin saw Borham on Bay The Dally Times described after they closed in hand-to- Mayor Bowden went looking steamers to Sanford whldh return --with other visitors. A
asked him what he meant by It. Street the next day the two began what followed: band combat, When be spied the merchant he laden with hundreds of boxes stroll through the sty to try and

Florida was the scene of some He replied. 'I>-n, you I mean arguing. Abruptly, Griffin "He (Eastman) wu approachedby lashed out whipping of oranges and satisfied discover new and nterestlng'thing.
of the bloodiest due!, In Ameri- what I any there' I then told stalked to a buggy nearby, bor.. a vigorous! and excited The Times explained later that the man about vigorously the bead and tourists.. er to carry out a business
can history before the War Be- him to defend himself and I rowed. horsewhip on the seat, .young man who exclaimed 'You Eastman had been Identified u shoulden. transaction which would fill up
amen who bad Busy Wharves the day until dinner- lasting
tween the States After the code ....."..., ----_. ._ "_... - duelo was outlawed men exchanged or the young man who bad wu served More
I An Impressive number of similar After viewing the city skyline
the pistol and the dagger wielded the whip. Eastman deWed Incidents Involving well- -composed of the sparkling water conversation, a nap or other leisurely -

for the horsewhip when they 1 Public Flocks to Hangings !I the charge and said the known citizens occurred in the dotted with several white sails pastimes could occupy the
afternoon until time for
whole thing a misunderstandIng supper
felt compelled to punish offenslve was -
1870s and 1880. It is Interesting In the foreground the long facades The
evening spent In the
J BesIde., he added wu
behavior or to assuage the the woman
to of
note that while there le a detailed the hotels and chief buildings -
of ladles
hurt of a personal insult. By RICHARD A. MARTIN all his young life He wu convicted broken; lie bad strangled to In question was no lady. The record of these whippings etched against the sky with company various entertainments pursuing followedby

'lteneelres'dacksonvllle 1)eaIoo' loses.:" crew: In Jacksonville of murder- death outcome of the case was never there is no record of a victim no factory chimneys to mar the a fairly early bedtime;
.1 Ing a tourist-sportsman who had reported since it was settled out of a eowhldlng ever turningthe picture-you can see at close

j newspapers In the Early! In 1874 a new county befriended him and brought him The capture and trial\ of Lloyd of court. tables and retaliating In range the activity on the wharves Dickens ended Us last article
1970s and 1880s described horse Jail was. opened at the comer of to ndhda. Keene sunk his victim Brown a Negro, wu attendedby The steamer preparing to leaveIs with .a comment that has certain.
whippings M "rencontres," Forsyte and Market streets, built '* body.in Doctor' Lake near mob violence and general Villa J. E.: T Bowden mayor of La- kind.Mayor taking freight to be unloaded ly been made manifest today'
meaning .a hostile meeting or to accommodate 50 prisoners at Mandarin. community excitement Brown I Jacksonville's largest suburb Bowden 'went on to be- along the way-furniture and supplies "Jacksonville Is a place where
\ contest between forces or Individuals one time. A newspaper reporter had murdered his wife on Aug. created a sensation in the come one of Jacksonville's most for .a settler oxen and cows, everyone may follow ills bent unrestrainedly
A number of these were describing Its "luxurious1 accom Eli 'trial and execution were ,,15, J87S, by slitting her throat summer of 1887, when be horsewhipped vigorous mayors, ink reputation kegs of nails and food for the and. K for no other
J reported in the local press with modations" wrote: "A delicious front page fare in Jacksonville The crime enraged the Negre I a well-known merchant secure u .a man quick to anger trip. Colored workers are busily reason than this deserves to
both whites and Negroes wielding fragrance known by the name of for weeks. The demand for seats I community ct Jacksonville to such at the corner of Bay and Laura and a fearless flgbter. putting the boxes and barrel on grow in popularity year by year."

l:, the whip from time to time. 'commissioner essence' renders Inside the courtyard and in the Iln extent that when Brown wY
the air of these rooms quit delightful shadow.of the gallows on execution captured mob tried= ; to lynch
Invariably] these rencontre The building stands In a day wu so great that him. His cut was front page W* were four yean old when this letter wag moiled .
were the talk of the town since large piece of land the only ether Sheriff Durkee had to Issue tick news and reporters described In
they almost always occurred In building consisting of a cottage eta A new scaffold and gallows treat detail everything from the
broad daylight on public streets for the landlord who pays great using the trapdoor method of chilling early morning fog on A"" Ilya DAYS ..", ... V. S n may.1WIESENFELD'WAREHOUSE

:' and because newspapers considered attention to Us guests, waiting on construction wu built for Keene Feb. 4, 1876 the day_ of Us execution -
such Incidents worthy of them, revolver In band, to protect to the last gup of the CO.JACKSONVILLE. Q JIIN Z

note them from violence ." The youngster, calm and collected victim. About 500 people witnessed ,'FLA.' 7 < -
throughout his ordeal was Brown' 1954.2 t
On Feb. 25, 1876 C. CodrIJ .. This jail wu the scene of a execution most
escorted into the courtyard by of them from outside the county
ton editor of the Florida Agriculturist number of public executions in
Rev R. H Weller, rector of Jail courtyard. Brown the
published in Jacksonville the mid 1870s. The number of executions St John's Episcopal Church.. At last man executed in the Since that ''
put a paid notice or card in Jacksonville In the Forsyth time we have added-.50 years of .
onto the
10:25: a.m. he walked and Market streets jail .
In The Florida Union the War Between
cautioning years following
scaffold, a black hood wu draped
people against taking passage on the States is not known but a over his bead, his bands and fee service and now operate the newest .
the steamer Spitfire The notice hanging day wu a red.letter were tied and a noose wu adjusted A new county jail wu built in
followed .a disagreement between day in the town around his head. After a 1878 at Beaver and Market streetson and most modern warehouse "': -
Codrln lOn and the captain what wu then a high bank ;,;
Youth Executed short prayer the drop fell and
ef the Spitfire, Robert Farrell overlooking a dry marsh that ran
the end of
Keene plunged to the
Codrlngton charged that one of When William Keene II swung rope-a 44-foot fall. "But one on either side of Hogan's Creek. facility in the South

Us friends was overcharged five from a gallows the new county or two convulsions of the body
cents by Capt. Farrell for a tick jallyard on Feb V,- 1874. a special were observable" a Union re- Ben Bird a Negro who shot a east.
et from Jacksonville to the Fair fence had to be erected to porter wrote, "until IS minute Jacksonville policeman during a + ,r s
Grounds at Falrfleld An argument keep out a large crowd of the to II when the body swung riot among: lumber mill worker .!
followed et the foot of tbe morbidly curious around facing west and the doctors here In 1880 wu the first man

gangplank leading aboard! the Keene would have been U She pronounced life extinct Be,. executed at the new jail on Aug. ,
Spitfire and the upshot of it l had lived another day Born era! spectators fainted When the 12, 1881 On Aug. S, 1882 Hsrrt ,
was that Capt. Farrell refused in England and raised In New body wu lowered it wu found eon Carter convicted of killinganother
to let Codrlngtoa and Ms friend Jersey he had been in trouble that Keene's neck bad not been man In a drunken! brawl
_. _. ___ .u ___ caught tine PUbllo lrnaglnsuoo and
ll, I again every detail of Us last
days was recorded for posterity.
I Carter wu cocky but good.naI

I tured Aa the black executioner'shood
J was placed on ills bead be
NATIONALLY KNOWN. I told a throng of spectator "I am
going to dwell with the angels

Car r'. Execution

( A reporter for The Dally Times

described what followed ". ,A
dull horrible grating wu beard

as the unseen executioner sawed
'I at the drop-rope with Us long
sharp knife. There wu a deathly SERVICES SPECIAL FEATURES i
I silence In the yard a silence of
dread-warm face turned sickly General Merchandise) Storage ADT Sprinkler & Burglar ,Protection
I and young hearts grew chilled
: I Men turned their faces from thesight Storage-in-Transit City Fire Protection'
I' and a reporter ran around Pool Car Distribution :.j -
Pioneer the corner of the jail to escape ; TWX and FAX Communication .
tile dreadful vision of the fall Bank-Acceptable Warehouse ReceiptsU.S. I,
( TIlt drop tell I ,
Customs Bonded Department .. ',
Tbe body hung motionless for r .
BETTERCONCRETE a moment, then It swung around '
and back again; then the knees "
r bent and all the muscle of tile : \
body violently contracted. Then -
{ the moat ghastly horrible struggleever .LOCATION .'
witnessed by man The '
200,000 feet all under roof
miserable wretch struggled with Inside Jacksonville City'Llmits '
all Us might to free ink bands ; and It seemed be would succeed Easy Access to' Expressway Syst.m'on ,
: The legs were raised until the 40 Car Spots 2 sidings on ACL with '
.' ,
knees were u high u the body oil truck Routes :
J and were then violently cut ,, reciprocal switching
down. TIlt horrible, boars Close Proximity to Rail Yard for fast uy; + L, -
breathing of the murderer could :' 26 Truck Spots, 10 spots. at pool car
be beard even outside the wall switching service! .
Close Proximity to. Food Chains and '
Then for a little while It Electronic Data System with printed
ceased. You could bear men* Wholesalers and Other Industries :'

watches ticking in their pocket tabulated stock reports ;
Eight-aid-a-half minutes after the _
drop fell the struggle began
anew and lasted about two minutes
; then It gradually ceased T :
INGRAM CONSTRUCTION CO. and the body bung quietly! from I S I c l

s the crossbeam Death bad won rlTfeseDfeJd ; : :

; (the mastery ." ? Its

i I"t' 2405 PEARL. ST. to Public Jacksonville execution well were into this still century. held 2101'.WEST 33rd STREET POST OFFICE BOX 1 133 e JACJ. )
But in the 11.year period

t : from 1471 through 1882 more JACKSONViai NrwW.IC' CHICAGO lAM 'IWICISCO
JACKSONVILLE' FLA. Ph. 356-8566. murderers were banged here thanat COMPANY 76M40ITWX HECTOR 1-150 IU'PI0II7.n8O '91-4Z"
any other period la tilt city's -MU-7JJ-I75S ur

f ,,;- .w' ... -,

fife (\ l iH..... ,. .. 'Hi'd"...4.."f.. ., ',..t.2t I IIlIt.-.i: \1. ' "Jo.i", < ...JI..JJJr........ 6L1nx11.JU1lt1r: INdL .oRo... ooI ..;. >! >.I. ..!..._"' "'Jl,,", & HoFJ :; "G. : I .Jj't' ;

: "" ''''',:, '''''MI' :: !' ':' -" '": ) '





__ _________ n_

",1 \':; ;

, # Ticket i Sale-W
I ''>' arm. i .

i"-: ,
) : ,

) .) I f" "," '''ij Chilly Opera House
;, '
'J : r< ;' .;1. ,

,/. 1f.
( By YVONNE PARKERJacksonville James Skating Kink:Early In 1 U tlful," an unpretentious structure' fashionable of audiences and the
\ _v_ '_ wrnw the skating rink began being used with a truss roof painted\ dark most demanding technical requirements
for' theatricals and the Improvised green with trimmings. of dark of artists "It la without
'a-first opera house theatre was knows as "Park red I doubt one of the most complete
Opera House* convenient and handsomely
was a converted roller skating .
theatres the Bouts
rink and newspaper critics often "The stage was part of the old en '" .t
Youagi TheatreIn Atlantic Ceantf Jacksonville .
suggested that it could Use morebe.tera rink of last winter and was left a '
Board of declared. j
But theatrical touring ae because of lack of time to Trys report
January of 1M4 Hugh A.
__.w sFy.r companies, warmed br ticket: build another The sides of the :-
Young, who had to Jack
sales here, called It the best come .' Interior are sheathed and painted Variety ef Mil 1
sonvllle from Ohio to manufacture
9AA' house on the Southern, circuit while the arch of the roof la left .
lumber, leased the lot from
with HJ beams and braces exposed .i The new theatre presented a ;:

; .:: :,.....:::..... '. Stars such as-William Gillette Yorker William who Astor spent, a wealthy the winters New te the interior variety of entertainment tram '.. \
..z- eh'L
; .
:fti' James 0 Neltt (the father of playwright of a I II opera' to boxing matches and was Z.;;. '
'''''' .J 'J'1 Eugene ONelU), Otis here, and began building, a one I enjoyed by most of the residents "
i. story structure called The Park 't
L': Skinner, Joseph Jefferson and of Jacksonville J
Theatre "The floor Is level for four or
Lotta Crabtree played at the !
five rows of chain from the front
,'. ... v' .. ,. .,,.,..-.'." i,,t." .>>.- '.w.1 rtd of Park Laura Opera and House Duval on streetsThe the corner. Its opening en Feb 22, 18M, and then rises so that the sittersat Many groups formed theatre .
J 'l .;t4 with soprano Minnie Hauk. and the back of the auditorium areas parties and after the show they" ; I'
w -site hid been occupied) her company In "',usl," was high as the actors on the would usually go to someone'
wL''aThe : home to the fashionable
s covered In newspapers across the stage Chairs are provided for or St.
the Union Hotel which was destroyed -
Central Building of the Sub-Tropical Exposition at. Hogan Creek and Main Street by fire" and then the St.California's country Including New York City 1.200.oj James Hotel for cocktails or
and Chicago,

The next year a stock company : lUll'I'I
For some time local music and was organized to purchasethe When President Graver
drama lovers and the thousands theatre for the "encourage i land visited the city Feb.
Tourism of tourists who poured Into the silent of legitimate drama In the J888 the manager of the
ChallengeIs "Riviera of the South" every win city and for two seasons brought : house engaged the Home Minstrels
ter had been complaining of the first class theatre companies te te present "The Fred-
I lack ,of facilities for theatricals Jacksonville.Destroyed. dents Reception" a parody of
what was actually going en just.
"It Is a reflection on our city I across the street uf the St James
not to have a commodious modem by Fire Hotel (now, the location of May,
Answered with An Exposition n built opera house ," one letter Cohens).
to the editor of the newspaper About 1 a.m. on May M, 1M7,
complained the theatre was destroved: in what
The Times,Union headlined "Oneof Minstrels were always popular
''Mr Plant was" to build an the Hottest Fires Ever Had In here and the opera house was,
By YVONNE PARKER terested," The' Times.Union reported a winding staircase;. which offered long staple cotton tin in operation Seminole Indians lived in natlvi opera house but somebody angered Jacksonville" also used for such acts u readings -
_11_ tpwUI w..... en Jan, 12. 18M. a fine new of the city. and a rice cleaning machine. style and wore native costumes him and he punished the by Charles Dickens, sot of.
It was the first time that this the English authorl-"Caraway."
city by withholding his golden
tribe had 'Was it an Incendiary" the hypnotist and mind reader '
ever appeared In a public :
FMinlalaIn "
'Jacksonville was enjoyingwar a One result was that when From the southwestern comer land, The Tim..Unloll reportedthe
queried It reported thata
exposition paper as "Anna Eva Fay spiritualist;
Wlnle.our. of the main building extended a day following the theatre
monopoly on George W. Jones, business manager ; caller told of overhearing two and "Zo Zo the Magic .
iota In the 18801 when t young of the paper' conceived the' the eentet'wu a huge foun- two story annex with a restaurant opening
men sitting on a bench In the On occasions the Jacksonville Lyceum
West challenged its tain built of native atone and the first floor, and an : -
tile In the Idea of an exposition, The Times- on all I "
the exhibits from
Although were : park across the theatre the rented the opera house to
coral and ornamented with art ullery on the second The "Mr. Earned was to build one
supremacy Union Editor) Charles Jones outlined .
not In place, the Soh-Tropical Exposition night of the fire and "he distinctly bring musicales to the city,
the plan In an editorial he stuffed birds and_animals. Rare gallery dIsplayed more than JOO but was persuaded at last th.1I
opened on Jan 12, 1MI! I heard one of them say to the
The city nw its flourisWnS called Let Us Dish California,"i fish were In the basin and it oil paintings valued at 1250000( was too early. there wan M
with a parade through the deco- other 'n must be done tonight
business begin to wane u California -an enthuslastla backing was was illuminated by electricity under the supervision of H Jay rated streets of the city money In It Fred or not at all. Final! Fate
went after the tourists on ready Smith, an art Collector from ,
a big scale, ettablUhlnc travel :1 In the northern half of the Minneapolis, Minn; Not Beautiful 'The opera house once agala
bureaus in all part of the ooun AatoctalkHi Formed : building were open garden Bay Street had been swept for The stockholders decided to rebuild went up in flames In the great'
try and circulating appealing,lit, spaces ind walks and I'Om'lenadel Bridge Spans tAke the occasion and State Street between "The new Park Theatre is the Immediately and the new Jacksonville fire of 1901 and this
erature, for visitors The garden Laura and Main had been outcome of a people demand theatre, called again the Park time it was never rebuilt.
The Board of Trade took the 1 were planted with nearly every Outside the main building, beyond thoroughly sawdusted' by the I and Mr Hugh A. Young pluck, Opera House, was formally'
For OHM 'Urn The Florida lead and an association was variety of fruit, flower, shrub a bridge that spanned one sanitary inspector, public spirit and munificence; let opened on Nov U, 1887, The Duval Theatre was built at
'J'ImeI'tJnloa urged Jacksonvilleto formed to organize III' Sub-Tropl:I and plant grown In Florida, of two artificial lakes, was a a grateful public so write tt." Main and Duval streets and was
provide "more and better attractions cal Exposition, James M building for Fernando, Citrus Sucoen Achieved I Built of,orewed brick: with art!. Jacksonville principal playhouse
for visitors more liberally Kreamer as president and James and Pasco counties, constructed The same article described the flclal stone trimmings, the $35,000 until the advent of motion
and thoroughly advertising H. Paine, director-general. The aouth half of the building In the form of a Greek cross building as "not strikingly beau. structure was styled for the most. pictures,
the state Inthe North and i was floored and devoted to eounty It was built In rustle style from The exposition met with wide w
''A in Park displays and special exhibits success and to make sure that .. .
West and securing If possible site Waterworks native woods and thatched with f -'C "-'to -"
cheaper railroad rites to the was acquired and plans for the' Almost! every county had a display palmetto leaves, the visitors saw all of Florida, .
." exposition building designed by about their locality, Sub-Tropical 'officials! arrangedfor ;' s

A. E Mcdureleading archl These three counties also had low fares to other parts of '.r
The newspaper' gadfly tactics tect of the city, 11 There 'wax a'department of a deer park and a bear park that the state +
brought forth for the time a Florida curtoaltiea and natural were of great Interest to. rlsltors 1 'C ,
great deal of unfavorable criticism The main building covered an history a display by the Florida 1I 7
directed against the paper acre of ground fronting on Main Tobacco Company which stimulated It was suggested that visitors I
feat they had the very desirable Street There 1I'ere.six towers revival of the. state to- Another feature was the Seminole first spend a week In Jacksonville .
effect of arousing those mOlt in- and aa observatory, reached by bacce trade, exhibits showing a Camp, where a band of and see a sty of M.ooo people
which bad doubled Its populatlon I I
-- --
-T- la six yeart

:The visitors were told they: mm'
SINCE 7940iNTERNATIONAL would be attracted by Jacksonville
s unsurpassed climate the
beauty of the St. Johns River
and many other pleasures and

'EQUIPMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION, MINING, LOGGING, would find in comfort.the hotels here unequalled

Short trip. to Palm Beach
Pernandlna, 8t Augustine, Fort
1 --on George bland Mayport and
Burnstde Beach, Orange Park, l lI
Magnolia Springs. Green Cove
Springs and Mandarin also were
ayes axvl c recommended

'Mlgllonlco Neopolltaa Orchestra -
played dally concerts at the
Sub-Tropleal the first year and I

3. ?. 8. GUmore a famous bandleader

brought an ensemble of --z:?w, .,,,,. ina9$' 18iarasp.w tdKlawxops .w.r.a.wr i r
musicians here.Reopen.

The Park Opera House, Once a Skating Rink, at Laura and Duval Streets I
ia ISM

The exposition closed its first
year on April 20 and reopened on i
Feb. 20 1889, following a terrible I
yellow fever epidemic in I f
Jacksonville The exhibits were ,
not as elaborate but the flowers
and shrubs bad grown and the :
grounds had become converted1! I
Into beautifulgarden. I WILSON NATIONAL LIFE

The third season opened Jan ; INSURANCECOMPANY '

t, 1890, with, a parade and twoday
carnival Gov. Francis P. ,
Fleming openedthe exposition I y
and games and contests were Executive Home Office Lake Florida.FLORIDA'S
: City .
staged throughout the season, : j
I F r

The Sub-Tropical fourth sod I

Other than a new company name and a new corporate set-up, little else has with a display: of fireworks,1191'j !

changed in i the operation of this business Starting out in 1940 as the Florida FLORIDA SINCE 1933. 'j'jI f

Instead of Indian village
an I
Georgia( Tractor Inc and known 1961 the State Tractor
Company, since as here was a Japanese village
that year and new to the dls. I
and Equipment Company, Inc serving 35 centratand north Florida counties playa was an exhibit of Florida Founder and President Emeritus s"i.
new pbOllpbatendUIIr7! ,
I Ie I-

bounded. roughly by ,the cities of Jacksonville, Tallahassee, BrooksviHe and Ii i
,. The Burmese folk dances were
Melbourne another well received ,
attraction SlID another De"I'
tion ,was the five day \
ance of Sam Jones, a Georgia I I

We are proud of our steady growth: since our beginning and are dedicatedto evangelist. !

.Interest Wane ,
the principle of continued growth and progres's In the_years ahead, always, I t

II I Interest In the exposition had
keeping in mind that we are an organization ,built on service, and that this waned and It was closed one (
month after tte final opening
service shall continue onan ev rimproving.plane.. Aa attempt was made to keep It '
partly open by reducing the price
of admission but that did not :'
,' help Hush A. Wllaeel, Sr.

; ; Finally on Sept I, 1W1 It was i

.. sold under a decree of oraelo- salutes another Our Founder President : '
I':: ')" sure J. W. Archibald paid $1,000 One Old Timer ; and

for the building and two for the Emeritus was born"15 miles Southwest of Lake' City when the
: furniture and equipment Including -
: ,
,: .. TRACTOR &., EQUIPMENT CO., INC.P .. the alligators, Times-Union was only 3 years
J of the Times-Union for most of his 97 years.
that Archibald
The group represented
0, lOX I'"* p, 0, lOX m p, 0. SOX (IT operated It as a county

2so w. luviaiTurrJACKSONVILLE 1400 S. OKANGIILOSSOM TRAIL HIGHWAY 441, bunt fair the following :year Afterward 1
the bulldinis were used u
1, FLA_ ORLANDO LA. ,OCALA, PLA.e aa auditorium until INT. when
they were km dowa to make
room for waterworks reservoir, ,

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'''v.I'\ Sy 'VJY WtW', !''' 'i1.(' 1 ." "'i i"'i\i'Pf"'h';! "' A'tiW \ awz. ", \' .1" '': 7''" :":" ,, :'" :"> .' .'!',;:O7,1;; :,,;:, ,. }t"" .




"r, .', i f1\W.: ... I, ,.. ,

.':.'. "Ijill",f( .'. Old Spain in Hotel I

i. r :;; a

Shortly Mart kin death Henry Fabulous Ponce de Leon 1887.The hotel embodied wu finished the character May Jo.
'. U. na.ler pronounced the build Henry Flagler's : :
lice Henaluane
Spanish architecture
de Leon Hotel
ing ot the Ponce!
f St. the most difficult I with Bunny courts and
la Augustine
cool retreat, fountain, tower
he had undertaken of East Coast
project) Led to Development '
,and decoration by leading artist
Hli coal of preserving the Indent auggeatlng the hlXory of the

atmosphere of the city In mospher ot old Spain Ig the land acmes the bay and mixed he took off lie coat and worked city
the hotel, while. Inc ding the building. Their results gained *e with cement. The building waaone diligently to help unload It.
moat modern of eowenlencen, much recognition: for them that of the first lane structures
He-liked to mix with the laborers There were apartment and
vu what road It aflYiard, b* they later were commissioned to In the country to be ,made of especiallywhen they the luxurloua furnishing1) wen
\ design the Interior of the Metropolitan poured concrete and 1.200 men .
sold.The were unaware of hli presence valued at about II.000 tar each
House, the New engaged to tramp the mixture
Opera were
interestIn of Electric UghUTa noveltyto
hotel van Til. first On this particular day one room
1 York Publlo Library the Senate u It wu poured Into the I most of the guests, and ateam.
/ 4r Florida, and one that led to them said, "Thla Plaster a
the development of the itate't and House chamber In Washington formi. e Pl'ftod fellow. He felt that heat seldom found In Florida,
home of Carnegie\ Institution
entire East Coast, the'material' by wu worth the day' effort. were. Included la thecfulldlng.
In Washington and the Memorial Transporting *
Amphitheater U: Arlington coaxial schooner and the short OrIce' Flillpr was ''refused entrance
"For about 14 or 15 yearn I I railroad from Jacksonville to St. to the hotel around by a : Hundreds .of visitor crowdedthe

have devoted my time nClu.lv"j Augustine wu one of the hardest guard who aald "There have i spacious rotundas, corridor
ta business, and :
ly The majority of St. AugusUne'i : lulu, but slowly the four foot been a good many Flagler trying and tropical court In the $ -&-
pleasing myself 1.000 Inhabitant" were on handto thick walla rows. to get In here" The millionaire II million structure at the formal
lionaire hla lor
hotel gavt u are ground broken for the didn't eats entrance to hi* opening on Jan 10, 188t. A
betel Dec.: I, 1885. So anxious was Flider 10 APt own hotel until one of the contractors I prominent band wa 'brought

Flajlfr'g Monument: The Ponce: de Leon Hotel In 1891 He retained Owe fount archi the hotel finished that when the Identified\ him and he I from New York: and merry-male
tests ThomM Baiting and John] Ton upon ion of eoqutna .u achooner arrived at St. Augustine complimented the watchman on eN celebrated at length the first

M. Carrert, to reproduce the atj j brought ever from Anastasia I-1 harbor with Urn furniture for. It, hi* efficiency, Flagler development in Florida.

Jacksonville: RivieraOf v saLs st "fl TI --

the 1880 Tourist ; 3 >A DUVAL ( _

II,. CYNTHIA: PARKS and on Church Street were the ward. Many Jacksonville ,Test i
TiMrM'oiM. Hurl *"'+' garden A brick addition wasj, dents Till.\ recall M Spanish ,, COUNTY'S
I' made In 1872' a wooden one In I Renaissance splendor! on Hemming i'y _
Jacksonville. wan AmerfeV Mil until 500 guests could Park because .It stood until
Riviera In the unto. The resort I saunter through the luxuriously it* 1994 raring
that attract tourists today Ilk. rococo parlors and awing 226 '

St. Petersburg Palm Beach and rooms bowling alley bllllaid! A pair of Massachusetts entrepreneurs
Miami were nowllna ., room telegraph siation, ticket- undertook to supplythe
es by comparison end baggage checking rooms city with another first-class
anuthbound tourists .,hill UdPmP..1 I laundry barber shop and wine hotel!, the Carleton House. The HOTELS .ii

the commercial hum ot room. Cartel was built en the north- _
way City. Jacksonville! : vest comer of Bay and Market
the topping place, the winter I International Sel in 1873. New Englander could and
refuge, a boomtown of elegant |I appreciate! Its stolid brick dignity.A .I .r
and commodious hotels that The St. James Hotel cateredto special corps of multilingual I Jttknoi HoMl-90S W. Adorns St.

gained International reputation. an International set it was; i waiters was employed to acconvi Eugene E. Brown",-Morwgtr
the most famous hotel In the i modabi foreign guests. Ha ornately MOTELS
Jacksonville was the luring South and Jacksonville residents I' Victorian parlor. : full of : .. '':. *8&P'r# l lHoMor y
flame for nobll1t.v'and Bohemlana ) considered lithe center of plush' lacy v i e k e r rockers and 5 I

-President Grover Cleveland on ; aoclety.: Weekend dance featured i marble-topped table 1 a, were s MtokHottl-31 W. Adorns $e.
his honevmnon, actor Joseph Jeflerson i famous orchestras playing Vien- made site by a fire hose on I ,.2 ." Robert t. Ktlly..Morwg.rMiyflvwer
'the Duke of Newcastlejas i ese waltaes, reel, polkas and every floor. It burned In l*l. .. ..Muc
sell as the ordinary fellow schottlsches. Its manager until

rubbernecking at the notables! ) j Its' demise In the great fire wu Fashionable Hour I :J One of this| .county's

Jacksonville war the aouthern-| J. R. CampbellWhere I I .. r z <
most point where the idly rich I The fashionable hour to go industries.
and the rascals---when the term: I! the burned-out Judson abroad In Ihe mornings wu. 10 .. I leading .
Rare. not 1I'non-mouUve: !Ihe'' once Mood an imposingpile 'of I a.m. If staying .t the Windsor, '
pond life In the wans Jackson1ville's !I.brick was assembled, surmounted ,one might have breakfasted first a up represent 'an n
hotels were known over by a huge clock, and It canr ;on beef steak codfish ball or

the world. mutton chops served with and I investment of over
herb omelette and perhaps even
A Pine Hi Ihe. Shade .. the lowly hominy plain or fried.
Then a shopping promenade
4, This could hardly be said of would form around the Everett!
ft* settler days when ferrymanJohn and stroll down Bay Street to i I,

} Brady looped the rope of the, Carleton, exploring all t the
his dugout around a stump and bazaart and curio shops along Employing 't

offered the weary. traveler a the way. Spreading live oaks Inn o( Jos-2300 Kmtf Ave,
place under hit tree to fling down lined most of the streets This Robert M: HornsManoyer over: 4,080 people
his saddle and sleep. But that wu repealed again from around
wu In HH. :Ste Born.. the hour after din -
ner H'30) to 4. usually but before "
Storekeepers WUUant Dawson tea ((7 to II.) and the late evening r

and Stephen Buckles rented sleepIng frolic\ > Annual payroll of .
place over their stables the t* ,

;t year after, but the Inn, actuallya Other notable pastlmea were
boarding house, wu built; in e boating excursions along the river $8,000,000.00 '
i : Mil more In the legitimate tradition h and wild game hunting, The alligator's I Ho ri-ZO 1
; r of overnight guests, Mrs' prehistoric ugliness __ Jom. R. ikei- -MonogerfcMinole .
Waterman was in charge of it, seemed to exert some special : ,
and her four "good-looking! ,lrlJ" 1 magic-over the sportsman, too, a OV
'f presided. at table. and the steamer Mary( Draper Pay in Property Taxes ,
offered Its services {or such ,

Then In. two Oliver Wood built hunts I :ra 1100000.00;
1\{ his hotel on the southwest corner
of Adam and Newnan Streets of tourismhere '
During the
t' For its new owner In MSI. It apex :,, .. --'-
22 tpl tothe ... -
some } !: ted'L! ..
van renamed the Buffington e "' Purchase Locally each'year
winter IMux--65.110 1n the : set !
Howe and offered fashionable accommodations r c' :
1883-86 The .
: J. R. Campbellcalled peak year. Tognl :
until It burned In
Oxford Tremont House, Grand J7$00boO".00 a
the Grand National ((1874) I View !Hotel Granada Lafayette _, .. .M. _
ir.9.T It faced a riverside .park and I Placlde, Waverly House, to name a
o smaller hotels of the same had the potential to become another a few. The city also had dome Th." ."''Ir4 Motor Halll--5165 ",r....., _-' M
vintage i around 18J2I were the tourist delight but somehow I inn boarding house for tourUts: AI SteinMonos ye '
Crespo House (southeast cornerof perhaps" through poor management with. smaller pocketbooks 'Y earl volume of business' a '
Adams and Ocean streets and It went down. -- y. fi !
; the Coy House northeast corner e
Lair Hotel f.
Monroe and Ocean streets) $25,000,000.00JACKSONVILLE a
! z e
By 1881 It wu half-gutted by .
fire and almost a wreck, but After the 1901" Ire, the first
Social Spa
the hopeful! imagination ofa hotel Jo be built wu the skyscraping -
Massachusetts buyerwu fired 10-story Seminole In
Since Jacksonville was beginning
to develop as something of and he bought the hotel, remodeling 1910. The next 'ear'tht Burbridge 'f
It and caned! U the Everett I mow Floridanl" attracted sportsmen j.1
j a _1.lapa. Northerner cast a I
by Burbridge'i lobby display
; shrewd glance this way, A. Jud- iii
r of trophies from Alaska and
Hiilorle Kit.
, son Day of Maine sank his cash '
Africa. The 11-story Mason mow
In the Judson House on Bay and s I t HMil--21 .H.... Si.6o .
The Nichols House, built In Mayflower\ wu built In 1913. -
Julia streets) In JR54. He brought rthur loeppol, Jr.-Monoger
his own carpenter from Maine to 187$. chose as It* site one of the
, ,_
. construct the first and second city's moat historic locations. The During the I 1920 boom yean, II qr E L
:i floor ptasTW, the 110 guest rooms 'northwest corner of Hogan and two itlll larger hotel were built
l4 and spacious parlors. But a mob Monroe was the approximate alto -the George Washington and the I
., of men. never Identified Itt fire of the clt,'* first hom.-a log Carllni. now Roosevelt. The city' AND'F'
to It during a War Between the cabin built by Indian fighter newest Is the Robert Meyer, '
State riot in 1862. lAw Zacharlsh: Hogans.. The opened In March 1959. I' M
j. I tbree-etory brick Nichols House -

f Until the end of the war the and the Everett were the onlyeacppPII Though most sun-worshippers Arofe Hotel-r23 W. Fwiyth lt. 1 MOTOR HOTELASSOCIATION I
of the 1901 fire.
, city wu without a hotel. Then may choose shrines further south
i. In IMS Mr*. E. Hudnall built the I now, the Jacksonville Convention Marvin L Gater..Monger.
wooden St. Johns House on the The St. James had a -rival and Visitor Bureau report 257 -' BI1tllilitt
it north side of Forsyth between building catercornered from It-- conventions were attended by : ::
Pine (tM.ln' 81rf.1J and Laura.It the Windsor in 1875. It* flrst-and 113,000 delegate In 1963 alone. ,
was a gathering place for the second'story piazzas were Iced However Jacksonville today '
military and politicians until the with gingerbread New Orleam- would have to entertain tno.OOO .F'r' nijttg 3 g a!

flre,of 1901 lIke and It rambled over most to 730.000) tourist In a year to I ,ere? t .wuf7t9Mlt ,
of the block. Though It too wu do u well_In proportion to Its j tii '
\ The showplace of them all was t lost In the fire tt wu the only current population, u the city < : JAMES R/SIKES = pit l ;
the 81. James. The first unit was hotel to be rebuilt and when It did la the luSh when It wu I > .
opened In itftt by Boston and I opened again in 1902 It had ad' I billed u the Italy: of America f la t I' frnhfml shy
Connecticut partners The 120, hered to It* original sprawlingfloor and tbe Winter, City In SummerLand L

room -faced Duval and Laura i iJ plan- Instead of soaring up. I s ARTHUR KLOEPPEL,, JR.

/ PrwiAml ,

.. ir i-: F4 i MARVIN L,' LESTER
... .
? f* Woikisf Hotot iOS W. AteM lie.t ..

t M I'lc Presides : 1 Elliott J, Roachuni-Manager

I Amb.ii.4M HoHl. 420 Julii St.
Wllliom Nolling Monogtr


I THIS WOULD have been your' view in the U80s, looking south toward Bay I Ii-

Street from the intersection of Laura and Church, where Ivey'i now It located
DoSete Hotel-IS Lee St. ,........ Hrtel-431 W. *nrrii St.
Mgy-Cohena occupies site of once palatial St James ,Hotel (above). DORIS WILKES, Secretory
J DeVVltt Iroomo-Morwo.tr > Henry D., Crlltol; --Monog
t; The hotel opened in 1169.l' .
I 4 r r v Y

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'''''' r''' '' ..., ",


State Welcome -. "

Tourism-How Grows


Stations Greet ,{
i Item US 1MI 1MI 1M
Estimated Total Number at/ j

Tourists .. .. . .. ..,.. 10794.842 12840.130. 13,010389 14MU7I ,
: Estimated: Total Expend ,
Million Year turn (in 1000 ..-..,. IJ53417 t2043j8 W24777 2Sa39f
a tb o ssare 1 Average expenditureper ; : "Q

'arluwnrlisa.6, Person per Stay ..."" 17188 'Ise 1J 171.00 $ 17738Average
\ Expenditureper ,
By JOHN WARD dreds of persons arriving in FlorIda .j ) Person per Day ,...... .$180 'IUS ) 1471 t 14-M '
.....'.., P.w0. Witom SultoM by private bolt, i 1 Average Length of Stay ,

More than a million tourists a Another station was opened on' 46. per Peraon (Days) .......,. .. 1997, 1357 11.60 JIJ (
fear begin their visits to Flor a part-time basis at Port >Everglades : :
Ida with a pleasant first Impret- to welcome passengerson I I.
lion resulting from the free orange cruise ships, while still another
Juice and warm hospital facility brian operationsat

ty welcome dispensed'at stations the state* 11 airport.Hollywood Fort Lauderdale Florida Is a Great

At I eight highway stations oninalniart Economies Effected

r, es,Reading Into FlorIda The commission also developeda
'shilling uniformed hostesses new type of drive.In station State for TouristsBy

greet travelers. provide refreshing which resulted In major economies ,
orange juice and any lnfor. both In construction and operating -
nation they may need and send costs In one Instance CT MANN decade 1870-1080 each winter beaches super fishing' and
them on their way into the state the new design saved 180000 In Dkwe/r, ,_. DI....... ........' b- showing a large Increase In '1s1), proximity to other southeastern
feeling that they are Indeed wel. the cost of a building ..._.. c......... Ion Jacksonville nag a Winter -j states to become a major resort
come guests city four times 1U summer area during the
Florida tourism, once a sometime summer months
During the highway welcome
) size; it was known In those The Development Commission'sdestination
stations nerved 338142 care bonus in I sections 1
The psychological Impact is and 1011992 persons This was ;r' t,>", '1:4): ;" \ ;* has become a steady, reliable days u 'The Winter City In studies showed thai ,
tremendous Over the :yean, of income for Summer Land! The figuresare Panama City drew almost half a
an Increase of III percent In :t 1 !: source every area
many hundreds of persons have cars- and 17.4 t, !,:& of the Sunshine Stats, not available: but 1 large sums million visitors In 1963, 1
percent in
-.. takes the trou were spent here In what may
W.ble' to writer over 1 62. Trains and Steamboats Served Silver Resort be called the romance trade On Tic Latest,Trend .
jfT. Springs in the, 1880s As recently as 30 :years ago,
m t Bay Street were bazaars and
( after returning Florida by the most generous ,1\\
\. home to praise estimates entertained only about stores Tilled with souvenirs-or The- trend of recent yean toward
naments and Jewelry of alllgators better :year.round tourist
> welcome 51 a a million visitors a year, Practically
lions Silver teeth, coral and seabeans; business wu more marked than
i Once Was all tourist business was
1 Springs concentrated' in a relatively sea-shells In their natural and ever in 1963. In each of 11

r Aside from small area onhe East Coast polished state: palmetto products .. months during the year, tourist
:, the Intangible during a brief period each winter wood carvings and canes, volume totaled more than a mil
good will bene- and a Florida vacation was and every: other thing of strsnee lion This was true ef only nine
fill produced by considered luxury: which only and.grotesque fashion It was months in 1962 and five month
4 the stations; the rich could afford. the we of souvenirs and the' in rniv
they also have A Busy Rail Boat Centerstanding very tourists bought them freely Development
The Florida
Ward a definite dollars With this narrow base. Florida
.and. cents tourism yearly: contribution to "Florida even then was Amerles's mission and other agencies and
value to the Mate The trained the states economy was necessarily playground, for this wu groups have been making deliberate
hostesses do an enthusiastic sellIng SILVER SPRINGS Dec. 26-: natural attraction. Con. called the' Silver Springs and abrupt end to the'better bust small and extremely erratlc some time before California appeared -, efforts to boost tourism
Job for Florida, frequently I Few of the 1.750,000 :yearly vW federate soldiers camped four, Western, and later' sold to the ness that had followed the depiesslon Disturbed conditions In the as a competitor," during the traditionally alow
convincing? visitors that they i ton to Florida Silver, Springs miles from the springs, wrote ; Seaboard. stock market months of fall and spring. There
should prolong 4heir visits to see realize that this underwater mir, their families In glowing. termsof f o r instance A Grawlug Asset I* considerable evidence that
communities and attractions not acls of nature wu once a busy i the 'beautiful spring with While the first glass bottom Davidson found the answer He usually meant these special programs are producing
en their original Itineraries terminal point for boat and- railroad water as clear as the air. j boats to operate over the springs took with him Ross Allen a a poor winter I* '- s- During the years since World results
shippingEven date back to the 1870s, the first group of Seminole' Indiana and season And Warn.- tourism has steadily: be :
In the late ItMs the property commercial venture in this line others and commenced visitingthe since business f' come a.greater asset to ;Floridaas The tremendous growth In
Recent Innovations before Silver Springs had around the springs'was acquiredby u credited to a young man by various Army camp, The -during ether a whole. The Florida Development number and variety of package
Its first tourist back In the mid Capt. Samuel O. Horse In the name of Philip Morrell who group put on shows for the servIce periods of the! ) Commissions 1W3 Tourist plans also has been t major fac-
During the pant three years. die 1800s It was a thriving the "/01.- more boats piled the' lived at the hotel, which was men and commanding off!. year was almost .I Study shows the tremendous' tor In boosting Florida tourist
the Florida Development Commission freight depot for river boats river bringing Increasing numbers called Brown House, This was cers began to send truckloads of non-extot-I extent to which the tourism base volume
has. Inaugurated several poled by slaves which brought of sightseers Silver Springs in 1903, soldiers down to see Silver ent It was Impossible has been broadened ((1)) as 10 gee
innovations which have made the supplies to Central Florida and began to get nationwide attention Springs to I graphic, area, ' as to season There la every: reason to 'believe
I welcome stations even more effective returned to the Atlantic Coast bilise sit and (U) as to Income groups that Florida tourism win
M tools for promoting with cargoes of rosin and cotton From the Seaboard dock, Mor During the war, Silver Springs the industry continue to ,grow In the future.
tourism than they had been In for the mine In : rell took visitors In his glass on a sound Mang The I The of living
Northern 1878 Harper's Magazine entertained about MO,000 military basis East Coast traditionally American standard
the past printed an article: about a romantic bottomed row boat over the men who were sent on boat rides a magnet tor visitors, continued I will keep on moving upward
Before the arrival of !the white boat trip to the springs. So springs surface revealing a new for halt price. to attract them in large numbers even though !there may be short
The world first marine welcome \. man !the Tlmuouan Indians knew renowned was the beauty spot world to his avid sightseers ; Today, all this has changed in 1963. But other sections terra recessions from time to ,n'
During 1963, 14,2ftS.r tourists
station was built on the the crystal clear springs as a that on Jan 10, 1880. President Since the war other new an4 Including some older resort areas time This Improving standard of
Intracoastal Waterway at Fe,. shrine to their water god There elect U.3 Grant, accompanied In 1909. C tEd) Carmichael excellent shows have been addedto came to Florida, rolled all sections and some where visitor were living and the nearly universal
of the In
landlna Beach to serve the nun' wu an Indian village nearby and by Gen. Philip Sheridan made an Ocala businessman purchased the Silver Springs group of .and state all seasons few and far between prior to trend toward paid vacations will r
spent more than $2.4 billion
braves 'hunted game In the vut I I a boat trio from Palatka.By the 80 acres surrounding the attractions The Early American World War II also derived great Increase the number of potential
.":- tropical! wilderness surroundingthe springs from Anderson for less Museum, formerly the Carriage economic benefits from tourism vacationers to Florida
l' :.n: springs. the -80s, Col Hubbard 1.,1', than S3,000, He began a program Cavalcade, was added in 19J Tourism la the 1870s during the :year, j
tftt Hart of Palatka operated regular of development at the springs, and Tommy' Bartletts Deer About the only thing that could
>_ Hernando DeSoto, the Spanish steamboat service to Silver I Improving the glass I bottom Ranch' followed the next :year Of course. Florida tourism was A good example of the greater retard this anticipated growth
I : explorer seeking the fountain of Springs, The Hart Line boats and extending the ride The Prince of Peace Memorial a recognized Industry within the and greater geographic spreadof would be for Floridians to begin

:youth and !kin .men visited. hereIn were double-decked .teamen.. Joined the resort a few years limitations mentioned above almost tourism Is the phenomenal taking their tourist prosperity for
1539, wheelers, At night the More tourists cams to see Silver later. ; a century ago. One authoritative development Of the Miracle Strip granted So.far. there certainly ,,
1:1:, rp t lighted by pitch.pine fires In Springs when a IImerock history: of Jacksonville from Panama City to Pensacola has been no tendency to do thlsT
"' :Port King was built by American brazier on the top of the boats road was built from Ocala, replacing in the fan of 1962 Ray and reports it this way; during the last dozen yean or Each year the visitor finds new
I-l .- 1'f.. ''iI!'. L. forces Just four miles from Spectators described the spectacle a bicycle-path. The age Davidson sold their lease. which so- The Strip largely undiscovered and interesting attractions new
"" Silver Springs during the Seminole as eerie and 'gorgeous of the automobile ,had arrived has more this loo years to run. I "The tourist-travel to Florida by tourists until the 'Ms and improved accommodation ,
Wars In the 186! Many battle Overhanging trees grew red and early tourists were I using te ABC,Paramount._ bad grown constantly during the has capitalized on excellent and eating establishments. '
July 12,1884 were fought.'around the pools glimmered In the flickering the dusty roads that led to the "
springs before a treaty was light Birds cried from their' springs. I IAfter'
City Market Notes! Grapes are signed with Osee-ola, the Seminole nests and Hew near toe fires 1 'the r -
scarce 20 cents per pound: chief. at Payne Landing on the two-story hotel became
Okra Is plentiful 10 cents per Ocklawaha' River near the In 1888. a railroad 'was builtrom antiquated and was torn.
quart pineapples are plentiful :. springs, Ocala to Silver Springs down In 1920. CarmIchael constructed
12'i' to IS cents at retail: new Even before this a 200-room I t large pavilion at the.prIo,1
In 1145 when Florida becamea where dance and meetings
hotel was built at the springsby
com Is scarce 25 cents per
dozen tomatoes are plentiful state the land around Sliver T. Brigham Bishop of New were held, I
five cents per quarts new sweet Springs was purchased from the York City The railroad even. .
potatoes are scarce 40 to M United States by ant James Rogers tualiy became a spur oC the Seaboard With the advent of paved roads
cents per peck,. cantaloupes are for a price of II.25 an acre Air Line. In Marion County Inbe early
very scarce I to 25 cents The transaction took place on I .i: '20's. Silver springs became more
each; huckleberries : 15 cents Feb 24, 1845 before Florida became A combination depot and dock and more a vacation spot for
per quart, squashes are very a stats was built at the water edge both In ,and out-of-state visitors
IS to 20 cents brought by boat and
scarce per Cargo was -
It was in 1924 that W. C. Ray
Many settlers moved Into MarIon
dozen. transferred to the train, Passengers
and W. )I. Shorty) Davidson 1
County In the years precedIng also transferred there for I
the War Between the Stales acquired a -lease on the springs
Cucumbers are very scarce. <'. points in Central Florida.
from Ed Carmlchael Both
with good demand ; 30 to 30 and commerce was developed on
cents per dozen for the very best. the Ocklawaha. River and at 811 Disaster struck the springs Ocala businessmen ,who shared
ver Springs. River streamers area In 1894-IS. Orange groves the same Idea that Silver Springs
Dressed poultry: chickens brought supplies and building material were ruined by a freezing winter would become world famous if ,
13 cents per pound;'Irish potatoes to the planters from Jacksonville and the Bishop Hotel burned to the people were only told about
M cents per peck Chicago, and Pala k&. the ground However a new It. I
New York and Tennessee beef hotel was quickly built Ii
18 to 25 cents per pound: Florida It was during the War Between Their lease was for 50 yean i
beef. 6 to 11 cents per pound: the Stales and the years Immediately to 1898 an Ocala attorney BC. and Included three glass bottomed I
pork and sausage, 15 cents per following that Silver Springs Anderson, purchased the property row boats and their operators
pound; and.corned beef 10 Cents began to be recocniaed as a placeto at the head of the springs I Tom Tuoklson, Willie
per pound. be seen and enjoyed. an out Ha also operated the railroad. Marsh William Crowell and Robert \
: Croweu Both William Cro-
well and Marsh are still active
boat captains

Ray and Davidson agreed that 1 1a
the springs should be. operated t !
on high moral standards-nowhlskyi
TANKS/)/ no beer and no Juke.type;
operations Their decision was a I
r wise one for Silver Springs is !
now known internationally-
"the family attraction" I
Manufacturer of Fuel Oil& Water Storage Tanks II I
New buildings were erected at
the Springs by the new owners
and the glass bottom boat fleet
was enlarged

During the great Florida Boomin 1
the '-ax Ray and Davidson
subleased the springs to a New 1I
York syndicate called the Silver 1I
,Springs Corporation, The new organization I
added new buildings

and gasoline powered boats and I
built the Silver Grill, which was
to become a highclassdinner
g dance spot. However the plansof
the corporation did not workout
The Florida boom died out
and'on Jan 1. 1928, Ray-and

4y atop Davidson-were again the open It starts here and ends here

During the next several yean
the partners acquired additional From pine seedling' to paperboard It s a process Paperboard 'manufactured at Jacksonville Is converted .

r land bordering the Silver River. which takes some 15-25 years The Into corrugated containers, for Industry at
and Increased their holdings extenslvely I1"t. ,
Ray took ever the Owens-Illinois Jacksonville a conOwensIllinois' box plants ,In Jacksonville''' and

% Davidson management the of promotion,the springs and and advertlslng tinning flow of pulpwood, the basic raw material Miami And there a new ()-/ glass I :container plant: .

