• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Historic note
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 New crops, corn and sorghum varieties,...
 Vegetable crop nutrition, carrot...
 Nematode control
 Experimental control of cabbage...
 Research on disease control
 Weed control in vegetables and...














Group Title: Annual field day - Central Florida Experiment Station
Title: Annual field day 1969
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075825/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual field day 1969
Series Title: Annual field day.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Central Florida Experiment station ; 1969 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Central Florida Experiment Station, IFAS, University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Publication Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075825
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144607730

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    New crops, corn and sorghum varieties, irrigation water studies
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Vegetable crop nutrition, carrot variety trials, and water quality studies
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Nematode control
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Experimental control of cabbage loopers, corn earworms, and budworms
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Research on disease control
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Weed control in vegetables and caladiums and soybean production
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






6j36/'


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1\.F.A.S. Uni"' ,, .,,.,
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Thursday, May 29, 1969


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Institute of Food and Agricultural Scienoes



in cooperation with


Flori'a Agricultural Extension Service


REPORTS ON
PROGRESS OF RESEARCH
at
SANFORD & ZELLWOOD
(sand) (muck)












CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION

SANFORD AND ZELLWOOD REPORTS COMBINED


Experiment Station Farm
Zellwood, Florida


Annual Field Day
Thursday, May 29, 1969


Bruce A. Barmby, Associate Orange County Agent, Presiding


Assembly and Registration 1:30 P.M.
Page

1:30 Introductions, Bruce A. Barmby

1:35 New Crops, Corn and Sorghum Varieties, Irrigation Water
Studies 1
Dr. P. J. Westgate, Horticulturist

1:45 Vegetable Crop Nutrition, Carrot Variety Trials, and Water
Quality Studies 6
Dr. R. B. Forbes, Associate Soils Chemist

1:55 Nematode Control 12
Dr. H. L. Rhoades, Associate Nematologist

2:05 Experimental Control of Cabbage Loopers, Corn Earworms,
and Budworms 18
Dr. G. L. Greene, Assistant Entomologist

2:15 Coffee Break

2:45 Research on Disease Control 25
Dr. J. 0. Strandberg, Assistant Plant Pathologist

2:55 Weed Control in Vegetables and Caladiums and Soybean
Production 28
Dr. W. T. Scudder, Horticulturist

3:10 Tour of Experimental Plots







- 1 -


NEW CROPS, CORN AND SORGHUM VARIETIES, IRRIGATION WATER STUDIES

P. J. Westgate


Field Corn: Fifty-five v
Zellwood on April 15, 1969, a
field corn variety trials are
Gainesville.

Plot No. Variety

1 Pioneer 3516
2 Pioneer 3191
3 McCurdy M 306


varieties of field corn were planted on muck at
nd on sand at Sanford on April 17, 1969. These
in cooperation with Dr. E. S. Homer, Agronomy,


Plot No.

28
29
30


McNair X 202
McCurdy 67X44
P.A.G. 751

Taylor 188
Funks G-5940
McNair 440V

Pioneer 3369A
McNair 6801
McCurdy 67-51

Taylor 196A
McNair 340V
Greenwood 8228

McNair S140 (1968)
Greenwood 471
McCurdy 68-58

Greenwood Dixie 18
Funks G 5945
McCurdy 67-14

P.A.G. 748
Greenwood 61
Funks G-795W-1

McCurdy M307
McNair X 204
Funks G-508W


Variety

Pioneer 509
Pioneer 3308
Pioneer 309B


Pioneer 511A
Pennington 7-C-11A
Funks G-5858

Funks G-4949
Coker 71
Florida 200A (comm.)

Coker 74
Funks G-4761
Asgrow A.T.C. 403W

Funks G-5757
Asgrow A.T.C. 450
Funks G-4444

Asgrow A-204
Embro Jarris L
Embro 260

Embro 260 A
Funks G-4333
Pioneer 3123

Embro 25569
Funk G-4644
McNair S 190

Coker 67
Coker C-911
Coker 52
ASC 112 (Asgrow)







- 2 -


Sorghum: Fifty-two varieties of sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and Pearl-
millet were planted on muck at Zellwood on April 21-22, 1969 and on sand at
Sanford on April 23-24, 1969. These sorghum variety trials are in cooperation
with Dr. G. iM. Prine, Agronomy, Gainesville.


CFES Prine
No. No.


Variety


CFES Prine
No. No.


A001
A007
A024

A027
A028
A030

A033
A034
A035

A039
A041
A046

A047
G0002
G003

G004
G005
G006


19 A042
20 G007
21 G018

22 G019
23 G020
24 G037

25 G039
26 G042
27 G044


Gahil
Dorman Sure-Graze
NK Millex 22

Asgrow Grazer S
DeKalb SX-16
NK Sordan 67

Pioneer 988
R-P Pearlex 28
R-P Pearlex 24


G. Warner Gro-N- Graze
McCurdy Green Graze
CHR Hygrazer


CHR Milgrazer
DeKalb BR-62
Excel Bird Go

Pioneer 828
NK Savana
AKS 614

McCurdy Greenex
Ga 615
ACCO R-1093

ACCO R-109
Dorman BR-100
Asgrow Bravis

DeKalb BR-64
AKS-653
Asgrow Double TX


G047
G053
G054

G055
G056
G057

G062
S032
so36

S030
S028
S031


40 S037
41 S027
42 S013

43 S035
44 S038
45 S001


McNair 546
G.Warner W723
G.Warner W758

T-E 09105
McCurdy 202
McCurdy Bird.off


T-E TDN
DeKalb FS-24

DeKalb FS-4
ACCO FS-402-R
NK 318S

G. Warner Husky
Asgrow Dino
NK 300

Rudy-Patrick 55F
McCurdy M16
Fla. 200A Corn


0043 AKS 663
S022 Plantation Pride
Funks BR79

Hegari, Regular (Kilgore)
Triticale (Funks)
Millex 22 (NK) Pearlmllet


52 G007 Ga 615


Key to Prine Numbers:

G = Grain sorghum
S = Silage sorghum
A = Sorghum Sudangrass and Pearlmillet


N NVaietv


aV riety








-3-


Sweet Corn: Fifty-three varieties of sweet corn were planted on muck at
Zellwood on April 1, 1969, and on sand at Sanford on April 9, 1969.


