• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Vegetable crop nutrition, carrot...
 New crops, corn and sorghum varieties,...
 Nematode control on vegetables...
 Experimental control of cabbage...
 Research on disease control
 Weed control in vegetables, corn,...














Group Title: Annual field day - Central Florida Experiment Station
Title: Annual field day 1970
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075825/00004
 Material Information
Title: Annual field day 1970
Series Title: Annual field day.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Central Florida Experiment station ; 1970 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Central Florida Experiment Station, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1970
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075825
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144607730

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Vegetable crop nutrition, carrot variety trials, and water quality studies
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    New crops, corn and sorghum varieties, irrigation water studies
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Nematode control on vegetables and field corn
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Experimental control of cabbage loopers, corn earworms, and budworms
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Research on disease control
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Weed control in vegetables, corn, and soybean production
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




F ca ~


I I1


TOPICS

INSECT
CONTROL
P STICIDE S

BLACK
SPECK


CENTRAL
FLORIDA
EXPERI MENT
STATION


FIELD DAY


NEW
CROPS


MARCH


3,


1970


DISEASE
CONTROL


WATER
CONTROL
VARIETY
TRIALS


CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL .
SCIENCES
SANFORD, FLORIDA

SHUME LIBRAkR ', .
MAY 27 1970
SF.A.S. Univ. of Florida


U I











Annual Field Day

CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
In Cooperation With
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
Sanford and Zellwood Reports Combined

Experiment Station Farm
Sanford, Florida
Tuesday, March 3, 1970

Frank Jasa, Seminole County Extension Director, Presiding

Assembly and Registration 1:30 P. M.

Page

Welcome, J. F. Darby, Head, Central Florida Experiment Station

Vegetable Crop Nutrition, Carrot Variety Trials, and Water
Quality Studies 1
R. B. Forbes, Associate Soils Chemist

New Crops, Corn and Sorghum Varieties, Irrigation Water Studies 6
P. J. Westgate

Nematode Control on Vegetables and Field Corn 10
H. L. Rhoades, Associate Nematologist

Experimental Control of Cabbage Loopers, Corn Earworms, and
Budworms 16
G. L. Greene, Assistant Entomologist

Coffee Break Courtesy of Stauffer Chemical Company Florida Field
Research Station and Thompson-Hayward Chemical Company

Research on Disease Control 18
J. O. Strandberg, Assistant Plant Pathologist

Weed Control in Vegetables, Corn, and Soybean Production 23
W. T. Scudder, Horticulturist

Visit to Experimental Plots (optional)






- 1 -


VEGETABLE CROP NUTRITION, CARROT VARIETY TRIALS, AND WATER QUALITY STUDIES

R. B. Forbes

FERTILIZATION OF DIRECT SEDEDD CABBAGE

Because of current interest in seeding cabbage directly in the field, rather
than using transplants grown in a seedbed, a series of experiments was begun in
September 1969 to work out a fertilizer program for direct-seeded cabbage.

In the first experiment king Cole cabbage was seeded.with a Planet Jr. planter
on September 25. The final nbtes and measurements were taken when the plants were
48 days old and had reached the size normally used for transplanting.


Fertilization of Direct Seeded Cabbage, Height and Growth Ratings

Heights/ 1
Treatment inches Ratingl
1. Check, no fertilizer 2.8 1.2
2. Preplant, 5-5-8-2 @ 500 lbs/A + 500 lbs/A at 4 weeks 6.1 3.7
3. Preplant, castor pomace @ 500 lbs/A 4.0 2.0
4. + 500 lbs 5-5-8-2
at 4 weeks 6.4 3.4
5. Band beside rows 2" deep, 500 lbs 5-5-8-2
at planting 4.0 2.5
6. Band beside rows 2" deep, 500 lbs 5-5-8-2
at planting + 500 lbs 5-5-8-2 at 4 weeks 5.5 3.4
7. Preplant, 5-5-8-2 @ 500 lbs/A + drench with
20-20-202/at 10 days 4.1 2.6
8. 15-0-14 @ 200 lbs/A at 10 days 4.0 2.3
9. I" " repeated at 4 weeks 4.6 2.7
10. Band, 5-2-9 liquid @ 500 lbs/A at 10 days 4.9 2.7
11. t" It t ff it n n t
repeated at 4 weeks 7.1 3.9
12. Drench with 20-20-20 at 10 days and 28 days 3.7 1.7
13. " t
plus 5-5-8-2 @ 500 lbs/A at 28 days 5.2 3.2


Mean of 6 replicated plots
- rating scale for appearance (size, vigor, color)
0 = poorest, 5 = best plants
5 lb/100 gal applied at 300 gpa













Ratings made on October 10, fifteen days after planting indicated the best
plants in treatments 2, 3, 4, and 7 showing an advantage for pre-plant applications.
After 48 days when the experiment was terminated, the best plants were in treatments
11, 4 and 2 in that order.

Other experiments are in progress based on results of this first trial.



MINOR ELEMENT NUTRITION OF VEGETABLE CROPS (Forbes & Westgate)

A series of experiments for evaluation of new micronutrient materials was
recently begun. The first experiment includes a foliar spray trial at Zellwood
with turnips as a test crop. Several rates of the new organo-metal complexes of
iron, zinc, copper, magnesium and manganese will be compared with treatments using
the sulfates of these metals. Further field and greenhouse trials are planned with
corn and beans as test crops.

-/Aided by grants from Allied Chemical Co., West Virginia Pulp and
Paper Co., and by equipment grant from Monsanto Chemical Co.