Large electric glass of' paper making. Than why wet plant millions of going up In Lakeland. Owens-llllnoli, Is a substantial

bottom boats were put Into made servtoe seedlings each year to ,replace full grown citizen ol Florida, And we look forward to ;
and every effort, was on':
during the lean yean of the '30s Trees _cut But thsts not the of our story continued record of progress as members of Its
to entice !the touring public, Ross
25 Years :of Progress'SPECIALTY Aliens Reptile Institute was community

added in 1930 and the Jungle "
Cruise ride a few yean later

TANK In 1935. about 100.000 people
visited the springs Including
such notables as Hugh, Johnson,
celebrated head of NRA: Roger
Babson famed economist: and
> : a EQUIPMENT COMPANY Gov. Alf Lsndofl of Kansas Silver OWENS-ILLINOIS i

: ,Springs! was vying with Niagara !
Falls and the Grand Canyon ,
for attention.

r .; 857 Robinson Ave. Jacksonville, Fla. With the start of World War

D came gas) rationing and an of

. I I1f < ,\., .


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r I



Henrys the Great Led Rails' March Into State


Paatial!! Hotels i Were Used to Lure Early Visitors Into Florida by. Flagler While Plant Linked Up Many Short Lines ', *

By CYNTHIA PARKS Times-Union Staff Writer .

If one eoiUd lisve drawn in id that Daylana' population man accused of festering the handle! from Lake City to the
anatomical chart of the State of swelled from 100 to 1,000 In the War Between the Staid. Apalachicola River.
-. Florida\ the veinsand .arterte Flaglcx; -decade.
that fed the life-blood of trade From Richmond I* Tampa
and tourism from the tarty lloflt rxg David Yule of Fernandina Is
would Cutely have been the railroads. At thus point n* quit ahsortv called the father of Florida's Lines began to compound to
Inn existing rails and built Mio railroad, becaus at Us prodding push through the center of the
"' .. H* pressed in to Cocoa, bits Legislator pawed the slate and on to Tampa. Short
Three (treat systems! the the winter retort of RocklPdge a Internal Improvement Act of 1854 line pried Into the phosphate
Florida East Coast Atlantic and the fruit-growing district 4 M.r to grant land to railroad and area and the agricultural, citrus
Coa.tUna and Seaboard Air of Tau: Oallle by 18 Lln..lIowrd the raw stuff that 10 milei of rack. rs Issues.y.lYule. SAL had bought Itself trackag
was converted Into the sorrel froM Richmond. Va., lo Tampa,
to build cities drain malarial P J ,I I
The next Jump: The Royal
/ took advantage of this
and lure ttsttora to .
swamps Poinciana Hotel at West Palm One of the SAL' most amav
himself and began his dream
palatial hotel In exchange for Beach and another/ Sfmfln by ra log building sprees cam under
Florida'* citrus and farm produce 1894 to get to It. By III'I Flagler'a y Af e of linking building the Gulf and Fernandlna-Atlantic the short presidency of '. Davis
touts by a
Warfield (1920 until Mi death in
direction and promls be- '
.' 'if. Cedar: Key line. Yule and
,. cam so evident that the road 19271! Warfield shoved JM miles of
other had borrowed heavily on
The tint pioneer railroad was chanted its Bam from the Jacksonville track lo completion la nine
the Florida Cant Cowl, a line SI. Augustine and Indian Northern capital, secession!, M when seemed warthreatened aI I month from Coleman in the
built a* an afterthought by a River to the Flprtd East CoastRailway West Coast county of Citrus to
for dissolving
man who alrnadv had his empire ,' -.- ready-mad answer Weat Palm Beach through live
la eiWHenry M. riagler, : 9k debt oak hammock, cypress swamps,
S g'rf. '
pin wood and prairie. The
."first' Rsllro.d'Fiagler Every trainload brought Ito : road gang averaged laying a
I Yule* pioneer line wails us
ahar of Inveiitora. Florida lava rs bv
1 t yW mil a week of the 100-pound
at 53 first, came to taxed the railroad Into state until 1932 when its buyer, the rail*. This was the first line to
Florida In IBM. AI." M* when owned land Gov W. >>. Bloxham SAL Hiked permission of the : transverse the) slat*.
most men retire-particularly shored up the debt-ridden Internal Interstate Commerce Commissionto
supported>y several mlllloni- Improvement Act bv wiling abandon It sine the sawmillsat
Cedar Key bad already chewed At present the Seaboard sparales -
he became possemed with thetourist 4.000,000 acre to Hamilton Die.
their way through all available 1.452 mile of line in Florida,
potential of the stale, ton Industrialist! of Philadelphia
which I II JS percent of its total
especially at St. Augustine. When In 18B1. Though much of It was timber
he decided\ ta build hU Moorish swamp land that had to .be mile at;*.
rtlj-hotel, the Ponce de Leon drained before development, it .
there, h* had to buy railroad went for n cent an acre 4 t. ''e Jacksonville: was one III the IU diesel repair shops, das?
mileage to transport the aupplles. flnt clues to take advantage; of siilcatlon yard and division
4lhenry the Internal Improvement. headquarter arc In Jacksonville.I : .
.Miami: SOO Resident The city old Its first bond la merger between Seaboard and
The first he purchased was allttlt
1897 to sponsor the Florida, lit ACb has been approved by
narrow road from T
gang: Individuals, eager for develop. Atlantic Gulf Central to lake he; two oompanle and the InerstaU -
to Plant
Jacksonville St. Augustineth M. Flagler Henry B.
Jacksonville St. Augustinea ment bested Flagler't train to City. After a dubloua existence ComiMro Commission.
and Halifax River Railroad He come through as did the Brlckells during the War Between the Th final stamp of a federal oourt'
widened and Improved It, and by and Mrs. Julia Tuttle of Miami, .Though most of this extension He owned an express company, entourage Including the city's two wood-buraeri which catapulted State and the Reconstruction the decision 1 II awaited to unit the
MM the first luxury train, the I a -village of some 500 residents. I. washed away by hurricanes, ant in the many disconnectedlittle pioneer banker D. G. Ambler, from Jacksonville to Plant' road saw new lift in 1883 as part we into one of the nation' top
Florida Special was sill to The Royal Palm Hotel was built I 17 mile of double .track helped short lines over the South and the editor of The Florida I Tampa Bay Hotel depot la Just'j of the Florida Central Western I ten railroads, a* far a* mileage is
dash to Florida laden with accordingly the city Incorporated, I the slat* boom.ihe'f "boom" he saw the potential of a nil Ttme-Dnlon. C. H. Jones It was 74 hour la the to*. which reached across Ui* Pan- concerned.
tourists slicing several days oft I and thi'traln tooted in !In 18%. burst in 1831 for FEC. which empire. He began buying hi February ISM. "
their trip from New' York. went Into receivership.Meanwbil Virginia, working down to Florida 'When .the arrived triumphantly Plant died la 1899 and h* triedto
Still uasatlsfled with his top-to. by 1879. group tl* up his FfcW holdings
In Sanford, there wa
The venture began to extend bottom Florida empire Flagjer) *, Its bonds were until lute little 4-yaar-old great-
That was when he first began cannon to herald tilt event,
Itself la a pattern First a hotel Insisted on bridging the Key. steadily being bought up by grandson wa of ate to handle
compounding rail mlleag her the most fitting
thee-.a railroad to It. He bought I With Iron will th. old man hung Alfred duPont Interest* (St. Joe *o gesture them. But ttato law of Hew
a logging road to East Palatka on to life until h* could ride his Paper Company) and, oddly unnah. seemed to be to load an old York, when Ills widow livd. Lt .,c sbr,.. ,
anvil and tire It off at the train ejt,,
and Daytona Brach In ISM, train to tilt very tag end of Florida even la receivership, the line ruled ollle rlle. 4 AArelyd4T
building a hotel then at Ormond, I 's Key id 191]. Then h* died. mad money. During World War purchased --component were the chugged la. It had a startling
Florida (from both on-looktrs and
Waycroat Way- effect on
II It wa of th coonlry'lmOM
one 9
lucrative lines debts cross to the St. Mary River); horse hitched to vehicle around Thereby In 1102. the SFliW .
merged with the Atlanti CoastLine
the East Florida (on to Jacksonville the platform. ,
caused it bankruptcy in 1941.
Railroad Company of Virginia
): th .- Jacksonville Tampa 9'sLelrlrura.
& Key West (south to Falatka) Th* 'Flying Cracker and cam under the control ,
A 13-year court battle raged the Palatka It Indian River of Henry Walters. Today e ;;..4-
between two would-be controllers further to Sanford) and the In 1901 the ACL'i engine, It* tilt ACL runs 1.810 mile of track:
-duPont pitted against the South Florida, which carried the throttle wide open, ran a race la Florida alone, which I* ni (1ST
., Atlantic Const Line. The du- line across the state to Port against time and the SeaboardAir percent of lit total line. n 1 11 M7eM
Fonts represented by Edward ; Tampa. Line to win a contract for the state's biggest road and U
Ball, won carrying the Florida and Cuban controlled from Jacksonville.
The first train that linked the mall. Railroad men till call the
euo n e ocaneh'na Ylotidae more developed northeast carter Savannah-tg-Jickaonvlll track Predeoewor of She Seaboard
r The road now however, Is In of Florida in the 1880 with th* Speedway la honor of the Air Lin have a romantlo history t.eWw'A I
0 'idaa eyile a lNfd4>< its second strikebound year. It the (by joompariaon) rural central Ii8 mile between Fleming G*., : The first was a TaUahats-
still Tuna freight service with and south portion wa an and Jacksonville nil in 134 to-Port Leon run built la 18S4
nonunion labor ..* extension III''this medley. The minutes. which ran by nul power, nni*** l
train ran over tit* Tampa, Jack.eoavlIle 1 the beast get nppUn, and borax '
Henry VIe Oreat-.Florida had fc Key Wait. leaving Another glide-of-thelln. was power bad to help out. Another rtlttM ItI
ft" Yule Signed Tin* Paai in 1850* another omt .Henry B. Plant. Jackaonvlll with a prominent, th* "Flying Craeksr" pulled by pndtoMMr-road wan built by al Thug Map Ihowt Bouta of Itatrt Eaurly Rfl UiMt 1


: t

Milestone '
;' Y

*. for


"i-..' Progress .

r J y. "e >

era"arw.qK IiQP3 For The Florida Times-Union the last century has been

: \ .,ff INIIIi one of dynamic advancement. Coast Line has a parallel

s heritage-symbolized by our new building on the bankof

: s the St. Johns River.

f r' It all began to 1830 when the Petersburg Railroadwas

q ,,, :,I It ;'d ; I chartered to build 60 miles of track between

(j ). ',:" Petersburg, Virginia and Weldon, North Carolina.That'swhere
} :;i'I, ': 'ti s e we got our start. -.

'" \It' I The most important early road however which
I' ',' from -
'i II '' IV'1'/.. '' ,(' Coast Line eventually grew was the Wilmington and

: Weldon. It began operating in 1840, running 161

: <; : >,> miles between Wilmington and Weldon North Carolina.At .

the time, it was the longest railroad in the world.

> "I't : r'l -:' Coast Una to Florida In
: .came the early 1900'swhen
II .. ; ll: < ; i 4'
.4 it Integrated the Plant
System Its
r/ : rapidly _
; ; :1'\/\ ; ;,
fi '" > expanding network. And then In 1960, Coast Line

:' : ,: / :;" ,:. < / moved its entire general offices staff from Wilmington,

I '. t."t.. : North Carolina to the new building here In Jacksonville.The .

i' : : 4R move Involved 'some 2,500 people and was one

: : of fl e of the largest single Undertakings of Its kind In the-

;" history of any domestic corporation.

it' 'i' Today, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 1s a composite -

i? of some 125 roads. It operates over 5,700

;: .Jr: : miles of track In Florida, Georgia! Alabama, the Carcllnas -
and Virginia.We maintain 607diesel locomotives.

') And, more than 30,000'freight and passenger "cars.

\ Total Investment In Coast Line exceeds $500,000,000.

+ Because of our own eventful history, we appreciatethe

significance a century of progr ss..AII of us it '

i Coast Line are proud to salute The Florida Times-Union

on Its _centennial., We both look back on a fuIPpast -

and ahead to a promising future. ,. _

I'; ,1.

_1 "
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i t ry v ,

.. '.

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----- -- ------ -'-

Bright Future Seen 4.aaarrr, '.

.. For U.S. RailroadsTraffic a 1 i ? -5

r .

Increase, Farther Development h Expected by Presidents

of the..Atlantic, Coast Line and the SeaboardBy l'' r

.' .
AL ERXLEBEN Times-Union Staff Writer

There U t bright future ahead the answer to the so-called "hot' th* regulation that are not now and mean for rendering a aWl
for U.t, Industry and railroads, .box' on railroads" h* ald, applied to other modes" of trans better service to the public.
according to the president of portation.
two major linn serving Florida In the year ahead h* said the will
Coast Line will acquire some Smith of the SAL In his ll.aleo' "Technological advanced
W. Thomas Rice. president of new dlesel locomotives "of the nent, echoed a number of Rlc*" be numerous. Computer, for Instance
will bo
the Atlantis Coast Line Railroad, most modern design available view.H* said: Into play
more and more to perform additions I
with headquarter In Jackson W* will continue upgrading of ,
till, MM an tacreM in railroad existing equipment to be sure "e "Trying to predict what American the function that will enable \
tratfla and further Industrial Hevclopment have an adequate supply' to meet railroads will be like In lilt railroads their to continually. Increase
at tin Southeut the needs of the shipper rear 2000. for example. I 11 a efficiency.'Tire
hazardous business at best, but
John W. Smith, president of the "Passenger equipment I 11 being of one thing I feel confident* Influence of electronics
Seaboard Air Line Railroad, constantly overhauled in our own railroad will till be the nation will be felt In constantly Increasing
fad low-oost& carrier, degree, leading the to
which hu headquarters In Rich shops and upgraded where possible way
mond. Va., believes ".... can expect In keeping with the demandfor utilization of ultra-sophisticated
many new developments in such equipment on the partof "Just a* far reaching changes device In every-dsy operations,
have taken place the railroads Through the application of these
the rail picture between BOW and the traveling public he said on
the turn of the century" with Rice disclosed that the Coast since 1930. we can expect, DeW methods push button controls
railroads continuing to be "the tin* 1* Installing "a new concept many new developments In the will guide the performance she sr i _
Ballon| true low-cost carrier In machine record keeping that rail picture between now and lilt of routine work, releasing manpower y
la on* of the most modern and tun of the century. for research that will r -"-..
In fact the first of Its kind in bring even greater technological : # ..... _
Rice gave his views In an Interview "Outstanding the advance '..
the nation among ** and /0....
and Smith save his In a the earliest to be realized In my _
statement written especially for With this centralized equipment opinion will be the merging of "Th trend
toward specializedequipment '
The Florida Times-Unions Centennial th* railroad will have "1110 many of today separately operated for the movement of PROGRESS: Railroads have com a long way since 1884, when the Tavares, Orlando and Atlantic Railroad
Edition formation Immediately available companies Into a relatively freight will become more pronounced used to send torch-bearing track walkers ahead to check on flooded areas like this one near Orlando.
on the movement of all train small number of Independent with the result that ears Passengers were thrilled as water rose to the level of car platforms and made Jokes about lucky pasengers .
"The rapid growth of Florida and all can from any point In streamlined systems. Elimination not yet on the designer drawing In upper berths. When the cart reached Jacksonville, the passengers told their experiences to>
the Industrialization of certain S,709 miles of railroad," be of duplicate lid unneeded facilities board will be '
la the continued our I commonplace In .an artist for Harper's Magazine, who drew this sketch:'from a passenger's notes.
area Florida, said will provide th* opportunity J000"'
I i
The railroad hu hundred cI'
acre of property along its track j
available for Industrial development -,
and "we will continue to
solicit and endeavor to locate Industrial
plants along our railroad '
In all the dates in ..b1ch1l'e '
operate. I .,
rte ,
Barring any chart in the national -I
s 9r economy Rice predicted
1955 will produce fJ'OIIl'I\"lIue
higher than that of U64.T .
3i Serve Industry'

Rice said I the Act Is constantly ,!!
construotlnv track to serve new
and expanding Industries but
then tracks seldom run more
than two or three .miles la anyone -

location' ..' -41

"I do not contemplate, anytrack
construction In Florida in 1
the foreseeable future other than to
for industrial development II
track to serve new plant AsVopmnt
*."b* declared."I : .
W. Thomas Rice '
think we have reached* t. !-
Americaare .,
point where rill line In 1
growth of the phosphate Industryand really men than necessary 1
of coorseths paper IndustryIn In many Instances This I* the
the Southeast, mean continuing reason merger are necessary-' *
growth la traffic patternsfor because we have an over .&bun>
the rail lines that serve this dance'of ralllinea and that coupled QrheJlflori Qim '
area" Rice declared. with other and mode highway of transportation and a $ nion ,

"The entire Southeastern part waterway built by the federal
of this country Is probably the government, has developed a !
most rapidly developing area in transportation capability that Is
Industrial development we have." not needed. That the reason
Rice said adding: "This Is primarily merger art necessary." ,
the result of tinderdevelopment -
for years and at the present Pending before the Interstate
Commerce Commission I* a proposal
every large and capable supply '

. any of company labor that desiring Is available to local to a Seaboard to merge Air Line the ACL Railroad.with the It is a high' privilege do extend! our. best wishes as you round out your first

plant in one of these areas," Advised that several architect hundred years. centenarian ourselves, we know something of the 'pride you
*. In articles written especially
Rice predicted a continuing improvement for this centennial edition of occasion
In passenger travel The Florida Times-Union have feel on this significant 'v; -
between Florida and Eat nj and
forecast use fIl. fewer automobiles

Midwestern cities. and an In Increase downtown transportation rail commuter And well may you be proud! For a century you have served with distinctionone i

More ).Passenger TraNla service Rice said: of the most important areas of our country. Throughout that period you have

"There are always people who "I personally despair at the .
like to travel on the trains and as .., ,. ...,..
long as we operate comfortable, .',.,.,-. --- ,.. a11" '. exerted a constructive influence upon the development of this area.
well-equipped trains manned by ,
courteous employes. I believe we \ ... '4""f Great progress has come in those years'and the growth of this area has been
will share In the passenger movement .' l' "

spectacular. You have the deep satisfaction of knowing that your efforts have contributed -

change The ,ACL In equipment president trends.forecast I I much toward making that growth possible. .

"Looking at the future as compared Your has and has in turn attracted others the
with the past I can see a leadership been recognized to

ment continuing catered trend to the toward needs equip of the rf worthwhile causes you have sponsored. Your community. is the better for. that lead-,
shipper We've gone through an e

era can In American no longer railroading take a standard wherewe ership ,and the principles it represents. _

type box car and say It will hold "
all types of commodities that With so splendid a record, characterizing your first hundred years, the future
travel under cover We pave to
tailor the equipment to fit the cannot be other than bright. J
Individual needs of the shipper ., .

area depending and unloading"traveled 011.the facilities his type product of that loading maybe the Again, our warmest congratulations on your outstanding achievements of the )

mechanized available or, not whether, This requires they're past! May each succeeding year add to your stature! '

a tremendous outlay on the part .. Rwr' ,
of railroad companies because "
.frequently toll equipment has to John W. Smith
return to Its origin empty"

Improved diesel Engines also i thought of operating commuter
were forecaiU-dlesels which will I service unless the taxpayer ar
have better track.holding ability willing to pay the price It cost
higher speeds, faster starting ca- to operate. This thing of running
pabllitles and able to operate for peak load during the morning
long periods of time with very rush'hour and the evening rush
minor maintenance."The hour and having to maintain
equipment and personnel during
use of atomic power the remainder of the day I* a
could beIn the future, although lad loss to the railroads"

there la nothing at the moment Asked to sum up the major
that I know of that Indicates It
the railroads of
cost !eVIl problem '. SEABOARD AIA. i
can be brought to a.
America In the future, Rice a*'
that would justify Its use on serted,
railroads,",Rice said '
"I might lay that the struggle
New Evjdpmeat Cernlag of tins railroad of America to
achieve proper legislative actionIn AIR LINERAILROAD .
New equipment on order now firs ball of Congress to relieve -
by the railroad be said includes them of the restrictionsthat
a thousand whopper hopper were placed upon them during I _; Q
ears-massive enclosed boxcar the years when they were a
especially built for various monopoly' will continue Into the
products-and a thousand boxcar ahead '
*. These cars will be equipped Sinews" 5 FLA.a.le .
with rover bearing Before "1 would certainly hope that
roller bea'inge were introduced, In the not too distant future the e _
railroad used friction bearingsand lawmaker of this country will THB ROUT OP OOUHTBOU SIKVICB
"there are still. a lot of realls that the railroad are just .
them" be said. another mode of'transportation
and ar*' not a monopoly and
The roller bearing have been thereby relieve them of torn *f

I ,


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I i


-_ u __ -

f "a 4-e'eA! ''l,W "trr .., ME 1,' R tIt
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;< O"

The Florida Special .', ,\1\4'l : \' ..
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it ,
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76 Years After First Run, It's Still an Aristocrat >\: >, t' ;, .;. :

)' -
Following I great gisp of tem! and the quieting at the ramming -for tl. No cooking odors offended the nostrils of the affluent. .
tuna o( the big engine, the Florida Special was Jubilantly They witched the scenery sweep past while stated on Mil trees
tailed a* the miracle of railroading by the Newt-Herald of.Jacksonville silk plush chair
la 188, <
Called a palace on wheels, the Special's cars wen heated from 4wJL1t
The locomotlve-maker rode most o( the way In the cab to the engine'i steam. -Due la new uses with brakes, !lever and
watch nil pot perform. It had precedence over anything elseon Platform coupler, dust and excessive oscillation were prevented.In *
W rails Did It clipped oft the mile at a breath-taking speed Washington the knowledgeable were sun It was the finest train
The train official1' uniforms made them resemble Prussian mUdint. that had ever graced that depot,
inclined to swell a bit with pride of their new charge. 'The
The first TO passenger to ride the alx-car flyer wert the brass Birthday Party: for Aristocrat.
buttoned. -top echelon of railroad officialdom.. And the holds her
tills of unparalleled luxury today-76 )'e.rllaln. :In 1937 it was still so. The'aristocrat wa tlvfn a birthday
party 'In Its fiftieth year. In Jacksonville, all debutantes In costumel -
'The Aristocrat of Winter Trams" wu the drat all Pullman of the Eighties met it In St. Augustine the horse-dnwa
vestibule, electrically lighted train to Florida from New York cabs. balled JU lurching stop as they'd done e hsif-century before.
Run by the Atlantic Coast Une and the Florida East Coast Railway ?a StrO-
the 1 line stopped at St. Augustlnt and Flailer't newly opened Addition had kept It the luxury special. recreation car"booted .w
Ponce de Leon Hotel. a three. -plece orchestra and tames supervised! by a host a
ess. .
Train Matches lloleri ,Luxury -
On Its .7Sth anniversary passenger were given eye-filling -
For the first time, lourlRis" train accommodations instated( "diamond" stickpins" to commemorate Its opulent origin
the opulence of the hotel. Prior to that It war a tone, amoke-
choked, grueling trip sometimes taking ai long aa 90 hours I On Dee. 1? marked the' 77th year of the Florida Special, its
that first run thetrain! left Jersey City at *;30 a m. on Jan. .. recreation car ,now equipped with television

By 3:30: p.m. It ground to a halt fat Washington With abort stops. Among the notables) it brought to Jacksonville in IBM were
in' Wilmington Charleston and Savannah, the Special reached President Grover Cleveland and Mrs Cleveland to attend the
Jacksonville In time for lunch_a 30-hour run. Florida 8ub-Troplcat Exposition. Now however, the Special
deigns a short pre-dawn atop here hustling tourist to the new .
'(Jacksonville was the terminus until 1890 when Flagler con,,
strutted brides" the St. Johns. For two years, Riviera It and It. iron colleagues created down the stale
railroad across
a The Extensive,Mill of the Cummer Lumber Company at It Appeared In the Early 1900s
tourists did as they did on that first run: Thf.oy.ot off the Special
in Jacksonville crossed the river on the ferry Armsmear and then
entrained on the Jacksonville. St. Augustine It Halifax River line

to arrive at the Ponce de Leon Hotels I Cummer Story Dates Back to the 1890sThe I

By Its 50-ypar Golden Jubilee the train made the trip to 20 i ,
hour, 10 minutes. Today the goal ,is no longer the "Summerland
In Winter"-Jacksonville. The Special_ passes through here at 1t :
m on Its way to Miami,' The train usually carries 20 cars, : history of the Cummer' In 18M with the beginning of At the sam time, the various board feet of lumber, with the source on these lands, in the With the depletion of the timber'
bringing 5 .OOO passengers to Florida during the last four-month Companies In Florida and In the depletion of the Michigan member of the Cummer family most modern sawmilling;planing early 1900 the Cummer prospected reserves, economically adjacent
teason. Jacksonville, Is a story of one timber resource In sight, Jacob moved to Jacksonville where they mill and dry kiln equipment and then developed extensive to the Jacksonville mill, this
of the pioneer developments ot t and Wellington Cummer turned and their children and grandchildren available. ,, hard rock phosphate holdings mill's production gradually lessened
But speed In the Hgljtie vas secondary to luxury. The rail this itste's natural resource and southward for their future lumber have resided ever since! in Alachua and Gilchrlst and It was finally shutdown
roadmen marveled Including Its sleeping car builder and one of ,How It has continued over 70 operations and purchased and where they have played a In order to succewfully market counties, and built many mine in the early 1920s, w h 11 .
II* first passengers, George Pullman but the passenger loved year to the present day. large, Umber holdings in Virginia, prominent part In the business their lumber product in the there The rock wu shipped to the phosphate' operation were;
JU beautsEngine North' Carolina, Louisiana and. and civic development. North the Cummer purchased Jacksonville, where It was processed shut down at about the lame
By both heritage( and training, Florida. and built a large fleet of oceangoing .
and loaded principally in Ume due to the depletion of the
No. 87 hauled four sleepers, a dining rar. a combination the Cummer family went principally Using several corporate names barges with tug to trans.port .
curtailment of
ship. for transport to the major reserve and the
ear and t baggage car. Even the baggage car. according to lumbermen and had their Convinced that the Florida timberlanris the Cummers operated primarily the timber and lumber to
ports of the world, especially the market, due to World War Iand
the Newt-Herald: now T1mea'Unlonwas roomy and handsomely beginnings In Canada where the and the state. Itself, offered under tV name of The Cummer the porlt and market of the Germany the development of European
finished In oiled woods founder of Ihese enterprise was the best Investment and future Lumber Company In the first de. Eastern seaboard deposits which captured most of
Upholstered In Blue VelvetA John Henry- Cummer, who was the Cummers sold the rest velopment of Its Florida holding the foreign markets.At .
born in Toronto In 1797 the first of their holding In the Southern Initially, the mill In Jacksonville For many year, this mill with At the same time, the pine .
closed vestibule led' to the combination car. Past the linen! white child bora in that city. slates and concentrated oh the was built to convert the Its later .additions, wu located stumps and other waste products this time and hen beforehand .
closets and berths were the seats upholstered In pale blue velvet. He first entered the lumber further acquisition of timberlandsand stands of longleaf pine, locatedIn at ..h.t..* called Mllldale, now of the pine trees were processed the Commons moved their
The lambrequins matched the seats. The walls were of gleaming business there in 1840 and was operating location in Flor North Florida into merchantable the site of the U.S. Gypsum plant In a plant built by-the Cummer manufacturing plant south and
Spanish mahogany. his who ida. lumber product and surrounding properties Just for this purpose and turpentine, westward In the state. A modern
succeeded by son, Jacob
South of the mouth of Trout pin tar charcoal and many related sawmill was built at Sumner near
The berths were of btrdseye maple burnished mirrorbright.The town moved, Canada the operation in 1857, to and Water-then Move'* Jacksonville I These stands of Umber.. located River & wu one of the largest product were produced Cedar Key which processed the
windows were double plated French glass- with beveled mirrors In I860 he and ill family movedto 1 principally In Baker, Alachua and business enterprises In Jacksonville there, as well u phosgene gas virgin cypress Umber owned by
la between.! Michigan In the early 1990s, the Cummer I Levy counties, were at first Inaccessible employing more labor than for the tilt of the armed force the Cummers along the bank of
family moved to Jacksonville to the Jacksonville location most other businesses and contributed In World War I. This plant, the lower Suwannee River and
The twinkling chandeliers lighted by pear-shaped globe
were Jacob Cummer was In turn much to the growth and known The Florida Wood
M the Cummer interest as the midwest coast. This mill op
and the fourth generation of !
of light the electricity furnished from a small dynamo In the ban-
Innovation Invented by the Pullman Company. (The joined by his son, Wellington, and Cummer entered the family constructed t ftiwt-class and thor economy of this community' Products Company, wa later erated'until 1925, when it bW'lled.L.mrelo1le .
gage car-*a
together they purchased timber- sold to the GUdden Company,
other lighted train In world between lumber business when Waldo I' oughly equipped standard gauge Tract
only ran Acquired
electrically ,the Huge Protested
Brighton and London.) lands and built sawmills in Michigan and Arthur Cum met joined their railroad over 100 mile In length, and was the nucleus of their operation .
J In the vicinity of Morley and father Wellington Cummer, In : over which they operated many in the early 1900s! the Cum: In Jacksonville.B .. In the early 1920s! a* a part ol
The ceiling wu'rlegantlembotsed In the Queen Anne style. Cadillac. the Florida operations. years under the name, Jacksonville mer acquired Urge holding of their program for the further development
'The ventilators were of cut glass These mill were operated continuously It Southwestern Railroad. : timberluid., in other areas of x,. Flint Built of natural resource,
the 70 In 18% they built the first of Florida mainly in 'the central the Cummer Lumber
next Company
for ytarl.nd
The smoking ear, too was elegantly appointed 'with a win : In later years, this railroad and rntdweitern parts of the I
cut billions of feet ot their Florida mill In Jacksonville 1 now known as the Cummer Lime
many Also In the early 1900. modern
buffet of sold to the Athuiltc Coast Line
at one end. The seats and window lambrequins were was at
state, ra that one time they
to cut the virgin longleaf and ,
while pine and hardwoods, employing wooden-bos plant wa built Manufacturing Company.
desks stocked. and became major of their ,
,cherry plush and book cases and wrttlju> were all part were the largest private landowners
r the moot modern technique pine from their North Florida that In Jackionvllle adjacent to the prospected it* Umerock reserve t
system serving part of Florida.
The dining ear eould accommodate SO to 40 diners. The Ice of the times in logging holdings and established their admtnlatratlv In the stats, owning ever sawmill, and It produced many In the Ocala area and constructed )
+ chest would hold a ton. Exotica: like Frlcandeau of Veal a la and sawmffllng. manor which offices Jn Jacksonville ; 500,000 acres fruit and vegetable container forth processing plants. nIn':1I1 i
Richelieu and saddle of antelope were cooked for the gourmet, were devised by the Cummer where they have been ever The Jacksonville mill had an Aa part of the overall program shipment of these .important time, and : the
while the bottle on the table held water from the Silurian Springs and their organization since 1 annual capacity of 15.000,000 of the development of natural re- Florida products.I present this operation has ex

i t rill ..___._ .-.--- ...-- -'.-. ------.-- -- -.- -- panded where DOW thin soft Flor.
Id.llmestoneI mined and manufactured
ptmrw am w* -
for a variety of pur

I I First Railroad Tomahawkedthe ll rock poses agricultural concrete Including liming building road material building block and,

The Name .
By CYNTHIA PARKS pulled up and laid the track between Florida Railway and Navigation In 1923, the present Umber operating

I n...- .* SUIT WtHir hen and Baldwin .' Company in 18M. It was In company, the Cummer
receivership several! year beforeIt Sons Cypress Company, built a
A railroad map of Jacksonville During the grim day of Reconstruction was cold to a wealthy Easterner modern, completely electrified
today hows' roads splder-web- the line was de- W. Bayard Cutting, in 1888. sawmill and box factory at La,
blng from here tS over the tcribed at two streaks of rust Cutting fold this line and other cooohee, Florida, 40 miles north
state but it took several false running through the wilderness.It holding to the Florida Central east of Tampa. This mill, the
j ; ; f CUMMER I starts before a rail trip was available wu resurrected to- life and Peninsular that same year largest of Its kind In the South
to Alligator Town in 1860. operated there continuously until
work, though In 1861 when William
From 1900 to 1903 the FC&P 1960 cutting Cypress PIne and
', The first try was tomahawked 1f. Jackson bought it and operated under stock ownership hardwood. '
by the Semlnple Indian War. The operated it at the Florida Central by the Seaboard Air line Rail.

city' planner. I D. Hart, and several Railroad Company, road Company, In 1903 merged In the late 1930s( the filth generation
., other Jacksonville men put R wu sold In 1882 ,at public with the SAL. of the Cummer family
:: FLORIDA ., up a million dollar with in 1834 Tallahassee to auction to Sir E. J. Reed who, Last year the SAL straightened Wellington. Cummer n and
: : has been associated 'wi : connect and Jacksonville the Gulf Coast. Their In six weeks conveyed it to the curves and Improved the freight Edward C. Roe, took .an active
Florida Central ", i : '" enterprise was to be called the FCfcW continuing to the CUm.
had another line and 58-mile court between here and manage
Florida Peninsular and Jackson. with tUs. addition, the distance Lake City and then beyond to mer timber-growing, mining, cat
villa Railroad. The plan was between Lake City and Apilachl- Chattahoochee. In use, that tie and land development programs
FOR 75 YEARS 'abandoned in Ill, however, because I;cola also was bridged. la the final resting bed of the on the remaining! 170,000
)! > of the, war panic. I This line, then, consolidated century-old PAfcOC to Alligator acre of the companies' lands in
I> .. .., ", Another Ill-starred attempt wa with several other to become Town., Florida. -
.... "" made In the IMOs to link the
.'> city with Cedar Key and the Su
,' :; i' ; River but David Levy
'\ :, : wannee
: Yulee scotched that Idea by building -
t his own road from Fernan-
: '. :' t,1'', dint to Cedar Key.In' .

I ,,:. IIJ2 a number of citizen
wen gripped by rall-fever again! ,
t, >, and noihing would halt them.
Dr. A. t. Baldwin headed the
group to urge Ute building of the
Florida, Atlantic and Gulf Central
.. Pioneers in the development "of Florida' natural resowcei.. Railroad to Alligator Town.
\ Jacksonville put II* faith en the
line and sold it* first bonds-450,- 1111111*
000 worth-to finance It.

,.' Producers of timber, limestone .. The project was not without
tribulations. Work ceased during -
I the summer of' 1857 when a

, cattle and citrus.. ; i yellow fever epidemic plaguedthe
",; ( "r : town. '
., ,
But on March 13, I860 the
Operating in 12 Florida counties with headquarters; in Mr*/,: i. : rAbGC puffed triumphantly, to
> \ I the little tows M miles away

Barnett National Bank Building, Jacleonv lf. ', >' '- today ,by possibly Interstate of Its 10. forthcoming In anticipation -

h it '' rut''r; I glory a* line terminus Alligator 'e. .a-.w 'so s. 2a w; ,unml,,

T) :<',/. :; :; name to Town Lake had Ctiy chanted IU ., Jy 7s xt" qt' '"i, ss.-

,.. : J" The festivities surrounding the # w w ,
'I" 1'
I opening of the line went on for (
dayt. First there was an excursion
tor Lake City many Jack
sonville resident taking their
I Ii first train ride. Then the
C : "",' 'Jol( Lake tlty folk were treated to
.' ; fk one and met with a big barbecueat
I thisend..

,, ,-,, \ \ 'II At the Judson House on Bay Growing with Jacksonville for over 40 years in the service ol yachting.

'I 1 i < ; 'i.; Street mixed a the ceremony water of symbolically the two Complete facilities for, overhauling boat up to 60', feet Ind' berthing

:r ;:: bodies now Joined by rail. Miss accomodations for about 200 boater;
.,' Louisa Holland "poured" for the
d '
. : St. John River and Mist Kate Dealer for Owen Yachts
Johnson Motor Boston Whalers other small

I .|;It::';t:VV.>: ; ; ,CUMMER ,SONS CYPRESS ,COMPANY:;:,:': :: Ivet from of Lake Lake DeSoto City melded with it.water boats, and marine supplies, Serving North, Florida at the, supplier of

Th ot tilt "
\ 1 .1 engine course wa "Everything That Eloati.
IcUMMER'llME MANUFACTURING source of much musing and talk ,
> *
f by the armchair railroaders. As
\ S'iI'"' ':' r ''t '" they were speculating on Its merit
1'i'1''f: 'ji" I"t"I"\ { ;; ."if\!' : FLORIDAGRAHAM
a ''H. t '' :.' r one day, the engineer play. COME TO
TllECUMMERCO'IANY'' fully gave tile whistle a long
Jerk and released a treat gasp BOAT YARD INC.
ot team.. The terrified byitandjer : ,
went tcrambllnc In all directions "
;\ ; lure the engine wu going 4451 Herschel. Street On the Ortega River
to explode, j

I Then tilt ,War Between the Jacksonville, Florida Phone 387.5538
State earn to Florida The Union
and the Confederacy alternately !

,' .

..... ,' .
"'! '''' .
iI ",,,'.,'" {\t1i Jf1 '' ; '' ,. 'I1.,,'. +:. apl'i AG :, ,_ .. ,
.._' "'t\J .oII+-? +?-x.>' .6el +IfYIN -- I. /, ti EWUN'1. '2 up..wv' '' p.qe
,,", "" .L ,", ;: .: : ;.._ :;.:: :::.: .:.:. :;;.: :: '

i'jjfijii"f, ''. \ '*"I4 ;'lVrfi. 9 ,... Lt I""Jv'qA .. 1'".." '"' """ ""If",'



': 1

: He Gave the State a Future i


Wealthy Oilman Spent Millions! Developing Florida's Potential as an 'American Riviera' ,1


By YVONNE PARKER, Times-Union Special Writer"No '

SIr, I wish rd had the brains to think of It," John There wu wild talk' of pushing the railroad southward to following childbirth and his\ only son who never accepted bin Flacler, now 71, built tt.S-mfflion marble mansion la Pain I
D. Rockefeller replied when asked V Standard OU Company a little settlement on the banks of the Miami River But Fuller stepmother, refused to 10 Into business with him. Beach for Us 34-year-old bride. Mary Uly Kenan of Norttt ,
was his Idea. "n..at Henry M. Flagler." wu content with Palm Beach, until the following year Carolina, and ht-quIck\Y captivated the social Ills then. ,
when a freeze killed the orange trIM and his new railroad' His wife'a behavior grew Increasingly erratic and on March ,
Yet Plaster who row from t $1 a month clerk to an freight business. JO.. 1897, she war' commUted to an Institution for the Insane, Plaster bad never been interested In society and ago mad. :
ell millionaire. Is not remembered for bow be, mid money but Two years later Flagler wu told she would never again be the him less! *o. He embarked Instead on "Flagler'& Four," the '
for how he spent It. When Flagler learned Miami wu unharmed by the frost wife be had known. He had a trust appointed for her can 00-mUllon railroad to Key West. '
.the.future of the city wu. assured and never saw her, again. J'

Pouring tome $4o ta' million Into the East Coast of Mrs.Julia Tuttle, i widow who had been pestering him to It wu completed la 1912 and the next year he died. I
he determined to
Lonely, get a divorce although Insanitywu
he bestirred t .tale' that bad been drowsing In 1U extend his railroad to Biscayne Bay, gave-him 100 acres On not rounds In either1' New York'or Florida. "1f It wasn't for Florida I'd be quite a rich man today i
part for 300 yearn and gave it a future. April U. tare the first wood burning locomotive chugged Into Flagler told &interviewer shortly before his death. "But the
Miami-wher It wu greeted by wild hurrahs. He changed his legal residence to Florida and soon with hardest problem a man hu Is how to help people. :The desire I
Other Florida developers "spent to make unprecedented speed the Florida legislature Introduced, passed
money money Typically'once Flakier had -made Mi mind to Investin to help others comes when a 'man has more than enough for
J. E. Doves wrote In his history of Florida. ""...Ier spent Miami he paved the streets and aldewaUci up provided electricity and the governor aimed a law making Insanity a grounds for; his own needs. I have come to the conclusion that the best ,7 1
money for the theer love of creating the Flagler System wu sewers and waterworks and even dredged the channel divorce In 1"Iorlda.1"Ialler wu accused of buying off the Legls- way M help others la to help them help .
the realization of an Ideal built upon the product of a-lifetime." lature and many newspapers opened a double-barrrled"
of BIscayne Bay Miami wu tarn almost full-grown city, on him. They weren't mollified when -he filed suit for divorce a He told another, with tongue In cheek, that he had ;Just
Hated and feared by ome! and revered by others during 'AH this Urn Flasher& wu finding a happiness In his Florida few month after passage of tin law and then seven days afterit wanted to see U an American could make a go of a place
t his lifetime, the oil magnate turned pioneer Is acknowledged project that wu not known In his. homellfs. JIll daughter died wu granted, remarried. when the Spanish. French and English: had failed.'Flagler's .
ai one of the moat dramatic figure In Florida history Mace -
Ponce de Leon.