Plot
No.


Variety


Seed
Source


Plot
No.


Variety


Seed
Source


Wintergreen
XP 337
Golden Belle

Florigold 106
Cr 343
Honey Cross


Asgrow
Asgrow
FMC

F-M
Crookham
Burpee


Silver Cr. Bantam Burpee
Florida 104 (lobelle) Asgrow
E 5555 F-M


E 7595
E 7515
E 8510

E 5575C
E 5625
NCX 221


Golden Belle
Golden Earlipak
Golden Queen

Silver Queen
Jubilee
66-2596


Exp. 6638
Trop 2
Exp. 6618


Gold Winner
Gold Cup
lobelle Season


F-M
F-M
F-M

F-M
F-M
FMC


FMC
Rog. Bros.
Rog. Bros.


Rog.
Rog.
Rog.


Bros.
Bros.
Bros.


No. King
No. King
No. King

J; Harris
J. Harris
J. Harris


Golden Charm
NCX 223
Aristocrat

SRX 212
Silver Beauty
Xtra-Sweet

514000
5100
4L001

Seneca 225
Seneca Scout
Seneca 260


Seneca 166
Expt. 165
Expt. 110


Seneca 167
Burpee's 203 YT
American Beauty

Burpee's 3109
Citation
Burpee's M2 YT

Ultratender
Burpee's 81 YT
Ultrasweet


Asgrow 337
Asgrow 344


FMC
FMC

FMC
Burpee
IFS

Keystone
Keystone
Keystone

Robson
Robson
Robson

Robson
Robson
Robson

Robson
Burpee
Burpee

Burpee
Burpee
Burpee

Burpee
Burpee
Burpee

Kilgore
Kilgore


No.Varet


__






-4-


Yam Bean: Yam beans were planted on the muck at Zellwood on April 22, 1969,
and on the sand at Sanford. The large fleshy roots are used as a substitute for
water chestnuts in Chinese recipes.

Dasheen: Dasheen tubers,(Colocasia esculenta) were planted on the muck at
Zellwood on April 22, 1969, and on the sand at Sanford. The large, starch roots
are used for food.

Celery: Twenty-two varieties of celery were seeded on December 26, 1968.
Replicated trials of these celery varieties were transplanted to the muck at
Lake Gem on April 14, 1969.

Radish: The following six varieties of radish were seeded on muck at
Zellwood on May 21, 1969:
(1) Red Prince, (2) Red Boy, (3) Red Devil,
(4) Scarlet Globe, (short tops), (5) Scarlet
Globe (medium tops), (6) Scarlet Knight

Rhubarb: Planted seeds of Victoria variety of rhubarb on October 15,
November 19, and December 10, 1968. Planted roots of Valentine and McDonald
(red varieties of rhubarb) on December 19, 1968. Rhubarb plants in Florida
will not live through the summer unless dug, refrigerated during the summer,
and replanted in the fall.

Tree Tomato: Plants of Cyphomandra betacea are growing from seed planted
in Sanford. Fruit is reddish, egg-shaped, and tastes like a tomato.

Chinese Gooseberry: Vines of this plant (Actinidia Chinensis) are growing
from seeds planted in Sanford. This fruit, two inches in length, is grown in
New Zealand, and sold locally under the name of Kiwi.

Irrigation Studies: Artesian well water has long been used by Sanford
growers for irrigating vegetable fields in the area. Artesian wells vary in
their soluble salt content. Artesian well waters contain various amounts of
hydrogen sulphide, a toxic gas, which may be oxidized by aeration. Little
Rock cabbage was planted on four plots on November 19, 1968. Plot No. 2 was
sub-irrigated with artesian well water through overhead sprinklers; Plot No. 3
was sub-irrigated with artesian well water, and Plot No. 4 was sub-irrigated
with excessive amounts of artesian well water. Plot No. 1 was city water.

Peaches: Flordawon, Flordasun, Sunred (nectarine), White Knight No. 1,
Early Amber, Tejon, Bonita, June Gold, and Rochon have all fruited at Sanford.
Two hundred new peach hybrids and 250 seedling Sunred nectarines were planted
out at Sanford on December 13, 1967 for observation in cooperation with the
Fruit Crops Department.

Blackberries: Hybrid blackberries were first planted in Sanford in 1956.
Flordagrand and its pollinator Oklawaha are the two leading varieties. Brasos,
a Texas blackberry, fruits well, but is susceptible to "double blossom" caused
by a fungus. Other numbered lines are being tested at Sanford in cooperation
with the Fruit Crops Department.








-5-

Muscadine Grapes: Nineteen varieties of Muscadine grapes, namely Wallace,
Tarheel, Magoon, Dearing, Higgins, Scuppernong, Topsail, Yuga, Aunt, Duleet,
Thomas, Creek, Chowan, Albermale, Roanoke, Pamlico, Magnolia, Burgaw, and
Willard are growing at Sanford. Of these varieties, Wallace, Tarheel, Magoon,
Dearing, Higgins, Scuppernong, Hunt, Thomas, Creek and Burgaw have fruited to
date.

Bunch Grapes: Varieties of bunch grapes growing at Sanford include Lake
Emerald, Blue Lake, Norris, and Stover releases from the Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory.







- 6 -


VEGETABLE CROP NUTRITION, CARROT VARIETY TRIALS, AND WATER QUALITY STUDIES

R. B. Forbes


Micronutrient Sources (Soil Treatments) for Turnips and Chinese Cabbage,
(In cooperation with Dr. P. J. Westgate and Dr. N. Gammon, Jr., Soils Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville.)