- 2 '








- 3 -


CARROT VARIETY TRIALS

The following varieties and numbered lines of carrots are being tested in re-
plicated plots:

Carrots, Processor Varieties, Zellwood, 1970


Variety


Danvers 126
Chantenay, Red Cored 7317B
Red Core Chantenay 503
Royal Chantenay 321
Danvers 126


Seed Source

Ferry-Morse
II If
Asgrow
Harris
Asgrow


Fresh Market Varieties, Zellwood, 1970


Variety

Hicolor-9
Hybrid XP-64296
Carousel 47113A
Long Imperator 11
Highlight
Hybrid XP-108
Long Imperator 58
Waltham Hicolor 12178
Gold Pak 28
King Imperator
Gold Pak Special 3869
Waltham Hicolor 3857
Eureka 3881


Seed Source

Asgrow
11

it
It

Ferry-Morse
11 "

Northrup-King
Niagara
it


In addition, a number of breeding lines from Dr. C. E. Peterson, with the USDA
at Madison, Wisconsin and also several from Dr. L. R. Baker of Michigan State University
are being grown cooperatively in observational plots. Among those from MSU are a new
hybrid fresh-market carrot Spartansweet, and a new processor carrot Spartan Bonus
These two lines have been released to commercial seedsman and should be available for
the 1971 season.


Plot No.


Plot No.

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33











Summary of 1969 C rot Trials

Fresh Market Carrotsi At Sanford the highest yields were produced by three
of the new lines from Asgrowi. XP-64296, Cao6uiel, and Highlight. At Zellwood,
the leaders were Hybrid 2132-28 (Harris), and.Waltham Hicolor, at both locations
there were poor stands with insufficient plants for fair yield comparisons in a
few of the varieties. Some seed lots were weak and some damage had occurred to
the Sanford plots in the October 1968 hurricane and to the Zellwood plots from
cold, dry weather, as noted earlier.

At both locations, the Waltham Hicolor lines, Hicolor 9, and Hi Color showed
the greatest degree of blight resistance.

Best eating quality carrots were XP-64296j Highlight, Pioneer, Nantesa
Superior, Long Imperator 58, and Riel Red.

Processor Carrots: At Sanford, good yields were obtained from all varieties
except Wissyn 6 which came up with too light a stand for good yield comparisons.
Highest yielding variety was Exp. G-1958 from Northrup-King, followed closely by
Danvers 126 and several of the Chantenay lines.

At Zellwood, the highest yields were produced by Hybrid 12H (Harris),
Danvers 126, and Exp. G-1958.

The Danvers lines were generally a little more blight resistant than the
Chantenay. The Chantenay lines and Hybrid 12H were the sweetest and best tatting.

Processing Trial: Samples of all varieties were processed in the HLH
Products canning plant at Sanford through the cooperation of Mr. Charles H.
Robinson. Cans were opened after a few weeks in storage and varieties were
compared for color, texture, taste, and general appearance.

In the slicing carrots with a desired diameter of 30-35 mm, the highest
ratings were given to Riel Red, XP-108, Hybrid 2132-28 and Gold Pak 12/20.
Among the larger diameter varieties used for dicing, the Danvers lines were
leading, followed closely by Wissyn 5.








- 5 -


WATER QUALITY STUDIES
In Cooperation with Dr. C. C. Hortenstine, S6ils Department, and Dr. A. R.
Overman, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Floiida Agricultural Experiment
Stations, Gainesville, Florida.

The program of water sampling in the canals of the Zellwood Drainage and Water
Control District and Lake Apopka which was begun in the 1966-67 season has been con-
tinued and expanded.

The seasonal trends in the analyses reported last year are still generally hold-
ing true:
1. During dry periods when there is little pumping, the water in the canals
runs in about the same range of concentration of nutrients and total solids as that
in the lake; in some instances lower concentrations were found in the canals than
in the lake.

2. In the wet seasons, the concentrations in the lake tend to be reduced with the
the diluting effect of the rains. During these wet periods, however, the drainage
water being pumped from the farm canals into the lake generally has run higher in
nutrients than the lake and higher than in dry weather.

Experimental field plots are now under study to determine the effect of cropping
and fertilizer practices on the nutrient content of drainage water.








- 6 -


NEW CROPS, CORN AND SORGHUM VARIETIES,
IRRIGATION WATER STUDIES

P. J. Westgate

Blackberries: Florida hybrid blackberries were first planted in Sanford
in 1956. Two leading varieties selected from these early plantings were
Flordagrand, and Oklawaha. Brazos, a Texas hybrid blackberry, fruits
well in Florida, but is susceptible to "double blossom", a disease caused
by a fungus. Dr. J. F. Darby is conducting a spray test with various
fungicides on two 300 foot rows of Brazos at Sanford. In a variety test
in 1969 Oklawaha produced 7.3 pints, Flordagrand 5.3 pints, and #3-7,
2.7 pints per vine on plants planted in 1967. New hybrid blackberry plants
have been added to the collection at Sanford. These blackberry trials at
Sanford are in cooperation with Dr. Wayne B. Sherman, Fruit Crops
Department, Gainesville.