He wu born In 1130. This wu'tile same year the drat railroad -
In the United State "begin carrying passengers and freight Flagler
a few miles outside Baltimore In horse-drawa can. He livedto
lilt the nation 'covered with 230,000 miles, of track ID-191 \
and his own railroad traversing the East Coast of Florida.an
crowing the'lea, linking Key West to the mainland,

Dream f
The son of a poorly paid Presbyterian minister and farmer, .
.Flagler left his home in Hopewell, N.Y.. at 14 and went to \
work for nil half-brother. Dan Harkness, in a store In Republic \

Ohio FulfilledHenry / {1.\\'r\\' ',sla.sass 'pets !.J.';; : Itr'':? :; IIi; J -
At 19. he got a better Job. $400 a year In nearby Bellevue ; ;J \ I' .jiiI.1./' I., 'l't; I: \. \ 'i! ; .
and four years later he married Dan Harknesi first cousin I '1':" ; "
'Mary HarkneH. The couple had a quiet and pleasant life In I ,' 1fI\ W'I
I \
Bellevue despite )!&rJ"', poor health and the loss. of a child. > ;: -iti" ;; \ i 1 I
r I Flagler died believing ? '. I Jl ,} 1.."' ,} ", ',
Inauspicious BeginningBy I his new oversea railway wouldbe faith"Still: ,I, ,flj 'lj ,;j'lfj: j" ff r,
the making of Key West. ,,, ,1 ,{' :iI\,( ', r" ',
M6J FlMler havln, saved $50,000, was restless and >- { ,ff\' 1"
ready to make Ms fortune. He moved big family to SaglnawMich. 01,' ''j" .\\' I ,," \
: ., where salt had been discovered and went Into the sal But his last and moet'expen. Vl \"f I '1,1 OI" ,
business In two years the salt market collapsed and. he. wu sive undertaking lived up to Its y. lives-l' [1' '.;;, 1\ .
left with nothing., nickname, '"Fla,leri P.lI ,." i
Very, little freight came out of : : ; ; i,1:: : ; t
It wu his first. and last financial failure and one' he always, Cuba and other South American I\'; : ;
remembered. countries. Instead of becoming a I'I. I', ,
f '
great metropolis and "America's 'h"i't',1.1', , l'N//, \ "I ,
Borrowing (30,000 from his fatMr-In.!.., Fader opened a Gibraltar." Key West continued '.I' II :,':.1'11\1\1.,1\\\ \ ; \ J ; '" :
rain business In Cleveland and remarked _to a friend that if. a fishing hamlet, f:! ; ,. ,,' The'great pioneer's faith in Florida's futuref'fyf'fl' i "
he ever paid off his debts and wu $10.000 ahead .he would retire 1 "' -i w"i"v'\ ; "" i-'''':'''! .-!',/(>' .
.. I Flair Ice Doing. ,(f' "A v -'. fsourhentage.Ithasbeenanmsptrationtofollowhtt. \ : ftyl*

In foes Flagler joined the firm of Clark and Sanford, grain 'If : : .' I':1':' : ,

commission merchants and renewed a friendship with John D. Flagler had a flair for doing ; ,'i'i\, far-slghtedV1S10n, as..well as his successful /j'.: :*'I .r.
Rockefeller. The two men had office In the fame building and great thing and the tan-million (
"walked home together, often discussing the days when Flagler Key West extension to his Ploy formula to assure the state's continued growth by 'v \.
from BeDevue to Rockefeller In Cleveland. da East Coast to '
hipped grain Railway was : ;:
be a grand climax to his other offering visitors the utmost in pleasure amid luxury. i; .' ;.
In the oil busmen When he needed "
Rockefeller\ was already developments, .
capital to expand his business Planter told him his wife's first '< '. Haying with Florida I
grown ;
cousin, Stephen Harkness, had made a fortune In the liquor ( ,' ,;' ; / ,
business and bad a flair for speculation. V Also the decision by the fed. '' "' becomes ', /, "R" \
from ;
oral government to build the }..;:', .' swamp to skyscraper ._ Anatural ; .!,:, "

HarknPftll' &II't'td to put.$100,000 In the business U Floater Panama Canal Influenced him.; ',! "\ '' for in to and build for state's future : jf i: '
would Join the firm and have control of bill Investment. For He thought Key West would be '.<' ":! ;"\\I ''' l' plan our _,; '/
the next 10 or- U yean, Plaster& wu Rockefeller's closest a natural base for guarding and I/ \ : .1' : ',
associate. protecting the canal. I, ''' r':''('*'' '' : ,today WIth the same confidence, faith"and ?' .: ;,'jV) ./ :!i\; 'fe'iKr. ')
i\\:,\"}t I ,' d'ii/ \ '
\ :
One morning aa the two men were walking to work Flaglrrsuggested Rumors about the railway circulated lj'\\: : t1 I"" 'i" 1>' r enthusiasm as our founder did 81 years ago. \I" ? ",, '; \>(.tI p V",
to Rockefeller the possibility of combining smaller ''I, i l .,t, ..", ': "' I) I'

refineries.quit and That bought very him afternoon out for he H700.found That a small wu operator the first readyto step Miami Metropolis and on July official 31, 1905 mouthpiece the ', "J ; ;n f\; ; :' U>.''?i'' ;\', ', 'rl k{ '

toward the creation of Standard Oil.,., for Flagler and his associates -: ; :,o ;: i < > 1 ",1/ ', ', \ f *' '
announced the plane In I ,; "FLAGLER SYSTEM .,
SUndsr OU .Ucerporated special Keg West edition. ;i'f: !) ; : /.1; 'r ):;: {;,'*"-,\" :" ;

\I,4I"-t..W'f'' .. .: .. >'
-cV. '
On Jau: 11. 1870. Standard Off wu Incorporated with Rocke- ,. -
feller as president his brother; William, vice president and Construction across the bun. :r','If ( ," Florida East Coast Hotel Company, St Augustine ; -Jr'
.Flagler. secretary-treasurer. firm made no secret of its Ireds of coral and lime rock
plan to buy or"force out of business all competition and within Florida Keys took seven yean, I"P' 0 Steamship,Company, Miami ,/".
few months It controlled:; 20 of the 25 refineries. In Cleveland.By with labor a constant problem.

1879 the Standard Alliance 'with Standard Oil a* the Tbe intense heat vicious mosquitoes William R. Kenan, Jr., C/ii/mia/i/ / A. R. MacMannls, President, -
parent organization controlled to percent of the petroleum Industry -, and Flagler' rule against r

In the nation liquor made It hard to keep

In the meantime the two men became Involved with a workers But the force at' onetime
scheme known a* South Improvement Co.. a plan credited to reached a maximum of
Flagler but which he never acknowledged. The Idea wu to ,000 men with an avenge of

bring together secretly all refiners and'shippers and 'force the ,000.
railroads to give special rebate .
Fresh water well could not be I .
The producers, who did not want the refiner* and railroad dug on the Ken and two special
teamed up against them formed the Petroleum Producers Unionto trains of flat ears brought large 1
fight the company and the' whole affair came. to III=. attention tanks of drinking water. dally
of Congress.Several from Everglades' \

states and the federal government began Investi
gations. A suit started by Ohio Atty. Gen David K. Watson _Battling Nature
, led to the 0.8. Supreme Court's dissolving the oil trust In 192. I
The' Ulpment used had to be ::.gar
By this time, FlagTer-stlH a large stockholder In Standard pm on barges and much of It
Oil-was merely &Interested. spectator,' His first Interest was wu lost la storms or sank.

'Florida.He-.had first entered the tate In 1871 when he brought Katun' resistance to the proJ-j
big wife to Jacksonville for her health ect had to be reckoned with.
The known factors of the' force
In 1881 she died and Us half-sister, Carrie Plaster came to of wind and waves had to be I
> New. York,* where the family had moved In 1177 to care for11yearold computed and the unknown factors
' Harry "aaler.1"I&&Ier'l& daughter. Jenny Louise, bad. provided against. I :6 A
already married. I

: nailer's Second Marriage Several hurricanes hampered
\ the work. One In October 190J,
Two' years later 'be married Ida Alice 8hoord8-: a wouldbeactress destroyed floating work camp I Hotel Ponce df Lon located In St. Augustine and presently /

, who had been his wife' nurse The couple honey and houseboats, In one case ; described as America's most fabulous hostelry, was completedby
mooned In Florida In December and a cold wave up North blowing 70 men out to sea who : Henry M. Flagler' In 1887 Although guest rooms Include '
,persuaded' them to stay ever until March were never heard from again. every modem convenience, meticulous care has retained the The Breakers on the ocean at Palm Beach,' Is more than the
nower.fUJedanct.'( priceless' original art, murals and other lavish I decorationuoughout usual luxury hotel. It Is a magnificent resort with unexcelled
'Flakier was enchanted with the warm Engineers worked to Improve public areas so that today's guests may enjoy the facilities I for comfort, recreation and relaxation I alt surrounded
understand why then were no good hotel accommodation
I but couldn't* or transportation and people spoke only of the put safety conditions and before the same deep comfort and gracious atmosphere of the rich Gay with gracious and refined atmosphere undupllcated
railroad wu finished they Nineties era. anywhere.
It potential American Riviera.
He saw u a
bought they had mastered the
He returned to St. Augustine the next winter, looked and threat of storms.' .

,Utouaht some iron, and began planning the Ponce. de Leon .
Hotel. Flagler wu aging rapidly In N
1911 order wen Issued to ruahthl
fortune wu're&llna by the millions because of
work with all possible peed,
his holdings In :Standard OU but his Interest In St. Augustine wu ,

'growing, almost aa rapidly, la INS bs built his, borne ,there. Dream Fulfilled

la addition to he' Ponce de teon',' which opened In 1888, '
Flagler built a hospital In fit. Augustine contributed to the Jan ill, 19li: ".. Flagler' (2nd
i building of a city hall, a Negro, school, paving of streets, waterworks .. birthday and only a few mile
electric lights and hornet tor employe Each project were left to go. On Jan. 22. he
i opened up new job opportunities and new business for merchant rode the first' train Into Key

, !. West '

Flagler bought the Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax die'
"Now I can bap 1 My
building the
River Railroad and Improved It while he wu
Interested In other short dream 1 II fulfilled,, h* said in
Ponce de Leon. ,Then he became ..
and Falatka and the SL a brief ,speech.'
'line and bought the St. Augustine
.John railroads! 'iMore 1
than 10,000 personal
Tee Far to Stop'
many of whom; had never seen

By 1889 he had built a 'railroad' u far south u Dayton I I train before yelled ant '
and decided he had gone too far to stop. Children clung to cheered themselves hoans Areeday
their mothers' skirt and grownups stared la amazement u the celebration was held In.
engines moved lCu&llnrd.1"Ia11er', name became, a by-wort. agler's honor.

When-Flagler purchased land In Palm Beach: ,;.rell estate Flagler died the following year, n 1 1
,boomed. but> his' 'nllw" continued toserve

A laws forceful man would have quailed "-at his plan 'ref : Key' West for. 21 yean,
had been completed u never at a profit
building boW then. The railroad
'far south u Eau Oallle. From there all of the-lumber, bricks, I
and door for his Royal Poln. On Labor-%)aJ'. 193$, a strong
,shingles would. paint, have plaster to ,transferred. to boat and hauled to hurricane lashed away miles of Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge In St Augustine Is ultra-modern SIS Florida Is the most popular pleasure-liner wiling from
!clans In detail and represents a completely new concept In Miami on 3 and 4-day festive cruises to Nassau. Modernized ;..
almost -100 miles. There It would be loaded oo. the embankment and the track wu every
'narrow gauge railway known u the "Celestial Railroad" and- ; left torn and twisted resort motel living- ... luxury living in a spacious setting of to perfection and completely redecorated this year, the) fully r'
eight miles to Juno when the'tons of building exotic tropical beauty with the world's largest cloverleaf swimairconditioned ship becomes a hotel for cruise guests when :
material/transported were loaded en barge bound for: Lake Worth. The Florida' State< Road Department ming 1 pool as Its focal, point she docks In the heart of Nassau.r" .

the extension
' But the Royal rPolndana.- the world's largest resort hotel bought "
and built, a modem Walkwaywhere
'with MO bedroomS. wu completed In nine month, and put once the railway had
.;J>aIm Beach on the map. been.: Completed in 13M. much

1 Its construction brought more than 1,000 workers to the of -.!.h. everseu highway ,wu
-area and Flatter designed a commercial community for !them constructed en the sturdy via
West Palm Beach to serve u a balance and safeguard to into and bridge built by "..
111:0111: 101311 Palm.: Beach- ler many years ,earlier.

4 If.


h' ': "M--\' t' IJr't. t"jJ :C.c r: y; ,1.1 '' ', \\y ,. ,0,:

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--- -- -- -----


Town Turns Out A Shocking Catastrophe:


To View ArrivalOf y 1 .r y, ,. .f f.,:,., it t J,.. "/ 9 Die in Shipboard FireBy

;" RICHARD A. MARTIN ford was headed upriver for Sanford tall smokestack fell with a .rose
between showering sparks In a whIte hoi
) c:........ Platen ,.... on her 137th voyage
:. that city and Jacksonville On cloud ever tilt burning .111>>.

< there were' no whistles blowing deck H. B. Means the ahlp'a Screams la the Night
,,, .. ,, '.> or banjo playing a b b a r d watchman, was kindling a flameIn
Early rc 4 ., the sternwheel steamboat City of a starboard navigational light With bells rlngtnc and t a r

'I Sanford u *h* picked her way that had gone out. Finished with whistle blaring her distress and)

r .. : along the dark St Johns Riverat his task, he started toward a low alerting the countryside, the
i-w- .. J:30 a,m. on April '4. 1R8 .- er deck M be cams down one steamer turned for shore ware
HOWARD COUNGT01 1 .w headed tor dieter of the ships ladder he saw a her captain hoped to run ,her
curl of fire dart up from the : aground Screams and yells
"....hI.a stiff "11'MTf If It had been later In the do.there clarity
wood bunker. Calling to I o m i I echoed with terrifying
: > I I might have been pawn hur through the dark\ night bringing
for the ,
fonda deckhands Means ran
were a lest then and) Miters! Transportation Co_
t linlne the rails seeing ,1.1 h .
gets ; ; be from nearby -
rlcane deck where. fin buckets would rescuers
the St John River
mould be the' and the Mallory une During a
sights M Jacksonville < 11 p Pelt t'11. banks of
settlement *
located A* passed
main noun. said one old muter Ifryesr period from 1870 to 1888 I
astern, And there would have
house the helmsmanasked the river
01 the rurB'Lnln average of ;steamships. and t I pilot
been ashore watching the
people '
I lashing: vessels cleared the port sternwheeler thrash her way upriver him What was wrdfic The City of Sanford was fully
In the central part Means yelled that there was a and
Jacksonville with
j'f annually laden passenger
i her huge paddleirheel boll
fff IbC state and running north ............. Itif up, angry: white foam her fire en deck but added |lie 'IIldn'lthink freight! As she put In lor shore
trio tli* Atlantic Ocean, the St: railroad It was serious He handedthe incredible'
I Before the opening of the names teamed to
: Ml and whistles< calling: for attention .
Johns River came Into Imnor. along the river a. fleet of about, Children would have buckets down to the deckhands helchts fanned by wind and
(lance a* a commercial route In |I\M\ steatpefe) carried: freight and been skipping atone shore clap- then ran to report to the draft, forcing many of the passenger >
f iWJ during the British! occup.UntI \ I passengers an the St Johns and !' ping their hand In glee aid captain W. H. RobertsAsleei Into a desperate huddleon

(> Florida. An Influx 01 settlers Its trmiuule eallln to her While older folks 1st CabliCapt 'a small portion of the afterdeck
nw plantations oi col ton nd mi and
Other decks blistered
4 tit cane and numerous orange I Principal lines were the D* would have been landing silently Robert waa asleep In his buckled: fire swept alone every
waving greetings and
(groves spring up almost mefnlght Bsrr, Bays. People* V.v. wishing aboard probably cabin He sprang to Ms feet and I walkway; Then was. us gate d
they were
on the banks of the rt 'fr. port. Post Independent and East Pr looked out Already the forward
(Coast Shipping Co These shipj the City of Sanford was a ma- I part of the ship was a mass of Vantage point

When Florida became a terrt I made tops along the' aver from rstlc! thing to watch, vibrant flames and angry tongue of fire I Aa' the smokestack fell, the
tory: of the United States In 1821 I Jacksonville to Sanford w. with the power of her team en- were licking up the ship sides white-hot shower of spark falling .
cotton grown on plantation a* I{I gives. alive with the "beat of her and rigging So quick did the I on the .terrified plAAfnaeraeet
tar soar as Tallahassee was The o.- .r".Bl\va MerchantsLine big w heel on the water,Neither fife spread that the watchman, clothing and hair afire In

brought to Mlrtdlehurj. then tak boasted a 11Mor! 13 'el' child nor man evertired continuing on his way to rouse the panic that followed two burning

en down Black Creek" to the St. i,' seta, the mast }luxurious: being the of watching her kind pass by the ships crew and passengers, bodies were forced ever-
Johns River and from there on Frederick DrBart. named lor' even though there were m are was prevented from going to a board f thoM of Mrs L. 0.
rut to sea I ('o'rrnan.ou who formed the iteamboats iallln on the St higher deck by name that had Ireland and her 7.year-old daughter

j I company. in me lair. tonic u. T, Johns In the IMOs than on almost sped ahead of him and were Fanny. Both died horribly,

The fir t teamho l to come 1 Bank vas the general manager any other river In .the roaring: up a stairwell fanned to ,Never Sees Again
here was tie George Washington I with wharves at the fool of Laura o United States; white hot heat by a powerful
In the care iMw. making an f*. Street for passenger and x A faff River draft The ahlp'a'pilot. W., A. Brooks,

furalmi trip from Savannah. In 34 ; I freight .harf''1 the foot Witnesses ordered his,nephew ell. r Ie.
said It
hour. ,1)f Nenan Street According to the 11 S. Census on Pierce 16 to take his son Willie .
looked to them if match
of into. more steamboats carted as a Brook T. and swim with him
had "been put to stack of
The rirlril: shape on the st. henry B. Plan he railroad passengers and freight on a dry to safety The two boys plungedover
Johns were mostly) nhaflow-dt 'builder formed the People Lineto the St John than on any other hay In a matter of minutes the the aide and were a e ..* t
steam"1, Pal pine wood i extend) rallioafl connections river In the country: south of the City' of Sanford was a ball of amen alive Main. Mrs Annie R.
'Ire Officers
"as tired fm fie! since k was:from the Worth The line operated Hudson In New York State A aboard the Steamer Keep and her ion, Brandon. I,
plenfift) l alnnt the bafk of the : \ tie Chattuhooche Jennie good: number of then craft were. George) M. Bird passing nearby were burned to death The body
later reported! that it took less
t1' Pr The earner were esMlyMen tux and the H B Plant u sect built tn Jacksonville hwy+ shipyard of Capt William Shortel of the
han 10 from
the time
horn fur swat' becaipe" nf nighl'rjr to Sanford at and some, like the City of minutIa Schooner Magnolia (the was
I hey the first flicker of
the black smoke "belching from fat Sanford. came to disastrous ends saw aboard ss a passenger! I'llnot

their fIr,.. ,|I Piwt JAn had nlficr at the In the same watera that ipawned lames until. By the the whole time boat they waaenveloped found until a day lateN-beneath.
them the hulk of the steamer
: After wharf foot of Hogan
By lir! .aue meant'eeeelowere l Street The creamer John Svlves' Riverboat, with Side Paddle, Pulls Into a Jacksonville Wharf I Irv 1888 could bring their craft alongside
br On that beautiful April morn 10 assist the upper workaf the I Several passengers! !leaped overboard
isint visitors
Jacksonville The Line ter ran riallvn Green Cow- Ing 8j years ago the City of San. City of Sanford collapsed and the among them 0 H. Downer .
Clyde established Springs from Jacksonville In 1ST ._ .
i ----- -- ---- of Norwalk Conn. But t h *
regular service to New i John A. Post brought the Eliza sides of the Vlver to nee the finIsh I at Mandarin no passengers might
York from Jacksonville in the J Hancock and John Sylvester The Bays was first to throw \ get a glimpse' of Harriet Beecher that current was who strong tried- so to,strong wad
1880s I both large slde-'heelers here the f lines and dock by a Rowe who wrote "Palmetto Dark Spir it-Hovers Over Ships ashore when the steamer reache4
'" and operated them "between Jacksonville slim margin of time Leavea while. living there off
shallow water were swept
The line began with the Cher..1 and Palatka
their feet out into the river channel "
kee and the Seminole. On Nov. j That wax the peak of River service continued on up By RICHARD A. MARTIN
Downer was caught In the
18. 1886 th;. Cherokee steamed Competition built tip between | the steamboat, era on the 5t.I to the 1930s but automobiles and cmmiiii HUM taut back toward the
Into port at Jacksonville and the Post's ships and those of Johns Some lines came and train. began U take their toll of current, swept
whole town turned out The ve*- Bava To meet the challenge of I .went The City of Jackson river traffic The ship that had An announcement b
iI set] "ss greeted' with salvos from Posts new and speedyes. I Mllie 'Ih' Osceola wejrt operated run the route of the Old South" and Miner Transportation the aim. Ihruhln II stern
std Betsy, the pounder of the Bav buJir. the H. t. Bava In by the Clyde Line between were sold oft to companies all Co early In 1 I'm that it had decided wheel which brat him to death.A .

I Wilson Batten and tint up al Philadelphia In 1 IPM\ the Bays .Jacksonville sod ganfordjI i ever the country t many .M fer 1o extend its Baltimore. deckhand, Done Snapper, also
John Clark s dock at the foot of and the Sylvester steamed a*>v I I The City of Jacksonville\ ended flea Savannah Steamship line to Jack drowned

Mewnan Street Within! the next from the wharves at the same 1 I as a party boat and the Onceola nonvllle created quite a stir here Nine urea had been taken

few "'ara'h, Algonquin. Iroquois time In a dash for Palatka A was sold to Sanford resident, but When World War n broke out -and triggered off a freak series Among the surviving passengersand
and Comtosnche were added to eoltaon! occurred 'at Green Cove I effort to start sorties again some of the ship that had of.near.disasters< ilthout parallel crew many were seriously ,
the. CMe lanes fleet of ace. n Springs, but the damage wan not failed brought freight Into the port of in the port a-history. ? burned or Injured. Only by assisting

\ ships, serious and the' race went on Br Jacksonville were taken over .' each other In their crisis
The service was launched without
the time the. shin M troop carriers! sad did -these and women
two neared The Mary Draper. king a fa to aerve Incident but men
on June 21. early
f Other mean 'me* nerving Jack the city word hart aottea abouton write of winter tourist tor exeurslons hospital ships The steamboat era In 1910 three of the MMTC Vessels prevent a' greater loss Cap
mcludedthe Merchantst the race ancf.JIf'OPIIr lined the' ran close to the shore had come to an end were Involved to accidents .fd Roberts for example," i a p. d

/ -- --- .- ,-.- .. :----- ... _.____ ________ I that aent two ahlpa to the bottom overboard to rescue an elder
- <------ --- ------ daughter of Mrs Ireland who
ara) nearly broke the back of another .
had fallen Into the river wltk
on sandbar near Mayport
I Miraculoualy.there were no lives her mother and younger sister:

BEGINNING IN 1910. lost "Shocking Cat .lrophe

The grange series of mishaps The incident iras described si

AN began at 1 a m. on Jan 14. lilt "one of the most shocking: catastrophic :
when the SS Chatham naa approaching that has ever happened
I the mouth! of the St on the St John River*
OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDUSTRIAL GROWTH! I I Johns River j The, Chatham Sink at ,Mouth of River In ,1910 The Florida Daily Time

food Ship Parthian put her engines in both ships Involved in the wreck printed an extra edition devoted
solely to the tragedy A coroner :
I full reverie but It was tot late miraculously not one suffered so '
a- The Chatham w as a good ship She struck the Magic City just aft much u a scratch s jury conducted a week-long
oufr but an old one. Built in 188S of the smokestack cutting Investigation and exculpated the

her crew of 32 was celebratingher I, through her u if she were made Owner of the MMTC were officers and crew of any blame.

25Ui' birthday Aboard the of paper" bald put to ,determine whether There have been other steamboat -.

265footsteamer were about 40 j, 'Seeing the good luck or bad luck was dogging disasters In and around
passengers, Magic City was them. Two ships sunk, one Jacksonville One of the w o r t
f l'going to sink, the captain of the
b r run aground. but not a life lost occurred on Auar '. 1859 when
i bee' Just as dawn was lighting the Parthian kept shoving her shoreward the steamer William B a roe' texploded
sky. the Chatham shuddered and i I into shallow water aa far
At whatever dark her boiler killing four
groined slckenlngly There was I as he dared to fa." a Times- any rate
: spirit was hovering ever the ships and seriously wounding six of the
a crunching! aound u the ship'abow I Union account reported
tn the But the spectacular and
line it was apparently dislodged crew.
crashed into I hidden rocks on
I It was only a few minutes before by the Impact of the dreadful end of the City of Sanford .
the outer point of the Jetties Mo-
I the Magic City was resting collision between the Parthian lights a fiery exclamation
menlum carried the ship across
i on the bottom nearly a total and the Magic City The com murk that stands out above all
the rocks until she scraped to a I
halt resting about midships her wreck Her crew was transferred panys ship Werent Involved in I the rest in the history of water
bow down In 35 feet of water to the Parthian, Of more than another accident In the Fort of transportation associated with
100 sailor and passengers en Jacksonville Jacksonville.
Cause of the accident waa at- II

tributed to a misunderstanding of ,

range fight guarding the bar at i iMaypon. .::1t" '
The Ch.lh.m..as to. : '" '
tat loss but passengers credited | .
Capt. Freeman coolness In the ,
1f face of disaster for averting panic
I and saving the lives of everyone .
I In his charge ..

I ClIp Alwsa I

I While Jacksonville! vu still :

ahum with the net of the ship 4.$4
j..reck. another near-disaster involving

I a Merchants and\ Miners
vessel.occurred, nil was on Jan.
27 not two weeks after the Chatham
The S3 Quanttco was feeling her

way in cautiously during a dense

fog Ironically. nearly all M passengers -
I aboard were on deck to

Originally a small producer of naval stores products, mainly turpentine see the wreck of the Chatham aa
they paused into the mouth of the

7'' pine tar and pine oil Today, it i is. the largest turpentine fractionating complexin St Johns .
I But at T a.m. then was a sadden -

the world, producing millions of pounds of both relatively simple and very jolt and the jerking impact 1 II
of the ship keel meeting with a.andb.r.

.i complicated terpene chemicals. This plant is alsothe headquarters for much I The 1,200-ton ship wa
on her maiden voyage to Jacksonville

I of the most advanced research in the field of terpene chemistry. from Baltimore, catena
bly to replace the Chatham

; ,. Today, the Southern pine tree is stilt the basic raw material, though the I There was no danger to passengers -

come of whom requested
:. operation no longer processes the wood or distills the turpentine Glidden has a transfer to a till boat to carry
,them Into the city Other passes Diesel Shipbuilding Company located on the Intra-Coaatal canal and Atlantis Blvd:; handles all

emerged as the leading producer of synthetic flavor and perfumery materials geri chose to remain aboard type of marine construction and repair Capacity; of the yard can construct up to 100 feet of

I watching the efforts of tug to steel and aluminum tugs and up to 200 feet on steel or aluminum barges

r.. The Glidden Company's Organic Chemicals Division employs 250 men and I pull the Quantlci off the bar '
Finally at U p.m., high I tide floated
i.1 women and- has on annual payroll of over f,500,000 the ship off The company n headed by James H and James W Coppedge, who have

I The incident provided a spectacle been In new marine construction work for a number of years. In the yard

I which occupied ; they have turned out ittel Barges tug, work and personnel boats.
ten for leaa than

,' .. again Merchant, when and on Miner Feb Ion.De'W'-1 Customers include such firms as Gulf Atlantic Towing Corporation, United j

tided with and aaak States Steel, the City of,New York, and many others. The Company's equipment

City I is operating now around the world-being used to transport oil, mu-- \

S" The crash occurred off FortOeorge I sties, paper and people.DIESEL ..
Island just hefoye 10 a m I .
Foot of West Jacksonville, while the Parthian was Inward M

bound to Jacksonville and the

61st Street Florida I, Magic City headed out for Miami.i SHIPBUILDING COMPANY

CHEMICALS Again coolness on the part of ,

an MMTC skipper averted Atlantic" Boulevard at .Intra-Ceaitel. Canal
Organic Chemicals Division hit loss of live After < .

change of signal! the Magic pout'l TEL 249-23(1 '
I unaccountably wi* pun II

speed ta the path of the _

t I .

..' ..

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I Port of Jacksonville: A Sleeping Giant


...ril Ma.saw, jMlM.Yll( tea AMIurltr I ;

Located at the northern, tip of Florida, JacksonTllle .
Is the overnight distribution point for five

Southeastern states with a combined population of 25

million. Jacksonville is the focal point for an extensive

network of railwater highway and air transportation

facilities. Industry is thereby assured of rapid delivery

of commodities to the great Southeastern market as

well as to offshore and intercoastal points.In .

1963. the Jacksonville Port'

Authority wu created by an let sonville harbor wu transferred
of the Florida Legislature. This from the county to the Port Authority
agency not only at Its first physical asset -
baa authority following the authority's creation.

ever the present rand ... In September of 1963, the
extensive dock Port Authority filed an application
terminals I' to build a highway bridge
but Is continuing and a railroad span from the
to extend a a 4 mainland to Blount Island with the
improve them. U.S. Army Corpa of Engineers as
Its initial move toward develop
The Pert ment of the bland. Future expansion

Authority)' en- ot this property u an The Port of Jacksonville Is Aglow with Light in This View from Atop Southiide Generating Station During 1959 Christmas Season
compasses the Island seaport Is In the planning
area of Doe U .stages. .t
County and 1U Rawls. into the port of larger< vessels doubled by the Interchange of creased 4 percent: and export 'tons of. the Inedible vegetable Coming Into JactsonvUle annually the Port-of Jacksonville, has not
primary P u r. Municipal than presently\ possible goods to and from barges with tonnage rose 24 percent. Callingat products; others were vegetable are imports of newsprint been fully exploited.The .
pose Is to Increase the movement On May 1, 1964 the ocean going vessels, the docks In 196 were 651 oils, fats and waxes. valued at about $4 million and development of a modem ',.
Terminals of City
Docks It
of foods to and from the market Jacksonville is today I major vessels -t an Increase of 148 ships of pulpwood from the Bahamas
port with adequate piers, gantry'cranes
of the world through the Port of of Jacksonville, along with the center of commerce industry, The Port of Jacksonville Is now over mi. valued at about $3 million. Since the latest in cargo-hand
Jacksonville. To accomplish this Municipal Docks Railway were transportation and finance. Her handling approximately 1.1 mil More than one-half of all imports one of the major exports of Jack ling bulk-handling fa- ,
purpose the authority Is empowered transferred to the JacksonvillePort location with regard to the St. lion tons of general cargo per Jacksonville has a well diversified coming through Jackson sonville Is paper and paper products ClllUes equipment, and spacious warehousesis
to construct, maintain and Authority. Thesefacilities John River can be properly year consisting of approximately export record and an even ville are destined for- processing much of the raw materials fundamental tn tapping this
repair docks and terminals; to are now officially known as "Tal compared with New Orleans' location 290,000 tons of exports and tlO.OOO more diversified geographicrange or sale In Florida. The Imports brought Into'Jacksonville were naturalresource ot Duval
Improve harbors slips and turning leyrand Cocks Terminals-- as respects the Mississippi. tons of imports. A.recent studyto : of receiving ports for example of greatest value, the vegetable processed in the form of manu, great
basins within Duval County; When the Cross I i4 Florida determine the value-At a ton In 1963! wood and paper food products and beverage factured goods. This city has developed County
to acquire real and personal prop rA $9.J million project, to Barge Canal becomes a realty, of general cargo'to an area's accounted for more than halt the groups Include coffee with a specific port facilities to Our massive port potential Can
erty u necessary to carry out deepen! the St. Johns River Channel Jacksonville Is the only logical economy shows that this tonnage total export- tonnage. Both finished value in excess of $31 million meet the needs of such Industries", become a reality through the efforts *
the function of: the authority! to to 31 feet from Mayport to geographical position for the Interchange movement added more than $19 paper products and wood Much of this import Is processed u wood and paper manufacturing of the Jacksonville Port Authority '
Issue revenue bonds; to operate the Talleyrand Docks .* Termi- of barge traffic with million I to the economy of 'Du pulp went, lo Europe IB !large In the Jacksonville area. For Instance and food processing. whose goal Is to build
terminal faculties and to do all nals proposed by the Jacksonville deep-draft vessels In the move val County last year quantities; Nearly all the 'metals there are five plants pro Jacksonville into the major port
other things legally necessary to District of the TJ.S. Army Engineers ment of cargo to and from the and metal manufacturers a total ceasing -cafree and providing employment The late Gordon Thompson Sr.. of the Southeast. Your Fort Authority
Implement the purpose of the au now awaits approval and ports of the world. Last :year was the biggest In of almost 3,000 tons were shippedto to about 500 people- called the Port of Jacksonville: deserves and needs the
thority. appropriation of funds. Locally the port's history in tonnage han Japan la the form sf Iron good illustration of the link between "The Sleeping Giant." The name full support of every citizen ofDuval \
Authority Economic surveys Indicate that died.Dry cargo Imports Increased steel and tinplate scrap. Naval Imports and local Industrial wu appropriate for the greatest, County in the accomplish ,
of land known sponsored by the Port
The tract : u enable entrance Jacksonville's port traffic can be 49 percent, coffee Imports in stores accounted for almost (,000 development. natural resource In Duval County,: ment of this goal.
Blount bland In the outer Jack. the project would
'" ,\
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> the : '.
IS ;

Break the DAY HABIT !

Tramway; Was Used to Haul Jetty; Boulders OVERNIGHTDistribution ,


Two Ribbons of Rock ,

Make Port Possible LET THE, NIGHTSWORK Port .j.


By M J.GEORGE HARMAN. business.The tourists were flockIng .
U.S. Araw Cm: rt 1:.esn..re to the St. Johns River valleyIn ..
the winter months and Jacksonville FOR YOU I'
25 Million
Millions of tons of granite bout. dreds of boasted boarding 40 houses hotels and althou.bthe' hun ; : :{
mattresses of: logs I"
ders resting on
population was only 11,000 .
and brush form the Mayport Jetties '
which were completed In the PeopleONE
'late 1800s and have made possible Even earlier New England :'
Jacksonville's deep water link to shipbuilders bad discovered that ",. ."
the St. Johns River was a unique .
the eea.Tbeae region in that live oak and long y .. :' !i

ribbons of rock stretching leaf :yellow pine the two main I 1
nearly three miles into the timbers used in ship contraction, .'
churning Atlantic Ocean also grew In abundance on the banks
made possible the Mayport Naval of the St. Johns River. Logging :: :... '
Station home of giant aircraft developed into an enormous Industry : HUNDRED YEARS AGO the populo'j'j
carriers and destroyers, and an : in the area and flourished .' ; .
economic boon to Jacksonville tion of Duyol! County 5,074.
and the Beaches. In 1877 Dr. Baldwin went to -'Ii
New Orleans and hired Capt. .. .
Today, there is. a 42-foot Navy James B. Eads, who hadbeen exA 11 TODAY the of Duval '
population County exceeds
channel into the one of the engineering minds behind .
Mayport Naval the construction of the Mississippi
Station, and 'a River jetties. Captain half a million.
M < foot chan. Eads recommended construction fawn
net into Jack of the twin jetties and following 11Am sox '
sonville! Harbor substantial concurrence by the ooa.vamw uvannAR THE PORT OF JACKSONVILLE has played

of which: EagIE the Corps. R' Corps of Engineers 1125,000 In, Congress 1880 to start appropriated a dominant role in the growth of Jacksonville .

seers has reoommende j work on the jetties. < JACKSONVILLE, -+ '
d r and Duval County. Its strategic geographic location aTaseA
deepening to 38 Slow Going
feet Appropriations weresmall and coupled with its excellent highway, and .rail

Army,The 'IT.of I. Harman the work proceeded slowly-ss sr ussnsG facilities make the Port of Jacksonville a major
Corps slowly that the jetty sank as W. :alas BxcsNAM
Engineers: which hat been activein much as IS feet in places u a transportation center offering OVERNIGHT DIS-
Florida's waterway development
result ot: the scour of the currents -
tine 1841 made its first during construction. TRIBUTION SERVICE to the entire Southeast.
study of the Mayport jetties In ...
1853 after Dr. Abel Seymour By 1890 the construction wu.hownl
Baldwin, local physician and civic favorable results and "
THE FUTURE.GROWTH of Duval Countydepeds '
leader. went to Washington and
later described
two :years wu as
secured a $10,000 congressional
an-unqualified success and an the
appropriation. Dr. Baldwin can engineering marvel. During 1894 on port.
well be credited with the
the bar channel had deepened Itself
man most Instrumental the jetties to IS feet where there had THE JACKSONVILLE '
and harbor. project u it exists only been 10.7 feet the year be- I ;

today. fore. .... ... dedicated< to the development of the port to Its ;
larly Rick lo Ships

In the earlier days, and before ties At In the 1895.completion substantial of ji th/Jrt-;they 'T' fullest capacity as the PORT OF :THE FUTURE. ;

any. Improvement to the river look today. there was IS feet of .
there was considerable risk to water over the bar and 18 feet .' ; +

shipping which attempted to cross In the channel Jacksonvffls.: : 1
the Bt Johns bar a shifting shoalat '. ,f. ,l iz + -a
the mouth of: the river. Craft Later River Projects ; r t Ira 1Ar !"y:ii-0; ', ,1" a1 I'.' .. i-r K, ': ,, '
shallow enough to cross the ca- ;
Primus shoal were too light to Subsequent dredging projects tn .
to be seaworthy especially dur the Jacksonville Harbor Crave Ii
Ing the hurricane season. deepened the channel to 24 feet 1'i
and today. It Is 34 feet deep and
Larger steamers and schooners recommendations art being made The Hub of Southeastern Markets" ;
taking the ocean route bad to -
that It be deepened I to 38 feet as *': :
stand off shore for days or weeks "
far as the Municipal: Docks:
awaiting a favorable tide to enter .
the bustling port of Jacksonville.I Original cost of the Jetties was '
Once in the river the ships bad, Telephone
$1.7 million which Is negligible
no difficulty since the main river I compared with the commerce, j
depths exceeded those at the bar. growth and prosperity which they J. :
The delay In getting across the I have aided in bringing to Jack: .Dincur
bar, however made Jacksonvillean sonville. The Jetties today stand -
unfavorable port of call since welded together into a solid msssly .
remanding bad excellent facilities. b oysters and other seagrowth Docks 7
.. _
but the portion one sees on visitIng : Avenue

By the loses river traffic lured the beach represents only 10 : ; :::: Flo. 12204 '
cent of the project.
by the commodities and tourists, to IS per 3005
bad .increased so that several .
steamers made weekly round Like the submerged bulk of PORT
tripe from Charleston and Savannah pant Icebergs toe Jetty foundations JK6S
but they give ,
to Jacksonville: and Palat- are unseen '
ka. lo Jacksonville Harbor its commercial
status today, and make:
Tan years later hi 1870 citrus possible the aircraft carrier.basin
had become. a mulUmniion-doJlar at Mayport ,

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----c- ---- -- -

I' I Overseas Railroad: A Daring Decision

,. The Simple Order from Flagler Said: Goto Key West *

f and !Innumerable skiffs, rowboats singing! patriotic songs wu M
Ry RA"K DRA\JI be built Parrott reportedly replied and pontoons band to greet the train.
tta..tas lie" wONs "Yei, I am; aure."