Some 30 different micronutrient materials, many of them new products were
applied as soil treatments for supplying manganese, zinc, iron and copper. The
effects of these chemicals are being evaluated through plant analysis to deter-
mine the uptake of these metals by the plant. Experimental compounds were
supplied by Rayonier, Hampshire Chemicals, Berkshire Chemicals, West Virginia
Pulp and Paper Co, Kaiser Agricultural Chemicals, Traylor Chemicals, and
Monsanto Chemical Co.

Nutritional Spray Treatments for Correction of Micronutrient Deficiencies.
(R.B. Forbes and P. J. Westgate.) Foliar spray experiments with carrots, corn,
sorghum and turnips have been carried out with the dual purposes of testing new
micronutrient sources and diagnosing the minor element needs of crops showing
deficiency symptoms.

Typical of these experiments is the following trial with carrots on a high
pH soil in which the crop responded to additions of manganese:








Nutrient Spray Trial, T & R Farm Carrots
Nutrient Spray Trial, T &E R Farm, Carrots


Foliar application at

Treatment
Rating* Number


200 g/a were made 1-28-69 and 2-6-69.


Material


Suonlier


rate/100 gal.


Rayplex Mn
it Zn
Cu
Fe
PC 183 Iron


184
185
186
193
194


" 195
NTA Mn
NTA Zn
NTA Fe
Hampol Zn

Hampol Fe
Hampol Cu
Hampene Zn
Hampene Fe
Colloidox Cu


Rayonier, Inc.



West Va. Pulp & Paper Co.

It it II it f11 i
if It t II Ift t
ft ft Ii ft If It
It If it t If ft


II II II

11 11 11
ft "t "f


II It fI

II II It


Hampshire Chemical Corp.
ft 11 it


Berkshire Chemicals, Inc.


Key El Mn Kai:

11" Cu
" Fe
In Zn
Minor Element Mixture


ser Agricultural Chemicals


IIChase & Co.
Chase & Co.


it +
2 lbs. urea

11

4


Monsanto Chemical Co.
ft 11 it

West Va. Pulp & Paper Co.
ft it it It if ft


12-4-12 liquid fertilizer
Magnesium sulfate


Kenco
It


1 gal/100 gal
5 lb/100 gal


0=no improvement, 5=normal green growth


2 lb.
11
it

If
f1
11


NTA-2
NTA-2
NTA-2
190 Mn
189 Mn


MaterialSun blie


* Plots were rated 3-4-69









-8-


Fertilizer and Minor Element
(R. B. Forbes and P. J. Westgate)
on newly cleared peat on the Lake


Studies With Vegetable Crops on New Land.
The following experiments are in progress
Gem farm of A. Duda and Sons:


Carrots


Experiment I:
Experiment II:
Experiment III:


Major Nutrients (NPK factorial)
Minor Element Trial (Soil applications)
Lime Experiment (Dolomite, calcic lime and basic slag)


Lettuce, Escarole and Chicory


Experiment I:
Experiment II:


Major nutrients (NPK Mg factorial)
Minor Element Trial (Soil applications of copper, lime,
manganese, zinc and boron, separately and in a mixture)


Field Corn Fertilizer Trials. A factorial N-P-K experiment, a minor
element trial and a lime rate experiment were carried out on the Baker ranch
at Lisbon in the 1968 season. There was little response noted to any of the
fertilizer treatments because of an ample supply of nutrients accumulated in
the muck.

Carrot Variety Trials. The following varieties of carrots are being tested
in replicated plots at Zellwood with similar plantings at Sanford:


Carrots, Processor Varieties, Zellwood 1968-69


Plot No.


Seed Source


Danvers 126
Chantenay, Red Cored
Experimental G 1958
Royal Chantenay
Danvers 126
Chantenay, Red Cored 7317
Chantenay 403
Danvers 126
Chantenay, Red Core No. 5
Danvers 126
Danvers HF
Red Core
Wissyn 5
Wissyn 6
Hybrid 12 H
Royal Chantenay 321


Northrup-King & Co.
It tt if
If If If
Ift ft ft
Ferry Morse Seed Co., Inc.
it it ii it
Keystone Vegetable Seeds
It 11 it
It it I
Seed Research Specialists

t Ift It
Ferry Morse Seed Co., Inc.
If i fit II it
Joseph Harris Company
If fi ft







- 9 -


Carrots, Fresh Market Type, Zellwood 1968-69

Variety Seed Source


Waltham Hicolor
Pacesetter
Imperater 408
Gold Pak 28 (12/21)
Gold Pak (12/20)
Waltham Hicolor
Long Imperater 58
XP 108
XP 64296
Carousel
Hicolor 9
Highlight
Imperator XL
Imperator 58
Imperator 58 Special
HiColor
Ace
Gold Pak -S
Hybrid 2132-28
Nantesa Superior
Riel Red
S 35/62-1
5 89132/18
Waltham Hicolor 328/18
Waltham Hicolor


Harvest of these carrots is not yet complete,
will be displayed.


Northrup King & Company
it It iI II
II IIf tt
Ferry Morse Seed Co., Inc.
it It 1 II It
it II II Ii I
If 11 it I I
Asgrow Seed Co.
11 11 11

it It it

Keystone Vegetable Seeds
Seed Research Specialists
II 11 Ii
it It II
11 It it
It It It
Joseph Harris Co.
Ferry Morse Seed Co., Inc.
II It II II 11


II II II
Joseph Harris Co.
Dessert Seed Co.
Dessert Seed Co.


but samples of each variety


Summary of 1967-68 Variety Trials


Fresh Market Carrots. At Sanford, three of the new varieties: Hipak,
Carousel and Pacesetter were the top yielders. At Zellwood the leaders were
H 2132 and Carousel for U.S. Grade A carrots with Waltham Hicolor and XP 64296
leading in total yields.

At both locations Hicolor 9 and Waltham Hicolor showed the greatest degree
of blight resistance.