Peaches and Nectarines: A peach and nectarine breeding program is
being carried out by Mr. R. H. Sharpe, Fruit Crops Department,
Gainesville. Various seedling peaches and nectarines are being grown and
evaluated at Sanford for chilling requirements, productiveness, fruit
quality, and season. On December 13, 1967, 204 hybrid peaches and 250
open pollinated nectarine seedlings were transplanted to Sanford. On
September 4, 1969 Mr. Ralph Sharpe and Dr. Wayne Sherman, Gainesville,
evaluated these new plantings. Several species of Meloidogyne (root-knot
nematodes) had severely injured or killed most of the open pollinated
nectarine seedlings. The peach hybrids on resistant rootstocks are doing
well, and will be evaluated for fruit quality and chilling requirements at
a later date.

At present there are some 5, 000 acres of peaches in Florida, about
evenly divided between northwest Florida and central Florida.

Bunch and Muscadine Grapes: Bunch grape varieties for fresh juice
processing, fresh grape market, and home gardens are being bred by
Dr. J. A. Mortensen at the Watermelon and Grape Investigations
Laboratory, Leesburg. These new hybrid grapes, including Lake Emerald,
Blue Lake, Norris and Stover are being tested for yields, quality, and
maturity dates at the Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford. On
February 20, 1970 four varieties of grapes namely E11-40/D6-38, Norris/
Lake Emerald, F8-52/Lake Emerald and D4-176/Lake Emerald were added
to our collection.








Nineteen varieties of muscadine grapes, namely Wallace, Tarheel,
Magoon, Dearing, Higgins, Scuppernong, Topsail, Yuga, Hunt, Dulcet,
Thomas, Creek, Chowan, Albernale, Roanoke, Pamlico, Magnolia,
Burgaw, and Willard are growing at Safford. Of these varieties, Wallace,
Tarheel, Magoon, Dearing, Higgins, Scuppernong, Hunt, Thomas, Creek,
and Burgaw have fruited to date. Southland, Magoon, Chief, and Cowart
were added to our plantings on February 20, 1970. The Muscadine
varieties were all obtained from Owen's Nursery, Gay, Georgia.

New Crops:

Rhubarb; Seeds of the Victoria variety of rhubarb were planted on
October 15, November 19, and December 10, 1968 on the muck at Zellwood.
Roots of Valentine and McDonald (red varieties of rhubarb) were planted on
December 19, 1968. Rhubarb from all three varieties were harvested
during the spring of 1969. Rhubarb plants in Florida will not live through
the summer unless dug, refrigerated, and replanted in the fall. Yields,
especially of Victoria, were encouraging.

Yam Bean: Yam beans or Jicama (Pachyrhizus tuberosus Spreng)
were planted on the muck at Zellwood on April 22, 1969, and on the sand
at Sanford. The large, fleshy roots are used as a substitute for water
chestnuts in Chinese recipes. The yam beans blossomed and set seed
on both the sand and the muck, but made tubers only on the sand.

Dasheen: Dasheen tubers (Colocassia esculenta) were planted on the
muck at Zellwood on April 22, 1969 and on the sand at Sanford. The
Zellwood planting produced 19.3 tons of tubers per acre in the fall.
There was a crop failure on the sand due to root-knot nematode damage.
The large, starchy tubers are used for food.

Tree Tomato: Plants of Cyphomandra betacea were grown from seed
planted in Sanford. The fruit is red in color, egg shaped, and tastes
like a tomato. Temperatures below freezing (32 F.) killed the plants.

Chinese gooseberry: Vines of this plant (Actinidia Chinensis) are
growing from seed planted in Sanford. This brown, fuzzy fruit, two
inches in length, is grown in California and is sold locally under the
name of Kiwi. This fruit is also grown in New Zealand.

Celery Varieties: Twenty-three varieties of celery were seeded on
Duda's seed beds at Lake Jem on December 26, 1968 in cooperation with
Mr. E. A. Wolf, Everglades Station. These seedlings were transplanted
to the muck on April 14, 1969. Disease ratings were made on June 9
and 23, 1969 by Dr. J. F. Darby, CFES. At harvest, stalk rot ratings,
percent seeders, petiole length and width, average weight per stalk, total
and marketable yields were obtained. Varieties EES 1410A and EES 1654
were saved for increase and possible release.





-8 -


Sweet Corn Varieties: Fifty-three varieties of sweet corn were
planted on the muck at Zellwood on April 1, 1969 and on the sand at
Sanford on April 9, 1969. J. Harris' Gold Cup continued to be the
leading variety on the muck. Sweet corn on the sand was a crop failure
due to drought.

Radish Varieties: Eight varieties of radishes were planted on muck
at Zellwood on October 21, 1969.

Hybrid Field Corn Variety Tests in Central Florida: Thirteen early,
13 medium, and 29 late maturing field corn varieties were tested at
Zellwood (organic soil) in 1969. The early group averaged 15.5 lbs. of
corn on the cob, unhusked, green weight, in comparison to 17.1 lbs. for
the medium, and 16.2 lbs. for the late maturing varieties based on 1/968
acre plots. Each variety was replicated four times. The two highest
yielding varieties of the early varieties were Pioneer 3308 and Funk's
G-4644. Pioneer 309B and McNair X204 were the leading varieties in
the medium maturing group, and McCurdy M306 and Asgrow ATC450 led
in the late maturing group. These 56 varieties of field corn were planted
on the muck on April 15, 1969 and harvested on July 17-22, 1969. The
same 56 varieties, planted on the sand at Sanford on April 9, 1969 and
harvested on July 14, 1969 produced a crop failure due to dry weather.
These trials were carried out in cooperation with Dr. E. S. Horner,
Agronomy Department, Gainesville.