H -Morrison Flaglrr was 7S The" 'without Inquiring\ ai to 71 The longest and most costly\ Florida' Gov. Albert H. Oil-

4 when In 1905 be-made the derisionto the cost, Flagler replied! ,k pyt structure wu Seven-Mil Bridge' Christ! attended. as well as two
link lila Florida East < which required three years to. leading candidates for the governorship.
I Coast "'''Very nil: then ahrad.. G ito Trammell andJ.
Railway with Key West a: deep- 10 build. The bridge contains 546 Park
water Key West." concrete foundations piers far W. Watson. They verbally tore
:\ port lying across a chain i
of coral Islands-130 pollen south' Moat engineers of that day expressed exceedlnc the number In any Into each other at a prearrangedrally
of Miami, << doubt that the ponderous other bridge in. the world. The later in the day: ,
tnJeMuZest on bedrock: as much
the daring
I obstacle confronting
Although a during and Coven i project could be overcome,. but ,; as :! -febt below the waterline. There were nunieroua! bands.
marching units, a circus Span
live undertaking decision ""'I""f
was not the manchosen by Flaglerto .,
ish and carnivals to entertain
'Three opera
not a hasty one. As far back M1R31 be his chief construction en hurricanes slammed
a railroad linking 'America's gineer.He\ Into the Keys during the seven the crowd. Seven warships
Cilbraltar"-with mainland a years of construction ..work docked In the harbor for the

t Florida had been.. proposed and : was Joseph Merldith, an In 1906. 1909 and 1910. crumbling celebration
discussed rlldlanan' who had gained! fame roadbeds and smashing camps. Flagler his shoulders stoopedand
as a bridge builder Postered c The most destructive storm
One of the Cited! his eyes weak and blurry,
advantage of great energy courage and a wu In October 1906 which de-
accepted a tablet of silver and
town through the years for building passion for efficiency be drove atroyed. most of the floating
gold bearing leis likeness a gilt
such a line wu that Key
houseboats. .More
himself West a city of nearly. 23,000; in from residents of the city.
project th.t1e died in im than 70 men were presumed lost
1905 would serve a> a great naval tares year before tile railroadwas when a houseboat wu blown out In a brief full-hearted speech
I base because 1U !harbor could completed. He was Succeed to. sea. he sild:
accommodate vessels having a ed by William Krome, another
draft of 30 feet. brilliant engineer. from Illinois P The 1906 hurricane winds 'Now'' I can die happy. My '
( 1 who carried the.prol'ci) to its tr. reached a velocity of 125 milesan dream Is fulfilled.
advantage expoundedduring : successful conclusion.The ] e.4 Stottsbut the concrete trestles
Flagler's time was the spanning the coral Islands with- Less than 11 months later en
greatly\ expanded trade with Cuba route selected for the rail stood the blow and Flagler be- May 20, 1913 Henry Morrison
and other LaUnA=rlcan nation road line led south from Homestead came more optimistic that the Flagler" died.
brought about by the Spanish- acrosa 29 miles of the Everglades venture would be a success.
American War But perhaps the to Jrwfl.su Creek From His railroad"served Key West
Impelling factor that Influenced Jewish Creek to Key West I On the afternoon of Jan. 21. for 23 .years but the city never
Flagler- construct the railroad distance of IM miles the rail 1912 the last link: into Key West grew into. the great metropolis
line waft the announcement after road would span 29 Islands and 43 wu completed and a pilot train that bad been predicted. On

the turn of the century that the bodies of water, nearly all of 4 Florida East Coast Railway Train on the Key West Extension at Night tested the road and declared it Labor Day: in 1935 a vicious
IJ.8. Government wu preparingto which was open sea, in good condition. hurricane washed away miles of
build the Panama Canal.: embankment and roadbed turning
I About 20 mile of fins or embankments Recruiting labor for this titanic 1 tation to the job to take a Florida I workers got free Iodging..gnd food work were purchased from aO Then on Jan. 21 came the lone sections of track: into
Flatter needed a deep-water would be needed to struggle against the sea and the vacation, working only a mew days u well u t salary; Each camp parts of the world. Ships plied greatest day In tile history of twisted wreckage. Onlyits great
harbor j If hi* newly created East pan some of the water and approximately that and then departing. contained a first aid station steadily Into the Keys loaded
elements\ was a problem confronted the Florida Key. Into the city bridges were left Intact.
Coast empire with its terminus 18 mile of the route. Hauler's aides during the I manned by trained persons. with cement Iron, steel gravel, rode the great benefactor Henry
at Miami., was to share In these would consist of concrete viaducts seven years consumed by the Flagler wu a teetotaler and rock coal. cross ties, toed and M. Flagler to participate In a The Florida East Coast Railway -
expanded trade' opportunltk'a. i and concrete steel 1 bridges. project Men were drawn to the 'refused/ to allow whisky In the Since fresh wells could not be other material three day celebration.An suffering pangs of the. depression -

And sO, In 1902 he instructed The project would eventually cost project from all pads of the world {camp, creating additional labor! due In the Keys, water had .to. was Unable to finance
Ida engineer to conduct prelim 20 million dollars. yetthe work force never exceeded [problems. Many workers upon be hauled In by land and sea for Some of the equipment for the estimated 10.000 persons repairs. The State of Florida. ao

inary surveys-to determine If the Bids for the project "were adverttsed S.ooo men. receiving: their paycheck would use by the locomotives steamboats project Included eight stfrn- were on hand to. greet the train. quired the extension and built
project was feasible. throiKhout; the nation but, head for Miami/ or Key West fora and other equipment used wheeled steamboats, three tugboats Dignitaries. Including Asst. See tbs Overseas Highway utilizingthe
only one\ contractor was willing] On one occasion, a group of sPree that often lasted for days. In the construction work and for I ,- two sea-going steamers, of War Robert Oliver, were sturdy bridges and viaducts
Upon receiving the engineering to tackle the* job and he wanted, Italians brought to the construction When their money was spent they washing, bathing, cooking and eo power ]launches 12 dredges, aboard the special train. Representatives that were constructed yean earlier .
reports three year later. Flagler the contract on a cost-plua basin. ;i area by boat threatened to returned to their jobs. human consumption. Water requirements I It pile drivers 10 concrete of numerous foreign to fulfill the dream of..a
reportedly\ summoned one of hit Flatter refused and decided his mutiny! unless they "were returnedto for one month ran mixers 10 excavators eight embassies flocked into. the man who, more than any othersingle
trusted ald s"Jo..ph Parrott and own sides would undertake the i I New York Many persons from Camps were built at varioui as high u 1.S million gallons. derrick barges, ISO 'smaller city for the celebration. A chorus person, helped to developa
asked hi* opinion U the road could lob .. the north! used the free transpor places along the Keys when : Materials for the construction barges a floating machine shopgreater. composed of 1.000 children great state


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;' A Construction Train on the South Side of Jewfish Creek During Building of Line to Key West In 1906 Concrete Was Mixed Aboard a Barge During Construction of Overseas Railway

{I ff

IRemember: When You Crossed the River on a Ferry?

By CYNTHIA PARKS Affr the war, two small couklnt make a go of It hindered I Flouter" Street. The needed Improvements This company commissioned a Sometimes on a weekend ta) wu opened for traffic July the Jackson furrowed the oldroute
Tlnn-filo. null Yo rll.. I steamers the Topsy and the Fan by Injunctions when they I ; .were'made, Including local shipyard to construct the .morning auto !lines waitingfor 1, 1921. Ordinarily\ this would for the last lime
ny Fern traversed the river at I wanted to. make Improvements bulkhead ng, and the Dixieland biggest and best ferry-yet seen the ferry backed 'lip' from have signaled the death knell to
No history of Jacksonville irregular intervals. Park sprang up onbe south on the river. The yard built the the foot of Main to Broad Street. ferry service, but the bridge ex On her deck: : the Southslde Business
would be complete without mention Finally J. M. Barn acquiredthe banks. South Jacksonville, the moat complete The patient-or Impatient-would acted a toll so many people still Men's Club lunched with her
of ferryboats In fact It was When In 1883 a narrow gauge franchise In 1904. Barre had
boat up to that time, and It watt as long as three hours to used the ferry. new owners for the 32-car 600-
because the Bt Johns River offered railroad connected South Jacksonville the Duval built here In Jacksonville The amusement park opened in ran with the Duval. The Duval board the ferry. It Is the belief passenger Jackson wu on her
an ideal ferrying place in to St. Augustine, the Arms- -the city's first homemade 1907, and a small gasolinerunboat \ was revamped converted to of historian L. E. Bigelow that Final Blow way to Lake Maracaibo van
the vicinity that Indians, and lat mear helped stabilize the ferryIng steam ferry.'He also switched the for passengers only wu also electro-dlesel \like the South if the ferry owners had given zuela. There she would be renamed -
er white men. established settlements service, leaving from-the loot northside docking point from named Dixieland
the to cart Jacksonville; and re-named better service to the public when the Cristobal Colon.
that grew to become Cow of Neman Street It was small: Newnan Street to Main Street pleasure-seekers. The venture Fletcher. the public had no choice u to The final blow was dealt almost
ford in the late 1700s and Jack- It carried 200 passengers and a which caused: a flurry of injunctions. was shortlived though and died how to cross the river, the public 20 years later. In 1940 the
Main Street Bridge (John T. AI. This :year the ferry terminal en
sonvllle in the early isons. few vehicles.in after a few airs, theatrical\ and Too Much Business would not have chosen bridge
s I sop Jr. Bridge) wu built. The the south side of the river wu
Long after ferrying lost Its October ISM. the Mechaniccame Barrs' company was called the athletic events. Beach traffic was heavy after so soon. northside land was sold for bridge rued to make room for Insurance
,. commercial 'significance ferry- i from the North to help out. South Jacksonville Steam FerryCo. The franchise changed hands the 1910 opening "Atlantic construction by George V, Glbbs, Ilty: crapere. The lut vestige of
boats remained an object of affection It carried 1.800 passengers and and ran from the Main Street again in 1912. calling itself the Boulevard can were better, suburbs Either way, the Duval County and Jan. 1 1940. the ferry Olhbs Jacksonville's ferryboat days wu
to longtime Citizens, a ; had more room for vehicles.'Clti. Terminal to- one at the loot of Jacksonville Ferry and Land Co. : were growing, needs were River Bridge (St. Elmo W. Acos- bad built some U yean before- gone.IrkUT .
hallmark of a gentle, ambling zens affectionately called the
time now drowned m I o'clock Mutt-and-Jeff pair the Elephant
bridge traffic jams-a time when I and the Shoofly.In .
rall-hanging and nver-watching I
1886 Henrv Morrison Flatter
and splash of
and the chug puff added the Jacksonville. St. Augustine
ateam ferries meant a slower I: andHalifax River Railroad
the boldly archingarm
pace unlike to his growing line of tracks,
of an expressway" with its''
and the ferry franchise was Included
hurtling cars and speed-conaclolll.. in the deal The ferry was
commuters. named after Hauler's other rail

Yet the path wu laid of necessity I road and was called the J.T *
o hundreds of years ago when I KW. Ferry. It transported railroad
only the red man cared to ford passengersas well as
the river. The Tlmuquan Indian I I local traffic while the railroad
'\ trod today's Liberty; Street, and I cars and heavy freight crossed
: until the turn of the 20th Century the river on a lighter called the

j : this same path wu followed to I I Uncle Sam.

the river and then across It to I First Bridge
11 a point directly opposite on the
south bank. I I The first railroad bridge
rr spanned the river In IfJO! so
called his cattle
Flagler's ferry switched to hauling
\ crossing Wacca Pllatka. The only local traffic. There was
white called it Conford" and
man I'a deal of this, though, because a
the first record its railroad now connected South
use was in 1774. In that with Pablo (Jacksonville M
Jacksonville 8P
proPllloua. ,
'I"The mentioned gentle naturalist a public William ) Beach. r 7

ran from the south side. The worn-out Mechanic wu put
I In dry dock and replaced by the
prodigious signaling,
After even
Ravenswood but she burned at
the firing of pistols, the passenger her Southslde moorings Jan. 13.'
on the north bank might succeed 1895.
-' In attracting the attention of I

the! ferryman. By this time the' lorry service
was In the hands-of Edward Morley l I
service to run from r .
The first y
having first shuttled from y'e s
[ the north bank wu John Brady'sdugout :
Archer Harman to the Jacksonville :
In'1818. Brady lived in aBate
St. Augustine It Halifax .
hut between Market and River Railroad Co. H. H. Hoffman -
liberty (once named Ferry '' and
bought it In 1897. In
Street). 1991 a new company took over:
In 1822 L D. Hart platted the Jacksonville Steam Ferry and
city of Jacksonville and by legislative I Terminal Co.
t action of the Superior
Court of Duval County in 1824, I The' Ravenswood had to be replaced -
so two boats were ordered
franchise wu awardedto
the ferry: the'Commodore
: John L. DoggetU A ferrying Barney
franchise from the south bank and the Idaho. The Idaho was
.- wu given to Mr. Hendrlcks I lost oft Cape Hatteru but the

(probably W. L Hendrlcks). Both I Barney came through reaping Kssz S
were renewed, and later expired i fame during the 1901 fire.. It lankIn
Its Newnan Street slip for six
: In. 1845. -months wu resurrected, but
method to the :
The ferrying up
never really was put Into service 5.
days of the War Between the
States wu to row the passengers again.

across and transport the cattle II II Service was aa off-and-on u It
and horses on flatboats or light wu In the first :yean after the "" -"< *'i MBMM qnB M Miuimiiiiiit mMMUMi iHi MiHMHMplHnBRMBMISBIIKHaBMBi

era Fort Beef Marlon cattle went for that 8t. Augustine's way. Jackson War Between and the Louis States Barberle O. D. The Ferry to South Jacksonville Operated from a, Landing at the Foot of Main Street

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-- --

Florida's Abundant Water:

A Paradise for SportsmenBy

BILL MEANS Craft. Thunderbird Orlando Clipper year 123.071 pleasure boats were Committee and on member of .1

Ttam-IMM (mill Writ* Islander and Cartercraft. registered. UM Internationa Canoe Federation
la its ranks
Unique' Welcome SUUoa A projection shows that by: June
system used
1984 that figure will have almost
throughout Florid Recognizing tilt Outboard Dub
wu Its waterways Important part doubled
a near quarter
with the St. John River that the boatman does play in thestate's
million. Larger yacht (those of Another old boating club Is the
being a main throughway and economic and recreational

five net tons or more displacement Jacksonville Outboard Boat Club,
its tributaries being the inland life the Florida Development
) are exempt from registration which is one of the oldest of Its
,waters and canals. These are still Commission selected a waterfront
as are sailboats and all others typen/ the -country. B was
toeing used for both and site at Fernandlna Beach and
powered by machinery of 10 founded here la the spring of
profit. Inaugurated a Marine Welcome horsepower or leas. Therefore, 1947 with a membership of 15
miJee "Fiorlds w NfllptVdfe;>' -j 'Mtb Station. world.the only one cr( )ts kind: the Board of Conservation estimates for the purpose of organized family s+ k 1 '
that there are less than boating and cruises. It s r
eovereo and even llefo.t,; &t,1 no : was
boating hat always been a part On Jan. 13. 1963, the $225,000 another quarter million boats in also tilt first club to organlz a
o( the live of the itate' inhabitants I facility: was opened to cater to the state that are pot required to women's division which Includes
la fact. Florida and boatIng visitors coming in via the Amelia register. an all-women's cruise as an annual
art almost synonymous River. The station Is a two- Diva Boating svext.Still .

Boating all over the state rum story recreation octagonal room building on the with second a Organized boating has also long another vital part of boatIng -

the gamut of sport ranging from floor. On the main show room been a part of Duval county u in the Duval area is the Jacksonville
rowboatlng to under water well u till state Power Squadron, which
ex are supplies, charts maps orange dating back to
la committed to serious Instruction
ploration. The state boasts some juice to welcome visitorsand the Florida Yacht Club which
of the belt fishing In the -world. Information on water and was organized April 20. 181'. with of 1U members in navigating, f
piloting and safety. The Power
weather conditions in the state 17 charter members. Also known
Besides the rivers' Inland waterways as Jacksonville's oldest social or.anIzaUoa Squadron is a uniformed group
canals and streams Adjoining the welcome station The Florida Yacht that not only teaches lie own
Florida has tome 7,700 mile of Is a 1,200-foot marina with moorIng Club; Is still active in a number. members, but periodically conducts -
actual shoreline. including bays capacity: for eight large of Interclub and intraclub races classes for the general pub-
and inlets and more than 90,000 yachts U medium-ailed yachts and annually: conducts the St. lic.,
named lakes Some of the na and 25 outboards. There Is also Johns Regatta for :yachtsmenfrom In an, there are approximately
tion's most beautiful cruising a launebln,.ramp. Although the all over the South. 20 boating clubs in Duval County
streams such as" the At. Johns, facility: was built by the City: of : Including the Gator Outboard
Suwannee. Apalachlcola, Oklawafca. Fernandlna Beach, It !s staffed It wasn't until almost 45 years i Club and Jacksonville Beach
Wlthlacoochee and Esslnv and operated. by the commission later that toe next oldest club Boating Club.
me rivers are available for year Luxury In the area was founded the
,round boating pleasure. Marinas Jacksonville Seminole Canoe As the state's population
i iI Other facilities for boaters are Club. Originally chartered the grows: greater numbers *f iti
Heavy Water Traffic springing up all along both the Seminole Canoe and Yacht Club citizens ar taking to the water
I Each year at least 50.000 out-of. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Someof U IIhe oldest In the South of not only in every type of craft
state boats visit! Florida. accord. these are In the luxury class. Its type. Pounded In 1921, it was but also on aid and surfboards
lug to the Florida. Board of Con. such as Bahla Mir and Browan chartered in 1929. and with aqua lungs.It .'
aervatlon. Marina at Fort Lauderdale and This small club has had IS national can truly: be said that entire win w.w .aM
Maximo Moorings In St. Peters canoe sailing champions families can be satisfied In any
mtlllon This ..brings an estimated 200 burg. The latest development is acomplete two national cruising' champions, aquatic participation whether on Sailboat Gather at a Florida Port Prior to Start of a Race in the Gulf of .MexicoJACKSONVILLE'S
dollars port fishing Industry tourist center of luxury a national commodore, two member top or under the abundant waters
to the state annually. Florida marinas with docking areas for of the UA Olympic Canoe of Florida. .
also has UM distinction of
boats plush motels for lodging,
being one of the nation's leading restaurant and bar and shops.
pleasure\ Draft and boat trailer
manufacturers. Pleasure boating In the state is
clearly: reflected in the boating
There are 144 boat manufacturing registration which began In 195
firms, employing fpur or when all boat owners were required

more people in the state Including to register pleasure craft '. .." .." ;, }, I"JP\lf'\ ":" \ .....,i1'(> 1\, \ !lJ o r ;,r J": r"' ''1 '! J. .

known some such of as the Hucklna nation's, Chris-best propelled 10 horsepower by machinery In that in excessof firs (' a :hO "': t>i.. ,. >:,"" : ":' < \-1f'Ji.'dilP'I.\: \ <' : }f.RI'rf"I\ : ; ; : / ]::":. l:,'") .:h/ ',.. :; "Jo."t''' :. "'iJI';; 'tf
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Outdoor Recreation ." S 'II 4,. !; '. bt.or: ij '. t ,. ,f' j\V '. Ie. "'\ "
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Opportunities Vast ,f, .

By NET C. LANDRUbtaiw.l.r. the basis for action by the 1963
P1oo1. 0._ _...... Florida Legislature.Tw .
f V W.r.-
long before the first rocket
, blasted off from the sands of First, to Insure proper program
I Cape Canaveral and even before coordination and efficient resource
the citrus grove became a common utilization, the establishment
1 feature of the peninsular of a streamlined Interagency -
landscape, Florida was renowned administrative machinery
, for toe variety: and abundance ol would be necessary. Then be-
, : the outdoor recreational opportunity cause of tine recognized deficiency rt
II it afforded. of public outdoor recreationareas
'' and facilities the program
Outdoor recreational opportunity would have to be provided with
'is measured broad financial capabilities to
by outdoor reo- meet the need for additional land
reatlon resources acquisition and development.
and no j
state is naturally The legislature's enthusiastic
better endowed response to these recommendations
in this resulted la the enactment of
respect than 't the historic Outdoor Recreationand A 4
Florida. A thousand Conservation Act of 1963. _
miles'Of r This Important piece of'legislation -

.n sandy ocean in an effort to place direct .
beach; countless responsibility: for a comprehensive ,.
fresh water Y outdoor recreation program at the
lakes: and Laadnun highest executive level of Florida
streams, seemingly: endless variety 1 government constituted the
: of wildlife scenic splendor governor and State Cabinet as the
unequalled elsewhere on the continent I Outdoor Recreational Development

I wide-open spaces and pure Council has role in the Growth and of the Jacksonville Area .
fresh air-all of these, and played a major Development .
have combined to provide "more'J Gigantic Task ,, )
wlla:: Its ideal outdoor .;
environment. And these To assist the Development

srem loved as all they the are more In a superb year-round en- Council task In carrying the act also out created Its gigantic The shipyard on East Bay Street has been a familiar large Industry. These persons range from nurses in I

.-cKmate: : that virtually compels an Interagency group called the Jacksonville residents for than threedoctors' bakers truck drivers :
:1/ people to the treat outdoors. Outdoor Recreational Planning neighbor to more to foundrymen, ,
Committee, and a new Land Management
Economic Impact Division under the trustees quarters of a century. Among the city's major employ- printers, bankers even the school teachers who train
of the Internal Improvement

Through has the had years a major outdoor Impact recreation Fund.principal The responsibility Planning Committee's is the ers, it is the oldest, providing jobs and payrolls over the .. and educate the children of our 1,500 employees.years. .

on Florida's growth and development preparation of a comprehensive
influencing many: new rev statewide outdoor recreation plan, Jacksonville.Shipyards is proud to have been a part of
tats to settle In the state and while the Land Management-

expanding contributing and mightily all-Important: to the ever-tourist services vision will In provide connection a variety with: the of From its-small beginnings, Jacksonville Shipyards has .., the Jacksonville Scene almost as long as the Florida

economy.: acquisition and holding of land. for around Times-Union which has the
With the rising popularity of grown to provide employment 1,500 men. .r,....".., so faithfully reported

outdoor pressure recreation on available In Florida outdoor, the development Money for land Is provided acquisition to and the This does not include the large number. of persons em- events and accomplishments of our yard over the years.

areas greatly and intensified.facilities bas been revenue program authorized from several by sources the legis of ployed by supply firms which serve the needs of this

lature. The two most significant
Greater Demand of these are a S percent wholesale -
tax on outdoor recreational
Whereas the entire state was equipment and a- share of -&he .
once a vast outdoor recreationarea state'i motorboat registration fee. : ';!: 1 \i"
changing land use and competition 'I-\:1 .
for remaining open Urgent NeedIt : '
spaces has focused the activity : .
,now on those areas specifically Is expected that when these i. : : '
eel aside for public outdoor recreational revenue measures are In full operation .
use. These parks, forest they will produce about
preserves and wildlife management $3.j million annually. .Suitable ,
areas, each outstanding In outdoor recreational lands are
\ its own right are collectively rapidly disappearing, however
adequate to meet the outdoor reo- and the argent need for early
nation demand in prospect forth acquisition prompted the legislature }
year ahead to authorize the Issuance of
bonds for land acquisition related -
Caught In a bind between HP-
Idly: Increasing outdoor recreation purpoees.Before ,
demand and a corresponding decrease the important acquisition -
: In the availability of outdoor program' can be implemented -
recreation resources the however the comprehensive : '.' .:: '
.State of Florida- most of the outdoor recreation plan must
..Pnlted States was confronted be completed to Identify the exact ...'
!squarely with the urgent neces.stty needs by type sloe and location

'. : of undertaking a major expansion and to establish priorities. Funds\ ., ,.. '
in its public outdoor reoJeatton 'must then be made available :"
., system. through the Issuance of bond As ALMOST.TWIN THE SIZE OF, THE PRUDENTIAL BUILDING This 600-foot long tanker robed ty the'21,000-ton capacity dry dock '

Ovtraor. Acts matters now stand both the plan ,
will availablefor
and till funds be .
This problem bad become a I start on full-scale Implementation dally at the shipyard end sent on their way to supply the world with 'III needs

'matter of serious : probably by mid-IMS.
19(1 when Oov. Farrls : DespIte a natural abundance of
.tool! office. Recognizing till Interagency resources, Florida today is faced "
Implication of effective with a critical problem of provld-
outdoor recreation programming log greater outdoor recreational
Bryant created Recreational a Governor's'Committee Development opportunity: for Us people. JACKSONVILLE SHIPYARDS
on Through the program described
< made up of representatives above toe state baa elected to
from the various meet this vital challenge tesdon.
agencies concerned with Sloe prob-
Only complete success In this
:..Oem* timely endeavor will enable Florida

> After two of intensive to' bequeath to future genera
-Study. the governor's committee Ions the outdoor recreation ; ,
which Floridians of todaycherish
submitted a number of recommendations
which were to become so highly

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Gymnasium, University! ol Flor da: Cainesv lit Broadview'Apartments, Jacksonville St. Vincent Hospital, Jacksonville J

35 years of experience gained through 2,496 projects ;in -

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in the widest range of quality construction. ..

General Contractors Jacksonvilletxprmsway

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sid. Baptist Church, Jacksonville Generating Plant, Jacksonville Carrier Mooring Facilities,U.S. Naval Station, Mayport, Florida i i'
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v >; -In This 1893 Map, with Color Added by Our Artists, Jacksonville Was Portrayed as a Busy Port. The Buildings Are Drawn to Scale. For the Entire City, See Pages 8 and 9.

The Gay .' 90s : A Dramatic Fiety-Et:8. :

*' By RICIIAKU A. JIARTI.V.Ccntfnnial Edition Editor ))1'


Americans Were Shocked by Bloomer Girls But Ignored Children in Sweatshops ,

The 1890.1/! recalled wistfully by mm historian ass But behind a facade of ea-sy-llvlng and Pri'lcialluxul'1 to pi'ntect the prisoner/ and.t some thoucht t. -possibly attack: itTllc rr a man could want. The" affair from beginning la Md. '
gay and charming period where gentility in people and there was bitter twverty. Terms such u wa.elsve. the jail and free him Before the-Incident subsided. Jacksonville .*' characteristic of the times with a bird core of"i ugly
grselousness In. manners set the tone and pace of everyday sweatshop and Robber" Baron were In the popular vocabulary became sn srmerf camp en the vense' of-Internal reality-murder-glossed over with maudlin romanticism lathe j(
living, actually\ wu u drsmstlc..snd fiery an era ss of the dav. The wave of ehlld-lsbor legislation that wa to war. There were demonstrations, some minor clashes anda l ; farm of adoring ladies lavishing attention- en a mm ao I.
any In local! history tarn In the early lows! grew out of abuses common In the number'" Injuries but with the help of Negro and white. fuNd of killing on* of their on n. ;
IWOs where children under U and ss young as I Sri worked civic leaders and state military units the crisis wu resolved

Fires( :, fireworks and flaring tempers lit Jacksonville's:\ in, .11 or more hours a day six and seven days a week inarlorles "before It got out of hand There were a number of lynching In rtol'lcfllln the UNTO,

way through the nol-soaiay Nineties, ( In home and on farm. FlotldS" felt the effects of a national depression In 18'i.T' : end 'two of them following In quirk" succession In I89T

followed In the winter of 1DM-95! by .severe freer which prompted Gov. William D, Bloxhim lo brim the problemto
County at
Jacksonville Florida
Duval and lame rcptesenled -
Thl!' Sub-Troplral] Exposltlon-an "elaborate slate fair the attention to the Florida Legislature
destroyed citrus groves and crops. In: the hard that
designed to- keep Jacksonville a rroM-sertlon. of the best and- worst of the not-so-
on the tourist map..nl"'nN time When" romanticism! reached almost followed many newcomers, to the state, disheartened and
for Its fourth and final year In January of 1INO.( During the gay Ninettes a Splendid Little War
month the espnsltlon operated nightly fireworks lit the akv ., maudlin extremes In contrast lo working and. living conditions broke, abandoned their farms. to the lax collectors and left

over J.cloollvtll.i5herlnl In the last decade of the 19thcentury. which reached the ugliest depths of reality for au too many the slate. AH thin 'turmoil violence and unrest was channeled !Into

people The wont crime wave in Jacksonville's history to that the Cuban problem In the late 1890s( ai the Island people to the
lime ..'epllhe city In loot resulting In a shake-up of the pelily '
Two Additional Fires sonlh took up arms to free themselves from Spanish doml-
Two major fires and a number of smaller conflagrations .- r department. Another result on Ih'e state I level, was a law ration Napoleon B. Broward. one-time sheriff of Duval County

In 1R10 kept Jacksonville firemen busy and proved to be In May and again In August of 1891 two aslrOlJs fire passed, In 1897 creating reform schools for juvenile offenderaat did later governor of Florida) achieved world wide fame
ominous forerunners of much worse to come wept through portions of the Jacksonville business district.! Marlanna. Crime, including offenses among youngsters, filibustering\ smuggling! gunsi to Cuban revolutionaries. Hn
The fire of Msy IB destroyed some $400. OO in property while wa* a symptom of the deeper problems of poverty and child. gun-running-, tne Three Friends, figured la many a hall
The worst fire that year broke nut fii the early morning a larger conflagration on Aitt., \11 '''''Plover 10 downtown labor exploitation. raining episode Including running battle with Spanish warship -
ef March 20 It consumed a whole block of buildings on blocks producing loves estimated at $75nMin. The community and It was partly because of the flUbuslerera that the
Bridge (nnW Broad>, then leaped screws the street and rallied marvelously, despite. the enormity of the damage and Young Woman SlainThe 11 S 3. Maine was sent to Cuba on a peace mission. The" sink
claimed other property bcore U was contained. Dsmase won In I less than two years. most of the burued sections were re tug of the Maine on Feb. I), 1898./ brought about the Spanish.
set at I73.IHW. a very treat loss murder of a beautiful young Jacksonville woman In matter
as money values vent built., American War and In a of months Jacksonville and
In those days when a dollar a day was considered; excellent 18IT7\ captured, n w.pal'l'rltadllnel for several weeks. The .'Im Ida became the tralmnc and staging grounds for American -
pay. Violence highlighted the year Iff/ )] as riots swept UM "woman Louise Galo. wu shot in front of her father's home preparing lor the Cuban expedition.
streets. The rioting grew out of an argument hetvten a white and .before she died named a head, Edward Fibier, as her
Political FireworksFriction man and a Negro on July 4. The white man wu ala ". Threatsof assailant Pltwr wu tried and acquitted In a sensational Thin wu one war the American people wanted. They"
lynching followed ss the Negro was carted off to county trial. Women Jammed the courtroom and kept watch on the Into for RioI' and relief from bore-
In politic heated tempers in ISM producing JaIl That night Negroes began to congregate near the jail jail for a glimpse of PUzer. They kept his cell decorated with dnm..
fireworks of another kind when" the city marshal 8. Wiggins while others-armed to the teeth-patrolled strategic streets flowers and bomb.rded11m/ wtttj parcels containing every \Var neverlhless war one of the moot bluer and nasty actions
committed what wu described as "a murderous assault1' on fought by VS. troops Where bullets failed to kill malaria .,
Jacksonville Mayor Patrick McQuald. Wiggins fled the city and yellow fever atruck down Americana by the thousands, f I ILoat.
and wu replaced by Harry Squires. The new marshal stayedon 1 .
the job long enough survey the field, then abscondedwith I ft? ",' :" ff o: ; lT9h \ "\ Enthusiasm :r
IIion of city funds. The job finally went lo James A. : ; U
Vtnunt who proved to be a good< man. Oil the broader political Formerly starry-eyed youth suddenly loot their "nlh. "I ,
scene, there waa-considerable controversy and agitation .,' ,'..m for saving Cuba for democracy once. they net foot en )
U the island and .began chopping their way through ltd stean
regarding the makeup of city government. At one point, I,
through legislative action practically everyone In Jacksonville w : Ink lungle-llke forests Infested with clouds of pwsqultoea 11
wu disfranchised. The governor was given the overhead and crawling Insects underfoot.A V

power lo appoint -all city councilmen and these men in turn u
man wasn't even safe In the Stale, Camp Cuhi
appointed all other" city officials. n wasn't until Iftii3! that
Lime was established/ In Jacksonville and at one time aa .
the elective franchise was restored to electors I
qualified of
the a"t many. SD.OftO men wen trained there for service\ In Cuba.
u t r r yN 'x, sett Scores of men died In the camp when an epidemic of ,

On the lighter side In that Ypar-189I.- omIl"U\lve\ military Uphold swept If In July of 1898. t
' drills and contests captured the popular imagination
Writing of IheM daya. T. Frederick Davia, Jacksonville
An Interstate drill brought military unit to Jacksonvillefrom
all over Florida. and the South to compete! for a I2noo historian noted:

grand prime "Barring the wave of typhoid the service of the
volunteers here was not an unpleasant one. (When'off duty)
; The Southern Cadcls I of Macoh Ga took the .
the bent having a time.
they flocked 'to city on grand good
Race Unfortunately, there war considerable drunkenness among
I Begin the soldiers, as Jacksonville wu a wide-open liquor town

, In the stimmer of inn professions! bicycle races were \s s'r < In thorn days It wu considered only a prank when one day
established at Pablo (now Jacksonville) Beach. The first an effloer rode< his horse Into a saloon, up to the bar and
I I race attracted an estimated '1.300 Duval Countlsna-a pretty took MSI drink on horseback It did not Item like war
rood! turnout considering the county population wu only: but more like a large body of troope off on s frolic."

t 27.000.. ,U7J01 lived in Jacksonville! A Grand FrolicAnd

This wu the era of swirling skirts of clanging trolley
, cars and the well-hoisted beer mug. The songs were postalla so It wu for the teals u a whole TI many, ti
i ( and romantic, sung by handsome young men with handlebar retrospect, those yean looked like a grand'frolic and a*
mustaches to coy msldena twirling paranoia demurely r.ajwv they were called the Gay Nineties. But u the exuberant
: over their shoulders It wu the Glided Age with s middle 0 S. Volunteers were to lean) In Cuba during the Spanish.'
class culture centered In large roomy homea flllgreed on the American War, there wu a grim reality beneath the aura

utslde and cluttered on the inside with brk! -a-brac, .whal- face of frivolity
" non thick upholstered' furniture, marble-topped tablea and
The Cay Nineties were gay only for those! who werenot
heavy draperies., starved out of their home, not frown out of their(arms,

It wu a time when the softer sex wu emerging from o lynched! shot on a battlefield wiped out .In a depression,
seclusion on'the road to emancipation and first-dans citizenship. burnt out In a conflagration or Just plain worked to death.

I Female secretaries, shopkeepers, clerks and factory fr.enei
\ workers were coming Into their own The Bloomer Girl .. .. .- The Nineties drew to a close with another aevere '
1 and outdoor girls\ garbed In daring costumes for bathing at hi 1899 during which the temperature dropped to II *>

, the beach or cycling were becoming familiar on the Amert- Forsyth Street as It Appeared''in the Late 1890
tan scene (Continued on rag 7-D-Colums 5)j) I


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The Three Friends ;. A Colorful Saga

* *

t Tug With a.Crew.of Capable Daredevils Under N. B. Broward Aided Cuban Patriots \....

By JE*SIFHNNE: KFRR Dalev Ja.cksnmll] shipyard! aldere.4 Spain ft friendly power 'hunt a* lejltlrnai M carrying Cuban Junta offered the Broward The arm and ammunition Bnnrard mad the decision to
"'......futat MMI Wr..... During the building, score of I and *u trying to punish the Intolent them from Jacksonville to Key brother $10000 for every cargo were stored In. a warehouse at load the arm from the schooner:
I Cuban visited Seward at the defiance of the law of Went" I the Three> Friend might land on Cedar Key Another schooner I* the tut,
\ Napoleon Bonaparte Brovard, shipyard and discussed the distressed j neutrality by the t1UbllR r.. I' the beleaguered coast the Stephen R Mallory, wu to
Orphaned M a fA.n..t. row to land at their nativity Agrees !I. Scheme load the contraband on board This done, the Mallory attempted .
the g(",'*rnorshlp of nlllid.thl' I They wanted "Brmtrdg boat to In I A crew of capable daredevilswas and then proceed to. Caesar tl reach Key West In
fall Browari wrote"With
UJh careen u cook, tailor carry them to Cuba, but : With this philosophy coupled signed on with ,the promise Creek to rendetvous with the lime to save Elliott life, but to
few the people of .
exception with i deep feeling for the Cuban of double wages. .
before the Friends, Under the
mast St. John barpilot I counli. Three command no avail
i this y do retard tlllbujterlng
wrecker, filibuster Duval : ; patriots cause Broward of a Capt, Elliott the Mallory
For several, yearsbef/ ,>re Aiwr! M any violation of law. agreed to transport guns. ammunition 75 Men m Schooner -
fountr sheriff, JackAorollle city Ira declared Spain started her trip and narrowly to rendea-
tar on -on According to Spain claim thereIs and men to the island Tn. The tug proceeded
rmiMilmin, police eommssloner Apr# a,,,,))8<+t-iutcceenful Amerlcttf no war In Cuba Wh.thl'll lather 'py The Cuban pitriola were Under escaped from a revenue cutter fOUl with the Ardell The paptrlota / ,
and leglslstiv representatuerertalnly t tUfoiiAWlng i ; expeditions were off the coast near Tampa; were transferred The Three
to prevent anyone carrying Th Three Friends was to the command of Gen Enrique
the mOAt colorful and launched from two Atlantic Coast cargoes to Cub during a time make lght b'tpo'each attended Colauo The patriots, 7$ of Co- Friends laden with arms, ammunition -
rtingeroua experiences during his port\ Jacksonville and taw of peace which might be declared with many danger. being fired lasso men, were on the schooner. Meanwhile, Colasso !I'll'the and men headed for a
YOlk.I contraband In a Mate of house in Tampa and traveled by landing place on the north coast
and'chased times Ardetl
lu Um*> were those| which many I upon many lying behind the Florida
MV UlBsered the Spankh-Amrrl\ I aar? Our government, it seems Perhaps the most exciting trip Key? carriage .to plant City eluding of Cuba neat Cardenu.
C.f| Wlr hit filibustering ort i The expeditions had to tvide to me, has taken a queer attitude was the first expedition commanded the PInkerton men From Plant
n'running, expedition ,aboard not OMIT launchel. cruisers and on this question, and one by Capt Broward Colasxo. and\ his slsff were City he took the northbound Pilot Iwo Way
his, lu-a.going .4ig the Thru? gui bonta tinder the Spanish dig which I thltk tht people of this hiding In a house In Tampa with train to Orant Park. He traveled '
Mends, in the 18jMIR. guarding Cuhaa water, but aim government condemn Be that as '2'berip\ was planned at a secret Pinkerton detective*, employed I from there t* Jacksonville f1'dheth Cuban pilot, *ha was to \.
Uncle Samt revenue euiUrt The It 211.y.1 hold that carrying arms meeting in a cigar factory by the Spanish consuls, constantly .. in a launch where he wu bidden tending place, r lost Ml
In *n article) written by Capt. ', fnltfd SI.tft'it that time con and men to Cuba now (189") Is I I Ia February )KKVAgenU of the on the watch for him In the house of J. M. Barr, bearings and in thick weather
Broward In 1847 he said: the Browerdsattorney. anchored the vessel abreast of t
Spanish fort The lifeboats, Quickly
Many of the moot ipppted I 'I 1c On the cold dark and cloudy filled with Cubans and earn
b" u>e>ssmpn In all parts of FlorId <\ night of Marc! tl, 1896. the Three no sooner hit the beach than
are Cubans These coming :; ;:: mends was being mad readyat they found themselves fighting
to till* ital tpft behind them vast .: :,
'I .' J $i" her dock in Jacksonville 0- the Spanish garrison\ in very
e-tat on the Wand of Cuba ,I' .' "H l Preparations were made without close quarters '
leaving there on account lItho ;" !'. ,
attracting much attention but
part they had taken In the ten I"t : 'i '' when she took on 100 ton of coal, 'UN Trooper Broward men and boat made
yearly' war against Spain This :;: : : M barrels of water, provision It safely back to the tug th..nchlll' *
war WM Inspired, by a desire for enough for a small .army and The first two days passed without cable was cut and the
Iihfrt" and self iovemment. and / erected two pair of heavy d.vttl. Incident Th' tug entered Three Friends escaped safely.
liamftt Uw' oppression, and cor. the Spanish vice consul became Hawk Channel elf Cape Florida. chased by a firing Spanish gunboat
1'111'1 side of the officer sent front '
Suspicious Near where Caesar Creek flow .
the mother country to oven, the
Into Hawk Channel at Elliott Key
inland l But Bi ward captained the boat Broward spotted the schooner And so went the first. filibusterIng -

Tut; Built la MISJpfested quietly and quickly from the Mallory at anchor trip Of the Three Friend
dock and made the short run to
In tht !ten ytac',' pick up Gen Colasao When the original contract between When there were no more lawless
war. fhp* people no eht our the Cuban and the Brow cargoes to bt run and no
shores dad here. 1n that part of After the Cuban party boarded ardt wa signed it was agreedto more patriot to be landed on
America that la free have the Three Friend plunged into lake tile patriot from the Cuba' while beaches Napoleon
breathed the alt freedom ever the darkness and was lout to Ardell on board the Three Broward and Ills brother Mont-
aince. and htomlnl"Irth'fltcl/: sight, driving rapidly down till Friends but to tow the munl- calm took the Three Friends to
with that precious boon have river to the ocean, The boat made' lions.laden Mallory to CUba.. Key West to employ her in the
longed forh day when they such speed that small fishing'I This would void a violation of profitable business of pilling
could return to their native la- t boats along the river wen tossed Uw law against carrying an stranded vessels off the deadly
land and by the aid at the lib.erty e 1 UP on the banks. armed expedition Into a foreign Florida Reef
.loving people<' of the UnitedStitw :. *AR! y country with ,whom we are at
net Cuba (ret. Thla has Once across the St Johns bar, peace Capt Browtrd fought his way
been their slab" by day and their Broward had the tut'I white hull to become the 19th governor ot
prayer by night" painted '1A'e.tIT and had the Hnwerer, tile Mallory captain Florida and served from 1905-
Bam boards on the pilot house Elliott became stricken 1909 He then wu elected! to the
rapt. Broward his brother repainted 'Th'Threa Friends'wu with paralysis Rather than"tow U S. Senate but died In Jacksonville
MfwU-alm, and George DvCottM. replaced with "The Ox* In the: schooner with her desperately" : Ort 1, 1910, before be tout
tint.the tug built In IMS .t John The Deserted Three Friends Sit for a' Portrait Following: Wartime Duty big white letter. Ul captain an the way to Cuba, take office \



I War's Impact on City Great

By TOM HOUYIKM : it:11b: aware ot the proxlijiity tabllsh signal stations at the called to duty and ordered Into
d. mouth of the St Johna a slate of readiness
I e'.a Will WnMTlie I About the same time, the first
The Inevitable rumor. whipped V S. troops were hurried' South As the war became more and
Spanish.American War one around the city that Spain naa through Jacksonville to Tampa more part of their lives Jack,
of f the shortest In American Hittnrv bringing the ear to Florida. although a state of war had not aonvllle .cittern heard -for the e I
I had a tremendous: emotional I Spanish men.of'*ar at one Urn yet formally open declared tint time report) of dreaded fellow ,
and. economic Impact on arms faintly reported at the I fever in Cuba and..caught
Jacksonville, Sympathetic citizen mouth of the river I I On April 29 Jacksonville re. their first glfmpses of Spanish
her reacted angrily to the Span rived word that Congress had prisoners of war being escorted
Jh treatment of their Cuban After the Inking of the battleship declared war on Spa n four days through the city to a military
neighbors and when the Vnlled Maine on Feb. 1*. ira, and earlier Almost Immediately the I prison '
Sates entered the Tar there wasa the ubm-qirntl announcement city felt the discomfort of infla.
surge of patriotic "let'*.go.run- that the ship had been blown up Yon with payees uplrallng, espe- Two days after a happy celebration
'em-out feeling .C'ordlhl' to laina, floating mine, newspaper dally on canned meats and of .Adm Dewey victory -,,. saes
newt atones In The Times.Union headlines reflected the growing eereals- on May I, news headlines read:
The last Night At Home Jscksonvllle -
and Cltl7n, tension: Storm Cloud Grows
Park and Lowering." War At' Adm. DPwey' 'glorloug tic\ 's Soldier Will Leave For,
Rclme It was over. hundreds of moot Certain," "Spain Preparing tory" at Manila buoyed up spirits I The Front Tonight Reception"
heal young men trained, and Bent for War." In Jacksonville/ and 40_jCuban_ Tendered By The W CT_ ,U.
off to war and thousands of sot'_ American '1lre'oIunltf'nod to s
'1Iltl'8'frmtrlmI.rp.rl&-the nstion -BIIt! It j helped :recruiting: BT fight the Spanish They were The 'front" was Tampa and
were sent to training camps April 10 local military companies given t rousing sendoff at the the city-turned' oil In large n invbers -
In Jacksonville The latter were up to war' attength and two railroad station A few days later to say goodbye. More than
pumped money Into the city* necks later the Jacksonville the Jacksonville Light Infantryand 2dO young men rode the train to
economy and made I Its citizens I Naval MiUt.a was ordered to es I Jacksonville Rifles_ sets Tampa and soon they were "bring
visited by families and friends,

f ,, rv ", ". n,(.1It. ,, ':""" ] Bred Food at and the other armory Items her were for gsth forwarding Troops Pass In Review Along Bay Street, at Julia During the Spanish.American War

\ ::':) {:' to t.he local soldiers.