Best eating quality carrots were XP 64296 and Nantes 99 followed closely
by Hipak and Pacesetter.

Processor Carrots. At Sanford, Hybrid 12H was the highest yielder.
However, according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test, there was no significant
difference between Hybrid 12H and 6 varieties which followed it closely:
Danvers 126 (NK), Royal Chantenay (SRS) and (H), Red Cored Chantenay, Royal
Chantenay (MK) and Exp 1958.


At Zellwood, Danvers 126 (NK) produced the highest yields.


Plot No.


II II







- 10


The blight picture showed no clearcut trend. At Sanford, Danvers 126 (SRS)
and Danvers HF were the most resistant, while at Zellwood twocf the Royal
Chantenay lines appeared to have better blight resistance than the Danvers
lines. Blight was not severe enough at either location to be much of a.limiting
factor.

The best tasting carrots appeared in the Royal Chantenay lines.




Water Quality Studies, Zellwood Drainage and Water Control District .
Water Samples from canals in the district and from Lake Apopka have been taken
at regular intervals since September 1966. Analyses have been made for plant
nutrients, total solids (to include both suspended and dissolved materials),
DDT and parathion.

Two seasonal trends have become apparent in the analyses so far:

I. During dry periods, the water in the canals was in about the same range
of concentration for nutrients and total solids as that in the lake.

2. In the wet season, the concentrations in the lake tended to go down
with the dilution effect of the rains. During this time, however, the water
being pumped from the farm canals into the lake was generally higher in
nutrients than during the cool, dry weather.

This work is being continued, and a joint project for a thorough study
of the problems connected with farm drainage and nutrient enrichment of the
lake is getting underway. Participating will be personnel from the Department
of Soils and the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the main station,
with some help from the U.S. Geological Survey in prospect.




------------
1/ The cooperation of the following is acknowledged: Dr. J. NeSmith, Soil
Testing Laboratory, University of Florida; Mr. Doyle Golden, Chief,
Pesticide Residue Section, Div. of Chemistry, State Dept. of Agriculture;
and Mr. Arch Hodges, Supervisor, Zellwood Drainage and Water Control District.





- 11 -


Cabbage Fertilization Studies (Sanford)

(a) Fertilization in relation to,black speck. A factorial fertilizer
experiment using 2 levels of P200 3 levels of K20, and 2 levels of MO0 is
being conducted at Sanford with Iarket Prize (a susceptible variety of cabbage)
to determine the effect of these treatments on black speck. This trial is not
yet completed, but previous work has shown some reduction in black speck by
addition of extra potassium.

(b) Nutrient intensity and balance study -/. Soil analyses and yields
of cabbage are being studied under 4 variables in this experiment:

2 fertilizer levels X 2 water levels with Little Rock variety of cabbage.






/i With the cooperation of Dr. J. NeSmith, Extension Soils Specialist, Univ.
of Florida.





- 12 -


NEMATODE CONTROL

H. L. Rhoades

ZELLWOOD (muck soil)

Carrots.- Six nematicides were tested for their effectiveness in controlling
root-knot nematodes attacking Hicolor 9 carrots in the fall of 1968. Results of
the experiment are shown in Table 1.


Table 1.- Effect of nematicides on yield of carrots attacked
nematodes.


by root-knot


Yield
Treatment Rate/acre (lb/plot) % culls

Check 22.5 14.6

D-D 40 gal 23.9 6.2

Furadan 6 lb. 22.9 8.0

Zinophos + Thimet 21.3 8.2

Temik 22.5 4.4

Dasanit 23.0 9.8

Lannate 21.4 9.8



Caladiums.- Pre-plant hot water treatment of caladium seed tubers (122F
for 30 minutes) infested with root-knot nematodes has been used with good
success for several years now. However, this treatment is gradually being
replaced by chemical treatment of the tubers. An experiment in 1968 indicated
that several nematicide dips give comparable results with hot water treatment.
The results are presented in Table 2.





- 13 -


Table 2.- Effect of hot water and chemical treatment of Crimson Wave caladium
seed tubers on subsequent yield.


Yield
(Ib/plot)a


Treatment


Check


Hot water (122F for 30 min.)

Zinophos, 1000 ppm for 1 hr.


" 30 min.


Dasanit, 1000 ppm for 1 hr.


" 30 min.


Mocap, 1000 ppm for 1 hr.


" 30 min.


Bay 68138, 1000 ppm for 1 hr.


" 30 min.


Abbott K105, 1000 ppm for 1 hr.

Abbott 106, 1000 ppm for 1 hr.


0.67

1.20

1.20

1.28

1.30

1.10

0.85

0.97

1.02

1.25

0.48

0.33


al2' of row length.



SANFORD (sand)

Nematicide Screening.- A total of 18 experimental nematicides were tested
for their effectiveness in controlling root-knot nematodes during 1968. Those
giving effective control at the rates applied were:


Dasanit
Bzy 68138
Chemagro 7375
2Iuradan
NIA 15267
Mocap
TH 427-I
Zinophos + Thimet

ER 6134
EP. 6489
Lannate
IMB 5667


4 lb/acre
it




5 Ib/acre
3 lb each/
acre
6 Ib/acre
It
4 lb/acre
5 lb/acre


Chemagro Corporation
11 It

Niagara Chemical Division (FMC Corp.)
11 It It 11
Mobil Chemical Company
Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co.

American Cyanamid Co.
Esso Agricultural Products

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co.




- 14 -


Celery.- The results of an experiment conducted on 2-13 celery in the late
winter and spring of 1969 are presented in Table 3. This experiment was conducted
in an area infested primarily with sting and root-knot nematodes. All treatments
reduced the nematode populations and gave an excellent increase in yield.

Table 3.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of celery.