Sorghum Variety Trials: Fifty-two varieties of sorghum were planted
on sand at Sanford on April 23, 24, 1969. These sorghum varieties were
harvested beginning on July 8, 1969. McCurdy's Greenex was first on the
sand with 27.9 tons per acre of forage (green weight). DeKalb BR64
produced the largest yield of grain heads on the sand. The same 52
varieties of sorghum which were planted on sand were also planted on
muck at Zellwood on April 21-22, 1969. Gahi 1, the heaviest yielder,
produced 55.8 tons per acre of forage (green weight) on muck. McCurdy's
Green Graze produced the heaviest yields of seed heads per acre (green
weight) on the muck. These sorghum variety trials were in cooperation
with Dr. G. M. Prine, Agronomy Department, Gainesville.

Cabbage Irrigation: Artesian well waters have long been used by
Sanford vegetable growers for sub-irrigating vegetables in the Sanford
area. Artesian well waters vary in their soluble salt content. The
Sanford city water contained 57 ppm C1, whereas the CFES artesian well
water contained 502 ppm C1. Artesian well waters contain various amounts
of hydrogen sulphide, a toxic gas, which may be oxidized by aeration.
Overhead sprinkling with artesian well water reduced the hydrogen sulphide
from 2.0 ppm down to 0.2 ppm.





9 -
-9-


City water, sub-irrigated, produced cabbage heads averaging 2.37
pounds per head. Artesian well water, overhead sprinkled, produced
cabbage heads averaging 2.05 pounds per head. Normal amounts of
artesian well water, sub-irrigated, produced cabbage heads weighing
2. 38 pounds a piece. Excessive amounts of artesian well waters, sub-
irrigated, resulted in cabbage heads with an average weight of 2. 32
pounds per head.

A new cabbage irrigation experiment was planted on February 11, 1970
using transplants at Sanford.

These experiments were carried out with the cooperation of Dr. Harry
W. Ford, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred.







10 -


NEMATODE CONTROL ON VEGETABLES AND FIELD CORN

It L. Rhoades

SANFORD (sand)

Nematicide Screening. Twenty one experimental nematicides were tested
for their effectiveness in controlling root-knot nematodes during 1969.
Those giving effective control at the rates applied were:


1. M-2680


2. DuPont 1410

3. Lannate


4. Thimet-Zinophos


5. MBR 5667

6. MBR 6168

7. ER-6489

8. ER-6553

9. ER-6624


10. TH 427-I

11. Chemagro 7375


25 gal/A


6 lb/A

6 lb/A


4.5 lb/A


3 lb/A

3 lb/A

6 lb/A

6 lb/A

6 lb/A

5 lb/A

5 lb/A


Dow Chemical Company


E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co.


SI II


American Cyanamid Company

3M Company
11 Ii

Esso Research & Engineering Co.


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co.

Chemagro Corporation


Cabbage.- The results of an experiment conducted in an area infested
with sting nematodes in the winter of 1968-69 are presented in Table 1.
An excellent increase in yield was obtained from all treatments but
Lannate applied at 3 pounds per acre. Definite phytotoxicity symptoms
were present during early growth in plots treated with this material.
The variety was Roundup #5.







-11 -


Table 1. Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and cabbage yield.


Rate/
Treatment acre


Check

D-D

Temik

11


Furadan

1


Mocap

i


Dasanit

I


Bay 68138

It


Lannate

't


Thimet-Zinophos

II t


25 gal broadcast

2 lb in-row

3 "

2 "

3 I"

2 "

3 "

2 "

3 "

2 "

3 "

2 "

3 "

2 "

3 "


Sting
nematodesa


115

10

9

17

15

13

43

20

17

14

12

5

23

10

9

10


LSD .05

.01


Yield (crates/acre)
First cut Total


347

606

682

684

609

529

653

580

677

552

569

647

499

226

610

696

212

281


696

822

877

849

805

776

865

808

848

794

84C

847

769

695

823

834

N. S.


aNumber of nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest time.








- 12 -


Celery. The results of an experiment conducted on 2-13 celery in the
late winter and spring of 1969 are presented in Table 2. This experiment
was conducted in an area infested primarily with sting and root-knot
nematodes. All treatments reduced nematode populations and gave an
excellent increase in yield.


Table 2.-


Effect of nematicides on
celery.


nematode populations and yield of


Nematode populationsb
Treatment Rate/acrea Sting Root-knot Yieldc


Check -- 121 4.13 57

Furadan 3 lb in-row 22 2.19 109

Temik 9 1.56 109

Dasanit 30 2.56 91

Bay 68138 8 1.94 102

Mocap 45 2.13 96

Thimet-Zinophos 10 2. 19 98

Lannate 12 2.06 95

LSD .05 0.78 20

.01 1.04 26


aApplied as a 15-inch band in-row.

bSting nematode populations are the numbers of nematodes extracted from
100 cc of soil at harvest time, root-knot nematode galling of roots is
based on an index of 1, no galling, to 5, severe galling.

CPounds of untrimmed celery obtained from 20 feet of row length.







- 13 -


Carrots. An experiment was conducted in an area infested with root-
knot nematodes during the winter of 1968-69. Although total yields .were
very similar, the amount of culls (forked and galled carrots) resulting,
from nematode injury was much higher in the untreated plots (Table 3).

Table 3. Effect of nematicides on yield of carrots attacked by root-knot
nematodes.


