• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Main
 General research methods
 Experiment 1
 Experiment 2
 Experiment 3
 Experiment 4














Group Title: Central Florida Experiment Station mimeo report - Central Florida Research & Education Center ; CFS-70-1
Title: Experimental control of cabbage loopers and aphids on cabbage and rutabaga
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075851/00001
 Material Information
Title: Experimental control of cabbage loopers and aphids on cabbage and rutabaga
Series Title: Central Florida Experiment Station mimeo report - Central Florida Research & Education Center ; CFS-70-1
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Greene, Gerald L.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Central Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: Central Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1970
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075851
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 123227486

Table of Contents
    Main
        Main 1
    General research methods
        Page 1
    Experiment 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Experiment 2
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Experiment 3
        Page 9
    Experiment 4
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








Cr-s


CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Sanford, Florida


Mimeo Report CFS70-1 July 14, 1969


EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF CABBAGE LOOPERS

AND APHIDS ON CABBAGE AND RUTABAGA

Gerald L. Greene

Assistant Professor (Assistant Entomologist)


The results given in this report are not intended as insect control
recommendations but are compiled to indicate the performance of the
materials tested during 1968-69 at Sanford, Florida.

Control of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae is nearly impossible
to obtain using currently recommended materials, particularly when large
late instar larvae are abundant. A continual program of chemical testing
to find better control materials is needed. Materials which will control
loopers and aphids, both the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and the
green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) are needed, therefore aphid ratings were
made in conjunction with the looper control tests.

General Research Methods

All materials used in these experiments were applied using a tractor-
mounted sprayer with a 4 row boom. Six nozzles were used for each row,
two nozzles directly over the row and two on each side of the plant. One
of the side nozzles was directed towards the top of the cabbage plants;
the other towards the base of the plants just above the soil surface. The
tractor speed was approximately 3 mph and 100 gal of water per acre were
used at approximately 250 psi pressure.

Data collected at harvest were the same for each looper experiment.
The looper rating system used was a numerical scale of 1 to 6 as follows:
1 = no apparent insect feeding, 2 = minor insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves, 0-1% leaf area eaten, 3 = moderate insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves with no head damage, 2-5% leaf area eaten, 4 = moderate insect feeding
on wrapper or outer leaves with minor feeding on head, 6-10% leaf area eaten,
head unmarketable during normal marketing conditions, 5 = moderate to heavy
feeding on wrapper and head leaves and a moderate number of feeding scars on
head, 11-30% of leaf area eaten, 6 = considerable insect feeding on wrapper
and head leaves with head having numerous feeding scars, 30-100% of leaf area
eaten.











-2-


The aphid rating system was based on numbers of aphid present on all leaves
of the plant;
1 = 0 aphids on plant
2 = 1-2 "
3 = 3-10 "
4 = 11-25 "
5 = 26-50 "
6 = 50-100 "
7 = 100 + "

All ratings were made on 10 plants from the middle of each of four repli-
cations. Each plot was 50 ft long and consisted of four rows, in some tests
all rows were King Cole cabbage and in one test, one of the middle rows was
planted to rutabaga.

Experiment I

Cooperative Cabbage Looper and Aphid Tests

Results from the Central Florida part of the cooperative cabbage looper
tests being conducted at four Florida stations are given. Insecticide appli-
cations were made during the spring when looper populations were highest.
Readings of looper damage, number of looper larvae per plot and per week as
well as aphid ratings were made.

Cabbage for this experiment was direct seeded January 17, 1969, and rutabaga
was seeded January 20, 1969.

Nine weekly applications of insecticides were made from April 9 through
June 4 and damage readings were made one week later, June 12 (Table 1).

Two looper counts were made on all plots during the treatment period
April 29 and June 4 (Table 2). Looper larvae were counted on the rutabaga
May 4, 1969 (Table 2).