Nematode Populationsb Yield
Treatment Rate/acrea Sting Root-knot (lb/plot)c

Check 121 4.13 57
Furadan 3 lb. 22 2.19 109
Temik 9 1.56 109
Dasanit 30 2.56 91
Bay 68138 8 1.94 102
Mocap 45 2.13 96
Zinophos + Thimet 10 2.19 98
Lannate 12 2.06 95

aApplied in a 14-inch band in-row.
biting nematode populations are the numbers of nematodes extracted from 100 cc
of soil at harvest time, root-knot populations are based on an index of 1, no
galling, to 5, severe galling.
cPounds of untrimmed celery obtained from 20 feet of row length.

Cabbage.- The results of an experiment conducted in an area infested with
sting nematodes in the winter of 1968-69 are presented in Table 4. An excellent
increase in yield was obtained from all treatments but Lannate applied at 3
pounds per acre. Definite phytotoxicity symptoms were present during early
growth in plots treated with this material. The variety was Roundup #5.








- 15 -


Table 4.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of cabbage.

Yield
Treatment Rate/acre Sting nematodesa (crates/acre)


Check


115


D-D


25 gal broadcast


2 lb in-row


Temik


Furadan



Mocap

ti

Dasanit
'I

Bay 68138



Lannate

I

Zinophos + Thimet

II Ii


aNumber of nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest time.


Carrots.- An experiment was conducted in an area infested with root-knot
nematodes during the winter of 1968-69. Although total yields were very similar,
the amount of culls (forked and galled carrots) resulting from nematode injury
was much higher in the untreated plots (Table 5).


3 lb


2 lb "


3 lb

2 lb

3 lb

2 lb

3 lb

2 lb

3 lb

2 lb

3 lb

2 lb

3 lb


822

877

849

805

776

865

808


847

769

695

823






- 16 -


Table 5.- Effect of nematicides on yield of carrots attacked
nematodes.


by root-knot


Yield
Treatment Rate/acre (lb/plot) % culls
Check 26.5 28.8
D-D 25 gal 30.7 6.2
Temik 6 lb 30.6 3.6
Furadan 27.2 2.4
Zinophos + Thimet 29.3 3.2
Mocap 25.6 8.2
Dasanit 30.3 7.0
Lannate 30.1 2.4


Snap beans.- The results of an experiment conducted in an area infested
with sting nematodes are presented in Table 6. All nematicides reduced nematode
populations and greatly increased yields.

Table 6.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of snap beans.

Yield
Treatment Rate/acre Sting nematodesa bu/acre

Check 523 26
Zinophos + Thimet 1 lb 180 92
2 lb 77 91
Furadan 1 lb 71 79
i 2 Ib 58 85
Dasanit 1 lb 127 82
2 Ib 111 98
Bay 68138 1 lb 65 80
2 lb 35 123
Temik 1 lb 63 127
2 lb 53 121
Mocap 1 lb 194 74
2 lb 174 98
Lannate 1 lb 62 91
I" 2 lb 103 106
Thimet 2 lb 209 56


aNumber of sting nematodes extracted


from 100 cc of soil at harvest time.





- 17 -


Field Corn.- A number of vegetable fields in the Sanford area are planted
to field corn during the spring and summer months. If plant nematodes are not
controlled, the corn is often severely damaged. During the spring and summer
of 1968, an experiment was conducted in an area infested with sting and stubby-
root nematodes. Results of this experiment are presented in Table 7.

Table 7.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of field corn.

Rate/ Nematode populationsa Yield
Treatment acre Sting Stubby-root (bu/acre)

Check 241 152 62
D-D 25 gal (broadcast) 24 355 89
Mocap 3 lb (in-row) 23 71 97
Furadan 1-1/2 lb 57 48 87
3 lb 19 27 88
Tenik 1-1/2 lb 27 22 91
3 lb 17 23 94
Lannate 3 lb 49 65 81
Dasonit 3 lb 13 65 94
Zinophos + Thimet 1-1/2 lb 51 84 90
3 lb 7 110 95


aNumber of nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest time.





- 18 -


EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF CABBAGE LOOPERS, CORN EARWORMS AND BUDWORMS

G. L. Greene

Control of Cabbage Loopers. Experimental control of loopers has been
coordinated in Florida so that four stations are testing the same insecticides
under similar conditions. Results from the first year are shown in Table 1
and the rating scale is explained below. Since these results were gathered,
Lannate has been cleared for use on cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and head
lettuce. Rates of % to Y2 lb. per acre are suggested with a 7 day waiting
period before harvest, except for head lettuce which is 14 days. As can be
seen in Table 1, Lannate has given good control of cabbage loopers when
applied on a regular schedule.

Several experimental insecticides are looking good for looper control.
These are DuPont's 1642, which does slightly better than Lannate; Union Carbide's
34096, the best material last year (Table 1); Shell's Azodrin; Morton's Fundal
or Ciba's Galecron, the same material kills eggs; Velsical's 506; and Chevron's
Monitor. None of these materials are registered for use on vegetables at this
time, but some are getting close.

In Table 1 each figure for the 4 locations is based on 4 replications of
10 plants for a total of 40 plants per location and 160 plants for the average
per treatment. The rating scale developed from several systems used in Florida
and elsewhere uses a scale ranging from 1 to 6 as follows:

1 = No apparent insect feeding.

2 = Minor insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves, 0 1% leaf area eaten.

3 = Moderate insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves with no head damage, 2 5% leaf area
eaten.

4 = Moderate insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves with minor feeding on head, 6 10%
leaf area eaten. Head unmarketable during
normal marketing conditions.

5 = Moderate to heavy feeding on wrapper and head
leaves and a moderate number of feeding scars
on head, 11 30% of leaf area eaten.

6 = Considerable insect feeding on wrapper and
head leaves with head having numerous
feeding scars, over 30% of leaf area eaten.

Corn Earworm Control. The restrictions on DDT have changed the earworm
control program considerably. The reprint by Greene and Janes that most of
you received gave the highlights of our research findings. Niran 6-3, Gardona,
Sevin and Lannate appear to be good corn earworm insecticides.