Yielda
Treatment Rate/acre (Ib/plot) % culls

Check -- 26.5 28.8

D-D 25 gal 30.7 6.2

Temik 6 lb 30.6 3.6

Furadan 27.2 2.4

Thimet-Zinophos 29.3 3.2

Mocap 25.6 8.2

Dasanit 30.3 7.0

Lannate 30.1 2.4

LSD .05 N.S. 8.1

.01 11.0


pounds of carrots obtained from 20 feet of plot row.



Field Corn. A number of the fields used for winter vegetable
production now produce field corn during the spring and summer months.
If plant nematodes are not controlled, the corn is often severely damaged.
In 1969 an experiment was conducted in an area heavily infested with
sting nematodes. The results of this experiment are presented in Table 4.






- 14 -


Table 4. Effect of nematicides on sting nematodes and yield of field corn.

Rate/acre and Sting nematode Yield
Treatment application method population (bu/acre)


Check

D-D

Dasanit



I t


Thimet-Zinophos

I1

'I


Furadan

it




Temik



Mocap



Bay 68138



Lannate

MBR 5667


25 gal broadcast

1 Ib in-row at planting

2 Ib "

2 lb post planting

1 lb at planting

2 lb "

2 lb post planting

1 lb at planting

2 Ib "

2 lb post planting

1 lb at planting

2 Ib "

1 lb "

2 b "

1 Ib "

2 lb "

2 lb "

2 lb "


201 27

45 76

65 70

41 79

52 68

93 55

53 56

21 61

51 72

50 70

79 61

56 62

28 71

79 65

92 66

24 68

12 77

71 53

54 70


LSD .05 17

.01 23
aNumber of nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest time.







- 15 -


Cyst Nematode on Cabbage. A commercial field of cabbage in the
Sanford area was found to be heavily infested with a cyst nematode
(Heterodera sp.) in 1969. The pathogericity of this nematode is not yet
known but greenhouse experiments are now in progress to determine this.
Studies are being made to determine if it is a new species of cyst
nematodes and the Division of Plant Induistry of the Florida Department
of Agriculture is making a survey to determine the extent of infestation.

It is hoped that this nematode will not present a serious problem in
cabbage production but it is being studied closely since other species of
cyst nematodes are serious pests to such crops as sugar beets, potatoes,
soybeans, and certain other crops.


ZELLWOOD (muck)

Carrots.- Six nematicides were tested for their effectiveness in
controlling root-knot nematodes attacking Hicolor 9 carrots in winter of
1968-69. Results of the experiment are shown in Table 5.

Table 5. Effect of nematicides on yield of carrots attacked by root-knot
nematodes.

Yield
Treatment Rate/acre (lb/plot) % culls

Check -- 22.5 14.6

D-D 40 gal 23.9 6.2

Furadan 6 lb 22.9 8.0

Thimet-Zinophos 21.3 8.2

Temik 22.5 4.4

Dasanit 23.0 9.8

Lannate 21.4 9.8

LSD .05 N.S. 5.4

.01 7.4








- 16 -


EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF CABBAGE LOOPERS, CORN EARWORMS, AND BUDWORMS

G. L. Greene

I. Cabbage looper control (Memo 70-1)

A. Looper trapping with sex attractant for looper eradication

B. Spray interval based on population

C. Looper development relative to temperature

II. Promising new insecticides for corn earworm control

A. Gardona

B. Lannate

C. Phosvel

III. Fall armyworms in the bud of corn

A. Control-insecticides and formulations

B. Damage levels

C. Parasites

IV. Economic damage level

A. Bean leaf roller populations which reduce snap bean yields









- 17 -


Table 3. Control of fall armyworms on sweet corn treated twice
weeks, Fall 1968, and Spring 1969, Sanford, Florida.


a week for three


% injury
Insecticide lb AI/acre free stalks-


6 applications, 3 to 4 days apart, Fall 1968


VCS-506
Gardona
Lannate + Spreader sticker
GC-6506
UC 34096
Monitor + Oil
Parathion + toxaphene
Parathion + methyl parathion
Carbaryl
Diazinon
Trichlorfon
Check


1.00
1.00
0.50 + 4 oz
0.50
1.50
1.00 + 2 oz
0.25 + 1.50
0.34 + 0.16
2.00
1.00
1.00


3 applications, 7 days apart, Spring 1969


VCS-506
Lannate + Spreader sticker
Sevin
Niran 6-3
Monitor + oil
C-9491
Parathion + toxaphene
Gardona 4 EC
UC 34096
Sevin + molasses
Gardona
Fundal
Furadan Bait
Parathion + thuricide 90TS
Dylox
Diazinon
Furadan
Parathion
Thiodan Bait
Check


1.00
0.50 + 4 oz
2.00
0.56 + 0.28
1.00 + 1 gal
1.00
0.25 + 1.50
1.00
1.00
1.60 + 1 gal
1.00
0.50
1.00
0.25 + 1 qt
1.00
1.00
1.30
0.25
1.00


)o a
)4 a
)3 a
a6 a
36 a
31 a
79 ab
>8 ab
4 bc
14 bc
!3 cd
Od


a
ab
abc
abc
abcd
abcde
bcde
bcdef
cdefg
defg
defg
efg
fg
fg
g
g
g
g
h
h


1Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5% level using Duncan's multiple range test.






- 18 -


RESEARCH ON DISEASE CONTROL

J. O. Strandberg

Celery fungicide evaluations: Fifteen fungicide treatments were
evaluated for relative effectiveness in the control of foliar diseases of
celery at Zellwood, Florida. The primary disease encountered was
Cercospora blight. Some of the newer fungicides were more effective
when applied at 7 day intervals than most materials now in general use.
Registration of these materials seems probable. A summary of the
results is included in this program.

