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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
r6 ( Central Science
C University of Florida Libnary
7- q-- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences OCT 23 1987
CENTRAL FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CE ER nivesty of
Sanford, Florida U of Florida
Research Report SAN 87-04 November 1986
SWEET CORN NEMATICIDE TRIAL
H. L. Rhoades
Sweet corn is an important vegetable crop in Florida that has grown
from an annual production of approximately 6,000 acres in 1947-48 to
51,900 harvested acres having a total value of over $67 million in
1984-85. Approximately 25 to 30% of the area in production consists of
fine sandy soils where the sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus,
is a severe pest of sweet corn as well as many other vegetable crops.
While many other nematodes parasitize and injure sweet corn, experience
has shown that the majority of yield losses on sandy soils in Florida
has resulted from sting nematode injury.
In the late winter and spring of 1986, a nematicide trial was
conducted at CFREC-Sanford on Myakka fine sand infested with B.
longicaudatus, the lance nematode, Hoplolaimus galeatus, and the
stubby-root nematode, Paratrichodorus christiei. The experiment was
designed to compare the efficacy of soil fumigant and nonfumigant -
nematicides for controlling plant nematodes and-increasing-sweet-corn---
yields. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with
five replicates. Plot size was 5 feet (2 rows) X 38 feet. The
nematicides involved in the experiment were:
1. Telone II (dichloropropene), Dow Chemical Co.
2. Busan 1020 (metam-sodium), Buckman Laboratories, Inc.
1. Mocap (ethoprop), Rhone-Poulenc, Inc.
2. Nemacur (fenamiphos), MOBAY Chemical Corp.
3. Furadan (carbofuran), FMC Corp.
4. Counter (terbufos), American Cyanamid Co.
The fumigants were applied with a hand injector on 17 March.
Telone II was applied as a single row of injections spaced 10 inches
apart and 8 inches deep, and Busan 1020 was applied in two rows spaced
10 inches apart with the injections spaced at 10 inches and 8.inches
deep. The nonfumigants were applied on March 24. They were applied as
granular formulations in 15-inch bands in-the-row and incorporated 2-3
inches with spiked rotary cultivator wheels. 'Silver Queen' sweet corn
was planted on 25 March,'and a stand count was made on 14 April.
Cultural practices were normal for the central Florida area, and the
corn was harvested twice (13 & 17 June).
The results are presented in Table 1. Telone II, Nemacur, and
Counter significantly reduced sting nematode populations. The soil
fumigants significantly reduced lance nematode populations, but
nonfumigants appeared to have little or no effect on them as has been
observed in previous experiments. The stubby-root nematode had
increased to highest populations following the use of the soil
fumigants; however, this is a phenomenon that has been reported many
times. Yields were significantly increased for all nematicide
treatments indicating that sufficient protection had been provided early
in the experiment to allow root establishment.
Table 1. Effect of nematicides on nematode populations, plant stand,
and yield of sweet corn.
Nematodes Plant Ears
Treatment Rate/A Sting Lance, Stubby stand harvested Yield
Check --- 219 183 48 64 17 10.5
Telone-II 6 gal 95 4 121 69 40 26.4
Busan 1020 30 141 67 83 74 38 26.1
Mocap 2 lb 222 177 33 68 34 22.1
3 201 199 38 77 43 28.2
Nemacur 2 35 167 45 62 34 22.9
3 20 174 44 65 37 24.9
Furadan 2 209 214 44 65 37 25.6
i 3 177 157 34 67 37 25.5.
Counter 2 58 208 32 70 36 25.0
LSD 0.05 75 122 31 N.S. 6.5 4.3
0.01 101 N.S. 41 N.S. 8.7 5.8
aAverage number of nematodes extracted.from 100 cc of soil.
bAverage number of plants per plot 28 days after planting.
number of ears harvested in 38 ft.-of row length.
pounds of corn
obtained from 38 ft. of row length.