The use of ULV (ultra low volume = 2 qt. or less of total material per acre)
is being tried this spring for corn earworm control. The idea is to despense very
small droplets in a 100 mph wind. These drops do not dry up in the air as water
does.




- 19 -


Budworms in Corn. Control of budworms in corn is difficult to obtain when
worms are over half grown and eat into the whorl. With sweet corn, nearly worm
free stalks are needed where as with field corn some damage by budworms will not
reduce yields.

Results of control in sweet corn are given in Tables 2 and 3. Of the
materials tested, Gardona and Lannate have given good control as well as
several numbered compounds. The fall 1967 test showed that the application
interval was much more important than rate of Gardona. Parathion + methyl
parathion (Niran 6-3) has not given good control in small plots. Similar
results were noted in corn earworm control tests, yet in large blocks control
has been very good.

Field corn planted in early spring has low numbers of budworms and may not
need insecticide treatment. Research is being conducted to determine the number
of worms per plant at different growth stages which cause a reduction in yield.
When treatments are needed, baits appear to give the best control. Fields
baited have larger numbers of parasites than sprayed fields. The parasite kills
the budworm, fall armyworm, before it eats much leaf area. In tests where baits
were compared with sprays, dusts, and granules the baits gave the best control nf
moderate populations (3 or less worms per stalk). With high populations (3 to
12 worms per stalk) sprays gave the best control.








Table 1.- Ratings of cabbage looper feeding on King Cole Cabbage plants taken at four locations in Florida during 1968.

Rate of
Active Looper damage at harvest
Material Ingredient/Acre Belle Glade Bradenton Hastings Sanford Average


UC 34096
DuPont 1642
Lannate
DDT + Toxaphene
Azodrin
Thuricide 90TS
GC 6506
Biotrol
Biotrol
Parathion + Thiodan
Furadan
Parathion + Toxaphene
Dibrom
DDT + Guthion
Phosdrin
CIBA C-9491
Polyhydrosis Virus
Check


1.0#
0.5#
0.5#
1.0+2.0#
0.5#
2 qt.
0.5#
2.0#
3.0#
0.25+0.5#
1.o#
0.5+2.0#
2.0#
0.5+0.5#
0.5#
1.0#
20 larval units


1.55 ab
1.52 a
1.62 ab
2.12 ab
1.70 ab
1.85 ab
2.20 cd
1.92
1.78 ab
2.15 bc
2.50 ef
2.10 ab
2.15 bc
2.32 de
2.20 cd
2.80 f
5.00 h
4.22 g


c
ode
cd
cd
e


cd
de


cde
de
f
e


2/


1.00
1.05
1.10
1.32
1.32
1.38
1.15


1.40
1.25
1.18
1.45
1.50
1.88
1.48
1.68
1.70
2.45


a
ab
abc
abcd
abcd
abcd
abc


abcd
abc
abc
abcd
abcd
d
abcd
bcd
cd
e


1.40 a
1.60 abc
1.40 a
1.90 abcd
1.52 ab
1.62 abc
2.42 def


2.18 cde
2.35 def
2.12 bcde
2.05 bcd
2.28 def
2.72 ef
2.80 f
2.48 def
1.90 abcd

5.58 g


1/ Numbers followed by the same letters are not
test.


significantly different at the 5% level using Duncan's multiple range


2/ Treatments of the virus were not complete at this location.


1.82 ab
1.72 a
2.05 ab
1.50 a
2.32 bc
2.38 bc
2.80 cd
2.80
3.25 de
3.20 de
3.32 de
3.62 ef
3.95 f
3.05 de
3.60 ef
4.02 f
4.02 f
4.98 g


1.44 a
1.48 a
1.54 al
1.71 al
1.72 al
1.81 b
2.14 c


2.15 c
2.24 c(
2.28 c(
2.31 cc
2.47 d(
2.49 d(
2.52 d(
2.74 e
3.16 f
4.31 g







- 21 -


In Table 1 each figure for the 4 locations is based on 4 replications of
10 plants for a total of 40 plants per location and 160 plants for the average
per treatment. The rating scale developed from several systems used in Florida
and elsewhere uses a scale ranging from 1 to 6 as follows:


1 = No apparent insect feeding.

2 = Minor insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves, 0-1% leaf area eaten.

3 = Moderate insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves with no head damage, 2-5% leaf area
eaten.

4 = Moderate insect feeding on wrapper or outer
leaves with minor feeding on head, 6-10%
leaf area eaten. Head unmarketable during
normal marketing conditions.

5 = Moderate to heavy feeding on wrapper and head
leaves and a moderate number of feeding scars
on head, 11-30% of leaf area eaten.

6 = Considerable insect feeding on wrapper and
head leaves with head having numerous
feeding scars, over 30% of leaf area eaten.






- 22 -


Table 2,- Control of budworms in small plots of sweet corn with sprays in
Central Florida (Zellwood).

% injury 1/
Insecticides lb AI/acre free stalks-


2 applications, 7 days apart, Spring 1967


GC-6506
Chlordane + toxaphene
Dursban D
UC-30045
Carbaryl
Biotrol
Carbaryl + molasses
UC-34096
Fundal /
DDT + toxaphene-2
Check
Thuricide OSS
DDT + parathion2/
Morton EP-332
Check
Thuricide SS
Toxaphene
Morton EP-334-


0.75
0.40 + 0.48 (20 lb Bait)
0.75
1.00
1.60 (20G)
2.00 (20 lb Bait)
1.60 + 1 gal
1.00
0.50
1.00 + 0.75


2 qts
1.00 + 0.25
0.50


2 qt. (20 lb Bait)
1.50
0.50


100 a
93 b
92 bc
87 c
87 c
82 d
75 e
72 e
71 e
65 f
64 f


l/ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5%o level using Duncan's multiple range test.
2/ Several plants in these treatments showed leaf burning.






- 23 -


Table 3.- Control of budworms in small plots of sweet corn with sprays in
Central Florida (Sanford).