Cucumber fungicide evaluations: Ten fungicide treatments were
evaluated for the control of downy mildew on SMR-18 cucumbers. As
noted in previous tests at this location, downy mildew was not adequately
controlled by any of the materials using 7 day spray intervals. Fungicides
showing some promise of effectiveness will be evaluated this spring using
a more vigorous spray schedule adapted to prevailing weather conditions.

Soil application and seed treatment of fungicides for the protection of
direct seeded cabbage: Survival rates of direct seeded cabbage seedlings
is an important factor in subsequent plant population, yield, size and
quality of the cabbage crop. Because of increasing interest in direct
seeding of cabbage, a program to improve post emergence survival by
disease control was initiated. Thus far, very promising results have
been obtained from the application of up to 4 post emergence applications
of fungicides alone or in combination with liquid fertilizers. Materials
were applied as in the row drenches. Some materials provided excellent
control of Rhizoctonia sp. and other damping off organisms when applied
at 1-1. 5 Ib formulation per acre row in 700 gal of water. Several
experimental chemicals applied as seed treatments and in row spray
applications at planting time were also evaluated for use on cabbage
and lima beans. Several seed treatments were tested for use in
increasing survival rates of direct seeded cabbage seedlings. Several
treatments resulted in significant increases in seedling survival rates
over untreated seed. Re-application of seed protectant fungicides after
hot water treatment of cabbage seed was shown to result in significant
increases in survival rates.

Cucumbers: Variety trials of both pickling and slicing types of
cucumbers were conducted during the past year. Varieties were evaluated
for adaptability to mechanical harvesting under Florida conditions and
for disease resistance. A summary of data is available on request. A
program to develop slicing cucumbers which are resistant to Corynespora
cassicola (target spot disease) is underway. Resistant plant introduction
lines from Holland and the Netherlands may help to develop hybrid and
open-pollinated slicing varieties resistant to target spot.






- 19 -


Other projects of possible interest:

Cabbage variety trials and evaluation for black speck and black rot
resistance.
(Summary of data available on request.)

Potato fungicide evaluations.

Carrot fungicide evaluations.

Black speck of cabbage:
Progress in breeding for resistance.
Progress in determining the causes of black speck.
Distribution of the disease not confined to Florida
it is found in many parts of the world.









- 20 -


Cucumber Fungicide Evaluations


Sanford, Florida


Spring 1969


Rate of
Formulation Yield of
per 100 gal fruit per R
Material Formulation per acre plot~ Disease Rating-

-i


Dithane M-45 + wetting
agent 20134-B


Dithane M-45

Manzate 200


Polyram


Nabac + Manzate 200


Daconil


Benlate + Manzate 200


TC-256 (Tenn. Copper)

Kocide 101

Geigy G 20-072

Control


8ow


8ow

80ow
80w


25 EC + 80W


75W


50W + 80w


8ow


1.5 lb. +
24 oz

1.5 lb.

1.5 lb.

2.0 lb.


4 oz + 1.0 lb.

1.5 lb.

0.5 lb. +
1.5 lb.


2.0 lb.

2.0 lb.


10 oz


60.5


48.6

40.4

52.4

46.7

52.8

56.4


52.7

57.4

46.5

25.9


2.2


2.4

2.7

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.8


2.9

2.9

4.7

4.7


./Pounds marketable fruit per plot, once over harvesting. Figure
for four replicates.


is average


'/Disease ratings are average for four replicates. Treatment ratings enclosed
in the same brackets are judged not to be significantly different at the
.05% level (Duncans New Multiple Range Test).







21 -

SUMMARY OF DATA

CELERY FUNGICIDE EVALUATIONS


Zellwood, Florida


Spring 1969


Rate of formulation
per acre Yield-a Disease-
Material Formulation (per 100 gal) in lb. rating


Benlate + Manzate 200

Benlate

Difolatan

Dyrene

Daconil 2787

TBZ (Merck)

Kocide 101

Nabac + Manzate 200

Dithane M-45

Polyram

Manzate 200

Colloidox

Miller 658Z

Nabac

G 20072 (Geigy)

Control


50W + 80W

50W

4F

50W

75w

60ow



25E + 80W

80w

80w

80w





25E

80W


0.5 lb. + 2.0 lb.

0.5 lb.

1.0 qt.

2.0 lb.

0.75 lb.

0.5 lb.

3.0 lb.

4 oz + 1.0 lb.

1.5 lb.

1.5 lb.

2.0 lb.

3.5 lb.

2.0 lb.

4.0 oz.

10.0 oz.


'Yield in lb. of trimmed celery per 20 ft of row sampled. Value is average for
four replicates. Values followed by the same letter are judged not significantly
different.
-Rated 0 = no disease to 5 = severe disease with abundant lesions on all but the
youngest foliage and severe defoliation. Value is average for four replicates.


35.1

36.3

35.9

33.9

30.4

36.0

31.4

30.7

28.7

28.2

29.5

24.6

19.1

19.4

20.6

15.0


0.5

0.9

1.0

1.5

1.6

1.9

2.5

2.9

3.1

3.4

3,5

3.6

4.4

4.5

4.5

5.0








- 22 -


Table 1.- Effect of soil fungicide applications on survival
cabbage at Sanford, Florida.


of direct seeded


Rate of Formulation Averagea
per acre Row No. Seedlings
Material Formulation in 700 gal. water Surviving


Demosan 65W 1.12 lb. 895
Captan + 4F 3.6 qt. 560
Difolatan 4F 3.6 qt.