-3-


Table 1. Cabbage looper damage readings
Sanford, Florida, 1969.


on cabbage taken June 12, 1969 at


Harvest % unmarketable
Material Lb. AI/acre rating/ heads


vcs 506
Azodrin
Fundal EP 333
Monitor
Azodrin
SD 16898
Thuricide 90TS
Azodrin
Biotrol + Molasses
SD 17250
Biotrol
Biotrol Dust
DuPont 1642
UC 34096
Furadan
Lannate
Parathion + Toxaphene
C-9491
Niran 6-3
IMC 10,001-1
Dibrom
Meta Systox-R
Check
Phosdrin


1.0
2.0
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.0
2 qt.
0.75
2.0 + 1 gal
1.0
2.0
20.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.5 + 2.0
1.5
.56 + .28
1.0
2.0
0.5


0.5


2.60 a
2.90 a
3.18 ab
3.75 bc
3.82 bcd
3.85 bcde
4.05 cde
4.20 cdef
4.30 cdefg
4.48 cdefgh
4.50 cdefgh
4.52 defgh
4.60 efgh
4.60 efgh
4.82 fgh
4.92 fgh
4.92 fgh
4.92 fgh
5.02 gh
5.02 gh
5.08 h
5.15 h
5.18 h
5.20 h


1/Numbers followed by the same letter are not
5% level of confidence by Duncan's multiple


significantly different at the
range test.


33
38
45
68
68
73
70
78
78
93
85
95
93
93
100
93
98
98
100
100
100
100
100
100











-4-


Table 2. Numbers of cabbage looper larvae counted on cabbage and rutabaga plots
Sanford, Florida, 1969.

Avg. No. of looper larvae/40 plants
Cabbage Rutabaga
Material Lb. AI/acre 4-291/ 6-4/ 5-4


Fundal EP 333
VCS 506
Azodrin
Thuricide 90TS
Biotrol Dust
Lannate
Biotrol
UC 34096
Biotrol + molasses
Phosdrin
Parathion + Toxaphene
Meta Systox-R
IMC 10,001-1
DuPont 1642
Niran 6-3
C 9491
Furadan
Dibrom
SD 17250
SD 16898
Check
Monitor


0.5
1.0
0.75
2 qt.
20.0
0.5
2.0
0.5
2.0 + 1 gal
0.5
0.5 + 2.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
.56 + .28
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0


0.75


.18
.20
.42
.55
.75
.78
.85
.98
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.30
1.32
1.32
1.35
1.38
1.42
1.50
2.20
2.30


a
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
ab
abc
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
bcd
cd
d


.07
.02
.57
.77
.62
1.02
1.07
.65
.32
.57
.87
1.00
.37
1.50
3.82
1.45
.80
2.02
.17
.45
.95
.17


0.33
0.15
0.50

--

0.33


0.40


0.35
0.68
0.18


0.55
0.63
1.73
0.55
0.50
0.30
0.38
0.73
0.18


1/Nu'bnrs followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5% level of significance by Duncan's multiple range test.
2-No significant differences.
3/Not analyzed.











-5-
Table 3. Natural population counts of looper eggs
cabbage plants, Sanford, Florida, 1969.


and larvae on untreated


No. of
plants No. of % of plants No. ofl/
Date sampled eggs with eggs larvae-


March 26

April 4

8

11

14

21

29

May 5

12

19

26

June 4


100

100

100

100

100

100

40

40

40

40

40


5

18

2

0

27

10

88

111

80

7

87


31

58

79

0

112

114

112

316

254

312

171

38


looper larvae of all sizes counted on all parts of


/Cabbage


the cabbage plants.











-6-


Table 4. Aphid ratings on cabbage and rutabaga plots treated with insecticides,
Sanford, Florida, 1969.

Avg. rating/40 plants
Cabbage Rutabaga
Material Lb. AI/acre 4-29Y 6-4/ 5-42


Phosdrin
Azodrin
Niran 6-3
Fundal EP 333
Monitor
Parathion + Toxaphene
SD 17250
Check
SD 16898
VCS 506
IMC 10,001-1
Meta Systox-R
Biotrol + Molasses
C 9491
Biotrol Dust
Dibrom
Lannate
Furadan
UC 34096
Thuricide 90TS
DuPont 1642
Biotrol


0.5
0.75
0.56 + 0.28
0.5
0.75
0.5 + 2.0
1.0


1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
2.0 + 1 gal
1.5
20.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
2 qt.
0.5
2.0


1/No significant differences.

2/Numbers followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5% level of confidence by Duncan's multiple range test.