Application % injury ,/
Insecticides lb AI/acre interval days free stalks-


2 applications, 11 days apart, Spring 1967


UC-30045
UC-34096
Carbaryl
Parathion
Biotrol
Toxaphene
Thuricide SS
Stauffer N-2790
DDT
Furadan
Disulfoton
Check



Gardona
Gardona M
Carbaryl
Carbaryl
Carbaryl
Gardona
DDT + toxaphene
Gardona
DDT + toxaphene
Check


1.00
1.00
2.00 (20 lb Bait)
0.25
2.00 (20 lb Bait)
1.50
2 qts.
1.00 (10G)
1.00
2.00 (10G)
1.00 (10G)


3 to 6 applications, Fall 1967
0.75
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
1.00
0.50 + 1.0
0.75
0.25 + 0.50


- Continued -


3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
7
3-4
7
3-4


0 c






- 24 -


Table 3.- Continued


Application
interval % injury
Insecticide lb AI/acre days free stalks

6 applications,3 to 4 days apart, Fall 1968

VCS-506 1.00 98 a
Gardona 1.00 94 a
Lannate + DuPont sticker 0.50 + 4 oz 93 a
,c-6506 0.50 86 a
UC 34096 1.50 86 a
Monitor + Oil 1.00 + 2 oz 81 a
Pa&rat-ion + toxaphene 0.25 + 1.50 79 ab
Parathion + methyl parathion 0.34 + 0.16 68 ab
Carbaryl 2.00 44 bc
Diazinon 1.00 44 bc
Trichlorfon 1.00 23 cd
C :-ck -- Od


./ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5% level using Duncan's multiple range test.










- 25 -


RESEARCH ON DISEASE CONTROL

J. O. Strandberg

Recent work at Zellwood on disease control through the use of protective
fungicides has involved carrots and celery. Evaluation of new and experimental
fungicides on these crops have shown that several materials can provide effective
control when applied on a good preventative spray schedule. Registration of
many of the newer fungicides for celery and carrots is anticipated.

Plots available for inspection include celery and carrot fungicide tests
now in progress. It is not our purpose to completely control all disease but
to find out which materials are most effective. Many of these materials could
provide effective control of foliar diseases if applied following a more
rigorous spray schedule adapted to prevailing weather and disease conditions.

The diseases prevailing in the celery plots is Cercospora blight. There
is also some leaf miner damage. Alternaria blight is the disease noticeable
in the carrot plots.

Results of carrot fungicide evaluations from last spring are included for
information only and should not be considered as recommendations. A disease
index of two or less was judged to represent good "commercial control".

Cabbage Black Rot.- During the cabbage season now ending, black rot has
caused damage in most cabbage fields. Growers are reminded that hot water
treatment of seed and avoiding fields known to be infected continue to be the
best control measures. In experiments at CFES over the past season the germination
and vigor of seeds from 15 hybrid cabbage varieties were not significantly affected
by hot water treatment when fresh seed was used. Seed protective fungicides were
removed by hot water treatment. Seedling survival rates of hot water treated
seeds were increased by re-treating the seeds with various seed protectant
materials.








- 26 -


CELERY FUNGICIDE EVALUATIONS


Zellwood, Florida

Treatment
(Plot No.) Material


Formulation


Spring, 1969

Amount Formulation
(per 100 gal/acre)


Benlate

Dyrene

Daconil

Dithane M-45

Kocide 101

Colloidox

TBZ (Merck)

Polyram

Miller 658Z

Manzate 200

Nabac

Nabac + Manzate 200

Geigy G20-072

Duter

Difolatan

Control


50W

50W

75W

86W





60ow

80w



80w

25EC

-4.

80ow

50W

4F

--


0.5 lb.

2.0 lb.

0.75 lb.

1.5 lb.

3.0 lb4

3.5 lb.

0.5 lb.

1.5 lb.

2.0 lb.

2.0 lb.

4.0 oz.

4.0 oz + 1.0 lb.

10 oz

0.25 lb.

1.0 qt.


Celery transplanted 2/19/69. Variety Utah 52-70.

Materials applied at 7 day intervals since March 19.








- 27 -


CARROT FUNGICIDE EVALUATIONS


Zellwdod, Florida


Treatment
(Plot No.)


Material


Formulation


8prihg, 1969

Amount FOrmulation
(per 100 gal/acre)


Daconil
Dithane M-45
TBZ (Merck)
Polyram
Nabac + Manzate 200
Benlate + Manzate 200
Duter


75w
80w
60w
80w



50W


1.5
1.5
0.5
1.5
6.0
0.25
6.0


lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
oz + 1.5 lb.
lb. + 2.0 lb.
oz


Fungicides applied at 7 day intervals.


Results: Carrot Fungicide Evaluation
Prevailing diseases: Alternaria daucii


Material


Formulation


Winter 1968
and Cercospora carotae.

Amount Formulation
(per 100 gal/acre)


Daconil
Dithane M-45
Dithane M-22
Duter
Dyrene
Dithane Z-78
Unsprayed control


75W
80w


50w
50W
75W


1.5 lb.
1.5 lb.
1.5 lb.
0.25 lb.
2.0 lb.
2.0 lb.


0.9
1.6
2.5
2.6
2.9
3.0
4.9


a/ Disease Index rated O no disease to 5 severe defoliation with all but the
youngest foliage showing numerous lesions. Average of 4 replicates.
Applications made on at 7 day intervals.


Disease
Index/


i .-1 :'I:~.1.II'1 -i i...r I;- -Ir r.,.~ Illr-rilr.lrr .lri;L rr I


--






- 28 -


WEED CONTROL IN VEGETABLES AND CALADIUMS AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTION

W. T. Scudder


Although large numbers of chemicals continue to be synthesized and screened
every year for use as selective herbicides in crops, it is getting continually
more difficult to find new ones which meet the requirements for commercial use.
A new pesticide not only must meet the increasingly more rigid requirements of
the FDA and the USDA, but also it's field performance must excel over other
chemicals currently available. Present status of some of the leading herbicides,
with our observations on performance and our recommendations, is given below.
Determination of the best herbicide to use is dependent upon several factors
which differ with each situation.