T 'j. ?
1 Horn Guard Farmed

i Later In May M Jacksonville Becomes Armed
eltlxens enrolled in a Home Guardin City an Camp
the armory and Governor
Fleming was elected captain
Then it wu announced that ,
.. The establishment of an Army robbing a woman.( Within month nine more regiment lines had been laid !In readinessfor
troops would be quartered In
camp In Jacksonville during the Ing bodily harm to a "" of the Seventh Army Corp. tilt soldiers Then 400 pack
Jacksonville I
SJll1l h.AmertellWar brought who held them at bay r arrived and were quartered In I Mules and a few horses were

The first volunteer' *. from Illinois excitement and money to t than an hour with a Panama Park where water' piper brought In to Panama Park the
patriotic Southern community unaccustomed first of many sent her*,
and Wisconsin, arrived May
to close-contacts with
23, spent their first night In railroad ... ,
cars and next day ert"CI"d'' the military The soldiers aPflhf'd0 Ilk*
a tent city In East Springfield ,Jacksonville, They said i the
Gen FlUhuih Lee commandedthe The first 1.OKI troops arrived by weather was hot an hot as they
Olio-man garrison and called train on May 23. 18'*, and spent had anticipated but they did
It Camp Cuba, Libre, the night in railroad cars Next complain about the red bug
day they erected t tent city In (chigger).
Lean than a month later the East Springfield between Myrtle
number of !troops wu doubled Avenue and Fourth Si reel and Early In July when the end
and a camp wu opened In Panama Jacksonville, aware of the censorship of the war appeared to be near
Park "helt pipes were Installed of troop movement. bee at hand, an epldetnln of typhoid
to provide water' Mas came more sensitive to the war fever broke out In Camp Cuba
Clara Barton president of the effort. Ubre. The Army brought In five
American Red Cross arrived in ton of let each day to comfortthe
Jacksonville and after an Inspee Camp Named feverish patients A number
lion aald she vat pl.uedtth yrilUi ., tf them died Contributing to tile
the camps: Gen PlUhugh tee commander r unhealthy situation was aa abundance
of the fnrcea sent here, named of house files, lack of
A Signal Corps Camp in Jacksonville During the Spanish! .American War War Boom the encampment Camp Cuba screens. heavy rains and poor

I Ubre The first troops were a drainage -
The city realized it was In ft volunteers from Dllnola and Wisconsin
war boom period alter the first and the Times.Union Yellow Fever'
announcement that a quarter ol solicitously_ offered them till
a million dollars would be paidto following advice: Yellow fever also struck the
the troops quartered here camp and although Oen Lee
But there wen drawbacks too A "B careful with your diet: w vehemently denied the proper-
special war tax in the form of be mottratt in tleoholte dons of the epidemle u' printedIn
compulsory! stamps on all bull stimulants; "' 1IZcell I If Northern newspaper. he did
JbJJL.! Best establishments and manufacturers dangerous to the tinaceUtnafed admit that :201 of his 15J5J troop
went Into effect, the ; in a warm climate/ Bluff Fortified AgainThe In Springfield and Panama Park
tor amount ranging from H to $100 the nilht" dews tn copious/ camps were sick with! the disease
.And there were many report of and noxious: remember you a* of Aui 1. Forty of these were
soldiers misbehaving are fll leihftroplcat climate strategic military significance of St Johns Bluff at the sent to a convalescent camp al
at the threshold ol a summer mouth of \he river first demonstrated by the Spanish and FrenchIn Pablo (Jacksonville Beach
As the number of troop* In the ISM was reemphulsed, early Jn 189 u the Spanish-Amefr\
city Increased the military payroll can War developed The camp crew M additional
got fatter sod Inevitably: Take on going' to bed regiments were assigned her andIt
there were those who preyed on I 'I.t"rlntl.t three prams III The U. 1. Army fearful that the Spanish fleet under Adm. took I/iOO.OOO to meet the payroll
th* gullible Midlers. Many of the : quinine, Keep your bouxiU Cervera might attempt ta steam up the St Johns to Jacksonville for 25000 men Aug ( They
volunteer were fed knockout open The tint ictttrmtloia decided to fortify the mouth of the river and chose the TV kept coming and rumors had It
drops In saloons and were robbed era donseroui Iiutr... loot high bluff. a* suitable\ *H. for gun emplacements; that 39.000 would soon be housed
and beaten until it it thoroughly eaoltimelon ta the .
On April 15" wrote historian! T. Frederick Davi* 'theAimrleu
s that hat been heat'it
On the other hand many red by the sun fruit are goldn Flag wu hoisted there to speak ,defiance to tile oH'wu called! to Wash.Ingtoa .
> 4 ssa dent of Jacksonvlle opened ( the morning' end lead itnfpM Spanish, who from this same elevation mad the chart upon M tile troop guessed how
aba French Fort Carotin 133 before, St John Bluff had
their home Ie tile troop Other it *n old adage ot thttropict year many ot them would be sent to
lYr ss. -'. assisted lb. Red Cross in furnishing ," fortificationsBy now witnessed:. .the .flag of five nation flying ever- nearby- Cuba a* part of the army ot occupation

,, eet ,4tr them with good things to eat Lee returned with news
and In nursing them In camp end Later newspaper accounts Indicate 'the end of April money had been appropriated for construction that the whole Seventh Corp
,,/ in private home that at least some of the of a permanent battery of eight-Inch runs A tramway would to to CUbe.
advice was not heeded Although wu constructed from the river up the bluff and a concrete fort
There were milv five casualties one headline read: 'Moral of wu built. The smaller temporary earthwork emplacements were By the lime the camp wit
'I among Jacksonville servicemen Soldiers Will Be Guarded Very removed, closed on Jan, 11 ism, 25 rejt-
Two were killed In an accidental Closely,* the following day a ments had been quartered In the
,I explosion d dynamite (t St story reported downs of drunken Th battery wu abandoned in October IKtt, and the rifle Jacksonville camps The greatest
Artillery Horse Are Given a Bath la Tampa Bar in 1898 John Bluff' and three expired soldier awanned a* thick a* wr seat to Penaaeola. T'hs carrtagee were sold by the gown- number her at any one tune was.
from dlseas die*" over Bridge (Broad) Street meat u obsolete to Ull and_the tram track removed .,000.'r' .

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f.\'" ,'. MUSICALE FIRST IN 1890 f I ';

I'' I Women's Clubs Wage'l:,: I

t1i a L

War on Social Evils i},': I I

*y MM tAMPBHLTimtilMi : :' ample for II sister cluh, In partof ,,1011, not only managed to keep\ I Ith..1f
in 1075 '1056 1107 tun fMUt the Florida Federation of Worn financial! heads above water t tIn
Liquid Telephone Tilt Wllllama Model' Lang DI Wanes Tranimlller Magneto Will Sri, The TelephoneCity's en'a Clth. and five Jtmlnr ..omen the 30s, they devoted their ,
One hundred year ago In Jack 'a club that have taken their enerjdf to running soup kitchens ,
nonvllle. a woman'I place wa place en Duval County club fop the Indlient and WPA sew. !
firmly rooted In the home. tom. map, Today, the scope of thelt log workshop to help furnish
First Bared with the choru of/: more combined aeUvltlea range from clothes for the Jobless,
Telephone Directory than 10,dm women'I voices inaweriiui teaching English to the foreign
when club born to providing beauty care '
"present for\ ]From 1I451n 1%<1, Jacksonville I
roll. are called today. In 1864 female juvenile delinquent mad gigantic strides culturally.Mrlally .

there was barely a squeak, Mothpr Clubs!' I organl/ed be and economically and leo, '

In 1880 Listed 34 Subscribers Adam Until founded MM Claudia the Frldav L'Enile Mush taken way for 18'19 the( Duval and lust Count pived Council the j.eonlrJhlllf'd of malf-thu"4olnrr credit lo"Bent were. of given all much they

city bettermentwithout
:, rate l In January 11190, there Were I Of parents and Teacher formedIn \
nixing I lanes '
'. ... low fH'aially organised forma ol 1928! Home demonstration I Groipg oiianl7 a penny
during thta period
feminine activity her outside \Of club. gutted<< In J9141, meiaed to '
On Jm t. im. Florida early euhscrlhera and the fiftieth Jacksonville. Benedict and MeConine Calvin Oak, 0 E:; dchnahle. aomllle en Aual'al'' ., 1804, She church circle, become the Puval County Home tie of the city I threeToastmiatrrse
'J1m l-tJnlmr repoilei1 "mustered year of the telephone ; Cltiwnn Can light Com- Southern Express Company: Wait worked it-toe Job until 1888 May Demonstration Council In 1121Bimlnes clubn, the Humane
Society A xlllary, the ,
up courage enough to .mike a pany, John Clark Drayton and lace and Cashen Water Work McDaiitela was another early While the Mwicale* purpose and professional omrH. Lioness Downtown
telephone call to a Dr. Babcock In a letter dated April M, ISM, Owen. Daniel and Fernandea and Welghtman and Christopher operator wooto give.. Jacksonville a Clltml hopeful of stimulating more bluer'eat Guild" Club three. Women Symphony -
at the County Hospital and B. DeForreat, reported he had W. M Davlnon, First National face.lifnng. It *!M awikrnrd In john outside the home. of Jacksonville
Asylum completed the construction of.the Bank Fleming and Daniel. FlorIda 3. B, Huhbard Company: la the The telephone company opened women from their dommtlc hllnd together lit 11I1 to.form nix hospital luxtHarir: the Gateway f
Jacksonville exchange but could Central Railroad Ticket Office only name which ha been listed a toll \line to Femandlna about sleep challenging t them tit broaden the Jacksonville Cl ih, the first of charter Clib-I boasting 151
The story he wrote for the next not get the belli to ring He Freight Office and Treasurer continuously since 1880. March 18S1 and to St Augustine their horizon bv taking other five local S and PW unite. auxiliaries mfrnhersi and volunteer fire I

lI1 mln.'a paper wan probably the apparently remedied the Condi Furchgott, Benedict and John the first on January II,' IMS Steps toward community Improvement assist pAtients a vnlunteer.graipto at
first hospital story ever coveredfor tlon before May 24. when operation Company, Greeleya Bank, J. E. Coyne was manager The fardel (lull the Mental
the Time.Union by telephone began i Hart' TJ Hartridge, 8 Hub.bird of the exchange. A, B.Hernandca' 'Modern long distance 'service ,Health Olnlc.

Binre then there have been i Company,, ;mB. Huff, was the first chief wan-established. In 1 Listing and Hal Cassidy was
many. .and the telephone In Directory Hughe Brother. Hunter" and operator line running to Wiveros and hands that hid forked the cradle WM roarlng-JHeht In tempo with Other'groupa wringing up epos I
standard) equipment, every: re The flint directory lute) the Ion J. 1),. Mitchell J. H. McGlnnls the first' assistant operator. SlI'annah"Ind connecting with began to stray fir afield to participate the era, In -f'lrly' l 1522. Mel{. Ar.Ihur radically during the past,century1
porter desk, names of Alrop and Dark J). J. E. MrLaurin, P.MrQuald Grace E. McDanlel "became principal EiMrrn and Northern In 'a variety of patriotic O Cum,","!, called a meetIng have Included. II fraternal orneri.,
Ambler and Talliaferro Bank o! Morton and Walker, the first woman operator in Jack cltlc educational' fraternal civic ten. at her home for the purpose 3 Coettettee,20 Order of theEastern I
Tbe 1M1 reporter wrote that Ice and social organirayona, of oriantrtnft- what la now beUeved stir; R Rebrkahs. the
"on account of the dale distance to.be the laraeot Barrier American Association of Unlver- .
ef one and one.half mile. the The Stint telephone exchange Pioneer Grmpt I club] of Its type In the woild-the ally Womrn, Pen Women. the Di ,tJ
WM located at Main and Bay ablod Veteran Auxiliary. the .
doctor advised the reporter that Garden Club, of Jacksonville, At
If he would not breathe\ very hard streets, Equipment: '"'as later Among the earliest of the plo last note count, there were 1,13.1'' Catholic woman Cluh and a 1
the "9 moved to Main and For vth number of chapter of the American '
Into Instrument while talking veer women i groups was Martha) member Iah.. club's 136 outlet I.
aLI't'IUI A fire on A igust 18, 1891 I '
Legion Auxiliary
he would be perfectly aafe, "I burned out the small exchange Reid (founded in 11142)the mother .
chapter of 11 t
Founded .In ISM Illd a uew exchange was Installedm
units of the United Daughter" of In October 1923: a group of The 171 school group that pow
... (> forsyth Sheet near Main. founded Day meet regularly in Jacksonville Include 1
The Jacksonville, exchange efXntthern the Confederacy, and the Jack young women the
r Nuriery Aid thlrh, later inn p.7A unit. 40 sororities
Bell Telephone andTelegraph The telephone company main onvllle Chapter, Daughter of the t year
Company yen oily .-_ <-.i.Mlawrl'.wasarr' luinid servk from that build. American Revolution! farmed the "became the Junior Lcigue of and 17 college. alumnae cluhihurr i;
three years old when the reporter law Itlr. lug until December *. I31J when following year. Eteht oilier OAR Jacksonville The group continued
n.ode his rat) to Dr Bibcock. tie present msifi exrhane was chapter took Shape alone with to support the nursery until IliW (' Grotepe '
The exchange hud VMI created placed In nervic" in the .!lx-tory several groip of Daightcra of but extended It* interest In \the 1;
In IRAO and 34 nubscrlberi were butldint at 12' WAda mi St. the Biltlsh Fmplie' and Colonial health and welfare of children-- Aver Sod oj| Jacksonville some "
listed in the directory of June 1. Dame*, Southern Dame of Amer ,living awlntinre" at the Orthoped txn. women'i organizations are
J'honellyle (Kingca lea, the newest of Jacksonville a lie ward at SIt ,Juke', HonpUnl, ehurrh'llflUatf'd. +r F
The city had several private 4t mtrlotlc groups, via formed u the corrective eve: clinic and aup-
lines before! the exchange was Style of telephone hive recently aa last year. porting; the Milk Fund Over the Baptlntft the 57 t
romptne dome
created, John G. Christopher of thinged several time since the yean It han participated in both Women Missionary Unions and {I
In Wtt, the Woman Club at service and cultural project in
the mercantile firm of Wlahtman service U8 started In 1MO withwall Methodists and the 43 Women
and Christopher was credited and desk telephone using Jacksonville became the first of eluding apoiuorlnK of educationalTV Societies Itl Christian Service,
with bringing the exchange to aide hooks for the ear piece many women'a group organlted program. promoting the Coil.dren'a Other Include M Episcopal IS
Jacksonville lint' lour yearaafter 494 y Gradually, these have been replaced to wage war against social evils Museum and giving iwimmlng Catholic is jewteh, 12 Lutheran
II i well as to provide a touch ofsocial tnntructlona at such InstltuUona .
Alexander Graham Bell Invented by the desk models which 17 Presbyterian and 13 Christian
the Instrument contain the tiansmltter and receiver and eultural life While aa Baptist Home for Children Women Fellowship- units along
members worked hard to raise I
In a single unit The first
With i down or so miscellaneous
i I
By IWO the exchange JWcrlMl 1 dab: phones -cnt In service ibout I money for the first clubhouse church guild and issociatlons,
I siitwcrlbcrr. The dlJ' ctOf1 1920. eOl1lltl'llct on devil' Street In The"Depremloii fur
lists about 234000 telephone idl I 1904 they al!o maintained a con' I
today. alrscent! camp gnu Indigent chil At the same time depression Some (,miA clubwomen In Jack
During October 1SRO there dren at the beach organized year threatened to clone" some oonville meet In clubhouses and
Most of the 'local telephone were IMA telephone calla made mothera club which nerved as club door, other were opening lIt la estimated that more than
exchange record were destroyed ; through the local exchange, forerunners for the PTA, assisted The Jacksonville Pilot Club, one MO, M la ted tip In the ID nick t
during the ]!W fire he: public library, Inv sUltlted of four service orfaniEatlona for establishment dotted over the
Some of the history baa been At present about 1.5 preserved la out-of.tows letter and 2.10UU long distance calla fight tuberculosis. 1934, Other executive groups In.\
tiles] however, and waa complied ate placed dally In Jacksonville elude Altrusa Boroptimlat and Where they gather ti not really
In 1928 when the telephone company or about 10,OW calla per 1lInule The club plunge into torn, Zonta Such groups aa the South- Important. Just u back In MM, t
had a dinner honoring the This Switchboard- Was Installed in Central Office Her In 1891- around the clock niunlty service served aa aa e:' side Woman Club, organlwd In Ito why they gather that natter

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Here's Your New, Telephone. {

many of its 475 pieces By the time reaches your home or office it Right here in Florida, Southern Bell. serves over 1,700,000 telephones

will be one of the most efficient communications devices ever made. r through 94 exchanges. From Jacksonville and Miami distribution centers,

Why? Because of a unique working partnership between Western Western Electric provides an on.the.spot supply of parts and equipment

Electric and Southern Bell. Western Electric designs and manufactures, and ,Together, they make possible a communications system that changes and

Southern'Bell" l installs/ and maintains your telephone. This team work among grows with theneeds_ of the state. .

Bell System companies is nation-wide. Yet. as local as the telephone in Southern Bell and Western EI ctrrc. working best because they

.', ', : h ""I your living ro m. work together. ,'" >, j,

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I.;; i( ., Electronic Home Library Forecast "ll

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'I i II y HARRY BKIVTON; crater where his request will be received, fed lnl,. a memory b. wired In u they are available to expand the Hbrary'i remote Libraries will be more Important than ever a hundred yeirefrom

: "rteer/ar. ,.. _..... Pool L1kwW, computer and the material cent buck to him either by television service now, It la estimated that the mm total of man' knowledge
"l or radio Thin presumption is based on recent acceleration tendea Already a tTNlVAC magnetic tape computer has dkesled> Into will be several times greater than at present.
; ; Whit will our ithrorv look like inn vesra from nnw How will ele However, It the material must be' retained for reuse later, II* memory the thought of 74 different, authors on abstract tubinlf. The amount of printed matter doubled In the first half of this
wwkf These two question i tl often coked and with recent the console vlll ha'f't'tl'ln, apparatus that will be fed from DHa processing eqidpment being used more and more century, doubled again between KM and 10! and yet again before 1
advancement in elrrtronle lequiprpprii' and ether/ mechanised data the library' vat storehouse' of microfilmed material. forihe mechanization of voluminous files In a variety nf area 1965. Projecting thll Into the future, we will be dealing with

,.\ .}j'r processing/ services, some Imaginary speculations are offered( \ The "llbranr console will be a popular :tame! femur three So you ace we're on the right .track. The "library console" l I. on billion.bf volumes an compared to thousands it' the present.
Which may not really be too farfetched.The eneratiom f1'011now.. Just like the first radlra.and televlsldns. the way. Therefore.libraries' will need to be more efficient to make Information

library of the future will serve the the tint console models will probably be too expensive for mostfamlllei We don't "mean to Live the Idea that hooks and libraries Ire more readily accessible. Thla will' require the use of the
/, traditional needs of It* patrons and It will ilea '10 own. The early modela-wlll tine Installed In schools on the way out with this talk of electronic compute and hqme latest electronic' equipment' and Increased use of microfilm storage.
i; aerve is. a data processing! center for thousand colleges clubs and In home of the very wealthy who can afford library receiving center. Book will. remain a favored source of Not only will more librarians be needed, but the need will
;'. of home 'remote stations" electronically geared ,a, It. By MM A.D. the "Handy Dandy Library Co""le"l'1Il he AIM Information and recreation. be for librarians whose specialized education and training will enable -
I I". to request and l'f'Colvllnlorm.Unn. ef the bent selling Item for the big department stores and mall They have many advantaien over electronic devices: They ran them to cope with the ever-growing mountain of fact, using

,., It Is entirely possible. that by 94 A.P, the +M enter housed. Later they will begin to appear at much lower prices be consulted whenever desired and the reader can turn to any both the traditional machine approaches.
student will hev ..Ilthr, Infm-miillon In the V after the first excitement wear off pan at will\ ; once purchased, they require no further expenditure; Books ore. durable, and since the codex replaced the scroll
i library al his bidding till a Jew seconds. He wilt, A' malt order model at law.M: will not compare with the deluxe .- and there is no need to have a, connection to elrPRle power or to In the early year of the Christian era, there' has been 'ne really
I \ beable M alt town .1' home! in a chair In front W.JdO custom-made console. The less' expensive! model will make costly repair Important change In the physical lorm of hooks or In their manu
of a small console) no forcerthen .n electricWean. \ serve to bring 11a limited amount flf library material, such u Another prediction, for the llhiary of the future (hit ihmildInlerfM facture. There have been Increase In speed and efficiency, but
He will put on a hesdwMhs* IK throw- data from the most popular rllCyvlnP'dlllM'la. some other tilandaidreference patron who prefer to feel a book In their hands no they the process fundamentally the same II It was In Gutenberg'
tuck to the old radio! crystal net days with modifications works the unabridged dictionaries In several langusiics. can savor printed words on a pane ralhef than rely on electronic' day.
by "My Favoine Meitian" tithe 1 Wl and the hound files of the Rational Geographic and other standard device. I II the possibility that in the future patron may he able No one has any better solution for the assembling of words
i1. Century, Bristea, educational publications and periodicals .. tn obtain a faolmile book from thus library copied for him by ado In a usable, understandable pattern than the simple! printed wordIn "
H.H\ spin a telephone dltt. punch how kept'that sendeleetmm Them will ho no limit to the potential of the delude model: -tt-youran vending machine In a few aeconda. These book maybe a book. What happens to the words" after they come out In the
Iml'Ul.a1'1' a nugneda

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l. 7brY., what's happened : : 4 r .ar

S, f : since 1859 ,}

':, Jacksonville's New Library! : A Study, In Contrasts

'- ;I $1.00 worth of GAS in 1859 costs todays average| 4:

[ ) Colorful Era Will End

r I- .. It. three appliance GASxustomers only .11 c. .

With Library ClosingBy

r CHRISTINE GENOVAR tug for the purchase of the Circulating

ti, no-...... ('oM........ PRmt." ., r1I Library of this dt).
While the library has been aelf
r ,.._.010 '.Wlo tAnrr.
,,rr I I sustaining, It la to be regrettedthat
+f' '6t 'K" the public Interest In thla
J't ; '' PjyRY ; :'l'F' '
'1 : : f ,. As the new Jacksonville Public enterprise ha* been M Insufficient
::1< l ,j S1J .' ;; Library Building passes the halfway a* to cause 114 proprietors to be
II ;,">:E '\ i J.ti: I4h t I'& mark In Ita construction. Its : filling to dispose 01 it under any
\ .. "Iii f ,),{, '.' 'r..I'ttllfl' :<)"''--- i.' ",' ,}'i! sharp contrast to the once-elegant f some of It* sister cities, has
'( -'': Greek Ionic facadi of the old failed to recognize the benefit
''' : sheet the medium of a library."

t t t % ISM: The First 14>rtTl
11 C The familiar old granite bunt Other Readlaf Room

J .." lug will.soon be relegated" to the Young people begaa to show Interest On Auiurt 17.1874 another
\ role of a "has been, and whenIt
'. .''1'::.. closes along the same lines and Reading Room had entered th.v.
doors for the last
... i. about U month later, May M.
picture. The Trt-Weekly Union reported
'i!!( ., ..,y.:. '\ \ i k'; one of the'-most colorful 1868. The Florida Onion I reportedan "The
', t, .""""" .'-f" ." eru of old Jacksonville will past attempt "by some of the best :: Duval County Agricultural
1 964' Booms '
> ', In 'r Into history.There Reading am BOW
known men in the city to
; young located at the office of Robinson
'' ; "J /,': : / t<;:;, : I organize a literary society. the and Whitney where the meeting
only few .
: are a people city need such an Institution. are also held. All the !latest publication
,;\The' conversion from ""manufactured"' tfl'1 left In Jackson- a ur "room will also be .s'Evidently will be found there Fret
wine today who hI' "
,. '' to all.

: -\T; I : >'; ,NATURAL CAS in 1959 was accomplished through t remember themlleatei the "best known Another 'Circulating
'the' construction; of f a 1300-mile pipeiine'stretching | of achievement young 'men" were successful In opened In December of 1875 and
jfflncn }J.ckwnutle'1; Gal Total first kg.n Y that the old their effort to start their Literary
The Dally Florida Union of March
for 1 The
building represented Society, on Sept. IMS
semce- 105 vein the manufacturing.of! Gal was ,' from Texas and Louisiana Gas fields directly to : when It Florida onion carried a 710110 t, ire reported Jut almost any
ago hour
i of the day numbers of gentlemen
s ( opened Ita door that there had been a "public
: Jacksonville. All of this I line H high tensile wefdedq' l : and ladles may be found
te&oul.n&, expensive Cat war i" to the public In: meeting of the Young Mea'a Literary
a froccsi. actually : In Alvord It
1:, ( .a n 1905. It was In Society held on Wednesday Kellogg Campbell

q' piped to focat-consumer in tollow' fine t fogs, Because ,; steel! lpe.-a far cry from the old hollow pineru'; t'a .f Imposing building evening, Sept. 2. at the room formerly from handsome their'store circulating, electing library book
0 in Its day occupied a* a aymgogue.
:. it "manufactured" from resin uary was logs and the limited Gas supply of 1859. And despite Cenovsr and It focused The variety of work they have,
{ was fine attention on Jacksonville as a From time to time activities of running from the novel of Scott

: the tremendous Vestment needed to bring this I; modern and progressive city the Literary Society and the various and Dlck.nl.to' the' poems of
crude ni daily limited till
r, rather ,. production wan fcr with the first tan-supported U. reading room groups were longfellow and Oliver Wendell
far superior product to )Jacksonville the \X960 briny la Florida. reported on aa they attempted to Holmes, from Maesulay'a "En,-"
; aloe of tie facilities. tHft to, the Jacksonville Gal I nil the need that the growing land" to Falrbanki' "Florida.

; Natural Gas rate is only fraction of the cost o7lf| Over a of nearly M community won feeling lor adequate present a pleasing collection from
work of 1859 wu coniidercd to le one of the a span year library .faclllUea to serve which It Is an easy matter toselect
"j.l' patrons of the Jacksonville library a Volume to Improve the

finest in the country, Over the fast century many the old resin gas 100 years ago ._/ have given the .building and Ilr. people, 'I mind or one to while away the
lie content hard use. Now It la Temperance ]teem leisure hour,"

ad\nces have ind the ,j"j crowded, Inefficient and outdited. I,
tccdnologicat taken place, M
1964, In 1905 It was considered heiutl- The nationwide temperance
The drive to
< Jill, "modern and had establish the Jacksonville
was recognlxedas movement reached Jacksonville -
of 33,301 population. prestv announced that the Temperance already been launched several'
Reading Room movement month before an Item appeared
In print announcing that a "Free
and B.
id-year progressing "finely
H. Webster, soliciting went was Reading Room of the Youn.Men' .
requested to procure a room at Christian Association at
Actually, the establishment of once for thla Number 1,, Polka' Hall wan
1'1 I the Jacksonville Public Library opened Monday, Jan 28, 1878."
climaxed more than 40 years of mention of the Temperance
bird work and frustration on the Reading Room appeared These random new* Item
part of many of the town' public- about three week later On April clearly show that the groundwork
spirited citizens 2$. 1174. The Trl-Weekly Union had been laid for the library
reported "Our temperance organisation movement prior to the fall of
; l. : DavJ "Hl lory of Jacksonville. have fitted UP a cozy lit 1877 when Miss Murphy and Mine
Florida apd Vlclnl v" st.tl-Ilhll tle room on the corner of Pine Moore launched their full scale
: "In the fan of 1877, two young and Bay Streets with an entrance drive to actually establish a Fret
s ir i re t't ladle cf Jacksonville, Miss Florence through Oato'a and another Public Library In Jacksonville.

Murphy and Miss May on Pine Main Street.
1 Moore originated the plan of starting e There hid been I number of
's' I a free public library and reading "This provide* in evening resort foreslshted citizen before them
at.l room In this clay" for many who have hitherto to help them pave the way, but tt
1.,& wished for some unobjectionable was truly an admirable accomplishment
place like this where they could for two women M
rr A search of old newspaper
I f : read and spend a quiet evening spearhead a community project
printed In Jacksonville prior to
In a profitable manner. 'Success In the day when "woman' place
1177 shows that the library
:i. movement to the Free Reading Room,' aaywe. wu In the home What la more
hid been gaining momentum
.r.p noteworthy the female of
here for 12 or 13 years when
persuasion succeeded after a
the Misses Murphy and Moore While the
I number of other less ..mbttlOUll'library
UJ" took up the cause. Room was flourishing the Clrcuhtlng -
projects headedby menhad
Library began to feel the I
failed to survive (for over a
There had been
a number of
pinch 01 competition -for pat few yeara.
abortive efforts made prior to ronage. On June S, 1874 an Item
'1177 to establish reading rooms In The TrI-Weekly Union stated: Even at the lurn of the century
literary society group and circulating "1I1a rumored that partita In two It didn't pay to underestimate Uie
libraries. all were closely of our elMer titles are negotiat power of a woman .
(ID [ID&p related to the library movement ..u..,._ "ro..b.r---. ,

and aa, but Individual on a projects smaller rather seals F

1 ; .. :, thin a* t community effort

lens Library Society

'J ,
'GAS '
/, ; The Florida Union for March
T I 11, 1063 stated, "The gentlemenof

,,1; );::1'' ,:tr. :" I" )," /,' ; ,,I lanlzed the Catholic* Beneficial Church and have Library or

based Olf a'thraeappliance ,*,/:, .. 29 East Adams Street, .. rr',1 : r Society with the following officers

Jacksonville customers bill' iurjni( ," .. :", "',,' ini; :,1;, cr ; : 'President Captain H. T,
December1963. .. 'ts."' ,0 ,', <' \ Blya: vice president Dr. E, P,

(Cooking, heating and wafer heating> '. '. \' ,Yi l j' Webster; secretary and treasur
'::1" J 'T, C. M. Bravo: librarian J. C.
) ?
7 7 ,',1\ 1 : f ,: ',\I' I!' Si'I, r r, r
I ,. "Id',!! I'u.I,1 ,' i, .,A\\\,, : 'I"7ii'A! ,' Andrew: 'trustees, Henry Cllrk.CYI'II' ,
I 'f : ; "':.1'7wr".l, : i : : t,' Bushes and Col. William
.. iaya. The Association propones
i. 10 hold regular meeting and tone k Y {' ? ,i tt y
up a Library and Reading
Room". The Library in 1910, 5 Years After Opening

r 1

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-- Steady Increase in Population :


Is Being- Chalked Up by Duval 7 I.

One hundred yean ago Jacksonville ""1 .v linc'opyvustoowwjennn
1 The surprise, to tome people,
had a population of of the 1900 census wu the proof
, about 1500, or about half the pro-I t that Jacksonville for the tint

pIe then living In Duval County, My How We've Grown time in it* history, showed a
population decrease
In spite ot the devastation of; of 1487
residents to be exact.
of the city
war, the population .
had more than trebled by 1170.. Date Jacksonville Duval County Florida r.Q I
over that of 1860, while the population But the phenomenal population
of the county had little 1830 I ,1,970 34,830 f leap to 4-'I5.m' people for Duval
mori thaa doubled. I. 1840 4,158 54,477 1 County In 1900 also. Only proved 4
1850 1,045 4,535 87,445 Iwo ,things: one that 1 the Jacksonvllle -
The pattern 0'-growth wu not 1860 2,118 5,074 140,424 't area, situated ... It U at
maintained la the II years that 1870 6,912 11,921 '187.748 the top of the "crown" section
t followed, however, for the city 1880 '1,431 19,431 ot the .t'II, wu a vital part
; expanded by only 731 resident 694 2i.. and parcel of the booming economy
b% 1880 This may teem hard to 1890 .17,201 26,800 :I9 of eve of Ihe fastest grow.
understand in light of the fact 1900 28,429 39,733 528,542 i log states: and two that the
that the county added 7,510 to 1910 57,699 15.163' '152,619 il, i residents of Jacksonville are following
Its population during the tame 1920 91,558 113,540 968,470 along In the national city-

period. 1930 129,549 .155,503 1,468,211 expansion pattern of moving out
i of the urban areas into the "
it must be remembered an agricultural 1940 173,065 210.143' 1.897,414 suburbs.
economy still existed 1950 204,517 241,837 .2,762',865. I

i------ and there were very few, industries 1960 201,030 455,411 4,952,788.C The Chamber of Commerce "
in Jacksonville Too the of C. esUmate ortJatl. I'I'. estimate the present 19M popu ,

Ii 1962 480,500 latino of Jacksonville to be right' ,

I On Dec, 1. .1964 v 500,000 .I at the 1960 figure of 201,030,They ,
base their assumption on the fact
that some if not all of the '.4117

Wars Seen Aiding State' Growth ,....-...........- -."..,., "... z.... I population a ,result lost from of 15000 1950 U people 1MIwu ,

city still suffered from the 'war the census of 1110 attested again being; uprooted when the Expressway

years-(he partial burning and to the population upsurge of system wu put through,
By DR. CARTER C time when economic development these were in agricultural pursuits. have occurred over the hundred-I nation wu approximately 19 percent looting The black 'night or[ Re. Jacksonville The 57699 figure for plus the development' of city
In the state were earning Following 1870, each suecesstvt year period In 1170, 71 This dramatic chang hu construction still hung like' an that dale considerably exceeded areu for commercial polo-poses
OSTER BIND some other cities In Florida to census reveal a declineIn of the people were engaged In led people to examine the reason angry, stifling ploud over the the 34810 total In 18.10 for the and the lack of annexation, ...
Dinees., *oe. ;> trnwmH ... become contrIbutors u eenten of the proportion of the total agricultural pursuits whereas In for this pattern of development city I and stale, Indeed, was to whole stale of Florida! '
...._ _oil business and Industrial acUvhEiamplet >, number of workers engaged In 1960. there were only slightly and what It portend for remain until lbs spring of '71. For the county the chamber's
0o4s, ci P1.05. agriculture. By 1890 the proportion more than I percent; In manufacturing -. the future. AutomotiveHenry fuilseses estimate in January 13! wu
: of Growth bad dropped te 52 percent: in 1870,. there were 480900, and a half million ii
Looking back one hundred yean by' 1910, to M percent; by 1940 about I.> percent. In 10, more Other Factors But' the next 19 years morethan Ford's Mode! TS were 1963, These estimates were based
take IK to a period ot time In 'Tampa, for example wu a village to about 17 percent: and by I960, than 31 percent; 1* trade andaei'v1ce mad up for Ui* Snail like heard and seen all ever "by 1920 tn a survey of buying power, r
which tht country wu divided of less than 1,000 people In &to a Utile snore than 6 percent. activities In 1860, approximately It U evident that Florida' mild Reconstruction Era growth, For And many ef them, u well u '\
and the economic outlook of the 1870, But by 1900 It had attaineda : '17 percent In WW., (5 climate and all.of the advantacei the 1890 census showed a" whopping other makes of automobile,I Csvnly Growth i
peopl In the Southeastern United population of more than U,000. This sharp drop parallel somewhat percent : It often for touristsand recreational gain for Jacksonville of broturht new citizen to Jack-
State wu overshadowed by con. At the century turning point, Mi In activitIes hav existed all 1770, a figure which more than '
development occurring In drove, The I1.S5I if
dlUoni of conflict between the doubled th. population of 18801 an:2e: first U.S. census In
ami and st. Petersburg both numbered the United State generally:' It .Population Increase i through it* history but that the the .chart looked good !
North and the South. This. In spite ot the terrible yellow 1830 tome IS yean before statehood
!less than 1.000 people, whileIn became possible through technological accessibility: of these and an to the local crowd, even If some
/ review of Florida lone history fever epidemic ot 1888, when came gave Duval County
Florida ... whole, the of their existence .
a population development -for a awareness wu of them had regrets about World I
In the early 18M! Jacksonville"wu drastically the iparae population of 1.070,
reveal that In the earlier the city population wu
had climbed above the eerie of
smaller and smaller proportionof contingent upon a related War I and perhaps sad memories :
a community part of the state development, reduced. The great tncreas Then Sot 30 years, through 18MI,
halt million mark, In the 60-odd
the total population to provide development about the Influenza epidemic that
it from the county lidded only 1,104 te Its ",
of lightly growth rat In population at this lime came annexation
since Ohio, Florida has
years the agricultural prtdaetlon accompanied it.
more than inoo lagged far behind that of the !ot the city'* suburbs! in number, making a total of 1074.
Webb In j
the ninth moat populous needed by a growing natIOn Dr John an analysis .
people, and the itate (In the nation nation and of many of the stiles. of Florida expanding economy, 1887, ,
The aftermath of World War I,
population of yet with the passage of time Estimating that the county
hu examined the question ofwhat
Florida u a What hu contributed to Florida Manufacturing Growth this situation hu changed, and started Florida on II* steep At might b* expected, the the scandals ot the Harding administration moved ahead to the vicinity of i

fl whole wu \e.. 'i economic growth and iti At the end of tile I860 the following the turn of the century upward climb front 13rd position Gay Nineties were good to the the flappers of the 8000 in 1864, this would mean
20*, Prohibition or the buildupto
than ISO,000, At great coins in population! The proportion of Florida worker engaged It changed in a very significantway. In population size In 1900 to 10th city of Jacksonville population- and the climax on "black I an Increase of more than 450,109people f,
that tune, how changes In the structure of employment position in 1960. wise u a glanct at the chart In the last 100 years. ,
in manufacturing: was Thursday" ot the worst of all
ever, even provide one clue ... to will show a spurt ahead to a 1900 I f
slightly morsr thai I percent of the depreuiona-llon. of these event
though Jacksonville what hu taken place, but factor labor fore, while by I960. It wu In the successive decade over He suggests that one may well total ot 28.429. The state by this did much: to alow down Jacksonville -1 Population for the county more
wu b1contempor. not directly part of the about 22 percent. Throughout the the past one hundred year the speculate that Florida significant time had topped a halt million 'a ever-Increasing population,' than doubled for the 10 year
r 7Oilerblad changing itructure of It* economy this proportion ofFlorlda'I population population growth was and wu proud of it. following I860, Then it slightly
100-year period proportion : u the 129,549 number for 1930
Increase hu continually
stand aT a must be considered also If a missed doing the same thing tor
brought about bjr aeries of
Increase a
hu tended to but the shows.
mall village, II wag beginningto full assessment of the possible Importance of manufacturing in ahead of that of the nation, but wars: the Spanish.American War, A little of this Increase at the the next 10 yean, or by 1880,
play a role that hu been contributors to Ito present eco it* growth And expansion hu not the two decades In which this pro World War L and World War very end of the 19th Century can The leaps.and-bounds method'
llgnlfloant throughout It* history nomlo position are to be under portion hu been so dramaticallyabove II. be attributed to the prosperity Increase. for the
been u great a* the development that of the rest of the nation Th* Important role which the of growth for tht city continued county wu
li Florida "gateway city. stood. of trade and service actlvitlei. three war mentioned have brought to the state by the apace during the depression gradual but sure thereafter, with
art those from 1920 10 1930 .
During the I860* ..Inckoonvtlle'spopulation Change aWithout and played I* that in a very real Spanish American War. coupled den 301. 173065 wu .the official ever-widening spurts In population
from 1950 to i960.
increased .threefold SlgvlflciBl! an examination of the seoul they have made vast number with the fact that many out-of- U.s. census for,1940. I until 10011, when an amazing

and during the period leading up First what changes In the strue relative up and down in the In the first decade Florida's of people wan of Florida stat young men bad seen Florida 207.574 people were added-while
to the turn of the century it Increased lure of Its economy have occurred overall structure during the Intervening population Increased SI percent, '* mild climate and Its tremendous for the first timer and had Then In 1930 Jacksonville hit a Jacksonville ,wu losing 14S7resident ,
many tlmea more, until ?, At the,end 01 the 1860s, year, a direct comparison while that of the nation wu Increasing potential not only for decided to return and become peak of 204.517. but with the *., ,
In 1900 Jacksonville had become approximately (1000) people la of the labor market structure 11 percent; In the latter recreation but for tconomle development permanent resident. count outnumbering' the cIty I
a city of more than 21000 people Florida were employed In all occupations in 1870 with that in I960 Florida's Increase wu almost and pleasant lIving I for the second census in a row, Never at any time hu Jack.
Thti growth wu. attained at a and three-fourth of reveals the .sharp ,change that 71 percent, and that of the 'With the automobile gradually This tan the county topped the sonville exceeded Duval County i.
--1 Inensiuig. .Mobility replacing the horse and buggy,. city by 43,120, resIdents I In population "

The Increase In the mobility of

1897 JUDnta1tf.s', Out:: nf Sacbotflntte} : '1964 I peopl resulting from the Improvement I Columbia Road
In transportation ban County
Growing with Jacksonville and I :
86l RIVERSIDE AVENUE mad It possible for large
Florida with far-reaching Oi- hers of visitor to come to HUb'j 1
I Ida each year. This

I sions of an ever-expanding fu-, communicating combined with Florida other & nUID-1 And Center of

wes u a nlirfl to llvfl.
lure of Civic Philanthropic and bl- ih&lbOO"ilIImiir: i
By THORNTON HARTLEY major veteran hospital I* )located When asked about Columbia l
Cultural service to 'our Com'munity. of people to the state, __ 51.1 erOs here County assets leaders usually "
point to Its highway and railroad
This stream of population la LAKE CITY'Dec Jft-Stretch- When whit people begin to setUe -' systernandreferloLakeCllyu"the
continuing at a rate that hu led tog from the Santa Fe River ton in what is now Lake City from transportation hub" f
expert to predict tha by 1170, the Georgia line Is Columbia 1817 to 1830 they kept the nameof I

-I. 1, 1898 First Nursing Car Florida' population may be u County Iii countryside is covered Alligator for their community Since roadbulldlng began In the I
a Provided ome high M or greater than seven with Umber and rolling which the Indian bad given to niatet.abeClhyhasheeoacrnes.roads *

1899 Held f int Art She* and Fini Flower/ million,' and by 1980. It could exceed armlanda It* center<< 1 Ie Lake City their village when they lived here' a factor which undoubtedly .

', _ _ hoLfl sloe million people from which superhighways eman- This was after a Seminole chief has played a major .role in lie
who went by the name of Alllgator development
I.- ate u spokes from-a hub,
19OiOrgunzeJFir.iMether'Clubssoi./ / Accompanying this population .
Pl.A. growth, one may expect the pat- Growth hu been the watchword The Intersection of north.south
tern of economlo development In of tIe put decade and the Name It dungedBut route U.S.41 and US 441 with
.-. 0 1904 first Fmlt,Air Camp /or T. B. falienli' recent year to continue. There expectation of the next. Columbia later the people sought a eutwest route VS:JO In Lake

1909. .. First Auoctattd/ Cnanuct, Ntu Co TKmunify will be substantial Increases In County I* the center of several name more In keeping with the City hu lone been a major uset. >
the state Income along with acontinuing"1 district governmental actlvtle nature of th* land, and In January Now even stronger spoke '
Cheat !** In the per capita *, Much of the educational his of It'll changed the name nave been added to the tranaPDl'i i
rl 1911 EttakliiheJ First ScJio.I Lunch Income of Floridian, tory of the slat began her. A to Lake City. lotion wheel with the construction -
_ _ _ _ _ '. program of interstate 10 and 75 which)
1911..Fir.In/llnINurH program -- loin in an elaborate Interchange

-:. 1911. First Iiolabon Ward Si. jLult'l lust northwest of Lake City,
r"ion" Sparks the These eventually will b* the long.' I'
w',4 1911. .t First, Civic Music Concerts est Interstate route In the Unit'
Fires Certainty ed State. Other route<< serving;
IIJZ1. EiUluW Polci Woman Bureau Columbia County Include D A 27;

IIJZ8 .Firtt Traveler' Ad and Dynamism SR 100 and SR 47. 'J
: ,

'-'-., "' c-nnr-it5 ,, _, ..,,,._,,,._,,, 1956. Organized/ Club far Senior Citizens Feeds the Flames -- atlon Railroads picture add, with to Atlantic the transpor-CoastLIne .
& '
., .,au,. 1961. a Free Foreign Langaafet classes for ,In. Seaboard and Georgia Southern --
Public and Florida railroads serving
the county, The city also 1 I.
1964. EitaihJimenl o100 acre Naturt Center equipped for air traffic with facilities

(HOIS in fnfrat) at the municipal airport.,
though at the present two other i
/ t- activities art taking precedence '
1 m tM (MM hlshj :
there. I
.lity, prime' hdepm.dnt .
Inililntlol dodi..... These art Aero Corporation I

til !a lbs twin .bjtrtivMI and the Lake City Junior College ,
and Forest Ranger School, Aero I
lnt |rllT end *inlIrnr '
Corp, Which established at the airport .
: (Oar dedication
about three hu
years ago
I. leeds sad .. lh. r.. developed Into one of the county )

cainltioi >f kamin ind major payroll and economlo aitsets. -.

IINILHAJUlAJIIINIIIIIIIIld. divint values man be bTond .-' Mow employing about 7Mr "

tjnmloi The people, It hu an annual payroll j
of about M 000,000.
pest .( tdnrttira 10... llJtckMintll ,

I'.lY.rillT jek1 Right next door to Aero la I
It to ukt Mldnill ..I. fl' buildings which were once the I
for Ideas nthM IBs* I. II bachelor officers' quarter when I
asks lees nf In KBdmts. he airport wu used by the
tflurjwrk Navy, \to the Lake City Junior
By dint
Allege and Forest Ranger SchooL,
and d.dlr.li.n,
The Junior College started classe
wiih Iht sand will/ miuppmrt In September, 1962 and Incorporated
.( dill fommimlly. -' the Forest Ranger School

sad kr in*"gm. .f which hu been in operation sine
God ** use aeetmpliib 947.

this god.' The' Forest Ranger School,

0 which attract student from allover
the nation. I II ont of only\
two such Institutions In the United .-
LcanarDean Outdoor Advertising Company.Inc. Stales

tak city bu averaged about
OUTDOOR POSTERS \ a S3 percent population Increase
very decade sine 1940. Columbia
: PAINTED BULLETINS Inaugural County sow hu about 21.401
Robert Harry Spiro resident with some 12.500 livingIn
the Lake City community sass,
:, CUSTOM SIGNS The Fourth President

Columbia County la th home otOXeno
,; NEON SIGNS Jacksonville State Park, one of the

VniversityNovember state's outstanding recreation
PLASTIC SIGNS'ri I pou. On the Santa Ft River and

,';" \ I Including the spot where the rtvr .,.
20th, 1964 foe underground, the park
bu camping. swimming and later .
lore tacUltlcc.'I" .



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: : L ILY ,W1M.1M lM1 y : : : ', .. : :. : : .: W; 'L : .' ,
m 1



When Men Were Noble and Women. True


* ,, '


Revolution In .Wom n's Bathing Suits Illustrates Some Social Changes of Past Century ",


By CYNTHIA PARKS den-nnatred gamblers. North narrow-cheMed\ I, eplndlashankeimannlkln Washington's Birthday Ball er lees cosmopolitan centers still paeregy" ..., ... ,nn"w.IMrwlt'' al".

..... WriM erners hunted, yachted, went to of the day, so America down to Palm Beach, where thlFlsgler depended on road shows at-the "
IMiH-riM \
extravagant balls and came went off on a sports jag In the train line led la another local opera house the lodge and .....
south. Southerners on the plantations back yard was equipment for croquet hotel The heaviest exertion besides the church Or the ubiquitous
L7ti + In the-tnld-lfllh Century'the had house parties! deer archery, lawrt tennis or cy ladling at the punch howl, Chautauqua, where one could
social life of the Old South "made halts, chivalric ,tournaments cling. The YMCA made men, via was dancing the lancers a polka bear solemn dincouraes on The
men noble, gentle and brave andwomen strolls under the spreading oaks soccer, football, baseball and other or a echoltlsche. Indispensable Tools of Democ
tender -and pure'and and wide verandahs, and went organized sport racy" or the Dixie girls, 'five
true" believed American writer north. During the Glided Ago of'theNineties talented, winsome girls from below
and diplomat Thomas Nelson If the weather was 11ltL1 close critical English vteltoncalled the Mason-Dlxon line dispensing
1 Pace, No wonder he, bemoaned But the magnolia-scented scene for this sort of exercise for th in a "nation of nobodies.* the IUD1Ihlnt. .nd charm of.
Its passing. was hardly typical On the bottom lady in stays and hoops, wlnte but actually many Americans the Southland."
rung of the social ladder along the St. John was bearableon worked very hard at becoming r
"The Ivocy: palaces have "been there Has persimmon beer 'coon deck of a plne-burntng stram Somebodlea. Whereas It was once In 1H9J Edls n'. modest kln to-
destroyed, but myrrh, aloes! anticassia hunts cock fights, horse races cr ship. Typical Of the visitors lured thought that three generations scope was the forerunner of the '.,.:,'w'e
still breath amid their a Camp,meeting. was Robert E. L e; who, in IftTt. were needed to rear a gentleman nickelodeon's peep hon and
dismantled ruins. thought our "climate was delightful American, cut itto one. later, the alluring celluloid bar.
hW The "ivory palaces' 'here de- During the decade I 1S60-70 'At. the" fishing inviting. and New York society looked like Bet lot, The Movie Queen
,'ah"oyed after the War Betweenthe lantlc Monthly complained that abundant. aharaar'i feast sponsored by the '
State and with them a way the blacksmith had his right arm Bank of England and they But' In 1900 "auto-nobility" influenced
of life\ For along the St. Johns and the dancing master his left At the hotels the borne folks brought It to Florida In the win. the social pattern of the
WM a plantation existence u leg "but the professional or businessman met the visitors: At the St. James ter. nation. Family outings took a
Idyllic as the boasted Tidewater': what muselea ha* ht here at the Putnam House in deal of planning: It was a challenge .
at all?" i Palatka for a ball honoring President for mother to cram the picnic '
Panoramlcally: In that day. the: Grant' at Henry Flsgler'. Pablo Beach of course drew the basket into the car along with
A Bathing Beauty of IBM. West had It* Roaring Camps and The Autocrat of the Breakfast Ponce de Leon in Et. Augustine local resident aa well u tour dad's full set of tools, spark plugs, Is Far Cry from Her Counterpart Today
tats They: entrained In Jacksonville A A A .
Poker Flat, the -M1A1 lppl! its Table bullied the pasty-faced, for the climax of the season, the to extra parts tire chains rnd pall
make the trip to sprawl-.
of water to douse the overheated
in g M array H.H. bet ore I tb urned.
for balls and parties or held i brake Plus, of d'I course the goggles The first three decades of/ this m<<'"nt. The storm has not completely .
duster, lap robes
weekend house parties at a porch. feverish century went, socially subsided yet. Would It
r''v .. ..\. '\' ; ),!\ Y I,* '' 1'.' t.;, WtIj'::) '>! ':'"' 1'I" l'J."" circled wooden house behind the and veiled hats for everybody.Coif : i like we'd never get the chance dim the mind and ruin the eyesor
,... ,: ; I ',,;\It"f ,:<; iJI< "' t; ;(>) t'I'. n <:, .. gal ;;., i'' j'$I" ,i"j.'I. land dunes. Everybody bathedor I to play: again, In-psrlors In 1907 knit the mobile family: closer

? .:.1": : '''/ 'rr'r:;;'ftrm' : '';'(;. t '..e''' 'M.' "', 'II' "t J; ;, ,t"i"'t"H 'I\1'k/{\ waded while the children ..111.ed wealthy.was and popular In Jacksonville with the In dlaboloi; 17IJ. ping-pong: 1923 Either way, the nation became
it. > 3-,,a.'S. K !( for donax: or whooped after mahjong; '1924 crossword pu* more spectator-oriented' than ever
th@T crabs In the warm slews. Nor 1901 a street show charged with lies;,1930, miniature ,oil.Women' !before, ..
I. \1i ; ; Immorality, was closed by the
THE NEXT TIME YOU PAY. YOUR HOSPITALMEDICAL I : has Pablo-'BOW stretched: to At- police; t skating rink opened;

'.'' \'ft. antic; Jacksonville Neptune and the play,,"A Trip V Coontown,? bathing habits became Then a young President leaned
4\ ; >J'W"'ftJl. nr y 'I. 1rt: ,;\ 'ff..ll.ii; ; ;: .;.'" 'J ,;1J') ;!t .J.M; ; y Ponte Vedra B.acbea-ey.r lost WM given as a hospital benefit; emancipated in 1920, and have forward in his rocking chair to
THIS'MESSAGE t/, :' !I' ; Its charm u some faddish p... become more and emancipated challenge the nation to physical
INSURANCE THINK OF ; and a lion attacked a polar bearat more
,, ? :
/ \ tt' times .
h "1 "' 1 ; ; : Mundy's Animal Show which ever since. The eighthourday IIln. .. Also a 42-hour week set off
:; :\ t;; i ",'' '! ''' .kdf i !I,, "' ';.".'' ,. successfully routed the customers made more leisure time for an explosion of recreation in all
r- "". :)1". "
,. .,.'" 'oJI:,;, '" f }ww !t-;# w',"* *; -?'."..*f T\?;.' iVvr\ ,< ,' '' "fi' The Need for Play for that performance.Home bathing company hrsuty team sports contests, marathons, denting. wide directions open' : space toward of hobbles campsites, the

OVER 700000lORIDIANS; ? 'HOSPITALIZED EVERY/YEAR : The puritan gospel of work was Entertainment Ilk the Castles parks and freeways, the parallel
; C tempered by: the need for play In bars at the local gym with the
I J he lOTOs, Immigrants! In meat In 1120, contrary the overworked When the depression tuned boys thumping off pounds to music
I metropolitan areas visited "tem flipper : cavorting economy bridge amused the family with the girl*. -
'. '. ,,' .," ,! 'jI1k' plea of amusement" for rheap througb speakeasies there was : and bingo was played at th....
entertainment, watched "Nellie", ties county fair and church socials. The tandem Is In circulation
t f8LUE.SHIELD; : : : ::: ;,i./; : : s the Beautiful Cloak Model" or Aside from the wistful again, and nearly every company
"The Turf gambling spirit of the Thirties,
') ast 13 Digger's Doom. Or sponsors a bowling league. Tie
N [ I lIONt: MRIDIANSBLUE'CROSS : J :" ;: ';; : : :., :; ,: tt flocked after Barnum's clarion 'r home gardening and the care and ever-popular Florida beach reveals
: ; ,, : .: call or reveled In the Color of PA.'rk feeding of hobby hound caughtthe more and'more of people
) Buffalo BlirVCody's spiel, purchasing national imagination In 1938 and surfing I 1. now riding the
\1.Y : I" : : r' ,. : fonnance for a dime Thanksgiving play but it wall

BLUE SHIELD'OFFERBROADBENEFITCONTRACTS : : > Ill-attended. Thebactardof suburbia has
; ': Up the cultural ladder from a pool a portable barbecue settin
audevllle' was Lillian Russell A war-minded nation In the ( case he is transferred in a
OR.MORE '" and the great brass band Pugilist Forties socialized over clicking year), and equipment for croquet,
j TO .flORIDA FIRMS OF 5 '. : like John L. Sullivan were needles knitting for Britain and archery: or lawn tennis. The hi-
", for the men who could Sneak out then for tI S. soldiers overseas. fi fits the occasion with a romp
< \ .o' : : for the night. Most organizations were some. through "She Loves Me Yesh
.. p', ''r'l .. r; ; teas-0 how .war-centered: from rolling Yeah-Yeah" or suitable back.
bandage to holding dances at ground music for the
-BLUE CROSS & BLUE SHIELD ALSO OFFER MANY ; :); l ; The marquee of American theares home entertainment A lot of it the USO, charcoal, like Stravinsky' "Fire
: glittered with
/. names like centered around the radio and bird Suite. Indeed, the best ol
i : Gillette Booth, Marlowe Barrymore. broadcasting salt is known to TVl Good eir Bad? .' two worlds. '
: ',' DIFFERLNt. )YPES.OFINDIVIDUALCONTR;: : ,I. 1I Jf1 > : Dust and Bernhardt and day. America also cranked up its

< the glory was reflected I li matlee phonographs! absorbing everything In the Fifties every national V* nisi even get back: to asocial
\ parties Jacksonville. Rome from Uncle Josh to Caruso. magazine carried articles on the life that win make the men
",, 1t J\ CTSI I parties featured whist and euchre Here the Creators Grand Opera1 adverse or beneficial effects of noble gentle and brave and the
tandem riding presented "Aida. television on family entertain- women tender, and true.
: ; ,
tttii! DV 0
,? ST Kt GN h $; 'M' i'

i-Y'or- A fto' <' 'J;'" \' ,J. k 4of !' .<< ', \,<"

; 'r' 4 TH NtBl !' BlUE'SH'ltb; ..;t'; I i IA Modern-Career Girl j

? HOSPi( AL':MEDICAL"-61L'>- CR SS .: d.: 0< ., Spea'ks.Up

EXiSTS'FOR'w : By PEGGY MASON flection of her)? Does she wish to
; travel? Does she wish to seek a
Today, probably the most wide- better or more interesting lob?

SOLE:PURPOSE OF PAYING HOSPITAL-MEDICAL' BILLS ; / >: spread book notion misconception that there ts exists the story the What Doe hobble she wish should to staysinglet she take apt

# .. ; ,;. : \. ? ". < .;; ... ;;il l : typical, modern career girl. This Can she do a little of all? And
.... letltlous ,&111'1. Imaginative,
i1f1! "' more realistically! what can abe
'f .
t..Mt r' bright, carefree chic sought afford? Just what does life bold
after delightfully eccentric for- '
for her
; : ever young but not too and ?
t ii w.".;d" { '*-'. tf$" ryt"gm4's "; Pry as" :! r;' '!;:' ::1\ ., 'fl.,. ," .. ti erlous las an Interesting and glamorous past, a presentand rays- 'le sev? In unite--of frustration the'

",' YOU' HOSPITAL.MEDICAL" : : :' t' ..\' : apparently never exists In the probably relatively happy. She .
( future, does do a little of an the** thing.

; TOOTx.'h'i' A young Woman who would t te' She holds a lob which interest
really fit this description Is rare af her. and provides some satisfaction .
deed and probably unreal., Who but she still yearns. She
W 'tf< then Is the modem career ,1r1PWhere pursues her interests-politics, -
Is she? What la she? music, sport or anything, els*
which might amuse her. She read

I ',' J"i: ; : Wen,, to start with, she ls employed fashion new and tries to dress
.; I possibly by: herself, In the and live in the latest" style and
iIf business world. Here any slml- usually: the result 'Is attractive.
: ; ,.. artty ends-and this probablyIs She likes men and encourage
; : .' lit'i' "$" \+' I TOTAL CLAIMS the only constant factor which them to court her. She may betaking
., s cn be found. There then followsa care of a parent or a
< ; I.
f { basic broad division: She Is younger brother or sister. Of
PAID LAST 12 MONTHS either married or single. And the course, the emphasis will dependon
motivations of the married girl her central interests personality
are generally easier to recognize and education.

BY FLORIDA 1 1 She usually finds herself
working outside the home for the Covets image
sake of the home.
\ She probably covets the image)
BLUE CROSS & She works to provide the nicer of being a-very fashionable big
things which otherwise couldn't city career girl. And yet she
be afforded on a young husband's probably know. In her heart that
BLUE SHIELD. alary. She work for better the image doesn't really ring
drape., new rugs, a stereo or. ..ss true.
perhaps, a bigger ear. Or, she
$51,012,615.43* just saves /or a future family: One friend 'of mine fives Inflew

o, for more education for her bur Miss Marion in'Her Office Where She Is a Supervise York City and cornea very
band or even for a rainy day, close to fulfilling* Image of the
classic career girl. She has an
She sells, she_clerks, she types, ,band, DO time to be bored and ness, art, theatre education, medicine apartment on the East Side and a
she writes. There's no limit tothe She feels she's making a real or the like. Or she may: glamorous Job She' been courted
lines of business In which contribution Also-and that la a even wish to be like .the oh.... by a head of state and can ear'
she's Involved.Not point which I* being mentioned typical girl we described at the chic things like "The best hamburgers -
more and more eften-she's getting beginning. in town are at Twenty
( Center ef Activity out every day. One." She gracefully doe all the

She* also pretty eager to get "In" things. One day I beard
But because her work la not the Young professional women started: although I had another someone ask her ...h.he wasn't
center of her activity the sel- who are married don't follow the friend who so dreaded going out married She answered, "If rOIl
, dom has the ambition drive or : sam pattern, course. The big to find a Job that she kept goingto I dont want to marry for lov or
I eslre, to get ahead to be found difference It : dedication to school She finally received her I money, what else I I. then" YetI
I II In her tlnle'eounterpt.rla.. Her career aa well aa family. But doctorate in English literature. know that,- like most women
problems are unusual. At the outset their problems are amazingly the thing she want most 1* to be
she seldom plans a long career. Similar In addition they must One a wife and mother. But she' alsomart
Further An.lfli.R..llzlnl
She Intends to work Just spend' much more time at their I 'enough to realize that ft'snot
long enough to "get us started." work. But, in reward the professional worth it without exactly the
that there are more'
Yet she often finds thallI'. hard
right man. And she'i to
Is much willing
/ satisfaction: I I exceptions than rules about single'
to give up that second pay check. wait and take the chance that it
girls we'll brave one further anal :
YS r I pals Although find that may never happen.'
V I And one year yields to two;
ft old school chum of mine Is'' husband become
; 11 and two somehow becomes five: An or overnight
and five perhaps, become ten. an attorney with the Justice Department successes, many more become: And, in the long run, this "i*
She really finds herself holding in Washington- She confused-about their.Urpose. The what It amount to-either a
1- H down-ewe full time Jobs-one at married a law school classmate. search for a goal become a serious fierce dedication to a career or a
1 the office and one as a home- Recently, she resigned to have I affair. She 1* thrown further happy life with many pleasant
maker. baby. And although she adore off balance by the realization! distractions anal @t. time come
her family she's very eager to that the glamour lob are almost to marry
After having her work al the return to work. Probably shell Impossible to find or just don't
+ office, she must go home and practice law periodically! the rest pay enough to cloth a bird. And. It 1s apparently] easy for me t*
.ia.iiT i< Aso clean cook, shop. perform all of her life. that, contrary to all the articles sit back and state without reservation -
the other houeewlfe-type duties she reads about emancipation, Just what motivates all
and-be cheerful. She often shudders It'* very difficult to start with with very, few exceptions, she career women: and even go further -,
'In the Last 12 Months, over 176,000 Hospital Admissions when she realizes what U any generalizations; about an unmarried can't get the respect or opportunity and explain with confidence
costs her to work; Carfare working girl. Perhaps"theonly for advancement which her their desire, goals and dreams
We, re, Received' over this Blue, Cross Teletype Service, lunches, more clothes less thing: which can be said is male colleagues. get Well, you'll just have to bear
economical meals at home social that she usually starts out with a I with me, for I'm Just a girl and a ,
obligations at the office, and, if clear purpose-either she wantsto I Does she want to really contribute single one at that. It might be interesting
.she baa ft child, .a sitter' fee. "just work" until the tight something. worthwhile to to not that I work for
j husband can be found or she society Doe she want to startdecorating an Insurance company How li
Yet ahs's pretty satisfied with really want to est the world on I. a ehoweas apartment Jacksonville, bow nor typical)
her lot She has a hems, a hue- fir*, whether her world be bast- (of course, n must be ft it- esa yon get?

I i i1

s ..

UL\\1 .., ..I. ;, ). ,, oJ, ,,', ",..,.u .....,.u.-. ,,,........................>14.............,"",,. _"" ..'.. c. .. ".,..... c' .. ..', .'.. """'L"'_ "" ,_" ",:"",,,
... ;
-- --.- _.- -- .--- -- --- ---.-------------- ---------- -_":. ":. "':. -:::' 'Io.-: :

tr''I ---- --- --- ,- ',, ', ::--: :''":'';' .. .. "" ''i''f'A.' .... ..."" ,

, c '

, Lady's Book Set Fashions A Century Ago i

By CHRISTINE CENOVARfitter's for a certain number of new' a thousand applications bad been ages art accomplishing. for young mended diet for youngaler "Withhold an meat until the child meal pudding, salt fish and tables mentioned In the recipes

Ore.d.q .... .. subscriptions. received by: May from young men," would not be aceeptlbl today, la Tor' year old Gravy and broiled parsnip. that came from other parts of
C..ua ,
women seeking to be among till however Large quantities of broth may be gives a* soon as the country,
I ..... ..... &At.., Announcement was made In the first to enroll in Hw pioneer woman Household Blots milk were recommended and teeth appear" Sine sweet potatoes and collard .
f J ,August 13 issue of the Lady a college The founder, mashed potatoes and puddingsmay greens were the staple vegetable A modem cook would' lava '
,. Note Material Book of till opening of Vassar Matthew Vassar, had donated The advice on ear and feeding be given after molars appear Some of the recipe suggestions diet la Jacksonville in those some difficulty using the recipes
Sued in this feature ma College on September 20 of hat halt a million dollars to carryout of Infanta and children was never Also broth, toast, breadcrumbs given were for minced mutton, days, It la possible that some of a* they were printed In the <
token Irons Oddest Lad,,', year "when the lamination: of his dream "to accomplish neglected, In 'any Issue of the macrronl and lightly veal rolls sausage dumplings, the young women were not familiar Lady Book. A recipe for a ,
Book and UegnUnt for IIU applicant will commence." over for young women what, our col Lady ..Book Coders recom boiled eggs." Oodey warned, German oyster powder Indian with the variety of vege- French Cake specified these eon-
and lift Tht Jacksonville fusing directions:
Public Library hat a somber .
of copies of this jubU- Fine eggs, weight ol five ':
cation In Its files for tilt 1k: : : '\" : :; : ,. tool to flour, weight olIP* .. '
years 114%. u 43, 1157. 1,51, \ ," :.'J "\II'>>rw" r'"i ,'. toot In mar, weight. ot ,three '
1160, JU3-" and 1171. ';" :: : errs in batter Beat until
"' : ., ;:. i. (}e: light Add one cup ot rail.
Jacksonville women at a hundred 1" i tI&I,. Bate (" a quick oven
year*,M' relied heavily on PtIi
Louts Antofn(;ode,'* public ., ;.1;' .., Travel/
turn, "Gode,'. Lady Book and : J : ;; I
Magazine." to keep them la ., .,,' I: F"o', ', I. Hints on foreign travel warned
touch with what went on In the ;',-::':, 'til "Russia 1 II the only country: In
world, The Lady Book brought, :; ': Europe that presents any difficulties -
them the latest word on the ,1'1" to travelers They do not

_ world of fashion, musIc literature ::1.. encourage travel. No books, not
and can be taken
a Variety: of subjects even guidebooks
concerning preparation of food.' Into Russia They must be left
nutrition and household hints '.f. \ at the frontier until .you return.
Yon move about with the knowledge
This forerunner of our modem of the police and no foreigner
women pages contained everything can leave Russia without advertising
from formulu for making ,/ : his Intention In the .1
colored into and homemade shoe- newspapers at least a fortnight \
blacking to Instruction on how : before departure, la order
to clean white marble and ostrich that 1Iau who have claim upon V

leathers. him may: be Informed."

Fount *f Information In {
No passports were required

If a local housewife was lucky England and France In 186S but
It was considered proper to have I 7'
enough to set a new let of flat- .
Irons In IMS he would probablyget : the passport vise'd In' London at t t

a letter posted to the editor jq jtLK I the proper legation. 1
of the Lady Book to find out $ 0
how to cure them properly: In "Ladies going to the East and
fact this Information was published : ,' : wishing to make the Journey up
from time to time along .uIItiist 4 the Nile In a Nile Boat should e
with other helpful suggestions for itttttt t ; take a large supply of clothing
prolonging the wear of durable u no washing can be done in I
household Items If the unpleasant t q the dx week usually: consumed

taste of new wood was present by: this trip.", cautioned Oodey.
In a new churn bucket or
New Inventions ,
keg, Gode,'. could give the right "
method of treating the containerto The sewing machine was hailed
remove the unwanted. woody: as the sister art of the printing
taste. press but an Inquiry: about knit- \
tin* machines brought the reply:
The Lady': Book was published 1r from the editor <"We cannot
.b,Philadelphia for a number of learn that such machine an tor ,
yean but It was widely circulated sale The lady must have been -t,
throughout the United States. misinformed" A pocket-sited
In fact, a century ago It boasted sewing machine was recommended
a circulation of 180,000. In Oo- for mending, quilting and sewing -
deya own words It was a "favo on braid.
rite In all sections of the coun

try a household necessity In addition to stories, articles

The combination rat chargedfor poems and sermons regularly
D 1 y r appearing In the Lady'a: Books.
the Lady Book and the
newly: published books were rec
Home Magazine Postage
wan $4 50.
ommended. Some of the titles ofa
on the Lady Book waa 24
century ago were "Lion-Heart
cent a year, additional "pay.: "
ed, "The Lovers' Trials."Th*
able in advance, yearly, semiannually "
"The MutualPrtend"
Red Court Farm.
: or quarterly: at the office .
(by Charles Dickens
where It la received," A Trolley Car Pa..ea'the' Everett Hotel, Formerly the Grand .National, on Bay Street at Julia in 1890. William Cullen Bryant' "Volet t

,Ne' War er 'Bloodshed J, of Nature," and M E, Braddon ,I
""Lady Audleys Secret
The editor gave an Indication
ef the popular feeling In his "Charming a* the newest
statement, "We .suggest to novel" .was Godey's: praise... for
writers choose some other *UBJeet I The Gay 90s: A Dramatic Fiery EraContinued 1 Webster Quarto Dictionary: laUs

for their stories than the i ISM new edition. "Following I
war and b aplta1a. The public baa I The Drum" by Mr*. BrigadierGeneral t
bad so many: stories founded on Egbert Vtela was a decided -
these subjects, that It Is letting ( from I't.Ill.D) reporttnr a yacht race It was a hint of things to. come Innocence and naivety: romanticism and Idealism, a I bit In literary: circles: .
rather tired of them" In the remarkably: Inventive 20th Century fondness for adventure aa an escape from' life'* harsher
: ._
feallUea-thest things characterized the 1890. For Ladle Only
Not every woman could affordto In Jacksonville and fell of Feb
geese snow through the night all a
Of course not was somber 01''Iolent in the Nineties
subscribe to the Lldy's Book U-U. Again, vegetable and citrus crops ware destroyed Among other things the first true .kylC/'lper-tbe Gardner It was an era when Americana could be hocked at the '
and groups formed clubs so that throughout tile state In the city, children gloried In the Building (Bay between Main and Laura) was built, sight! of Bloomer Girl and !Ignore the exploitation of child- Daring innovation in style*
the more affluent ladles could Inches of and higher than that in drifts workers time were talked about In Jacksonville Ir
.. sight of two snow ( to neighborhood sweatshops a when they {
first motion in the
the pictures were shown city, the first long {
share the contents of their with soft.white blanket But solve thank to the style trend
precious covering Jacksonville a parents could another nation. problem while unwilling or .unable
service Savannah)
distance telephone (to was inaugurated,
magazines with their friends groaned at the plumbing bills that followed It took several to solve their own. shown tat tile Lady's Books
the New York Giants trained at Jacksonville, what was to
met to discuss the latest all the caused by frozen water
They months to repair damage
.- become for some yean aa annual event 'Of fun and frolic from the of the 20th Century '
Locking-back vantage point (
fashions, copied patterns, exchanged : pipes .The editor particularly: deplored
recipes and kept up with called Jacksonville Gala Week was launched, a world championship -with Its world wars, nuclear threat and cold war.lon..1t ton the new look of the "Looped-UpDreale.
A* the Nineties ended one last destructive fire hit the boxing match (between John J. Corbett and Charles
the outside world In this manner. Is no wonder that Americana today: look back on the ." in this manner: "A few
These clubs were encouraged by downtown (on Nov 18) destroying $100,000 In property.: But Mitchell was fought In Jacksonville, a wagon road to Pablo 1890s as the Gay: Nineties, the Good Old Days day age w* saw two ladle la
In the previous month, the first wireless message received Beach was begun and Bloomer Girls on bicycles and bicycle
the magazine as they stimulated In Florida came to The Florida Times-Union, and Citizen In general became the rage, And It may: be, all things considered, that they ,were, Chestnut street took followed In by: a
circulation, by offering premium crowd. They refuge ono
.. ........ : ;;.........,.;.&; : '-'t---, ..., tr", .. uoO of our'arr.* drr-: odI houses
and had their dresses let down
The display: was positively: indecent

Milady-A Truly Chic Southern Bellegored the dresses.exposure But should fashion I*be nothing demand looped.up that and.

A good subject for controversywas
By IRENE SPERRY and widely: .flaring skirts slouch, wore a hoover apron at By 1932, the skimpy] : ,'shapeless a tackle for a few yean Movie Milady's full dirndl skirt and bobby sox a* their uniform. Wool, the question, "Are American
Sleeves were puffed and huge, home, and accessorized her soft fashion bad given way: to a clinging actresses set the fashion pace, peasant blouse of 1940 gave way silk nylon and leather were Women Citizens?" after Comp
""._-.,_ SUB Wrtttr often lined with crinoline or stiffened shirtwaist with a four-in.band Us i sheath dress with hemline 12 and the, nag boy bob was the to more simple, knee length scarce, so she saved her shoe troller dark of the UJ. Currency -
Through a century: of fashion's with whalebone hoops: Eton iI I Inches from the floor Cardigan hairdo rare Corsets were re fashions dictated by'World War ration stamps for narrow high- Bureau decided Out women
vagaries, the cosmopolitan Jacksonville Jacket. topped daytime dresses Hemlines Inched upward aa sweater and bias-cut dresses placed by: girdles of rubber It restrictions on color and material heeled dress shoes while clomping could not act a* directors of national
woman has adapted her featuring frilly Jabots and waistlines went down in the marked the mid-Thlrtle a* did woven Into fabric, the zipper was and her new role as factory about In raUon-fre cloth wedgies, banks, a* the law did not
mode of dress from crinolines to "Incroyable" scarves at the neckline Twenties with both trends reaching -' form-bugging formal with high perfected, and the Gibson Girl worker,, volunteer, victory moccasins, buaraenea, sneaker recognize them aa citizens
casual to earn a reputation asa : and shirtwaist suits In servIceable their peak In the clinging, front necklines and baretothewaist Influence continued In the shirtwaist gardener, and housewife sans and rope-soled sandals
truly: chlo Southern belle. serge heralded, the chiffon or georgette sleeveless slip backs Wltb the boyish dress Hats crew smaller domestlo help, She found slacks The hand- colored steel engravings .
tailored look, drew of 1926, barely knee-length look of the Twenties passe, a new i and hatlessnesa became more and sweaters comfortable and The Dior Look of women' fashions of the '
Today: she selects her ,coutu and daring This was the Flapper undergarment called a brassier I common nylon hosiery was Introduced practical, and she added variety: Dior's post.war-New Look: wasa day: were the most. enduring feature '
rier-designed clothes ready-made Her decolletage evening gowns, era marked by the boyish hair I heralded an uplifting movement and more leisure time to her curtailed wardrobe with woman's answer to years of of the Lady Books. Now It
from the racks of the local department -however, remained feminine and cut, cloche hat, headache band, in feminine fashion, for sports produced the culotte, mix.match separates and reversible wartime restriction and she blossomed K not easy to find a complete
stores, but back in 1865, were made of beaded, trimmedand middy blouse, shawl collar and I swing skirt, shorts, Jodphun, two-' coats Her teen-agers adoptedthe forth in a mid-calf version copy in private hands that baa I.
she relied on her dressmaker to ruched lawnweighted silks that ubiquitous undergarmentknown SchlaparelB decreed shoulder piece and maillot bathing suits, : Sloppy -Joe sweater, blue of the Gay Nineties look with not been robbed of Its colored 1
turn out, by hand or on the newfangled and velvets She carried a lacy: aa a teddle padding and our bell resembled babushka and parka. Jeans, saddle hoes, loafers and, small waistline, flaring circle fashion plates
sewing machine, gowns fan and topped her pompadour skirt and full-sleeved shirtwaist
of the latest design as Inspired hairdo with an aigrette or plumedand Coats and toppers, except the But waa-the fashion drawIngs I
by: the sshlon capitals of Europe berufflecl large hat. Chesterfield, flared and billowed : pattern suggestion and 1
and interpreted by Oodeya: in a matching orgy: of material. color plate that made Oodey:
Lady'a: Book and Ebeneser But- Kaagan Bend Era Nylon, mouton fur and poodle Lady'a Book so popular with Its

tortck paper patterns. At the turn of'the century, she r "t r t 5:., cloth made fashion news. female circulation.
Her' silhouette was frankly changed her manner of walking: 3
feminine and fragile then, although again as her new corset was ls The early: Fifties of the Korean
she was prone to fainting pulled down by supporters to War wen marked by till battle
from the pressure of the tightly- give her an oblique front line Jacket suit, strapless formal,
laced and, heavily.boned corset that made her appear to be leaning P4) beaded sweater, and ponytail or
that held I her waistline to a dell forward stance gay: blades poodle cut hair styles. Shortle
.cat 18-lnch span beneath her of the era described u the'kangaroo nightgowns and pajamas made
snug' bodice. bend." L g lingerie news, and women everywhere
appeared In pant styles
By 1870, her costumes began Her shirtwaist, now loosely: I such u toreador, gauche, cabin
to reflect her entrance Into business bloused In front and with leg o' rag, boy pedal pusher and little boy {
and participation in,sports mutton sleeves, became more i kt horto.. I
such as tennis, croquet and mannish under English sports
archery.: She found' fashion wear Influence and was worn The lack er chemise of 1954
inspiration in magazines and with a Windsor tie, pleated frill r wk survived as the ,shirt of the
newspaper phots of stylish women or Jabot, and peg-topped skirt. Sixties, and tile suit of the
and she adopted the straight- Narrow, Ugh walsted Empire decade was a straight Chanel-
fronted bustle-back gown designed! gowns, worn with spats were type short Jacket with simple i
by: Worth for French Empress popular from 1908 to 1910, and Myi 4t skirt Bermuda and Jamaica a
the worlds fashion were followed by ankle-!length r t
Eugenie, shorts replaced brief shorts, knit
pacesetter hobble and harem-skirted tunlo I N:! wen the rag, and the shirtwaist 4.
dresses topped by sailor or mush dress remained a perennial
Donning a. new corset that room l a". Milady's drooping, t fashion Drip-dry, wash "a wear
changed her figure and way of spineless pose was the height! of % ? and stretch knit became bywords

walking to suit the new style, the cube along with tile name of saesof
Jacksonville woman padded her IIiWt1: :
coiffure as well as her bustle Marcel waves, pajamas one'piece kYl1VLI new synthetics: and bind?
suits designed for .
Remaining In rogue through the ,
her bustle dress, flounced swimming, and bloomer for gym Bouffant otttar**. heath and
and trailing a :yard or two of were Introduced. Quickly: adopted. Empire dress style and a trend \
ruffled train, was worn with a too. were white canvas shoe with toward today casual sportswear .,
Oalnsborougb chip or toque bat, rubber soles for summer Baby look:,, with emphasis on fabric, r I
and accessorized with, a turnip Louis or high heeled strapped 3 color, and cut characterized the
pumps for evening, bangle bracelets y early: Sixties, evolving to the
watch on a heavy gold L
filmy bead scarves, and present class *, comfortable,
Relatlve-simplicity ushered In Scotch plaid dress goods eased and natural! look so right
till day Nineties as the bustle Reflecting the simplicity: of for the Jacksonville woman.
gave way: to the hourglass silhouette military uniforms alter, America FASHION AXLE t A lawn party
Th Olbson Girl became '* entrance Into World War I. Come sots, shell still be "a la ,..... Us* this pee mm f7. l
America Idol and aet the style the Jacksonville woman a wardrobe -' mode," probably: In the latest will Mlard kedlct, eM
for feminine shirtwaists, available contained tubular tunic or shirtwaist space suit with matching 'ahem aad tack41mrn.l
in cotton for as little aa "tl one-piece dresses. If she was -Color b Cora Kaljort astronaut helmet aa she unerringly skirt eoasMetW ailia. 'ItaWe.
cents complete with black belt" really: daring, she bobbed her : adopts tile proper cos. WM
fe local stores, and worn withaWai:3 hair, affected the debutante Fashion of 1865 u Illustrated la "Godey'i. Lady Book and Maputo' turn for her life and lames \

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Volusia's Courthouse OVERLOOKS LAKE MONROE

t+tf6' tiieki

Fuss OvershadowedBy Stately DeBary Mansion Once

a Bright OutlookBy Was Social Hub for the Elite'

ROY MILLS acreage as an Industrial park.
,.,...C lw Son Wrttw Other light industries tat recent By staff Writer I Count i denary, according to steamer to transport lilt guests
I yean have settled la an area available historical records, vat from Jacksonville to his plantation -
DB: LAND Dee M \olusla north of Ormond Beach at he DE BARY Dee. M-A historic a- native: of Belgium and a descendant He maintained a stable of ..tr
County boomlni economy U New Smyrna Beach airport and mansion here which It now the of the family of horses, t pack of bound and a
keeping pace with the apace age at a point north of DeLeon home of the Florida Federation Madame Denary He came to trained retinue of servant and SW'.a
tempo despite a lingering factor Springs near the Atlantis Coast of Art, Ine.. was once the social America during the 1S40 and huntsmen.To .
of east-west sectionalism fanned Un Railroad hub obtained tilt exclusive agency for 4Yv
for six years by effort to relo- nente. a French ehampagn firm for count mad further Improvement
cute the county ett. Municipalities which bar p' North and South America I* his plantation
water and sewer expansion programs .tu,7uw The stalely'Iwoetory' mansion after tbs war by adding a nine-
Leader on each side- of the either underway: er recently overlooking Lake Monroe wu lilt His mansion her wu OM of hoi golf course. a tennis court
county concede that some potential ] completed .Include Ptytona: h 1 plantation horn of Count Frederick several estates built in the aa tpen.air dance pavilion and a
industry may liavc been discouraged Beach Detand Nsw' Smyrna deBary and wu a show vicinity of the St John River swimming pool sear I warm sulphur
by the continued bat- Beach and Ormond BeachPopulstla ., 4. r k place of the South during a periodof during the era preceding the spring. ,
Lung between the political sub > M year before and after the War Betwtea the State. Th
dlvlslona. The concession la apParently Bulls rL War Between th* States. count In IH7 !bought a lids wbetlDeBa1'1" A reported devote of his own
,"h',1Ii, no more than an ac products,' th* count nous* par- 0::,;."
knowledgment Neither aide n New Smyrna Beach alas hat tie sometimes lasted lor months. Count Frederlk denary
\ ready to give an Inch. An end to recently completed a 12. million according t* record, Among his
i the hassle is not Imminent.But rxpaniUM-improvement project DaytOna Beach's Motel-Packed Oceanfront celebrated guest wire OIn.
for It* municipal power plant.A invite I. Grant. Ring Edward each other during toe prolonged
the brighter aid of the new courthouse annex hat been' vn while hi wu Prince ef parties The ladles reportedly
county current economy and the completed on Riverside Drive formed wales Harriet Beeohir Stewe
has budgeted Initial planning earlier by a division of wore their finest apparel for
lowing prospect for the future which bat been two fouManed between to funds for a Jet airport site survey Mosoulto County The quiet little and the popular European beauty these occasions and the whining
overshadow this smouldering faction the approaches ef that day, the Princess of '
town of
rnterprts played a key : r knight' wu permitted to name
bridge the Inland waterway.
of discontent Annexation"* been a famllla role la the county early history trhl 1 PoUclnM, the lady of his choice aa queen
word la Volutla County munlo!- or: F: tt the tournament
Eiceni of I MM Jobs pallUet during the last five year. XnterprU had been! the eouqty r Others appearing' eo th denary
Space-allied activity: to Volusi
Employment record how there and neighboring Brevard Countyhas eat of Mosquito at the Urn .r fighter inelitdi the Dub and The count was a gourmet and
Ire now an excess of 5.ooo jobs brought a population bulge Daytona Beach his led the the division and was selected a* Duchess de Castro Oia Henry delighted in serving his guest
In Volusla County most of them in both counties Estimate of field to taking In I.ftralllundrtd the Volusla County scat Enterprise i Ssnford who founded the city such delicacies as broiled quail ,
having originated( during the ls.it the current Valusta population acre, mostly west and southwest wu founded by Ma]. Cor- sore Lake Monroe bearing his roast pheasant venison bear
decade Some 20 new Industries ranged a* high a* 1M,WO duringa of the elt"Ormond nelius Taylor a first coualn ofPresident r .C t name, and such Barnes a* De steak and broiled bass He wu
hive established plants la the special census committee In, Zachary Taylor, who Lancy, Livingston, dePussta and said to have barbecued 10 steers
county and negotiation are vestlgatloii which resulted early Beach two yean ago moved in 141 with! his family Vaa Rentselatr, for a tingle party. The dinners,'
underway for others this/ year In the adding of aa additional annexed tome 4,KM acre northof from the Phillip Devei Grant between accompanied by the beverage
circuit Judge the city. The action also annexed St Augustine and the 81 Records Indicated that Joust which he distributed often luted
Leading the way In the drive : a former Navy World Wa John River to the area en Lake was a favorite sport of the count.. until dawn according to reports
for new Industry are the Daytona However, a key county official U auxiliary field along the To. Monroe then called Benson He reportedly delighted in dressing
Beach Committee of too the West who keeps In close touch jrlth moka River which It now deal,. Springs Sldewhealer In the It. Johns0e0tt"try mall hit guest to light coats of A steamship line running from
, Volusla Industrial Board and De- population figure place the present sated as the Ormond Beach Municipal and watching them unhorse i Savannah to the south end of
: Land Committee of 100, and the at about ISO.000 Airport i b 1141. Taylor was elected to Lake linear! wu established hy
industrial figure as the Territorial! Legislature and ttwu ..' ., r.Rt{V4dg1 "'."..'" '.,...IIJIt.. ... I.q'e.' i !iU1' 14"Ll..... "" u. <"' "",ooer, ror e'y ,fI, Is J7IDis7aithii
committees "
. of the compared with about 1UMO lathe I' T' ;; '.i' .t ; '" .T .
chambers of commerce of the other 1MO census, II The .City tf :DeLtnit reo.nil1 ho who Introduced the law i. .\ I:, ..lwi'l'> H"I"t'.. ; 1t; '''''':- U.t'J'.'ltY'll' "D'I' f /,. ,,', municipalities. went en record favoring. an anaexauoo '! changing the Mosquito Count ,. ,1",1/; ;, ., f } ; I' .' ,I ".. lower East Coast then transferred
I This rapid growth hat created program but agreed that teat from )tow Smyrna.to Enterprise .. j from the river boat to carnage
The multimillion-dollar General problem fv the Volutla public careful planning 'WIll be required : ,._, before the construction of the
Electric Co Complex at Daytona I school system A IIS million eon. regarding the method el prow ; \ Haulover Canal opened the Intra-
Beach, started about two years strucUon program eompleted two dun and area. The Enterprise area was fa 1Ili coastal Waterway to navigation
ago bas a fourth building under year ago added even new high moos a century ago at a rtsort
construction. The plant permanent school and some elementary facilities Farming Tensions Focal point of the era were a At this time there} were some
personnel averages 1000 employe but the classroom space resort hotel tailed th* Brock 30 steamers using the St Johns
*. The OE facilities develop I II again critical Portable classrooms Although the progressive keyword House on the site now occupied I RIver. One of the meat celebrated
system and checkout equipment are being oonttruoted at in Volusla seems to be Industry by the Mothodlst Chlldrtn Horns. wu the "Frederick' deB.,.,.''
for the military services and the a temporary relief measure Another the fact remains that tourIsm and Count Frederick dell.,,'. The count later merged hit line
National Aeronautic and Space ] bond .Issue to finance further -' and agrloultur art still high mansion en a nearby hill overlooking P;+ll'.r1r y ;VF 'rrj"5?tr with that of Baya to become the
Lake Monroe
Administration school construction I II anttd J' hi the county nom, DeBary)& lint

The second largest Industry in Volusla County .ha a sue million Enterprise remained the county The count constructed a hug
the county 1* Roehr Ptoducta Inc Voluslt had II,Ml public school! annual business in agrtoul seat until loon when It was movedto 4 canopied barge modelled after! the
located about four miles east of student In 1157 The enrollment roil products with about 70 percent Detand after a tuocesaful petition one owned by Cleopatra U described
Detand on U.8. 92 The firm) a swelled to 11,(US in 1M1 The fall of the county TW140," acre campaign, by Shakespeare to transport
subsidiary of the Brunswick enrollment 'thl* year was 11)744) used for agriculture, hit guests from hit plantation .
Corp. Is the narlds largest and expected to reach 30,000 before Th name Volusla was derived across take Monroe to the
manufacturer of ditposable hypodermla the Christmas vacation An acreage breakdown by usage from an early Belgian settler estate of General Sanford The
needle and svrlnge Includes 15000 citrus. 500 poultry amed Voluchi who pioneered barge reportedly was manned by
The company began operations lire last dscado has seen the 1,500 femerle. 1000 dairies, an area mar a sandbar at the tome 20 Negroes' all dressed in
her in 1931 In leased buildings establishing of Daytona .Beach 14,000 Improved pasture. 115,000 head of Lake Ooorge. Navigator livery to fit the occasion
Roehr now employs about MO Junior College and Volusia County unimproved pasture SOO truck or the St John River named
person In three shifts at the Community College The Mary arming. 190.ono forestry 300 the troublesome water barrier The count lived to the mellow
new tl million plant occupied Karl Voc.tlonal'School ha*. become nurseries and Ono beekeeping. "Volucld'a Bar." When the countywas age of 92.
last :yearDeUnd. a part of PBJC established It assumed the
Volusla County wu formed name *f the Belgian immigrant This community which bear
1* continuing the development Dec 29 1854 division of but retained the derivation
Looking ahead to future need. by a Spanish his name include approximately
of Its municipal airport the Volusla County Commission Orange County, which had been of Volusla Volusla Cpunty Courthouse In 1888 During Construction 1900 home

I Plan now to enjoy the many Dramatic and Colorful Festivities t

-. Celebrating the 400th Anniversary, of the Nation's Oldest City. .


ST., AUGUSTINE d during its long history, h.. been ruled by O QT 1. JOHNS COUNTY hounded on the,east hy the Atlantic

four 'Gv.re'/ln'/: !,o"efl. Spain occupied it front Ocean and on.the west
156S: to 1763\ ,when it u. teiirclo/ England After twenty Zean ss a British colony H was re. a by the Su Johns River, and St Augustine have kept with modern progress while
turned to Spain, sod rem.in.edani.b! / until acquired by the United States. i in 1821. For a pace. .:
its in
brief period, during the CivilWar. the Confederate flag new over It. till'retaining proud place history. .

', .." ', CALENDAR OF EVENTS St. Johns County_offer* luperb ocean beaches and can meet the demand for either

_, \ 1 t' v1 lilt or fresh water fishing, from the

,. 1-New Ymr's Eve Tingled In ef 1965. beat of ocean charter boat to the St. ..,... ,,

N' I-S .ni.h Ceremony Jinuirr, f"r*: *
Johns River black bin fishing men 1 a | ,

I-Dediuilon' 01 Or.a.. Tree Grave it Ar- ,ca for the iportiman.
rive H.... ty Cudn Club. J !1' li.4RojiI r w i A .ar,
holly Trsiubr of Olflc.-J.il,'JT.lriMta 5 'g ,"; Early Irish potato are shipped out 'w

..- d. Men.na.s-rFfb, 1!.IS. R r .. of the Hastings area by the thou : 4'

Vii; ''ref 4FlMis .1 f Four Flop Feb 1721 < Iu o. :.e- lands of tar loads annually, Cabbage

IAr T-A FMIIVI .f Spun .nj I Hupsnle FnkionFenlvil ; I and other vegetable are grown and
with s Quidrirmiennlil Lnncheoa ;
'* ,,. M.rrh: :. ,;, hipped during the fall winter andy

s I-Ap.illI-...;.. ot the Shrimp Fleet, "j"t% 'L. spring seasons, when temperature,
v" r
-April M, "Floridi, ihi M.iie Lmd flow ,, rich iindy toil and climate conditions

1.a + ,ell tho.. comjbine to enhance the ver

A\'EMDAMENENDEZ 10-Ponre tt Ura di..o..." Florids. A fin.Anerir.n FORT CASTILLO d. SAN MARCO dant growing teason.
Fwtival. April .

11 C Fettlril end R. / ... CcrenaninsApril Beef cattle
where clnliutln sad Christianity were -- tr 1824n ligl dairy products, poultry, HARVESTING WORLD FAMOUS SEBACO

first firmly planted *a ear ...tion's toll ih.* .11,. timber, tut flowers and seafoods POTATOES AT HASTINGS

, lint history .f the centuries "will b. re-.iurit . Events tool cturirtera of the fit Mill live/ ...in' Nntbr ** Diot-Aprll IS < "e'<,.. s, ,ask' Are among many WE WORK

In drams, piieintry insole, .1 and fattfvestmoophere. major (11'0 d. .
11-June IMl-fml. G.... "Creai inj AND
Swf4 epM. ft*.Aratrlrs* fengrtii enHl.iorlt have found the St Johns County
Monim'iiu. "lotuis! sad Uhf WE P L AI..J.IyC.I.h"U..1 Y
o P:' area and St. Augustine JdeaOrom> .

} the lUndpoInt of good transportation
F. na |taQudrlcsalnuilsl ... < '. .. ......
M A elsa. roa. rte. and plentiful labor, Typical of .

14' 1 ate M1 15-A'iu.l-* lal,. te the Britlik .Ml.illoaI Induitr* 'in. St, Auguillne are pro. f.<' h".., '' ry :: : ;, ,." < '0-
t fin:tih{ # /\. A*|.iilM. : ,'
iJ; .,
I 't- ttyoerl e( leifood, processed andpirki ." ,
i t 14-S.pt 44 "O..rl_....'.. Ysr" ..... "
ti wltk e "D., !Sot apNa'S.tbt..ru sari ., r |.d lea fond, solidperiajliene I

} *lie lonnilir'i* Nsmbre e.mta.moratl.a
r 17.-0 t.-tiirharlillf .nr..e .dl..i boats marineslrylres and airplane t ar. ,

I ? 1 Ihs also Ytllvs k.rtk modlflntloo, and engine rrpalrt. 1 .

1.- A Mtleils rinrlja ClltUm>nlt C..nnll... '

yra (end ftsmW( Cslibrstlo l Cenenrrt II Ort Day I3,lsth.lI.nttlne Alt| a Truly) -Si, Augustine and St, Johns r ,R "' _

"01..,,' |IIIM..*. I* Cltf County offer moor many eppartun-

IS-DemiUi tf-CeiMfrstUa nOl, Isailisi V; file, Hiri U ft 389,000 icra lection '" _
u Caikidrai A UJO. Pil D.f linlvlag'
NATO 1t.| .. i lywpetljiti *. .( Flerldn! ready to pre iti pabllitUi M ? r'
}p. l>h f\triit\ Hlstery sgws Library t.iG _
:. ..ur. A* 014/ IfisiUk. Cariit. WORTH THROUGH Trig uti 6ftIT. under l"duitrl.l tad *coaomlfl -
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Ve hive andeivpred, to give you pertinent fans and fliurei en *nt _

CITY COMMISSION Oldeit City, that bias lot new growth and you will' )be most welcome COUNTY COMMISSION

tit It, Augustine and. St, Johns County
'r Adduces! Imjulrlfi to ,





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Flagler. Created. 1917 !


As State's 53rd County .;:

\ '

" a a ,* ... * :'


Economy Hinges Primarily on Forestry Industries

And Agricultural and Ranching Operations

By ED MENMNCEBtun tees named by the eouneQ wen nine through the wild a* State steaded a IfiO-acr tract betweenthe

bea _0.. W, H. McKentl C. O. Yarn and Road U northwesterly from Espanola canal and tile ocean A' '
Spectator View 11910 Automobile Race on thI h at.OtntondDaytonaState's v.
was.'to R. L. Town
Iitt", Bendrick/ n-lneor- and another piece nor foundation for Ocean City Beach, *
Dad:' poraUon were effected In 1925 responding with King' Road east Changed In 1923 to Flaglar Beach
BUNNKLL, M A rural
and 1927. of Bunnen. to soothe postal authorities Irked 10
area lor the most part whose
by the long name Until a bridge
Sands economy hinge primarily on for
Shimmering retry Industries and agricultural\ Paper Started County Created over the waterway wu built In
1920. Moody operated a ferry to
and ranching opentlou aptly d.
The tint town clerk 3. B BOIl
County Commissioner Moody tat Island
toribet Plaster County, create
w started the weekly newspaperFeb. took his constituent desire for
during World War I on Ute state'Cut g. Ul>. which last year observed more recognition to the Legislature Vets Incorporated
I Coast
Spawned Speed SpectaclesBy lie 50th anniversary. la 1917 which responded

IU pam honors ont of Flor Methodists brought the first April IS by creating, the state' Flagler Beach wu Incorporated
Ida' mat prollfla developer. church to Ute city and the first 53rd county from St. John forth June 5, 1925 The sam yeara
whit school wu a one-room most part plus a slice off the bond law wu told to build ,
Henrr M. Flagler. who In 1890
RICHARD A. MARTINew.ar slipped along the smooth lands, bought the existing small rail frame structure built In 1901. north end of Volusla. First County the ocean highway link between gat j

silent, uncanny swifter than all system her and Incorporated It Moody and Lambert started the Commission and school board John and Volusla counties, .
ages things lave the bullet.-U wasn' Into Iodl,'. Florida Rut Coast fin bank In the county In 1910. meeting were held that July toaa and In 1931 the state took reopenv-

fast enough to beat Demogeot' Railway intern. Although the old concrete block building sibility for' the bond, designatedthe i
Th automobile era opened Darraeq m the two-mile event 1960 census credit the count The area didn't have 1' bard- which: served county ,.offic pur- road a* AlA and In 195S j
spectacularly In Florida at th* with a populace of 4.SM. one of surfaced road until the County poses until today' attractive two- changed the Bam to Ocean Trail. 1
turn of the century' with th* com- described Commission of St. John County, story brick courthouse wu erected s
"" tog of a apeclal breed of The Dames wu ai the itate'i lowest totals, todayflgurt In which Bunnell then wu located first to
men estimated at In 19M with a bond Issue approved Heavy Industry earn
be. It perhaps
t newspaper! dubbed u'' "speed a long ray monster. "Long floated a $650,000 bond Issue the previous September bya the county a doses yean ago
crowd percent mater for are
for tt wa the caught an
: kings who worship at the altar teen "In ma and built a 65-lIIIIe, M-t vote.Development. when Lehlgh Portland Cement \
whose I II colorful
the panting of the mighty engine history at u
of the God of Oo." Hoot-wide brick road from the Co. decided to build Ita 14th plantat
like the distant roll of any other In the state.
1' 'it rumbling north county line through St. Augustine of the ocean aided a coet of approximately $IS..
I thunder. On it throbbing -
i rdrt came Hutlnga.and BunneU to the b said to tract the western
Goggle-eyed native of the panting, straining B1 Jenlti at Week county might & 000,000 on a on
state, who shivered at the ou'j' : the Anderson road terminus at have begun with the 1908 completion edge of Flagler Beach. It began
the stand It flashed, great long
of traveling more than 20 miles History of the Jesuit effort the south county line. Parts of of the canal link In the operation In 1952 a* a twe-Uln
bolts of blue flame like Cubes of
per hour and who still got nervous lightning shooting from the la Florida includes establishment this durable highway are In artdene Intraooutal Waterway In Ull, plant with an annual capacity; of
cy today u mile of tt run- JoIood,'* brother, George home 1,400,000 barrel of cement.
when they taw ont of the Inden. Trip hammer blow sounded about 300 yean ago of a ml*

'j' newfangled horseless carriages from the mighty engine On lon known aa St. Joseph It was
chug-chugging along, thrilled In tt went, gathering power with situated In toe nailer area neat

delicious terror to the exploit of every foot of the way seemingly the present Intraooutal Waterway Industry In Perspective j
I 1 Florida's first hot-rodders hurling beyond all control, mysterious. along the area' tint road r

t Ji blue lightning and piston thunderbolt restless, mocking all things In Its which wu cut out by the Brit \ :

A'I:; up and down the state' Oldfleld u He Set Speed Mark In 1910 high contempt for an save victory lab about 1760. became a major ,
:? beachea. and glory" artery of travel and known ever
since a* King' Road. Although

A Breed Apart A pistol shot told"tht end-two apparently Indian violence closed
for Florida's "prettiest and most That was Fred R. Marriott who,
miles completed In till then Incredible the mission the record Indlcatei
popular girl" who would crown a few days earlier bad broken
S at Ormond-Daytona the fatbera succeeded in some
i wu time of M 4-5 second
Ute King of Speed .1Ie1l1ll broke the world's mile record In hit 40
Beach ell tt wu defined in the through till two-mlle-a-mlnut horsepower Stanley Steamer "In aa 5.000 people went wild tolled oultlvatlon of both the land and

early 1900s) that such men u barrier. lbs phenomenal Urn of Is 1-5 their bat m the air and cheered tti* native

Fred B. Marriott Barney Old- seconds" a buttering 127.M till the beating of the wary wave
field. William: X. Vanderbilt Hit sleek red cigar- on the beach wa no longe A "plantation era" existedbriefly
Th contest, and th Impendingrace m.p.h. ,
of the
In the early part
B. E. Olds, beds Chevrolet and heard.1* e
were reported In headlines shaped "steamer" wu the rut
raced 19th Century and although the
Henry Ford, their
can en
all over America and In Europe. of the day, a tort of non-wlustling
Seminole War ended it In IW
the finest natural ipeedway. Votes for the girl! cam from Afar forerunner to the modern Jet. The Such spectacle guaranteed thesuccess reminders of It remain today ....

away at New York. kilos whir of It* tint on the smooth of the Ormond- l'Iolla James Russell traded a schooner
They a breed apart, men
wen Beach races and contributed
Dorcu Br ward. daughter ofFlorida' beach wu the only sound the remarkable -
to the Spanish In 1111 for a I.JOO-
living for but one purpose or tott much to the development of the
Oov. N. B. Broward, car made u It sped
acre grant located mostly In mod-
teemed to the casual observerto
automobile Industry in th/xt
wu a Jacksonville contestant but like a dart trailing a stream of
era Flagler County, and On. Joaeph
make record and then break M
days the Ormond-Daytona tpeed
entered tnly three days before white steam behind 11. Hernandef secured a grant
them with better record
way was one of the few available
the contest ended or she might
la 1817 which Included the Jesuit
have won. Winner was J.11a11lar1 The Times-Union went Into automotive! testing grounds.m minion tract. I
The of speed In Florida i
saga Slmrall of Ormond who got 10,620 rhapsodies over Marriott's exploit
started in 1902 when Alexander of torn 70.000 vote east.Th ., breaking the milt record. tht following year Marriott KaieeQ PlaataUoa i ra
Wlnton and R. E. Old, pioneer "He has beaten the boasted can was nearly killed In an accident ,t

automobile manufacturen, raced winner of the race wu a of Europe. oudone the premier which destroyed his now famous Other plantation 'wen being
at Ormcnd-Daytona. They tied Frenchman Victor Demogeot driven of the Old World. He has red Stanley Steamer. By that formed In this area also
the mile at 87 The auto- .,; '
time 1907 The 1'1meIUn1oould
tttelf and annihilated
driving a horsepower Darraeq defeated time but the most noted wa Rut-
mobile ha since pushed speed -who took the trophy MIll with distance, and the chief report that "prevlou auto Mll'. whose heir sold it In

records above 409 m.pji. him to Parts.After glory ofttaQlathatbelaaa carnivals may wen be termed 1850 V Ma). Charles W. Bulowof
trial Interact did not become
American driving an American
Charleston who quickly managed
Before 1901. the fastest ttralght- worldwide unto "
uveral days of racIIII'lIIthe ear to expand tt to about l.ttX
away milt ever made m America
1906 tournament, only oil acre Hi and his ton, John J.
wu a 5144 second dash made The' beach nspodVbl for tt a!
'driver thought Mi ear good But although Marriott's (team.er cultivated about half of the land
by Heart Foamier on Coney It- wa described for tile world ta
enough to challenge Demogeoft teemed "like torn monstrous In sugar, cotton indigo and rice
land boulevard m 1901. The Times-Union. "Twice ta
In the two-mfler. bug out of the nether world a* Itt every 24 boon heavy breaker of and .built Report a magnificent Indicate till redodenee. wu

Fear Records Broke its surface
the Atlantic hammer ,
forced It* evacuation and till r

_._ .'" -'". .,-_._- ------_._._ ._---- accomplishing age of constant rampaging savage burned tt In
But the first annual Ormond. pounding what no army of laboren January 1I3L But today the
Daytona auto tournament set the employed In adentlflo road-, aroed borne'. ruin are preserved '/' .

I stage for better things to come, making could possibly eomplett I In a lC>>-acre state park
, I 'About 1,000.apec\&lorllbowed up In a ItftUmt:" area created at inch In 1M5
for' the event and four speed records '
Ltfe-Deepbhig. Glee and tb* large Von Bulow Corp
'wen broken, During the ranch adjoin It astride the John

sane yew at.PrmoudDaytonaBarney Over this gleaming surface on Anderson road which 1* a southerly -
Oldfleld did the milt Jan. 25, 1907. Marriott' car shot extension of King' Road Into
In 67 ms.h. and William K. Van- "Ilk some being of the netherworld Volusla County. Almost 15,000

derbllt m sum m.p.h. that. t ought to rush in person were cuidedthreugh| the The view front our windows It of unlimltid./>>. WhttivtrIt '.

By 1906, Interest In the races mad, death-defying, life-despising ruin last year.ladUa needed to .eeomni d.f. the sprawl of Southtttt Induttrf wtt bi built b.bIgger "
glee, back Into II* own' 'last
wu to high The Times-Union wu world" The Times-Union re- Pacified *- bitter.nd more beeutiuf aa Jacobs
offering a $1.000 gold and sliver M ported. company

trophy to Ute first man to break Resettlement of Ute area after .. GENERAL CONTRACTORS

120 m.p b. on a two-milt course. Picking up momentum by the the Indian were pacified came Independent LIlt IuIIdInt >.... To publicize the event-and the second Marriott's ear struck a slowly and resident wen scarce

annual race at Ormond-Daytona small bump which proved disaa- vn a half century later. By

that year The TlJn -.UnIoIli trots at such Ugh tpeed. The ear hat time a sprinkling of small

staged a contest Reader clipped lifted Into the air writhing like farms were In evidence, a start
ballot' .from the paper and voted ;Marriott,Tests Out a Car In 1906 a tortured animal. "The thing had beea made toward reaping

.1 created became the creator. the harvMU of lilt miles of for-
greater than the man." eats and for a- decade citrus
nourished snail the killer freeze
of 1895. Agricultural effort,
"Marriott crouched low In .the
1853 1964 cockpit to ride sot the end." however, hung on and supplemented Thirty-Six Years Serving Floridawith
by livestock endeavor.
"Over and ever It turned, The
Times-Union reported of what were entrenched before World .. .: .
War I u potatoes and cabbage
followed "rolled by It* own momentum
toward the tunktsted tecam* top crop Turpentine, '

111 YEARS "OF SERVICE. surf that tucked greedily! for 1&. lumber and pulpwood resource, t,

Over and over tt rolled while horror which flourish today, first de- I
with aid from J.
veloDed UUey
unnamed choked throat .f
) Whit, Isaac L Moody O. W.
of spectators and left them pow _
J. Lambert and Alfred
Dew T.
erlou for expression save one /
-, lone drawn terror whispered ten I A. Bunnen at DM century'* tun ,
The latter'* sam ha* become
gotten TIlt race vat done.1 "Flavor GroWn"
The Duvol County Medical Society, the first 'In Florida, ermanent. _
The ear burst Into two place' -.
was organized In 1853 .111) years ago and wasresponsible Its wooden body splintering Itself leased aid naglcr

Florida Medical l Association against the beach. Its boiler
for organizing the -
coming to rest with a mighty his Bunnen, operator of a cypress

JI I years l later. to a hug cloud of steam "Over shingles mill prevailed on nag- Fryers
the wreck of the front wheels, let to make stops at hit plant

the white body of a man and the railway firm named the
wrapped In a black driver' suit atop for' the operator for lack of
; Its members have served the people of Duval County I
other title. Bunnen movedto '
Wreckage settled ever him, any
through many catastrophes-wart, epidemics and fires and then half pityingly a single Miami mon than M yean Draper's "Flavor Grown" fryers have come to be t Standard

4 which have required working around the clock' to) administer wave pushed Itself ahead of the ago, but DM name stuck. for better chickens in norlda. Draper' has served JacUonTtlle -
tide and touched his temple withbriny
to the afflicted. eoolneet. The accidentwas Moody and Lambert. wh ..- areas for 38 yean, many other Florida Markets since

over tilt tournament wu eam elose friend and Involved
ended. tTp ta the aott and, a virtually every sally project tath 1944t

Doctors In Duvol County are" dedicated to continue ,to stopwatch, started with Marriott, area, \began a turpentine min
1 ticked on mmotteed, unwanted and soon decided to have a town Founded by W. Z. Draper, Sr., the present operations have
when and wherever called .V which the 1911 Legislature created.
serve upon. ;.
But an area deecrlptton error been continued by his son, W E. Draper, Jr, Employees In...

Marriott survived, but of inch made It a one-person town elude many who have been with Draper's for more than 20 :
wu lilt drama and excitementthat and the two founder of BunneU
drew driven and spectators Development Co. had to wait lIDo year
to Ormond-Daytoaa and which tU a June 4, HU kclalatlv

We salute itffl got Speedway on today at tile International act'"it-Incorporated Gunnell.dow. Draper's maintain approximately, ''900,000 fryer m feed at (

Park Trainmen appointed all times in their "Flavor Grown" quality controlled growing .
....WttJmoti1timt.f/ nton Ormond'Daytona'remained the them along with Ed Johnson W. "
: auto speed proving ground until EL Cochran and George Moody program.

IBM when It wa discovered that i* the first Town Council which

on its 100 years of faithful ,an even attar strip wu the bard bad its first meeting Jun a '
salt surface at BonntvUle. utah. when W. C. Heath wu chosen
service to the community 'which, tine then, hu been the mayor and city Judge. Two yean '

teatmg ground for all high speed later for the first town election .f-

performers Befon the speed then wen 40 reglstend voters
run were abandoned at Ormond- and the following October the .....

Daytona however,. Sir Malcolm council contracted with Bunsen
Campbell of England set a record Ice Light and Water Co. to light 2255 LEWIS ST. JACKSONVILLE FLORIDA PH. 387.2537

of Volta mile per hour town street "from tundown to '
DUVAL COUNTY' MEDICAL SOCIETY there Since then Michael Thompson midnight dally" .Branches-Ocali and DiytoniBeich Florida

of the United State!*, 'racing

ta Challenger I at Bonnevlllo, hu The first bond lieu of $15.000 D'.ribulOra-Mlaml. Arcadia and'Orlando
515 Lomax St., Jacksonville, Florida set a record of 404.M mile an to finance BghU water and street

boor highest speed ever reached work: was -approved by a K4
la u automobile. '- vote Jan IT, Wll an4 bond trnt-


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DECEMBER' 27, 1964 ,

PAG!!: II.

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rw map, //irrt drawn published and* copyrighted by/ 1 1. Duval County l Jatt ....Att .
It. Saints /
Augustus Koch 'in 1193. y ij t tin property/ / Mui Virginia/ King Church& South Jacksonville: 24./ St. PauTi African/ 1( hodGt-6ptacopat Church 41, Seminole' Clubhouse /11. P.' t. ttcMunay, and Baker,Carriage, and Wagon It. Uasonto Hall r:Betteltnfi', Hotel and Restaurant'
3.) Sub-Tropical' Exposition Building/
of/ 2231. Rlveriidi, Ave: Mill King b an ardent ttttdtnt ct/ '" 19.' Ahavath/& Chased Jewish Synagogue/ / Si.. Laura Strut, frttbi/ttrtan/ Church .41.. Armour Packing' : / Company factory 77. Dally Timet-TJitlon and loaning. Telegram! 'Ltdtoith Building/ and .Button and Co.', Liquor House r.

Jackionville history and hat many priceless. documents. re /4. Duval County Hospital and Asylum 20. UcTj/elrt/ Uethodltt-tpitcopal& '/ Church SI., St. Joseph/& Convent"" Wholesale Liquor Howe and Beer 12.' St. lama Hotel 71.. JacktonvUU: Water Works Smith''' ': Block and Home /Investment", Building .A Loan :;
" Sating' t tit the ritw'i/ txut. A stall writer /lot Tin Florida/ Tim,... I. St. Luke" Hospital 21. Trinity" UethodM-tpiicotal Church 37. Cltiteni" Oat and Sltctrie. Co!', Work 11. Robert" W. Cfm ", 43. Iverett Hotel 71.' Passenger/ Depot, r.C. 4 P', Railroad/ Association. ,
i! Union unearthed It while Agency .? > 10. Union Pautngtr .Depot fall-head/ ,Strewn and Co,, Lumber and Forwarding,
going through come of hit hundreds I. U.S. Customs Howe (in count. construction/ 22. Riverside II.. Astor Block and ,
'11t" t ef/ tocvmtnti and picture 7, Park" Opera House Methodlit-Ipiicopal! Church Railroad OeneroJ Offices// otAe/ J. T. *.X. V.. /10. John Clark Son .* Co, Wholesale Grocers, /14. Grand View Hotel It. freight' Depot. / C.. A P.' Railroad House
' ;d 13. St. Mathews Methodtit-fpiicopal& Church South 'U. South Jacksonville ferry. Landing /15. Moronic Building 12. J. *'Johnton'i,,' Mill Huan'i' "Itmert"/ Cigar Factory '
,Mf A close (lamination"" of the map will reveal' the buildings. I. Duval! High School 24. Newnan Street Presbyterian Church St. The J. R. Tyson Co., Chandler '". '
Wholesale Grocer, 12. George t. Chose and Co.. Ship I U. Traveler" Hotel ,; < 13. Odd Fellows Hall / Metropolis' Building .
tart, duplicate. o// the then existing/, ones ant ore drawn to "It.I. Bradford Cookman/ Institute Institute/ 23. First Presbyterian/ Church '40., C. B. Rogers Co., Wholesale Grocers and Central", I Of' 11.. The MtrriU-Steveni tngineirlng. ,' Co.'. Works n. City! Market f, ,X54\\A! sMohawk/ Block and Post Office// 1.1'', Bugbee1, Sawmill/ ((8'111I1l/& l tacktonvUlt) )

scale. Two methods of Identifying/ the btildingt, were open to 28. Scat Jackionvillt Presbyterian// Church/& Ilc" 01 the f. C. k. P.RR. /14. T. Murphy/, Jacksonville Machine and Iron Works u. City Hall 'g',' > .: ; I 15. Mason!! and Co.'. Wholesale. / Liquor House Baisett Building, I
". the. it at///-use the, original key,' and number! some ol/ u-Mcti: 11. Baptist Tabernacle .J"" :27., Roman Catholic Church ,,1 .11..Board Saw and Planing! MIU I 19.) Jail li ' U. Cohen .
12. Vnlon Congregational, Church/ '" of! Trade The Elk ant/ City Library. (proposed'/ ) It. John O'Neifi / City < y Brother! Popular Dry Good House Reed Block
art hart to /find; or place circled/ !number, over the/ important 13. evangelical" Lutheran Church/&. ..: ,:'. 2t', Baptist Bethel Church ? '42. The Land Mortgage Bank!: of Florida, Limited, Florid, .t U. Tropical Fibre Co.', Workl 70. Hildltch'- Steam laundry. v tutldlngi. Wt sound the latter obscured too much of/ the lint & 29.$ St. Philip'i Protestant Episcopal l Church. Factory 7//. New York Steam ,, Southern .L'J.. '
''. '//4 St. John's' Episcopal Church/ Savings' Bank and/ Real Estate Exchange.3 17. II Modelo Cigar "" Laundry 11. Clark/ and Loftut/ Great Furniture Howe. Atlantic Block"
O{h drawingi. m the map hat been /te/t/* at it KOI) originally/'" drawn -it..1$ ;St.\' John't, Parish Howe & 10. Harmon Baptttt Church /43. National Bank Jacksonville II. Jacksonville Refrigerator let Works 72. Law. > Building .It.. W. P. Sumner Butter and Cheat,/ Howe .. Holmes Block "
end /letted./ 31.. Main Street Baptist Church 44.'4. National Forwarding and turtka" Imectlnt 73. Law Building W. ', ,
"It./ St. Andrews* Church Bank of the State Florida/ II. t. Bean't Shipping.' Exchange 19. A. Dett'l Drug House Herkimer Block and .W. R.. Peterson and Son'l Paint'"
I'I I 1. Duoal County, Court House 11. St.. Stephem'i, Church S2. Xbeneur. African/ Mtthodiit-Iptocopal/ l Church 4 45 Merchant. National Bank4S..ThtS.B.HubbardCeHardwartit!: Warehouse, 14./ lit Block 11. Hanier.Lant", and Co.', Mule Rouse and OH Start.

t A It. Mt. Zion African/ Krtboditt-SpiKxrpal) Church / /&. /II./ Renton and Vptm't Uachlneri' Warehouse" "- 11. It.,Johns" Hotel 12.; .Raymond D.Knight! and Co!',Crockery. House J :. Hotel Placidt/

I .,
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I 2 Paper Mills Boost Putnam's 's Economy

I r >XD MENWNGER: Pint recorded description of George Fleming He In turn sold Initial pioneer family tettlen. MoMley. Reid wu president of the UTOa. and donated tilt prop.
((.-BUM soil ..... the area were Jolted down by a It to June Marver who Joined But It wu obliterated by fire the Constitutional Convention title for at Uonlea' Catholic
noted botanist Revolutionary with a Mr. Hines aid a Mr. with outbreak of the Seminole Dec I, 1838, at St. Joseph then Church and cemetery Putnam of
PALATKA; Dec. M-TWO hun War times, WUllam Bartram, Woodruff to built trading poet War In 1835 and Brush and other wu territorial governor 1MO-* St. Augustine vat speaker at
dred years ago the St. John who In the course of !Ua many In early 1821 ea the west bank barely escaped vengeful Indian: and represented the area In the the IMt Bous of Representative
River flowed placidly put an travel made a sailboat trip up at a point approximately where raider*. leto and 17th Congreaaei. MOtto and for him the county ...u
area to the quiet pine Northeast the St. Johns to 1769. He noted Main Street today end at the ley, a Jefferson County planter, named.
Florid wilderness known "many alligator, some of treat river. Back came the white' man la was elected over Richard: X. Cal
among the Seminoles aborigine sire clouds of mosquito May 1838 when Ft. Shannon was IJU-1.WI .* Florida' first governor Florida upon Its admission to
u "PUaUlkaha," or a "crowlm 'toagnlflcent stands of pine The trio sold their holding to built oa the trading port alte. It when the territory became statehood was divided Into two
over" point, a ford a place forgetting and cypress the clatter of Belton A. Copp f( St Mar,'.,: was created.* a major Florida a state March, IMS. and served counties: East Florida was. at.
across the twam. many parroquets of delightful Oa., Aug. 23 1921 and he operated quartermaster depot to supply : U45-M. He lived here briefly Johns County, But In quick: succession
color." These birds lUll frequented the post until Feb 14, 1821, military personnel, supplies and burled here and a principal avenue the two wen cut up tocrest
la the subsequent two entinlea here a hundred year when h*'acid the 1.300-icre: piece hospital need for a chain of I U named for him. more, and in the last year
that crossing ana baa later.) He wrote of a lane Indian with all "Improvement to Dr. fort erected In quick accession of GOT. Moteley't term the :28th
blossomed Into one of the indus- village) council area "on the went Nehemlah H. BrusH of New York to the west and eouth. With it Two ether who left Indelible county, Putnam wa carved out
trial and agricultural focal point bank" where also were to be aeen City for 11.900. The tract had for protection and lupervUon, mark bare were Oov. Reid' of St. John and officially! ettab-
in the atate. That area which orange groves corn ...114 other been !known ai Oray'i Place, settlers quickly began movingto son, Robert X., end Benjamin A. halted Jan. 13, IMt. PUatU. u ,
once was an Important Indian vegetable plantlnga. later'at' Bueuvlata.Builne the area particularly when Putnam. The Junior Reid for the, rlverbank community .watliwVwl I II
meeting and oamp""" 'pao. today i I Florida became a territorial whom the cttJ'*'' plant lpeZ t and I fromD'thr old Seminole IJI![
,tNrinVi, la Palatka. government Mat for Shortly before Florida was ** Grewqq 4$ elate that year. widest theroughfir11 Darned, name, was. named as lit county -
Putnam County, population 12.211 ceded by Spain to the United' wu a Palatka resident 18SO-1900, seat Pour years later the city I /
In the 1MO enwa, proud of a State, the Spanish crown Issueda Under direction of Dr. Brush Tw Florida leaden of those founded the town Oust general was incorporated and the first
fascinating: history but tint to rant for the area to Bernardo and two sons the business grew day, both closely associated with merchandise firm wu the second rowel In tile named changed to
keeping abreact wilt progress of Begul Aug. '. Iflia, and on'the from patronage of Indiana occasional the Palatka area, were Robert collector for Vie "port o( the tpelllni known today
the modem'. day. following Jan. II hi told It to, i unit tra velere and the Raymond Reid and WUllam D. entry" until tt wu abolished in
I I II Cut Vetee. In 1885, PaUtka'i Waterfront Was Active

The first election of county the river' beauties, began sightitelnrtrip and to 1951 It built Its $10.000.000
See the Orange Bowl! Parade on NBC Television 11 AM Jan. 1, 1963iwrla ofnoer April SO, 1849. uw M up the St. John andOckJ..ah. generating plant on a 133-aer
vote cast, and Henry Hender
river in ISM. H* ex- tract in'East Palatka.
son. Joshua Byte and David panded after the war to 17-foot
Klgglnbotham wen chosen county passenger steamboat which Arrival of lie Jacksonville,
commissioner. Charles W. traversed 135 mile to Silver Tampa and Key West Railroad
Brush wu named Judge of probate Spring, trip which became a In 1883 and the.Palatka Gainesville
( and president of the county prime tourist atu actina, and Charlotte Harbor line
board for its JIM meeting May the next year gave great economic -
I I when two election precinct The war Induced check on Impetus which the IBM
were established: No. 1 In Palat progress to universal the SouthIn city fire lowed only temporatlly.
.rtil d4a, J, 41'i' ka and No.' 2 at Little Lake the 60s curbed the burgeoning The latter line won wu absorbed
George, aoutll'at the city county but didn't quell It. by Florida Southern and now
Several minor skirmishes Atlantic Coast Line give the area
A half down subsequent legttatlve occurred In the area during the service by three rail firm
acts' altered the count,'* war year and the combatant
boundaries An 1839 law clarified alternated In control of Palatka. Waning subsistence agriculture,
I definition of"the line*. An act the "great depression" and lured
',' timed May 28, 1887, enlarged the Prewar reliance en agricultural big cities combined to deaden
county with a piece from Marlonby process for the area' economic the area' economy until 1947
,1 moving southward the boundary strength still exist today with when two paper mills were ettabUsbed -.
running between the two variations! initially orange and her: Wall Central States
from Lake Merge northwestwardto L __.... .. '"
the Ocklawaha River

'i ,,' f :- P
The other four are segments 4..
,, -
,, of what could be describedth u
:: vacillating 100-year '"Metro .
: : lory." A Junction of Putnam
Alacbua, day and Bradford coun-'

ties occur: In the community of
Melrose which attracted settler
after the Civil Wit and becamethe
center of a prosperous ON
singe grove sector An 1859 act
added t piece of Clay to Putnam
there. An 188) act gave part
of this annexation back to CI.,. I

citrus coast to coast Again the line between these i
on parade counties there was altered by a 9
1909 act, Then a 1927 law chippedoff l
a piece of Bradford there and
added it to Putnam.

Meanwhile voter in Melrot

Minute Maid Company looks on ADVERTISING and PROMO- ,' agreed In October 1901 to Incorporate
I town and an election "
Jan. 31, 1902, ratified the' dA
TION as the most effective sales toots of the citrus industry. plan 291. Dr. P.' McRae wu t'Yt
chosen mayor and councilmen
A. A. McRae W A. Vowl-
were Li'W
V-. If you want to profitably! market Florida citrus coast to coast, baoh, W. H-Lee J. A. Board
and C W. Baldwin. But enthual- 4t1
atra waned and a 1911 act, repealed
4 must be and recognized coast to coast.That's
LM'.S; ., your Products. seen the Incorporation.- wu "' ,
:.; revived by a 1957 act with the "
town to lie astride on Putnam- 1.XaVD.11.
Alachua line, but a referendum Fish Like These Are Plentiful in Putnam's Water
Minute Maid has added another New Year's '
i$| v* why parade held July M4.23 rejected the proposition !

;; to a lesser degree other citrus Paper and Bag Company' Held
fi -i'1'' to 'its already( successful television sponsorship of the colorful j The '1850 census credited the crops and cotton compoeed the Street plant came u a big boon
county with 687 residents. Itt economic, backbone, but the the building of the Hudson Pulp
:' creation and subsequent beginning heavy freezes of 1895 and againIn and Paper Co. plant west of
*u \ ( /:-. Pasadena Tournament of Roses. This year Minute Maid also of the "Town of PllaUta" 1899 killed aB citrus. Vegetableand Palatka wu even more so. B Is
appeared to''induce the beginning melon crop and flowers have the fifth largest producer of both
official' in .* of many Institutions, tome since grown ..well a good deal of kraft paper and tissue product
t'' / will' I the Queen's Float the famous Orange '
"s sponsor permanently, and the population cattle ranching is done and the In the country, is equipped to'
Jumped to 2.T12 by the I860 count. woodland still provide a livelihood perform every step In production'
; \ ., '' '.Bo,1 Parade in' Miami. Both parades will be carried In COLOR The tint newspaper called the I for many. Originally much of a product from the million
,j S'7 .
Whig Banner had appeared June lumbering occurred of log hauled annually from surrounding
) Of '... tl 20, 1846, under guidance of side competition hu eu.ultOU; forests to readying; it
'-? "'X' on NBC Television full network, so. both) Minute Maid floats ; aF4 :t4; George M. Orouard. It floundered for the most part Considerable for a retailer1 shelf ad employs
but the 1881 start of the Income cam from tourism In 2,000 persons. It provides
M Putnam County Journal wu the the 19th Century: but the tourists almost 112,000.000 annually la
will be seen coast to coast. ,' forerunner of the present dally now prefer the East Coast tourist buying power for this area be-

publication. resorts. aide spending millions annually
l' for luppllet. service and taxes.
Layout Unchanged

,. Potential audience figures for these. colorful New Year's Day"O. Present streets layout and the Key years growth-Inducing passed Included event:.. (1)u Another is the.annual m&.lor Azalea economic Festival feature ,
4 river bridges (2) electricity. (3) '
} tea names are virtually uncban.ed at beautiful Ravine Gardens in
'' from the "PUatka" map of 1151. railroads and ((4)) paper mills Palstta. The 19th renewal in
TV Indicate that than 53,000,000 American -
spectaculars more of wooden
Until- highway
opening a
.. ,' St. James Methodist Church had April again wit attract thousands -
Its tart In 1851. and the tint bridge over the river in of visitor
wlll these two parades' Minute Maid : church building rose In 1853 for 1908-crowing were limited to
> consumers see .. :
? \ ; St. Marty Episcopal led by the using steam ferries, the "Trans Over the year more than three
.. Rev. Henry B. WhIpple. Pinlel port of Palatka" being the last dozen other communities have
Company' the pioneer of successful frozen orange concentrate Baptist Church' constitution wu. one. The Florida East Coast sprung lip over the county
adopted July 19, IBM and a log Railway had spanned the riverIn though today many are completely
cabin wu found the next year 1888 at Main Street..The present gone and only half of eight
marketing, ,believes that Intensified advertising and promotion for a meeting place. Memorial Bridge honoring which Incorporated Jftrnaln: ,so.
: local World War I heroes Besides San Mateo
wu Melrose wu
.. '' .; ref With ISM cam* the starting of built with a $1.250,000 county bond settled In 1867 by Matthew Bo-
." ." is the only sure way for the Florida citrus Industry to ex : Hart Stag Lint and the first issue and opened Now 11. 1927.. tana, Incorporated Jn 1893, aboj-
ublla school; private school !shed by a 44-20 vote in 1933.
bad been operated previously by First Lights Federal PoInt and Palatkt
< .pand Its share of the consumer refreshment market. ',. y ; 'til M1M Fannie Russell, Mrs. E. W. Heights were incorporated la188t

,. ':: Quartermao Miss Minnie Elan- Palatka 0., Light and Fuel ; the former on the east
chard and H. 8. Winter The Co provided flra" lIahtln Dee. river bank north of Palatka: wu
.',. Welaka school began la 1857. Col. 15, 1894. Advent of Florida Pow. voided In US5 and tile latter
"I H. L. Hart, Melng potential In er and Light Co. wu In 1927. absorbed Into the city' In 19J1.


Minute Maid Company ''''
,. '. Jfl


: t< t
-\., .


: :


; t yhk

.', :i.,

:it "t t I :: 1ir..' .

.' '1/ "i"I/I, "'" \.I\' ;\){'' ,
I I \,}, ; :' .r'' 'J,',< :

i .. ..

'Eon the Tounaaient cf Roses Parade oa NBC Television 11:30 AM, Jan. 1, USS'

With, lit 2,000 Workers, Hudson Paper b Putnam1 Largest Employe4



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EDITION 'U1' : kj.GtUDA'11Ms.S-U1v1UA! lAdV\1,A.4. buw&AY, DJS.CH.MJJU.H! : i7, 1964,_ PAGE il.l&'

I e ', 1Iu r rt

Marion Expects Steady Growth

By CLAMNCE rOTTOftlTWrlhr Street and Fort King Avenue smell of rosin and : and steady solid growth local more than 4,000 horses In the
ir.w.w" side were la ashes. axe and saws. Land
see a stability that they county.
male It one of the most de-
OCALA. I>0. 36 Mattes Then the capricious wind veerd la 1910 : only placet in Florida. Thousand of tourist pour Into {t,
County 100 year ago was grind- to the west a* though deter- (!known locally : Marlon County throughout the
bog M a atop like 4 worn-out milled .to wipe out the entire bought the \ \: ,. major changes have year to visit the horse farm and
ump. For four lone years it town. It very nearly did. The ver springs and met It, IDhe county during the Internationally famous attractions 1 ., I 1 vri.
had poured out its men to be fire leveled the building clear to It a nationally 11II0": By recent year A new fed- at Silver Springs and Rain
wet up on the field of Georda. Orange street. Tb Banner, the traction. and building, a new courthouse ; bow Spring,
Virginia, Florida and Penn. local newspaper carried the a new county jail have been'
.ylvanla.K town's epitaph In a headline Ocala was ) ). at Ocala. In addition a What will the future hold for
Beautiful Ocala I* N. Mon"The jor city Im a Marlon County health build- Marlon County? The county's
wa i Unit at turmoil and these time*. A iLSs and a state employment of master plan predict that by: 1979
desperation. K jot had lived< then people of Ocala and Mar was built la 1907 ear were erected at Hunter Park I the population will have Increased .
you would remember only lut Ion County were not long dismayed building was :year A state welfare office from about M.ooo low + eA a 4fi ,,y
year when often men rode Into by: the setback. They had Park two' block now under construction. Many I 10 between (0,000 and 100,000. It .N1, a
Ocala whipping their foam- apparently learned a lesson This spurred the bay had new post also state that while two-third
flecked bone shouting that the though when they picked the material resident to built recently and Dunnel-\ i of the population now reside in
.Yankee were at Oatneivllle at for rebuilding the town sidewalk and recently completed a new i rural areas this will be less
rellowahip at Palatka and -Ocala became known) Oft I ** ings. ) hall. Ocala Is currently true In the future. The report
"headed wuth." The night air out "' out adds that communities like
P!! the state a* 1'Ui'abrkk city plan for a new city
Itf")!j.i, leften filled with the clank World War' ud polio station. i Ocala Bellevlew and Dunnellon
6 shovels a* dignified Southern In 1M7 a couple of bones, a and Company "A" will be required to extend their
ladle dug In an undignified man. I few old teeth and a strand Ocala Rule was Marion County Is boundrle and services to accommodate .
nor In their yard burying Uver- I brownish rock, found near Dun. federal service and becoming synonymous with the increasing, population
war and other valuable nellon, started what amounted to distinction in thoroughbred horse farm with ,A Sternwheel Steamer on the Oklawaha In 1885
a "gold rush" that
swept Marlon
It :you lived then :you might remember County Into the national spotlight -! Ing blow truck the '.
the night the sky: to the n began when Albertu the dreaded
southeast of Ocala, near the Ok. I Vogt. became Interested In thee swept the state la
of 1918.
'. tit
r -
Read :' : :' ,
,: (,/ r,

IIt1Vi1n Major events .
the 1920 and oJ ;ftal, Itlias.; p.q n : r'Ib ;?a,<}/n 4'; k3 Nt a rd '
county approved a eA.91 o .,
bond Issue, to be : tipa'9G'r'1't'" i.kt ;ll ,
federal funds, for ,
+ w It was the tint
ty bad eve entered "ttMh' I, r\., -

ect. Carl 0. T
County builder, ,
tential for Ocala
roadbed building
lawaha River, was lit up a* a history: of' the Items. H*' eon- tried to Interest the
Yankee raiding party of cavalry suited a friend who remarkedthat Idea but official 1' h ;
put the Marshall plantation and be knew nothing of the they, would use 1
Sharpen Ferry to the torch. A bone and teeth but the rock was approved by the
band of the Marion Guard rode the richest simple of phosphatehe Public Road '
out toe repulse the Northerners had ever seen Mining firm, convinced the Money lh'
but four let rode back. This was speculator and hundreds of new ment that the
the only actual'. combat in the residents poured in and the county "good or better than ;
county was off to another roaring period lal*. Within a short 1'lJk r !
of prosperity Everyone rock mine wen
One of Marion Counl)''* sons wanted to be on the bandwagonand Marion producing F CT
'was to Inscribe his name well, new businesses were openedby all,over the state.Transportation << -;
however in the book of military the dozen By 1890 Ocala
history with bit fantasU.cally had a population of 2,904 and
daring hit-and-run tactic five yean later It stood at 4.597 expanded rapidly: 'lJh. .
Colonel D. D. Dickinson of making It the fifth largest city opment of j j"fP
Orange Lake a planter repeatedly In Florida, following Jackson can and cold
defeated much larger and villa Key West Tampa and Finsscola. ing built at Ocala.
mora experienced force all over i .
North Florida He even did a The depression
creditable Job as a naval tactician I In the midst of an this prosperity county: in October 1.
when be sunk a Union gunboat and optimism fate was per of farms in
In the St. John River. winding up another "one-two mained constant but
punch" that would floor the area. scarce. Relief
Soldier Return On the night of Pec. 27-28. 1894 street were .
the temperature dropped sharp point school
OIl i One hundred year ago the ly ruining the citrus crop. The that schools would
war was nearly over but Its tree themselves were unharmed, cause Insufficient
Ightwere everywhere. Along however. breathed relief ing collected to
the streets of Ocala and on back- I a* warm People weather and erating. The .
country road could be seen the I soft gentl rain walked the rollIng started a campaign : t
remnant of butternut gray uniform countryside. Then, between urging veteran to y0y.O e
on bitter disillusioned men midnight and dawn Feb. t, the taxes.-Th* group's ( '
returning from hopeless battle second punch landed. n was reflected the
Fields lay fallow because there destined to become one of the when a state auditor
wa no one to do the planting darkest hour in the history; of school system In ,.
and there were no replacement the state. Temperature fell far tion."
for worn-out tools. Hones were below freezing and stayed there. b
in disrepair because there wa I Mea
Daylight found the fruit frozen
little money for anything: but absolute solid the leave curled and, the The early 1930s
necessities. According to bark of the tree split Marion called the Urn of ;
ft totter of the day a row of County's citrus one third of the fights. Rancher I',
pin coat tlOO, castor oil was $SOI entire Cl'llPID the state had been to letting their ,: !
quart and sugar wa $2.8 a wiped out. Many: grove owner I and herds of "
pound. Then In April IBM word went broke told their house and free to graze where : C'.J.J
reached Marlon County that Gen. land and left. Others stayed, But the '
Robert E. Lee bad surrendered. '
chopped out th.dead tree and ble farm, c..o.l&r
The time were difficult; Northern started. again., soon caused
appointed officials held the
ers and property
state and county governments In Faced Bankruptcy tried to fence off \ = J
their band and there was little
head-on into the
, sympathy: for the supporter of A* a result of the disaster timer recall that 14L
; -the late rebellion.Slowly the
Ocala faced bankruptcy. Script things more startling .j
' plantation were restored and depreciated and local merchant ening than to go .jj
hope returned. Ocala became.an even refused the city credit to country road in a \\j
organized municipality In 1867 buy office supplies. At this point and come suddenly
and by 1870 boasted a population
the county found virtuallyIsolated with a rangy: .
of too. Marlon County' stood at from: the rest of the long-horned steer, ,: 4
1 ,804. state. Henry M. Flagler was

building his railroad down the In 1930 three men "
Business Revive East Coast and other railroads, by: rancher for
the lifeblood and bop of the the herd. Th
By this Urn riverboats were
plashing regularly up the Okla-
waha River with machinery:
cloth tool and household good
On pier at Silver Springs, i
Payne Landing and down of Ilktime
> other, now forgotten, stood bale
of deerhlde cured moss vanilla
leaves, barrel of sugar and other .,1 s 11
product of the county for shlp-
meat to Palatks when they
would find their way to the rest .
*f' the tat* and country.

The UK! were great time forth
county. A railroad, the 811ver -.
Spring Ocala and Gulf, had
joined the first two communities
in it and headed
name wa .
west, m 1851 another ratlraA\ I ----.u- ........... ,
reached Oeala from w"; d: ;, 10
Ocala'i population reached Ml In had their eyes lined in I mild I la the dly x,
1880 and was to number 2,902 by: the south ins at the Stale, I (lease but It wa
the end of the decade. The town Ii porary victory for
wa also becoming a major commercial Tim mutually! healed the Thi elate ordered in
and tourist center of the damage and Slowly the area rseovind. fret rang principle
I .latt. The Day Nineties \In Mile work project
Morton County sew Hanry I. ing fences pod )
AaeGlI' Blow Plant Mace railroad track la guard
the area Md I hospital was ., II"
It wa about this time, on the started IIh.* tOil floor if the TIll was kill the \
bright fan morning of liar.tI'r Baptist Witness Building at Fort area ,.,lItt iinal'1 ,.. ,:.1 ,'" : ; \: :, ;
IW that fate wound up King an Itrtet. While County After '.
."baymaktr" for the booming city the opulaUea e| Ocala I dwis. errictill were ,
tf Ocala.. People were fathering died to I.MI, the count y'& rest ting federal fund t
at the railroad depot on Oictola from llin u JIM t* 14,401, in190D pnjeol that had Today, (ID modem Jaclaonville,, the wheels are going around
lUte between Oklawaha and about: for nearly : '
South streets for big community liptembtr IMS, later before-Wheels)
than on' trectore and earth wheels kind
Thanksgiving outing to Lake the turn It'Ih.* century 111 P. RNMVttt mover, on every of equipment usedfabuildlnf
'Weir. Ai the train pulled out marked ,the beginning'of .IM ton U Nw York (

> torn sparks paper from and the dried engine rue Ignited un The hard first road one..r.II was built the county joining, blast Goals 1 Spout signaling hint,r.u I I It takes money to start those wheels spinning I t and it tikes money? to keep! them spinning.

der' a'' furniture start at the Goals And Xindriek, project. 'Thtuitnd it
southeast corner of Main and Oklawaba id in th* canal fir That'i our job to help provide the m .y.thd makes the wheels fo 'round! I How good a job do we do?
ttreeti. In a matter of Finnlii, brows' meted with; e ;
: i )
Seconds the frame building wa
'enveloped and flame spread tote TIM tarly loons la* I mMdevtloamtai TOO '."dan..,' teat year, Charter Mortgage helped ftnance the buildlnf and bug of more construction in Duval Comity
nearby; Ocala Home and I if Agriculture la the I
drug itor*. :Men leaped from county 'irtliuUrly u nntabliprtduitlea. World wir Q Allah other JecboQTilJe flntntUlWa b
'the train and formed bucket Novel trat bseamlan tnt ant: ta |hi ",", iny aft".
; line from I pump on the court- $Importtnl Item. MM turps, at if MIDI )
tout squar A brisk fall breeu tied *UU* tprang K> all inr Iht 6eI. to man I
fanned the flame until aD the calls t' ", ., weeds;R leas Ube feed tnetnint ':\ call service -
wooden building between south air VM Wild with DM trn| tthir rttisally: \. our r/5l.S7' SURE.'with reason !
tlonl. Theutandl v .
__ __
ten County mil **. J

annehM r.r.'bl .
M trenti : ) the 1
Ul. Army r upa : : : :
trill iiitti II Jim "' .' 1
jUlt Meet It OdLll r: M '
..am 1140 ., : 1t.ni, ,!\i(;'" ': jJ11" '" '' COMPANY .1

AtIlt the 1M .r. I,1:'; 1'' :: :I f\: '; : ,,' ,. Tt. Brft...., MOeei. "MtoonvtU* i. nodtef

arm yn a rlM*.: I Irsyotsnd
ty idlscoveredr tEat


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I 2 Paper Mills Boost Putnam's Economy

I y ID MINMNGER First recorded description! ot George Fleming He In tun told Initial pioneer family aettlen MoMley Reid wu president of the U70. and donated the" properties
-w. 55.10 ..... the area were jotted down by a It to James Manner who Joined But It wu obliterated by fire the Constitutional Convention for St. Monica Catholic
I noted botanist of RevolutionaryWar with a Mr, Hints and a Mr with outbreak of the Seminole' Dee a, 1831, at St. Joseph then Church and cemetery, Putnam of
PALATKA. Dec JTw hundred times William Bartram Woodruff to built trading port War In 183S and Brush and others wu territorial governor 1840-41 st. Augustine wu speaker of Yom'
year ago the St Johns who In the course of his many la early 1821 oa the west bank barely escaped vengeful Indian and represented the area In the the 1848 House of Representative hT rkx
i River flowed placidly put an travel made a sailboat trip up at a point approximately where raider lath and 17th Congresw Moseley. and for him the county. wu
area In the quiet pine Northeast the St John In 1788, He noted Main Street today ends at the a.Jefferson County planter, named
Florid wUderneu known "many alligator. tome of great river. Back came the white man la wu elected over Richard E. can
among the Seminoles aborigine size clouds of mosquitoes May 1831 when Ft. Shannon wu 1113-1801 M Florida first governor Florida upon It* admission to
M pllakUkaha." or a crossing magnificent stands of pine The trio Mid their holding to built on toe trading post site, it when the territory became statehood wu divided Into two
over" point a ford, a place lor and cypress the clatter of Belton A. Copp of St MarysOa was created a* a major Florida a state March I. 1843 and served counties; East Florida wu St
getting acres the itrtam many parroqueti at delightful ., Aug 23, 1821, and he operated quartermaster depot to supply 184J-W. He lived here briefly U John County But in quick succession -
color" These birds still frequented the poet until Feb. 14. IBM military personnel supplies and burled her and a principal avenue WIt two were cut up to
In the subsequent two OlD- here a hundred year when he ..,ld the IJOO-acre piece hospital seeds for a chain of 1* named for him create more, and in the last yearof
Lurks that crossing ana hi* later) He wrote of a large Indian with all "Improvements to Dr fort erected In Quick succession GOT. Moseley term the 8th
bloMomed Into one of the Industrial village council area "on the west Nehemiah H, Brush of New York to the west and eouth With It Two others who left Indelible county, Putnam, wu cowed out
and agricultural focal point bank" where also were to be eeen City for I1SOO The tract had for protection and supervision, mark here were ClOY Reldi of Bt John and officially established
In !the Mate. That area which orange travel, corn and other been known ae- Grays Place, settlers, quickly\ Began moving son Robert R., and Benjamin, APutnareiWrWJWlti&r Jan 11, 1M9 Pllatka u
'1 ,. ''once wai ,an important Indian vegetable plantings. \i later .aefuenavUta., to the area particularly when : I mid.! ito 'the rtrwbank community; wun
) :
\iO., \ )tneetthf and camping place today Florida< became .a territorial whom the/ tty (, principal, and 'fJ Mthe"i d e eWWMe f \ ,
"' la Palatka. government seat for Shortly before Florida war, ' Putniri t County population 31.111 ceded by Spain, to the ,United' wu a Palatka resident USO-1900, seat Pour year later the city (
In the 1MO census. proud of a State, the Spanl* 1'DW11Wd Under direction of Dr. Brush Two Florida leaden of those founded the towns first general wu Incorporated and the first'
fascinating history but alert to a grant for the area to Bernardo and two tone, the guineas grew dayt, both closely associated with I merchandise: firm, wu the second vowel in the named changed to
keeping abreast with progress X Segul Auf 3. 1811 and on the from patronage of Indiana, occasional the PalaUta area, were Robert collector for the "port of the spelling! known today
the modem day. I following Jan.18 be told It .to j unite traveler and the RaymondReid and William D entry" until it wu abolished In
I I I. Cut VoI In 1885, Palatka'i Waterfront Was Active

The first election of countyofficers the river beauties began sightseeing and In 1951 It built its $10,000000
: Television Jan. 1 April 30, 1841 law H trip! the St. John and generating plant oa a 133-aore
,; See the Orange Bowl Parade on NBC 11 AM 1965 votes east and Henry Hender- up
Ocklawaha river In 1856. He expanded tract in East: Palatka.
son. Joshua Sykei! and David after the war to 87-foot
Hlgglnbotham were chosen county passenger steamboats which Arrival of" the Jacisonvffl.
commissioners. Charles W traversed 135 mile to Silver Tampa and Key West RailroadIn
Brush wu named judge of pro Spring.' trip which became a 1883 and the Palatka Oalnes-
late and president of the county prime tourist& attraction vlll* aid Charlotte Harbor line
board for its tint meeting MayS the next year gave great economle -
win ;NrIt Y ,,I when two election precincts The ware Induced check on impetus which the IBM
were established: No 1 in Palat-- progress) eo universal the South city fir slowed only temporatlly
ka and No a at Little Lake In the 60s curbed the burgeonIng The latter line soon wu absorbedby
George south of the city countr but didn't queU it Florida Southern and now
Several niter skirmishes Atlantic Coast Line give the area
A half dozen subsequent le l>- occurred In the area during the service by three rail firm
attve act altered the county war year and the combatant
boundaries. An IBM law clarified alternated in control of Palatka. Waning subsistence agriculture,
definition of the lines An act the "great depression" and lure
'.'; '. signed May 21. 1887 enlarged the Prewar reliance en agricultural of big title combined to deaden
'. county with a piece from Marlonby processes for the area* econom the area"* economy until 1947>
: moving southward! the boundary ic strength etlll exist today with when two paper mil were established
: running between the two variation initially orange and here While Central State
I .. _
from Lake George northwestwardto .
I', the Ocklawaha River '

The other four are segment
of what could be described a*
the vacillating 100-year "Melrwe
story;** A Junction of Putnam,

..." Alacbua, day and Bradford counties '
occurs in the community of
Melrose which attracted settler
after he Civil war and became
he center of 'a prosperous o -
anne groves sector An 1851 act
added a piece of Clay to Put
nam there An MM act gave part

citrus coast to coast or Again this the annexation line between back to these Clay

on parade counties there was altered by a
1909 act Then a 1927 law chipped t
off a piece of Bradford there and .l

added It to Putnam .,
Meanwhile voter In Melrose
Minute Maid Company looks or ADVERTISING and PROMOTION agreed in October 1901 to !Incorporate
town. and an election
I.': Jan. 31. 1902. ratified the
as the most effective sales tools of the citrus industry. plan >>1. Dr. F. McRae wu e r
chosen mayor and councilmen
r were A. A. McRae, W..A Voxelbach. -
\' .If you want to profitably market Florida citrus coast to coast, : _' <. W H. Lee, J. A. Board
i and C W. Baldwin But enthusiasm

.;" ': must be and recognized coast to coast .' .: waned and a 1917 act repealed '
.' \ ". your, products seen the Incorporation It va
"I .J '" revived by a 1957 act with the
<:;::1 'M", 1'r! t:! ,,',:t<, .. town to lie astride he PutnamAlachua .
.' ( '!/'? ."it,' j' line but a referendum
Putnam's Watersto
i Fish Like These Are Plentiful In
i; d ff! rlf.l, { rt\'i\: ,'!,;, ;' Thatswhy Minute Maid has added another, New Year s parade : < held July 13 rejected the proposition

,II: l I.riI: J{!(< ,:n l';,;;' ";. : to Its already successful television sponsorship of the colorful The. 1850 census credited the crop a lesser and cotton degree composed other citrus the Paper Street plant and Bag came Company u a big boon Reid,

'fl 1\ ; ", \' : county with 687 residents Its economic backbone, but the the building of the Hudson Pulp

h '; :\ i r'';' ;.::,::.:'If": "'",.>-, ': Pasadena Tournament Qf Roses This year Minute ;Maid also. erne creation of the and"Town subsequent of Pllatka'begin In heavy 1899 freeze killed all'of citrus 1895 and Vegetableand again and Palatka Paper wu Co.even plant more to west, B of 1*

'J' 'N} t ," < r. appeared to > Induce the beginnings melon crop and flower have the fifth largest producer of both
'- : ; of many Institution. some since grown well a good deal of kraft paper and tissue product
; will the Queen's the famous Orange
\\1N: >f:> ::. sponsor .Floattn T permanently and the population cattle ranching Is done and the la the country, 1* equipped to
Jumped to 2,m by the I860 count. woodland still provide a Uvell perform every step la production
/( 1''1ii\h\;:: :\;" :, ;':;: ,\' ,Bowl Parade In Miami, Both parades will l be carried. In COLOR :' I' \ The first newspaper called the hood for many. Originally much of a product from the million
''t Vhlg Banner had appeared June lumbering occurred here, but out.side of logs hauled annually from surrounding ,
Jf Jl ':, (; ;,\ ,;'1 I ,V 20. 1545, under guidance of competition hu killed U off forest to readying It
'\\ ? <,..,l '<:,, on NBC Television full network; so both Minute Maid floats. V George U Grouard. It flora for the most part. Considerable for a retailer shelf and employs
,:,. .' '. dered, but the 1881 start of the income came from tourism in 1,000 person It provide
... Putnam County Journal wu the the 19th Century but the tourist almost $12000000 annually in
,' will be seen coast to coast, forerunner of the present dally now prefer the East Coast tourist buying power for this are besides
publication resorts, pending million annually'
for supplies, service and taxes.

:'; 4 :' 'Potential: audience figures for these colorful New.Year's Day ;' ; Present Layout streets Uichugel layout and the Key year growth passed.Inducing'Included event: (1)u) Another I* the annual major A.uJe11"eatlval economic feature

,,, ,. t"S1 F name are virtually unchanged river bridge. (1)"electriclur. (3)) at beautiful Ravine Gardens In
from Via Pllatka'' map of 18J1 railroads and X4 paper' mill Palatka The 19th renewal In
-TV spectaculars. Indicate that more than 53,000,000 American St. James Methodist Church had Until opening of a wooden highway April again will attract thousand

,' U start In 1852.: and the tint bridge over the river la of visitors
: :, church building rose la 1853 for .-. crossings were limited to
consumers will see these two parades. Minute Maid ;
: St. Mark* Episcopal: led by theRe using team ferries the "Trans Over the year more than three
.' ," ,. Henry :B, Whlpple Penlel port of Palatka' being the last dozen other communities have
Company, the pioneer of successful frozen orange concentrate :' : Baptist Church constitution wu one. The Florida East Coast sprung up over the county, although -
.... 10 adopted July U. 1852, and a log Railway had spanned the river today many are complete.'
,". cabin wu found the next year In 1888 at Main Street. The present ly gone and only half of eight
marketing, believes that intensified{ advertising and promotion :' for a meeting place. Memorial Bridge honoring which incorporated remain so.
local World War I heroes wu Beside Melrose San Mateo wu
( '{' I' With! IBM cam the starting of built with a"l.250.ooo county bond settled In 1867 by Matthew So
\ is the only sure way for the Florida citrus Industry to expand '. Hart page Lin and the first Issue and opened.Nov. 11, 1927, lana, Incorporated In 1893 abolt
J .... : 'j' public school, private school Inked by a ...20 vote la 1933.
lad been operated previously by Viral Light. Federal Point and Palatka
Its share of the consumer refreshment market. UU Fannie Russell, Mr*. E W. Heights were incorporated lathe
i. Quartennan Mis Minnie :Elan- Palatka Ou Light and Fuel 1888: former on the east
'" .. chart and H 8. Winter The Coo provided first lighting Dec river bank north: of Falatka was
Welaka school began In 1857. Col. 15, 1894. Advent of :Florida Pow voided la 193J and the latter
H. L. Bart, seeing potential in er and Light Co. wu In ;927, absorbed Into tilt city la 192L

:; ,: Minute ,Maid Company : : ;



.; ,


a ,
J I ,

I s.-- J
y, '
._ _- ;01N f




: ..


I ,

;See tilt Tournament of Roses Farads on' NBC Television 11:30 AM, Jan. 1, 1865 .

With Its !,OOI Workers, Hudson Paper Is Putnam's Largest Employer


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r CJNTNNLU.IDmON-: 'itus. ttO uA liAlfcS-Umuit, "I lAUs.aOjmuj4. b JAY, D&U.Mat.K: 87 i "19B4. PAGE ll-l>

I Marion Expects Steady Growth

Br CLARENCE POTTORPTItMIMM Street and Fort King Avenue smell of rosin and the sounds of money and time for Florida vacatlont. Its steady, solid growth, local ) more than 4,000 horse In the
MXI WrttarOCAUv. wire In ashes, axe* and ,saws.In Land price soared u leaders see a stability, that they county.
subdivision popped UP where say make it one of the most desirable
Dee. M MarlOl Then the capricious wind veered 1910 Columbus Carmichael formerly only scrub brush stool places In Florida. Thousands of tourists pour Into f' Arw i
Marlon County throughout
County 100 to the west as though deterMined (known locally u "Mr. Ed"
was -
years ago grinding
Marlon County's population Physically, major changes have year to visit the hone farms and
to wipe out the prape'OWId
t* a stop like 4 wornut the entire bought
sA from 19,600 In 1930 to 11.200 occurred In the county during the internationally famous attractions
For four long town. It very nearly did. The Springs and set out to make
pump. year it ver .
had reached at Silver and Rainbow
InlMO By 1950 it very recent years. A new federal Springs
bad poured out its men to belied die leveled the buildings clear to it a nationally known tourist at- ,. pr'av
M.200 and topped Sl.MO la 1960. building, a new courthouse Springs f
the fields Orange Street. The Banner the traction.
up en of Oeorgla '
and a new county jail have been
Virginia, Florida and Pennsylvania local newspaper carried the Today Marlon County 1* not I erected at' Ocala. In addition anew | What will the future hold rot
town's epitaph In a headline Ocala wu embarked on a major considered a boom area but, in Marlon County health building Marion County? The county'smuter
"Beautiful Ocala I N* Van." city improvement era during
plan predicts that by 1979
and a state employment of- '.
It wu a Um of turmoil and these time*. A new courthouse the population win have Increased .
lice erected at Hunter Park
desperation. If you had lived then The people of Ocala and Mar wu built In 1907 and a federal were from about to.OOO now
last A state welfare office
you would remember only' last lon County were not long dismayed building wu erected at Dunn V Is year.under construction. Manycommunities to between 90.000 and loo.ooo. It
year when often mea rode Into by the setback. They had Park, two block to the north. now have bad new post also states that while twothirdsof
Ocala whipping their foam- apparently learned a lesson ,This spurred the city and local offices built recently and Dunne- the population now resides in
flecked horses shouting1' that the though when they picked the material i residents to Improve streets, loa rural areas, this will be leas
recently completed a newCity
r Yankees were at Gainesville, at for sidewalk and business build- i
true In the future. The report
:wathror lall, Ocala It currentlyworking1
Fellowship, at Palatka and Ocala became h. logo.Vye. ? I adds that ,' communities like
out plans for a city
"beaded south." The night air out VIe state u "the brick eltjr." : '.I 17/I, } I'\ ,I'll IN nail and police station.new Oc&1I.''.eUe iew and Dunnellon
wu often filled with the clankof I j r ?;'''Wart struck the area will be 'required to extend their
shovels a. dignified Southern I d1 ',1118'I, a coupJtl "OII ,bones,(. .. lilli'" Company "A" of the old Increasingly Marion County is boundries and services to accommodat .
rjJJadlel) dug: an undignified man1U few old teeth and a strange Ocala Rifles wu mustered Into ,.4 becoming synonymous with the Increasing popu.
j Wjfrg, m yards burying silver- brownish rock, found near Dun. federal service and fought with thoroughbred bone farms with lation. A Sternwheel Steamer on the Oklawaha in 1885
war and other valuables Mellon started what amounted to distinction in France. A devastating
a "gold rush" that swept Marion blow struck the county when ,
If you lived then you might remember County Into the national pottight. the dreaded Influenza epidemic -
the Bight the sky to the It began when Albertui swept the stat In the late summer I
southeast of Ocala, near the Ok.I Von became interested In the of 1918.
.. .

7 Road Building Starts i"1'" ,',),": :.,." ':;:,/ :: ,. '.::\" I I'n }. ".\I" :., '..l. '

Major events moved rapidly in ::j ;1t:; '; {
the 1920s and 1930s. In 1924 the : If' J. ';;,?, ", c 1)FJ

county approved "II5 million ". ', : ',.', '" "\ ( \ \, (,, (* ''ks : :j j1'it'q
I .
1 r \a bond Issue, to be matched by ,, ." \, '" I "" ,;\;
federal funds for road building.! 1 n" ,', '\< ', "'\" ,:'"l',(' /I:_, .j
} It was the first time the county j,
u .l s had eve entered such a Project \:: <\ .
CarlO. Rose, a Marion ,. i Jl.t

County builder saw a great potential .' i
for Ocala llmerock a ML (" '
as ."
roadbed building material. He : ,:: i. .' .
lawaha River, wu lit np as a history of the Items. H* consulted tried to Interest the state in the t 0 t V. ," ",
Yankee raiding party of cavalryput a friend who remarked Idea but official replied that
the Marshall plantation and that be knew nothing of the they would us* only material
Sharpe Ferry to the torch. A bones and teeth but the rock wu approved by the U.8. Bureau of
band of the Marion Guards rode the richest ample of phosphate Publlo Road Undaunted Rose I Y Money
out to repulse the Northerners he had ever _II. Mining firms convinced the federal government 1
but four less rode back. This was peculator and hundreds of new that the llmerock wu u l11//
the only actual combat in the residents poured in and the county good or better than other mater '
ials. Within a short time 11 llme:
county. wu off to another roaring period
of prosperity, Everyonewanted rock mines were operating In
One of Marlon County' sons to be on the bandwagon Marlon producing rocks for us* ltf'Q
wu to inscribe big name well, and new businesses were openedby all ever the state.Transportation .
however in the book of military the dozens. By 1890 Ocala
history with his fantastically hid a population of 1.904 and and agriculture.
daring bI-and-rua tactic five year later It stood at 4.597 expanded rapidly with the development
Colonel D. D.,Dleklns n of making it the fifth largest city of refrigerated railroad !
Orange Lake, a planter repeatedly In Florida following Jackson : ears and cold storage plant being VAIr .
defeated much larger and ville. Key West, Tampa and Fensaeola. built at Ocala
more experienced forces all over !
The depression stunned: the
North Florida. He even did a
-creditable job u a naval tactician In the midst of an this prosperity i county In October 1929. The number ,'
when he sunk a Union gunboat and optimism, fate wu of farm In operation remained ,
In the St. John River winding up another "one-two constant but money was
punch" that would floor the area. scarce. Relief project to widen o ,
Soldiers Return 4 0 On the nights I of Dec. 17-28. 1894 streets were started: At one .
'L point school official announced
me temperature dropped snarp-
One hundred the the The that. schools would be closed .be
yean ago ly ruining citrus crop. I .
'war wu nearly over but 1U' trees themselves were unharmed cause insufficient taxes were being
sights were everywhere. Along however People breathed relief collected to keep them op .
the streets of Ocala and on back u warm spring-like weather and erating. The American Legion \
I country roads could be seen the soft gentle rain walked the rolling started a campaign the county c:::>
remnant of butternut pay uniforms countryside. Then, between urging veterans to pay up their '

on bitter disillusioned men midnight and dawn, Feb. I, thesecond taxea. The group's success wu C9.. nsJim" ..
returning from hopeless battles. ) punch landed.' It wu reflected the following year r
Field lay fallow because there destined to become one of the when a state auditor reported the
wu no OlIO to do the planting, darkest hours in the history of school lystem. .in "good condi 00
and there were no repl&oemelllofor the slat*. Temperature fell farbolOIt'
WOl'lloutoolt.. Rouse were freezing and stayed there. Ulan.I Mea -Beatea 00.
In disrepair because there wu Daylight found. the fruit"frown,
little money for anything but absolute solid, the leaves curled and the The early 1930s could also be
necessities. According to bark of 'the trees split Marian called the time of the "range
a letter of the .day. a row or County's citrus one third of the fight" Ranchers bad been used
pins cart sloe castor all wu $30 entire crop In the state, bad been to letting their "wood cattli" .
a quart and sugar wu &2S al wiped out. Many grove owners and herd of "ram-back bog .
pound. Then In April 1885 word went broke, sold their bouses and free to grate where they pleased. -C
reached Marios County that Oen. long Ind left. Other .stayed. But the development of vegetable <:>
Robert E. Lee bad surrendered.The chopped out the dead trees and farms subdivisions and roads
time were difficult; North' started- again. soon caused problems. The farm- =

era appointed officials held the ers and property owner who w =
'state and county lovernmenU'ln Faced. Bankruptcy tried to fence off the land ran
f their hand and there wu little head-on into the ranchers. Old- cw
sympathy for the supporters of 1 As a result of the disaster.: timers recall that there were few -
-the laterebellion.Slowly the Ocala faced bankruptcy. Script things more startling and frightening
plantations were' restored and depreciated and local: merchants: than to go touring down a
hope returned. Ocala became an even refused the city credit to. country road in a "tin Uny" ''- .
organized municipality- 1867 buy office supplies. At this point and come suddenly face to face .
and by 1870 boasted population the county found Itself virtually with a rangy, mean-tempered, .
at 10304., state. Henry M. Plaster was :
building his railroad down the la 1930 three men were flogged .' t
Business Revive Eut Coast 'and other railroads, by ranchers for interfering with ,
the lifeblood and hop of the the herd The ,seven men arS' : '
By this Urn riverboats .were ,
splashing regularly up. the Okla- ; wv-="fcrr.i'-
waha River with machinery :(; ;\
cloth tools and household goods
On piers at Silver Springs -frsKSmM 1- y '. &i .
Payne Landing and dozens of ,;. '1

> others, now forgotten stood bales ..
of deerhldei cured mess, vanilla f,
leaves, barrels of sugar and other -
product of the county for shipment '
to Palatks where they "
would find their war to the rest
tf the state and country. .1

The IMOs were great times for r ., ,,",
the county.. A railroad, the Silver 41A
Springs Ocala and Oulf bad ,
Joined the first two communities : ,
la Its name and > was headed
west la 1881 another railroad 0 :'
Ocala's reached population Oeala reached from Waldo.Ml In Unit, had\ their eyed tiles kg rest!- ,In tht Incident Wars r... :' l.:: \ :{ "

IBM and was to number l.Ktt( by the south int. et the ,state' 'ieuei but It wu only a tmporiry /,
victory. lor the nnshenThl .
the end of the decade. The town '
wu also becoming major com. True eventually hailed the list ordered *. end It the
.merclal and tourist center of the damsas sod slowly the aril ..*. fret rang principle and In UM I
1 state. coven*. The Day Nineties la relief work! project started satl
: Marten County saw. Henry. A. ini fences ana lulldlni
a'a railroad U guards ,T. .
Another Blew 'II. A
? r
the area and a hospital "
n wu about this time, on the started in tin top floor .f the Thin wu Us the "Uml it the '.
bright fall morning of Nov. 29, Baptist Witness Building at fort eras a state eons)" u Marine ', ', .' / f"J,
White County After numerous astbaeki
1M3 that fat wound up another"baymaktr" King and Oscsola Street. M '
for the booming city the aopuiatioa at Oetia 1t.III- officials were suoMssful U getting
tf Ocala. People were gatheringat died to l.tM, the seunt 's rM federal fund to begin the Today. to modern'JacbonviUe the wheels are going around
the railroad depot on Osceola from llm la. IIM to 14,401 in trtjett that' had been talked
about for Nearly too years ii
,, South Street street, between for a Oklawaha bit Common and 1900. September: 1WJ, Pmldsnt Frank. Nut than ever WoM -wheeli on tractor and earth 1210\011. wheel on every kind! of equipment used'in

'ty Thanksgiving outing to Lake The lure at the century ; (in p, Roowvelt pushed a button

-Weir., A* the train pulled out market the bsglnnlng at" the in New York that ait off I I takes to 'Iud those wheels spinning and It takei money to keep them spinning
sparks from the engine Ignited hart road ira la the 'csuety. blast shout pine mils OUJh el: building, It money e *

>some paper and dried grass under Th* first am was built Joining\ Dealt signalling tM stir .

'> southeast a' furniture corner of store Main and at Ok.the Ocala) in* Kandfteii id project.. .the Thousands canal jar at A men lime warn Sad' Thtt'i our job-.to help provide, the money that maker the wheels go hours)1 I' How good a job-do we do? :

treat. consists tilings winintttl
husks streets. In a': matter of rem11al brews

'enveloped.seconds the and frame flames building spread wu to flie early lion lair a rlMdeviltpmant ibaioon4 within, 1 shark ttnt tiWM Last year, Chartei Mortfafi helped finance the bulldiaf and buying of mere eonttruetion in Dural Cotmty ,"

w rtnt drug nearby ttor*. Ocala Men House leaped and from a county artl.tf ulsrly urtiulturt la vtntahl Ml ih* World WU 0 fnkrittl' I tut* thaft* any ether JtckionrUJe flnantUl Jut uUoa. .
mi tMlvt th* **uBtr' '
the train and formed bucket prtdiuUo Naval itent beeam ;: WijeriU 'i:
tf Menl *V4&ea >
the court- an important ( and turps kUldrM* "
,11nee from a pump on Kb
tiM stills Item aU *vr th* a to ma* Mi IUM

have fanned wooden square.the buildings name A brisk between until fall an breeae South the air coutitoT"j&ny VM WM: weds 1rtII?: Via tthar aroetaslnt riUsaUy \ ?;:sinuspAece\. We'csli'our service, 1' stuue with reason !

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.'H.Automobile.*, Pedestrian Jammed $t, Johns River Bridge, Now Acosta, Opening Day, .July.,1,' 1921. Span Then Had 45-Foot Roadway Two 7-Foot Sidewaksl'woTrolley] : Track,: '11J::;

J Opening of Auto Span Was Gala Event


By DAVE WHITNEY croon 'the river' either did ae by ferry boat or by train over bridge and the railroad bridge played a major role In the witnessed the event. X. Fleming Bowden wu marshal' of the
v10..17'''' NJt wuw the Florida East Coast Railroad Bridge, just west 'of the. lit. site of the new span. The UJ. Engineers wanted the bridge day '
Johns Bridge. located In the Riverside section of town, west of the railroad ior Itself
PayS Quickly
The biggest marriage that ever took place In Jacksonvillewu bridge but bridge proponents "fought for a downtown location. '
The railroad bridge wu till first span ever built across the ,
the day they tied the knot between South Jacksonville and The bridge wa paid for ta one-third the time the officialshad
the downtown area at the grind opening d the St. John St. Johns River ta the Jacksonville area. It was given birth A compromise was reached and a permit wu ranted to originally estimated. At midnight on Deo. 31, 1939 the
River Bridge, the tint automobile-passenger thoroughfare across br the Jacksonville Bridge Con a Henry M. Flagler organization, build the motor vehicle bridge 70 feet east ot the railroad toll gates were removed and k became a free bridge.
on Nov. I, 1881 the day it was decided to build. bridge. Stockton then act It Florkla the
the river. got a apodal through the Legislatureto was given to the State of by bridge com
Censtncled ta ISO make the new bridge a toll faculty and construction wu mission alone with a surplus In revenue of $728,172.12 to be
later' named the St. :Elmo W, AcoMa Bridge In honor of begun, applied tDbe construction of another bridge across the St.
the man who devoted many years of his life to get the bridge Construction on the bridge began In January '1889 and it Johns at Main Street. The Main Street Bridge wu completedand
built the structure which now stretches from the Riverside wu opened to railroad traffic'on Jan. 20 1890. The bridge 'When 'it came time to open the'' J.STWoot bridge a total dedicated a* a free span In 1941
Viaduct to the; head of San Marco Boulevard on the Southsldewu wu operated by the Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax 'd $1,187,862'had been spent In its construction. Tolls on the
dedicated on July 1. 1921. River Railway! Co. until Nor. 1.' 1892. new span ran from 2 cents for a toot passenger to 50 cents On Aug. 17. 1949 .two 'ear.alter Acosta' death the last

Prior to the opening ot the pew bridge people wishing to The Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Indian River Railway Co. for a horse and rider. IS cents for an auto roadster and major ceremonies change came presided to the over Jacksonville by.tormer Gov.John and River Mrs.Bridge.In Fuller.
passenger 50 cents for "ox-drawn vehicles drawn 'b, one
assumed control of the bridge by purchasing stock In the
Warren the 0be bridge was changed to the Acosta
r bridge company. Eventually. after a series of name changes: yoke of oxen and driver" with a 10 cent extra charge for each Bridge. name
the Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Indian River Railway became additional yoke of oxen and 75 cents for a "rubber neck or
: The lift, span of the bridge wu designed so that It would
the Florida East Coast Railway"Co. sightseeing car and driver
: New SpansOn I be .85 feet above water level for easy navigation of water
Shortly after the opening of the railroad bridge, the automobile Grand OpeningThe traffic and a lift pan wu Installed which could be raised an
became a popular mode of transportation in the Jacksonville additional 103 feet to accommodate larger vessel.'
area. It wu not unusual for cart to line up and grand opening wu a gala affair of three days featuring
alt for hours on Sundays at the ferry'slip at' the foot of official receptions, fancy dress balls and downtown street Spaa Incidents
Main Street waiting 10'cross the "river and head forbe dances. The largest parade ever assembled In Jacksonville Twice during the life of the bridge the lift span has provedto
beaches. brought 30,000 people to the opening, ceremonies. be the undoing of careless people,' -

Horizon Two factions In Duval County-one strongly supporting the Miss Katherine Wilson broke a bottle of champagne) against Once ta the early '1940s the pan was raised with the'

ji construction ot a motor vehicle bridge and one just u strongly the bridge railing and officially dubbed it "the Jacksonville guard rails down, leaving a gaping space Along whizzed a
, opposing it-pitched a heated battle for several year before St. Johns River Bridge" the afternoon of July 1, 1921. An young man on a motorcycle and went plunging toward the river.
the decision wu finally !left up to the voters on July 10, 1917 estimated 1,000 automobiles formed a constant procession ever By coincidence a boat happened to be passing underneath and

", The growth of the Jacksonvillearea Since It* opening' the waterfront Bond Issue Voted the bridge on the opening day. the cyclist landed safelyon, Its deck.
related areas on both sides of the The second occasion happened Sunday afternoon In 1949.!
directly one
A dedication platform had been built in the center of the
County resident approved a bond !Issue of 930,000 to get
with the accessibility of crossing Warren Bridge have also 'been The bridge tender on duty had been '01.n all-night binge
the bridge project rolling and the first shovel of dirt was lilt span for the opening ceremonies and Gov. Carey A. Bardee
j the St. Johns River demon- developed into business areas and to relieve- the monotony of his dan work be' decidedto
y turned on the construction site two later William P. Belote the mayor of South Jacksonville Acosta. mem-
Insurance offices yean on Sept. 25, 1919.
housing major the This he did three
itrated most strikingly bybe ben raise and lower span. times-giving
of the
I by Acosta. State Road Department, county commissioners,
F' phenomlnal growth of the Arlington and the Baptist Hospital. bridge bond trustees finance committee members city council'men the passenger In the car atop the span the thrill of their lives

}t. area following the construction More 1e Coma Oddly enough a basalt brewed over the location ot the city commissioners and Chamber of Commerce official His bridge lending; days ended right there.

of the John E. Mathews .-. ,.-------,. ._ --_... ._.__. --- --- -------_._,--------,-_._.._--_._-------_.._..- --
Bridge from Commodore'a Point
on the Jacksonville side of the Still more growth can be ex ,
i'j river to the Chaseville area on peeled with the completion of two I

the Arlington aide more major spans acrost the St. ,I'1 1
'j, I Johns one the Commodore'sPoint '
settler Bridge wu begun this summer
f, Prom the time the first
planted their roots at Cowford. a and completion Is set for ;
i+,, site near the current county courthouse November 1967. This bridge will u

battle, W there find began a better a constant way to at bring the about eastern the section redevelopment of down- Reporter's 'Lo tJ Bridge Story :Stands Test of Years

town Jackonmlle" into a highly .0.
cross the river and promote the i Intent business; district replacing tdltor't NDt,.' The following and lived through the thrill of i' It could tell about many tOo, I 4 It the inddge bad a brain, and St Elmo W. Aooeta fee daddy crossed the river. On Aug. 1, '191. -
I growth ot Jacksonville. the outmoded rental housing units article wu disoeeered in Floe/ \ his life riding his machine down, I I[ pie many incidents but rObe/.I la tongue it would talk and of the bridge If it has one- county commissioner adopted a
which fill the area now, I Ida Publishing1 Company1fletl Into the river I bly It wouldn't. I reminisce a. you -might do- handed hU hat to a neighbor, resolution bY'wbIeD. they could
For and FerryAt white research for this pedal about yourself. grabbed a shovel, and turned the employ engineers to build.

yr I 1 On the south tide ot the river edition mat first it was Just what Its name more Industrial development will apparently was written' e "'ftj" The bridge, only 21 yean and Next day, commissioners employed
Implied a lord where livestock take place Including expressway auarter ot s century ate. or .: ; tome three months In evidence The St. 'JoI n. River Bridge the engineering firm < of
" and man alike, waded the river, extensions linking the new bridge mart peclaeI4te in int. It .; !! 'i: on this earth has thousands to( was under way at last, It wun't Harrington Howard and Ash. A
tster' as a little settlement developed to Atlantic and Bead) boulevards was scheduled to run on NewYear's .: chapters in its life and today III I a charmed structure however week later the contract wu exe
on the river banks little opening up new areas for development Day 1140. when the turning a page-lor a new one.(; and It wun't constructed until cuted. y
ferry was put Into service to ease of shopping center and Acosta'Brido.. (then the St. 'f : II after long, bItter political fights
the' transportation of human small businesses.. Johnt River Bridget vat'toopen At midnight Sunday the span which off and on bad run througha Then came more debate''over !
beings and their 'belongingsacross for the tint time tott-lret. becomes what it started out to quarter, of a century.In the type of bridge It was to be.
"I the St. Johns. r Still Another Spec The article reads at veil notiat \1r be but took' two decades in becoming Some wanted this kind others
\ it would have in 1HO tnt at a free bridge. 1904 Acosta started agitation that.,
I came Construction another flits late date amounts to allIlIt."tlllg for- the bridge across the
Eventually a larger ferry span ride light on local When 1940 la born the bridge
it will begin soon from a point about t river connecting Jacksonville On July IK:1917 county waters'went
and with camea
Into service three miles south of JacksonvilleNaval history goes over to the state from the and South Jacksonville Folks to the polls and voted 3,405
of people.
larger settlement <. 'letii county and toll takers will put up for and 2.581 bond
Air Station on Roosevelt too Inanimate called him crazy against a
more ferries It Is bad objects
the population grew iv their tickets and cola changers
into service, Finally in Boulevard to Plummera Point lathe like the $t. Johns River Bridge of $950,000 for building the
were put for the last time., '
In 1913 the State' Legislature highway bridge
Mandarin Area. This bridge
1890 a railroad bridge was opened talk only in fairy tales.
I is expected to open up a whole passed bill permitting a bridgeto -
to facilitate the handling of t Tea hours later county and
freight across the river new residential area and the The bridge, lilt but could state officials holders of political be built and In that same year The battle wu about ever. Opponents
ihenomlnal( growth experiencedIn might spin some tales, stir some office up and down the East the County Board of Commissioners made a last effort in the
the Arlington area since the memories start some thoughts, t I Cout will gather on the spaa wu petitioned to build it. courts lost, and the bonds were
Next came the Acosta Bridge completion of the Mathews Bridge pang some hearts. for ceremonies formally marking Issued and sold July, 22, 1919.
In 1921 which led to the -annexation I expected to be repeated in the 4 the The fight which had been nin- r
toll-lifting and
i' and development ot South Mandarin-Loretto area. ft might It 1t could ten how taking over. nlnr-in fill and starts since the Two months later Commissioner .

. Jacksonville Into the formation the men and women looked, the That win be at 10 a.m.'an early 1900s broke Into a war. Industries Acosta shucked his coat..
\, of a larger -urban complex, At Each successive river span has way they acted before climbing j ',? hour that once before played a big interests private grabbed his shovel ., .,
the end of World War n the opened up new vistas of opportunity ever its railings and plummeting part in the history of the stone citizens pitched into the conflict
.; third bridge-the Main Street or to area residents. Each M feet down Into the curling tide 1 and metal link In U.S. 1. against the project Proponents Not Quite 21 month later, on
Almp apan-waa constructed and bridge means new Industry more ...and death rallied to the cause. July 1.. 1921. the bridge was
the city continued to mushroom lobe, more housing areas Increased ; It was Uial'bouf 21 yean ago. : thrown open to the public with
. to the north west and south during payrolls and more money There are no records but men i-S: on Sept. 2>, 1919. Under the Riverside The span wu to be east of great fanfare.
I the post war boom.Inaccessible pouring Into the Duval County and women have died that way Viaduct milled 1,500 persons Main Street. Then at Main The celebration of "DuvalCounty'
( ( economy. in the 184 yean of the brldge'iexistence. mostly men. out for an Street's end. Then out In Riverside
gift to Florida"! lasted
T Area a {r bRail event which wu to make front where Memorial Park now
) three days. Governor and Mrs.
I The St. Johns River and Its It could tell funny stories, 'page reading In the Florida! Metropolis Is. The. fight went on. Hardee wen in the city for the

,.' To the east of Jacksonville was crossings are the propagators ol thrilling stories ... like the modern a few hours later ; Early In 19U the 0A Corps of event Band played Notables

}J1 a large area, sparsely populated an ever-expend/ng Greater Jacksonville Steve Brodle who drove hi* Cameru snapped. People 1 Engineer were asked to approve made tpeeehes. Fireworks
and almost completely Inaccessible motorcycle Into the open draw- Span Was Converted to Double Track In 1926p. posed. Then,CIty Commissioner,!the ails where finally the oridgeTh boomed and fizzled. There were
'JJ. to the downtown area with parades the Gne' 1711 the river

; out a lone hard drive to the South s made "ft... o fall manner of craft.
side and then attract one d the { 5a 73 i r N> ,. .e tri r- a + an r' Including six naval destroyer.

J existing bridges Into downtown Jaxon danced In the streets Receptions

1.I Jacksonville. were held.

So tremendous
Jacksonville was the party
The newly-organized
that funds ran out before bills
Expressway Authority began
were met,
and"bridge badges-
consideration of a bridge to link
were MM to make the
up deficit
the Arlington area directly with

the downtown business complex The total cost of the- bridge
I via an extension. had been .
expressway zs $1,193,000 or $743,
S; 000 more than the original cost
II; The authority let bonds to estimate. In 1921 a second bond
, finance the construction of a high- Issue for 1250,000 provided the
level span and work began May ; rest of the needed money
'17, 1950. The bridge named after .
J, former state legislator and The publie had been made tounderstand
supreme court justice John E. the. bridge would be
Mathewa wu opened to traffl treed of toll Vhen tt paid for

M April 15, 1953. Itself and the issue of a tree
l: bridge arose early

Tea Yean Later Bridge tag for the last half
(t 1921 sold for 115. In 1922 they
After len yean of operation cost 317.50 for half a year: In .
he Mathewa Bridge has seen 1923 they went down to
;V" a x 130 a
Arlington grow to an area with 'fl' t c sraa fsv a,. year A* the yean went by they

a population of over 50.000 people. it dropped first to $12 then to it
Not only did the bridge help a "r' it to n / .3 2' ry t iy 6++ 4y 4 and finally to $1.
j ar
build a new city across the river 'i :.