3.20
3.60
3.00
3.05
2.82
3.22
3.50
3.35
3.02
3.52
3.50
3.20
3.68
3.15
3.75
2.78
3.05
2.98
3.25
3.58
3.02
3.92


1.02 a
1.02 a
1.05 ab
1.10 ab
1.10 ab
1.15 ab
1.22 ab
1.22 ab
1.25 abc
1.28 abc
1.30 abc
1.32 abc
1.42 abc
1.42 abc
1.42 abc
1.42 abc
1.62 abc
1.80 abcd
1.82 bcd
2.00 cd
2.35 de
2.85 e


2.48 bc
1.22 a
2.92 cd
2.85 cd
1.18 a
3.52 d
2.95 cd
5.10 e
3.62 d
2.60 bc
--4
1.78 ab


5.40 e
--


1.82
1.72
1.08
3.30


2.88 cd
2.88 cd







-7-


The number of looper eggs and larvae on nontreated check plots were counted
weekly to give an indication of what population pressure was present (Table 3).
The looper count was very high during May, nearly seven worms per plant, then
decreased at the end of May when the cabbage plants matured.

The damage ratings in Table 1 reflect the large number of larvae present.

The percentage of heads unmarketable was extremely high indicating the
weekly application schedule was too long a treatment interval. The first six
materials listed in Table 1 gave reasonable control even though up to 73% of
the heads were damaged. Several materials which had looked good in previous
tests did not give good results: Lannate, DuPont 1642, UC 34096, and Niran 6-3.

Counts of larvae on cabbage plants in the treated plots (Table 2) were
quite variable, yet the materials that gave the lowest damage ratings generally
had the lower number of larvae present.

The large variations in larval counts may have resulted from the counting
of small newly hatched larvae which had not contacted a lethal dose of insecticide.

Aphid ratings taken April 29 on cabbage showed no significant differences
between treatments (Table 4). On rutabaga there were six materials with a two
or less average rating. The rutabaga rating may give the best indication of
aphid control.

Experiment II

Control of Loopers with Lannate Insecticide

Lannate received registration for use on cabbage to control loopers and
two tests were conducted concerning its effectiveness for looper control on
direct seeded plants and interval of spray applications.

Direct seeding of cabbage in central Florida is a farming practice being
adopted by several cabbage growers. An insect control program has not been
worked out for this practice. The ideal program would be to place an insecticide
in the row at planting time to protect the plants from insects until the plants
begin to head.

Lannate granules were placed in the row with the seeds at 0.5, 1, and 3
pounds AI per acre. This rate was based on a broadcast rate, but was concentrated
in the row. The rate per plant was approximately six times heavier than that
given due to the concentration in the row.

Treatments were applied to four replicates December 18, 1968 and plant
readings were taken December 30. This count indicated there were more plants in
the 3 lb. rate, but all rates showed phytotoxic effects. A second reading
January 21 showed no plants in any treatment compared to 60% survival in check
plots. Lannate at these rates was phytotoxic to Sanibel cabbage seedlings and
insect control could not be recorded.

In another King Cole cabbage plot spray intervals of Lannate were used.
The spray applications and larval counts are shown in Table 5.








- 8 -


Table 5. Damage readings in cabbage plots treated with
Lannate at different spray intervals.


0.50 lb. AI/acre of


Avg. larvae/50 planjsl-
Plot Plot Plot Avg. larvae/
No. No. No. 50 plants
Spray Dates 1 Larvae 2 Lairae 3 Larvae Check

April 8 .36 .24 .24 .28
9 X X X
15 .10 -- .34
18 x
22 .64 .08 -- .30
24 X X X
28 -- .16 -- 1.68
May 1 X .02 X .26
5 .08 .36 .78 .96
13 4.07 2.64 3.04 4.00
20 2.84 1.72 -- 6.80
28 X 11.10 X 4.38 X 2.38 2.76
June 4 X 6.02 X -- X -- 5.96
Damage rating
June 12 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.4
% marketable
heads 0 0 0 0


X = treated


on that day.


All treatment intervals resulted in non-marketable cabbage. In plot one
the four weekly treatment from April 9 through May 1 resulted in nearly worm
free plants until May 5, compared to check plants which had over one worm per
plant. The lack of treatments May 13 and 20 occurred when looper populations
were extremely high, 4 and 6.8 per plant in the check. There were four times
more loopers in plot one on May 28 than in check plots. This resulted from
plot one having much healthier plants with fewer worm holes than in the check
plot. Lannate applied weekly gave less than adequate control of an already
present looper population in late May and early June. The high population
during May resulted in extreme damage in all plots in this test and in the
cooperative control plots where weekly applications were made.








Experiment III
Fundal Rates and Thuricide Spore Count

Two tests were conducted during the winter of 1969: 1. To check the rate of
Fundal which will control insects and the respective residues present and 2. Learn
if the spore count of Baccillus thuringiensis relates to insecticidal activity.
Cabbage for these tests was set into the field January 13, 1969.