Corn Weed Control

1. Lasso (Monsanto CP-50144):
a. Registered for preemergence use in field corn February 1969; not yet
registered for sweet corn.
b. Use at 2 to 2/2 pounds active per acre, broadcast rate (2 to 2Y2 qts. of
4 lb/gal E. C. formulation) on either sand or muck.
c. Weed control longer lasting than with Randox (CDAA) or with Ramrod
(propachlor).
d. Non-irritating, easier to handle than Ramrod or Randox.

2. Ramrod (propachlor):
a. Registered for pre-emergence use in both field corn and sweet corn.
b. Use at 4 to 5 pounds active per acre, broadcast rate (6 to 7Y2 lb of
65% W.P. formulation or 20 to 25 lb. of 20% granules).
c. Weed control superior to and longer lasting than Randox on sand, but less
efficient on peat soil. Ramrod is more effective against broadleaf weeds
than Randox.

3. Randox (CDAA):
a. Registered for preemergence use with all corn.
b. Rates: 4 to 6 lbs active per acre (4 to 6 qts of 4 lb/gal E.C. or 20 to
30 pounds of 20% granules).
c. Randox remains our most efficient preemergence herbicide under dry soil
conditions. It is more effective against grasses than broadleaf weeds.

4. AAtrex (atrazine):
a. Registered for both preemergence and early postemergence use in all corn
and sorghum.
b. Use at 2 to 3 pounds active per acre (2Y2 to 35 lb of 80 W.P. formulation),
c. The addition of phytobland oils or extra surfactant has improved weed
control performance in a majority of our tests. Two gallons of oil has
been the most effective, but label registration restricts use to one
gallon due to the possibility of phytotoxicity.





- 29 -


5. Ramrod-Atrazine (Monsanto mix):
a. This wettable powder formulation, containing 48% active Ramrod and 21%
atrazine, is usable either preemergence or early postemergence for all
corn and sorghum.
b. Use at 4 to 8 pounds of formulation per acre.
c. Our experience with this mixture is limited, but results so far are very
encouraging. Weed control has been superior to that with either herbicide
alone.

6. 2,4-D (amine salt or low volatile ester):

a. Use only as lay-by spray, with corn at least 20 inches tall, no silks
showing; apply to weeds directed near base of corn plants.
b. Rate: 1/4 to 3/8 pound active per acre.
c. Effective only against broadleaf weeds.
d. All tests using this treatment have given some yield reduction. This
loss is frequently serious even though there are no visable effects of
the treatment on the corn.

Soybean Weed Control

1. Lasso (Monsanto CP-50144):
a. Registered for preemergence use.
b. Use at 2 to 2Y2 lb active (2 to 2/2 qt of 4 lb/gal E.C. formulation) per
acre broadcast. Usable on either sand or peat soil.
c. Weed control superior to that with Randox or with Randox-Vegadex mixture
on sand and longer lasting on both sand and peat.

2. Randox (CDAA) + Vegadex (CDEC):
a. Registered for preemergence use.
b. Use at 2 to 3 lb active of each chemical per acre broadcast (2 to 3 qt
each of 4 lb/gal E.C. formulations or 10 to 15 lb each of 20%/ granule
formulations). Use 6 Ib of active ingredient on sand soil. If the
main problem is with grasses, the Randox may be increased to a maximum of
4 pounds, but the total of active ingredients in the mix should not
exceed 6 pounds.

Celery Weed Control

1. Caparol (prometryne):
a. Registered for postemergence use on seedbeds and after transplanting.
b. Use 0.6 to 0.8 lb active per acre (3/4 to 1 lb of 80% WP formulation)
on seedbeds, broadcast rate.
c. Use 0.8 to 1.6 lb active per acre (1 to 2 Ib of 80% WP formulation) on
transplants, broadcast rate, before weeds exceed 2 inch tall.
d. Effective broadleaf and grass weed control under good moisture conditions.






30 -


2. Tok (nitrofen):

a. Registered for postemergence use either on the seedbed or after
transplanting.
b. Use at 3 to 4 pounds of active ingredient per acre (1Y to 2 gal. of
2 lb/gal E.C. formulation).
c. Celery is very tolerant to Tok applied at the above rates. Most weeds
are susceptible at the 2 inch stage or younger. Ragweed, chickweed,
galinsoga, and most wild crucifers are resistant.

3. Randox (CDAA + Vegadex (CDEC):

a. Registered for use after transplanting celery but preemergence to the
weeds.
b. Use 3 lb of active of each chemical per acre, broadcast (3 qt each of
4 lb/gal E.C. formulations or 15 lb each of 20% granule formulations).
c. This treatment effectively prevents development of most annual weed
species for a period of 3 to 4 weeks, if rainfall is not excessive.
A repeat treatment may be used up to 3 weeks after transplanting.

Carrot Weed Control

1. Lorox (linuron):

a. Registered for postemergence application.
b. Use at 1/4 to 1 pound active per acre broadcast (1/2 to 2 pounds of
50% W.P. formulation), on either sand or muck soil. Do not apply before
carrots are 2 inches tall. For best results, weeds should not exceed
one inch in height. Use lowest rate for very young carrots. Higher
rates, necessary for larger weeds, may be used as carrots become older.
c. Weed control with Lorox has been excellent without crop injury whenever
good soil moisture is present and the weeds are not too large.

2. Tok (nitrofen):
a. Registered for postemergence use on either sand or muck soil.
b. Use 3 pounds of active per acre broadcast (1Y to 2 gal of 2 lb/gal E.C.
formulation).
c. Carrots are very tolerant to Tok after they reach the 2-leaf stage.
Use the lower rate for young carrots.
d. Weed control in carrots has been excellent if sprayed while the weeds
are not over 1-2 inches tall. Many weed species become tolerant to
Tok as they become larger.




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