Difolatan 4F 3.6 qt. 498
Captan 4F 3.6 qt. 478
Dithane M-45 80W 1.12 lb. 459
Captan + 4F 3.6 qt. 412
Teraclor 65W 1.5 lb.

Terraclor 65W 1.5 lb. 405

Polyram 80W 1.5 lb. 403
Chloronil 50% 3.8 lb. 398
Isobac 25EC 0.9 qt. 390
Geigy G-20072 0.9 qt. 334
Control -- -- 305


value is average for 4 replicates.








- 23 -


WEED CONTROL IN VEGETABLES, CORN, AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTION

W. T. Scudder


There were very few new herbicide registrations obtained for Florida vegetable
crops during 1969. We have, however, made some changes in our recommendations due
to increased experience with the chemical treatments available and other factors
such as the restriction of sodium arsenite.

From industry's point of view, the acreage of many of our vegetable crops is
too small to justify registration of several good herbicides. Developmental cost
of new chemicals is very high, for it is difficult to meet the increasingly more
rigid requirements of the USDA and the FDA. In the case of some of the older,
now non-proprietary chemicals, we are fortunate in having industry cooperation to
secure needed registrations. As an example of this, industry task forces have
been organized to secure registration of 2,4-D, widely used in corn, small grains,
and pastures.

The present status of some of the leading herbicides useful to our Central
Florida vegetable growers is given below. All rates are given on the broadcast
basis. For band treatments, reduce the amounts proportionally. Determination of
the best herbicide to use is dependent upon several factors which differ with
each situation. A grower should always try a new herbicide on a small scale until
he is familiar with its performance under his own conditions.

Cabbage Weed Control

1. Randox (CDAA) + Vegadex (CDEC)
a. Registration: Use pre-emergence on seedbeds, to direct-seeded plantings,
or after transplanting. Must be applied pre-emergence to weeds.
b. Soil: Sand or muck
c. Rate: 3 poundstactive ingredient of each chemical, tank mixed (3 qt. each
of 4 lb/gal E.C. formulations or 15 lb each of 20% G. formulations).
d. Performance: Effectively controls most annual weed species for up to 3 to
4 weeks, if rainfall is not excessive.

2. Vegadex (CDEC)
a. Registration: Use either pre-emergence or post-transplanting. Treatment
must be pre-emergence to weeds.
b. Soil: Sand or muck
c. Rates: Pre-emergence 4 pounds active (1 gal of 4 lb/gal E.C.)
Post-transplant 6 pounds active (1Y gal of 4 lb/gal E.C.)
d. Performance: Effective against broadleaf weed species for 3 to 4 weeks if
rainfall is not excessive.

3. Treflan (trifluralin)
a. Registration: Apply before seeding or transplanting and incorporate 2 to 3
inches into the soil by disking or rotary tillage.
b. Soil: Sand only
c. Rate: 3/4 pound active (12 pints of 4 lb/gal E.C.)
d. Performance: Dependable control of grasses; variable broad-leaf weed control
on light sands.










- 24 -


4. Tok (nitrofen)
a. Registration: Apply post-emergence 10 to 14 days after transplanting or after
crop emergence.
b. Soil: Sand or muck
c. Rate: 1Y2 to 3 pounds active (3/4 to 1/Y gal of 2 lb/gal E.C. or 3 to 6 lb
of 50% W. P. formulation).
d. Performance: Gives good post-emergence kill of most broadleaf weeds and
grasses. Some weed species, such as ragweed, dogfennel, and chickweed are
resistant.

Carrot Weed Control

1. Lorox (linuron)
a. Registration: Use post-emergence to crop and weeds.
b. Soil: Sand and muck
c. Rate: Weeds not over 1/2 inch tall (crop with at least 4 true leaves -
Use 1/4 pound active (1/2 lb of 50% W. P. ).
Weeds 1 inch tall Use 1/2 pound active.
Weeds over 1 inch tall Use 3/4 to 1 pound active (l/ to 2 lb of
50% W. P. ), depending on weed and crop size.
d. Performance: This treatment has given excellent control of most weed species
whenever there is good soil moisture and the weeds are not too large.

2. Tok (nitrofen)
a. Registration: Apply post-emergence to crop and weeds.
b. Soil: Sand or muck
c. Rate: Use 3 pounds active (1Y2 gal of 2 lb/gal E.C.)
d. Performance: Carrots are very tolerant to this treatment after they reach
the 2-leaf stage. Weed control has been excellent when the weeds are not
over 1-2 inches tall.

3. Tenoran (chloroxuron)
a. Registration: Apply post-emergence to crop and weeds after carrots develop
true leaves.
b. Soil: Sand and muck
c. Rates: Use 2 to 3 pounds active (4 to 6 lb of 50% W. P. ).
d. Performance: Effective against most annual broadleaf weeds up to 2 inches
tall and grasses up to 1/2 inch.

Celery Weed Control

1. Randox (CDAA) and Vegadex (CDEC)
a. Registration: Use post-transplanting, pre-emergence to weeds.
b. Soil: Sand or muck
c. Rate: 3 pounds active ingredient of each chemical mixed together (3 qt.
each of 4 lb/gal E. C. formulations or 15 lb each of 20% formulations).
d. Performance: Effective 3 to 4 weeks if rainfall is not excessive. Treatment
may be repeated up to 3 weeks after transplanting.









- 25 -


2. Caparol (prometryne)
a. Registration: Use post-emergence to celery and weeds in seedbeds or after
transplanting.
b. Soil: Sand or muck.
c. Rates: On seedbeds Apply 0.6 to 0.8 pound active per acre (3/4 to 1 lb
of 80% W. P. formulation).
After transplanting Apply 0.8 to 1.6 pounds per acre (1 to 2 lb
of 80% W. P. formulation), depending on size of weeds.
d. Performance: Effectively controls most annual weeds up to 2 inches tall.
Two applications per crop may be used.

3. Tok nitrogenn)
a. Registration: Use post-emergence to celery and weeds 10 to 14 days after
seeding or after transplanting.
b. Soil: Sand or muck.
c. Rates: Use 3 to 4 pounds active per acre (1Y to 2 gal of 2 lb/gal E.C.).
d. Performance: Most weeds are susceptible to this treatment at the 2 inch
stage or younger, although a few, such as ragweed and chickweed are
resistant. Celery is very tolerant to nitrofen.

Sweet Corn and Field Corn Weed Control

1. Lasso (alachlor)
a. Registration: Use pre-emergence to crop and weeds. Field corn registration
is complete. Registration for use of alachlor on sweet corn is pending and
expected soon.
b. Soil: Sand or muck.
c. Rate: Use 2 to 2Y2 pounds active per acre (2 to 2Y2 qts of 4 lb/gal E. C.
formulation).
d. Performance: Broader spectrum weed control and longer lasting than with
either Randox (CDAA) or Ramrod (propachlor). Non-irritating.

2. Ramrod (propachlor)
a. Registration: Use pre-emergence to crop and weeds.
b. Soil: Sand or muck.
c. Rate: Use at 4 pounds per acre on sand, 5 pounds per acre on muck (6 to 7Y2
lb of 65% W. P. or 20 to 25 lb of 20% G. formulation).
d. Performance: Weed control with Ramrod is usually excellent on sand, but
less efficient on muck. It gives better control of broadleaf weeds than
Randox (CDAA).

3. Randox (CDAA)
a. Registration: Use pre-emergence to crop and weeds.
b. Soil: Muck.
c. Rate: Use 4 to 6 pounds active per acre (4 to 6 qts of 4 lb/gal E.C.
or 20 to 30 pounds of 20% G. formulation).
c. Performance: Good weed control, even under dry soil conditions. Randox
is more effective against grasses than broadleaf weeds.










- 26 -


4. AAtrex (atrazine)
a. Registration: May be used either pre-emergence to crop and weeds or early
post-emergence until weeds are 2 inches tall. Approved for all corn and
sorghum.
b. Soil: Sand and muck.
c. Rate: 1 to 2 pounds active per acre (1UY to 2Y2 lb of 80% W. P. formulation.)
d. Performance: Under good soil moisture conditions, weed control with atrazine
has been excellent. With low soil moisture, grass control is only fair. The
addition of phytobland oils or extra surfactant has improved performance in
a majority of our tests. Two gallons of oil has been most effective, but
present label restrictions specify one gallon. Phytotoxicity has been
observed with some sweet corn hybrids.

5. 2,4-D (amine salt or low-volatile ester)
a. Registration: Use only as layby spray, with corn at least 20 inches tall,
no silks showing; apply to weeds directed near base of corn plants.
b. Soil: Sand or muck.
c. Rate: Use 1/4 to 3/8 pound active per acre (1/2 to 3/4 pint of 4 lb/gal
S. C. or E. C. formulation).
d. Performance: Since all tests using this treatment have given some yield
reductions, it should be restricted to fields containing large broadleaf
weeds which have escaped earlier control measures.

6. Sutan butylatee)
a. Registration: Apply before planting and incorporate thoroughly into the
soil 3 inches deep.
b. Soil: Sand
c. Rate: Use 4 pounds per acre (2/3 gal of 6 lb/gal E. C. formulation).
d. Performance: Gives very effective grass control and good netsedge control.
Broadleaf weed control is good when conditions are favorable.

Cucumber Weed Control

1. Prefar (bensulide)
a. Registration: Apply before planting and incorporate immediately 3 inches
deep into the soil.
b. Soil: Sand.
c. Rate: Use 5 pounds active (5 quarts of 4 lb/gal E. C. formulation).
d. Performance: Controls several annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Ragweed,
sowthistle, and Florida pusley are tolerant.

2. Alanap (naptolam)
a. Registration: Use pre-emergence to crop and weeds.
b. Soil: Sand.
c. Rate: Use 3 to 4 pounds (1/2 to 2 gals of 2 lbs/gal S.C.).
d. Performance: Produces good weed control if surface soil is freshly prepared
and moist at time of application and rainfall after treatment is not
excessive.




CENTRAL


ANNUAL FIELD DAY


FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
P. O. Box 909
Sanford, Florida
March 3, 1970


TO: All interested in Central Florida Agriculture:

Welcome to our Field Day. In order to better serve agricultural
interests in Central Florida, the Faculty of the Central Florida Experiment
Station solicit your suggestions for areas, specific, or general, where you
feel additional or new research efforts should be directed. Suggestions in
any or all the following areas will be appreciated and carefully considered
in formulating future research programs.
Please be as specific or general as you wish. Thank you.


Insect control related problems:




Horticulture, new crops, varieties, growing methods:




Weed control:




Soil and plant nutrition problems:




Nematode control:




Disease control:




Other:


Suggestions for future field days, grower meetings, commodity field days:




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