Table 6. Cabbage looper and diamond back moth counts and damage ratings on cabbage
at Sanford, Florida, 1969.

Avg.
No. of diamonds Avg. looper
Lb. AI/acre & No. of looper back larvae/ aphid damage
application larvae/40 plants 40 plants rating rating
Material interval April 3 April 3 April 3 May 12

Fundal 0.25 2 0 2.5 1.1
0.50 0 0 2.5 1.4
0.75 0 0 2.3 1.2
1.0 7 days 0 0 2.1 1.2
1.0 14 days 0 O 2.1 1.1
Thuricide 90TS 1 qt 2.9
Thuricide LSHP 1 qt 2.7
Check -- 21 27 2.8 4.9


Ten applications were made weekly in the Fundal plots from February 20 through
April 22, only five applications in the 14 day interval plot. With the low popu-
lations of loopers present until April, the efficiency of Fundal rates were similar.


The Thuricide plots were treated four times,
damage had occurred before the first application.
the relative efficiency of low spore count versus


April 2 through 23 and some
Under low population pressure
high spore count was similar.


Experiment IV
ULV Applications

The use of ULV (Ultra Low Volume = 2 qts. or less liquid/acre) has been
inquired about and tests were conducted on an established looper population to learn
if ULV applications give effective control. A John Blue S-702 low volume sprayer
was used to apply Niran 6-3 and malathion 6 + parathion 3 to 2/3 acre blocks of
King Cole cabbage. The cabbage was seeded January 17 and results of tests are
shown in Table 7.

Rates applied were greater than planned, but even so,control was not complete.
At the rates used, nearly double those recommended, better looper control should
have been achieved. With recommended rates I would not expect the degree of control
desired. Aphid and diamond back control was very good after the April 25 treatment.








Experiment III
Fundal Rates and Thuricide Spore Count

Two tests were conducted during the winter of 1969: 1. To check the rate of
Fundal which will control insects and the respective residues present and 2. Learn
if the spore count of Baccillus thuringiensis relates to insecticidal activity.
Cabbage for these tests was set into the field January 13, 1969.

Table 6. Cabbage looper and diamond back moth counts and damage ratings on cabbage
at Sanford, Florida, 1969.

Avg.
No. of diamonds Avg. looper
Lb. AI/acre & No. of looper back larvae/ aphid damage
application larvae/40 plants 40 plants rating rating
Material interval April 3 April 3 April 3 May 12

Fundal 0.25 2 0 2.5 1.1
0.50 0 0 2.5 1.4
0.75 0 0 2.3 1.2
1.0 7 days 0 0 2.1 1.2
1.0 14 days 0 O 2.1 1.1
Thuricide 90TS 1 qt 2.9
Thuricide LSHP 1 qt 2.7
Check -- 21 27 2.8 4.9


Ten applications were made weekly in the Fundal plots from February 20 through
April 22, only five applications in the 14 day interval plot. With the low popu-
lations of loopers present until April, the efficiency of Fundal rates were similar.


The Thuricide plots were treated four times,
damage had occurred before the first application.
the relative efficiency of low spore count versus


April 2 through 23 and some
Under low population pressure
high spore count was similar.


Experiment IV
ULV Applications

The use of ULV (Ultra Low Volume = 2 qts. or less liquid/acre) has been
inquired about and tests were conducted on an established looper population to learn
if ULV applications give effective control. A John Blue S-702 low volume sprayer
was used to apply Niran 6-3 and malathion 6 + parathion 3 to 2/3 acre blocks of
King Cole cabbage. The cabbage was seeded January 17 and results of tests are
shown in Table 7.

Rates applied were greater than planned, but even so,control was not complete.
At the rates used, nearly double those recommended, better looper control should
have been achieved. With recommended rates I would not expect the degree of control
desired. Aphid and diamond back control was very good after the April 25 treatment.






- 10 -


Table 7. Insect control on cabbage after ULV
Malathion 6 + Parathion 3.


applications of Niran 6-3 and


Avg./50 plants
Applications Lb. AI/ Looper Aphids Diamond back
Date Material acre eggs larvae rating larvae + pupae

April 16 Check .33 .47 4.4 .24

April 17 Niran 6-3 2

18 Plot treated 4-17 .02 .28 2.9 --

April 25 Niran 6-3 1.25

Malathion 6 + Parathion 3 1.25

28 Niran 6-3 .4 .12 -- O

Malathion + Parathion .14 .20 -- O

Check 1.04 1.16 4.1 .59




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs