• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 New crops, corn varieties, irrigation...
 Vegetable crop nutrition, carrot...
 Nematode control
 Entomological investigations to...
 Black speck of cabbage
 Weed control in vegetable...














Group Title: Annual field day - Central Florida Experiment Station
Title: Annual field day 1967-68
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075825/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual field day 1967-68
Series Title: Annual field day.
Translated Title: Research Report - University of Florida Central Florida Experiment station ; 1967-68 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Central Florida Experiment Station, University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
Publication Date: 1968
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075825
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144607730

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    New crops, corn varieties, irrigation water studies, wind machine for vegetables
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Vegetable crop nutrition, carrot variety trials and water quality studies
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Nematode control
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Entomological investigations to be reported - cabbage, corn and bean insects
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Black speck of cabbage
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Weed control in vegetable crops
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida













cooperation
with
Florida Agricultural
Extension Service


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CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION

SANFORD AND ZELLWOOD REPORTS COMBINED


Sanford, Florida


Annual Field Day
February 21, 1968


Cecil Tucker, County Agent, Presiding

Assembly and Registration 1:30 P.M.
Page

1:30 Introduction, Cecil Tucker

1:35 New Crops, Corn Varieties, Irrigation Water Studies,
Wind Machine for Vegetables 1
Dr. P. J. Westgate, Horticulturist

1:45 Vegetable Crop Nutrition, Carrot Variety Trials and
Water Quality Studies 6
Dr. R. B. Forbes, Associate Soils Chemist

1:55 Nematode Control ; 10
Dr. H. L. Rhoades, Associate Nematologist

2:05 Entomological Investigations to be Reported -
Cabbage, Corn and Bean Insects 15
Dr. G. L. Greene, Assistant Entomologist

2:15 Coffee Break (Courtesy Geigy Agricultural Chemicals
and Shell Chemical Company)

2:45 Black Speck of Cabbage 21
Dr. James O. Strandberg, Assistant Plant Pathologist

2:55 Weed Control in Vegetables and Caladiums and Soybean
Production % 27
Dr. W. T. Scudder, Associate Horticulturist

3:10 Tour of Experimantal Plots











-1-


NEW CROPS, CORN VARIETIES, IRRIGATION WATER STUDIES,
WIND MACHINE FOR VEGETABLES

P. J. Westgate

Bunch Grapes, growing south of the barn, include Lake Emerald, Blue Lake,
St. Pete Niagara, Golden Spanish, and new hybrids from Leesburg, which include
A3-46, A3-55, A3-60, A4-43, and A3-34 grafted on Lake Emerald. FES A4-46 has
been released from the Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory as
"Norris".

Muscadine Grapes: Nineteen varieties of muscadine grapes, namely Wallace,
Tarheel, Magoon, Dearing, Higgins, Scuppernong, Topsail, Yuga, Hunt, Dulcet,
Thomas, Creek, Chowan, Albermale, Roanoke, Pamlico, Magnolia, Bnrgaw, and
Willard are growing at Sanford. Of these varieties, Wallace, Tarheel, Magoon,
Dearing, Higgins, Scuppernong, Hunt, Thomas, Creek and Burgaw have fruited
to date. These muscadine grape varieties were obtained from Owen's Nursery,
Gay, Georgia.

Blackberries: The first plantings of hybrid blackberries were made in
Sanford in 1956. Flordagrand and Oklawaha are the two leading varieties.
Brazos, a Texas blackberry, fruits well but is susceptible to "double blossom"
caused by a fungus. Other varieties being grown in Sanford include Raven, I-3,
No. 6, No. 7, No. 8, Big Ness Seedling, Flordagrand Seedling, and Dallas.
These blackberry trials at Sanford are in cooperation with Dr. Wayne B. Sherman,
Gainesville.

Peaches: Various varieties of peaches have been planted on old celery land
at Sanford in cooperation with Ralph Sharpe, Gainesville. Named varieties,
such as Flordawon, Flordasun, Sunred (nectarine), White Knight No. 1, Early
Amber, Tejon, Bonita, June Gold, and Rochon have all fruited at Sanford.
Florida hybrid peaches L17-12, and L27-12 produced good crops of large, early
peaches. Two hundred four new peach hybrids, and 250 seedling Sunred nectarines
from Gainesville were planted out at Sanford on December 13, 1967 for observation.

Field Corn: Forty-five varieties of field corn were planted on sand at
Sanford, and on mucky peat at Zellwood in March 1967. Each field corn variety
was planted at 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000 plants per acre at both locations.
Yields (bushels per acre), ear height, and plant height are given in Table 1.
These field corn variety trials are in cooperation with Dr. E. S. Horner,
Agronomist, Gainesville.











-2-


Sorghum: Twenty-two varieties of grain and silage sorghums were planted
on sand at Sanford, and on mucky peat at Zellwood in March 1967. The fol-
lowing is a list of the sorghum varieties planted at both locations:

Plot No. Variety Plot No. Variety

1 DeKalb E-57 12 Beefbuilder T

2 Frontier 409 13 Robusto

3 Savanna 14 Jumbo L

4 Excel Bird-Go 15 DeKalb FS-26

5 ASK 614 16 TE-Milkmaker

6 Raider B 17 Leafmaster 43

7 Frontier S-214 18 Grazer A

8 NK 300 19 Sordan

9 NK 320 20 NK 222

10 TE Silomaker 21 NK 255

11 Titan R 22 NK 330


M. Prine,


Most of these sorghum varieties were obtained through Dr. G.
Agronomy, Gainesville. Data are still being processed.








Table 1.- Summary of field corn variety tests at Sanford and Zellwood, Florida in 1967 (Central Florida
Experiment Station).

Sanford (mineral soil) Zellwood (organic soil)
Bushels per acre Bushels per acre
at each planting at each planting
rate (Thousands of Ear Plant rate (Thousands of Ear Plant
plants per acre) height height plants per acre) height height
Hybrid Ave. 20 15 10 (ft.) (ft.) Ave. 20 15 10 (ft.) (ft.)

Early and medium early maturity group:
Asgrow ASC 69 22.7 26 27 15 1.4 4.4 129.7 157 128 104 4.0 8.9
Asgrow ASC 73 30.3 33 33 25 1.2 4.2 155.7 168 168 131 3.7 9.1
Asgrow ASC 79 38.7 47 38 31 1.3 4.6 152.7 167 167 124 3.9 9.3
Asgrow A150 53.7 66 56 39 1.5 4.6 144.7 175 133 126 4.5 10.0
Asgrow A200B 39.7 44 40 35 1.4 4.2 137.3 161 127 124 4.1 9.6

Asgrow A204 46.0 57 42 39 1.6 4.9 153.7 189 137 135 4.7 10.1
Asgrow A300B 58.7 60 70 46 2.0 5.2 136.3 160 139 110 4.9 10.4
Asgrow A403W 72.0 78 69 69 1.8 5.2 153.7 180 118 163 4.7 10.3
Coker 12 40.3 42 38 41 1.7 5.0 128.0 142 136 106 4.1 9.6
Coker 52 74.3 86 79 58 1.9 5.2 152.3 189 125 143 4.3 9.7

Embro Jarvis E-l 71.0 74 74 65 1.6 4.8 180.0 197 147 196 4.2 9.1
Funk's G-76 33.3 46 29 25 1.3 4.6 133.3 134 148 118 3.7 9.3
Funk's G-144 42.0 51 41 34 1.5 4.8 152.3 169 163 125 3.9 9.4
Funk's G-5757 42.0 44 41 41 1.6 4.7 142.3 178 129 120 4.1 9.3
Funk's G-5858 78.3 91 78 66 1.9 5.4 172.0 206 141 169 4.4 10.0

McCurdy 66 x 19 50.0 58 46 46 1.7 5.2 1335. 164 132 104 4.7 9.9
McCurdy 92 x 11 41.3 42 39 43 1.6 5.0 146.0 178 159 101 4.5 10.1
McNair 340V 69.0 81 69 57 1.7 5.0 174.3 192 172 159 4.6 9.8
Pioneer 309B 65.3 76 60 60 1.8 5.1 170.0 182 170 158 4.6 9.7
Pioneer 3059 57.3 50 66 56 1.7 5.0 154.3 177 146 140 4.6 10.3

Average 51.3 57.6 51.7 44.5 --- 150.1 173.2 144.2 132.8 -


Continued


next page








Table 1.- (Cont.). For table headings, see previous page.


Sanford Zellwood
Medium and late maturity group:
Asgrow ATC 504 70.0 82 64 64 1,9 6.0 133.0 143 141 115 5.1 11.0
Asgrow A510S 51.3 63 43 48 1.3 5.0 110.0 120 109 101 3.3 9.2
Coker 67 79.7 89 75 75 1.8 6.7 138.3 161 138 116 5.0 10.8
Coker 71 72.0 90 72 54 2.7 6.5 126.3 135 125 119 5.3 10.6
Coker 74 59.0 75 56 46 2.3 6.0 115.0 119 106 120 4.8 10.3

Dixie 18 76.0 91 75 62 3.2 7.3 121.7 148 114 103 6.4 12.4
Florida 200A 79.3 98 77 63 2.8 6.9 134.7 136 128 140 6.0 12.0
Funk's G-732 65.3 84 68 44 2.3 6.0 121.3 126 131 107 5.1 10.7
Funk's G-4949 80.3 96 82 63 2.4 6.2 137.3 124 159 129 5.0 10.7
Funk's G-5945 61.7 75 60 50 2.3 5.7 135.7 132 148 127 5.1 10.4
/
Greenwood 18 72.3 90 71 56 3.0 6.7 150.7 154 138 160 6.3 12.0
Greenwood 61 59.3 67 55 56 2.4 6.3 123.7 111 142 118 5.2 11.1
Greenwood 471 72.0 77 75 64 2.6 6.2 110.3 117 121 93 5.6 10.9
McCurdy M306 56.7 65 55 50 2.6 6.5 133.3 135 130 135 5.7 12.0
McCurdy M307 63.3 76 45 69 2.6 6.3 136.3 145 145 119 6.1 12.1

McNair 440V 70.0 71 65 74 2.0 5.7 141.3 150 156 118 5.0 10.5
P.A.G. 751 65.0 67 55 73 2.5 6.1 148.0 161 166 117 5.4 11.7
Pennington 7-C-11A 70.3 71 61 79 2.5 6.4 142.7 132 154 142 5.7 11.8
Pioneer 3009 43.3 45 36 49 1.7 5.3 145.7 152 148 137 5.1 10.7
Pioneer 3048 54.3 57 50 56 2.2 6.1 145.0 145 145 145 5.2 11.0

Poey T66 59.0 76 57 44 3.1 6.5 104.7 93 111 110 6.4 11.4
Taylor 105 56.7 72 56 42 2.2 6.4 111.0 123 109 101 4.5 10.6


65.3 76.2 61.5 58.2


130.3 134.6 134.7 121.4


~__~_ _~ __


Average










-5-


Irrigation Studies: Sanford vegetable growers have long used artesian water
for irrigating vegetable fields in the area. Artesian wells vary in their solu-
ble salt content. Artesian well waters contain various amounts of hydrogen
sulphide, a toxic gas, which may be oxidized by aeration.

On November 2, 1967 two acres of Sanibel cabbage was direct seeded in the
field using a Stanhay Precision Planter, distributed in the U.S.A. by John Bean,
Division of Food Machinery Corp., with Kilgore Seed Co. the local dealer. A 98%
stand was obtained by direct seeding.

The west half of the cabbage field has been fertilized with 1500 lbs per
acre of a 10-3-10-3 fertilizer (all chlorides), while the east half of the field
has been fertilized with the same amount of fertilizer (all sulfates).

There are five irrigation plots in the field, the first three pockets to
the south being sub-irrigated with city water. The second three pockets going
north are irrigated with artesian well water through overhead sprinklers. The
third block of cabbage is sub-irrigated with artesian well water. The fourth
block is sub-irrigated with excessive amounts of artesian water. The fifth
block is sub-irrigated with artesian well water which has been aerated through
a tower. Automatic recorders are being used to check water levels, and chemical
tests are being used to study the sulphides in the soil. Yields of cabbage
from the various plots will be obtained at harvest. This work is being done in
cooperation with Dr. Harry Ford, Horticulturist, Citrus Experiment Station.

Climate Control: Sanford weather, south of Lake Monroe, tends to be mild
with winter temperatures dropping below 320 F. very few times during an average
winter. A combination of plastic mulches and a wind machine has been used in
an attempt to grow cucumbers and tomatoes during mid-winter when prices are
above average. On cold, still nights, ground temperatures may be several degrees
colder than temperatures several feet above the ground. The wind machine is an
attempt to raise the ground temperatures by mixing the warm air of the upper
layers with the cooler air nearer the ground. The wind machine can do no good
on a cold windy night when there is no inversion layer of warmer air. This
experiment is being done in cooperation with Chase and Company, and FMC
Corporation.








-6-


VEGETABLE CROP NUTRITION, CARROT VARIETY TRIALS, AND WATER QUALITY STUDIES

R. B. Forbes

Manganese Sources for Spinach and Snap Beans, Zellwood, 1967 (In co-
operation with Dr. E. Gammon and J. B. Fitts, Soils Dept., University of
Florida, Gainesville.)

The manganese source trials, begun in 1966 were continued a second season
at Zellwood. Manganous oxide (MnO, 60 mesh powder equiv. to 41% Mn, supplied
by Union Carbide Co.) and Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) were applied at rates of
0, 10, 20, and 40 pounds per acre in a factorial design with banded and broad-
cast treatments for spinach and beans.

Yield differences did not prove significant. However, in spinach trials
in a high pH area, both MnO and MnSO4 gave better leaf color than the check
plots or Mn EDTA treatments.

Plant analyses showed generally somewhat greater uptake of manganese from
MnSO4 but the MnO was not as readily leached from the soil. Both the sulfate
and oxide proved much better than the chelate (EDTA) form.

Nutritional Spray Treatments: Spinach, sweet corn, sorghum and field corn
experiments were carried out in cooperation with Dr. P. J. Westgate at Zellwood
and other muck areas where crops were showing nutrient deficiency symptoms.

In manganese deficient spinach, the crop responded well to foliar sprays
of manganese sulfate at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 gallons, to Rayplex Mn
(5 lbs/100 gal) and to a complete minor element mixture containing manganese.
A fall crop of sorghum which was chlorotic, stunted and showing die-back
symptoms on leaf tips responded well to sprays of copper sulfate (2 lbs/100 gal),
to Rayplex Cu (5 lbs/100 gal) and to the complete minor element mixture. On
the same farm later crops of sorghum and corn were given copper in the ferti-
lizer but again showed severe deficiency symptoms. In this instance the plants
responded to sprays of manganese sulfate.

In another trial on the station farm, sorghum plants responded well to
manganese sulfate (2 lbs/100 gal) to manganous oxide (325 mesh powder, 5 lbs
per 100 gal) and to the complete mixture. In addition, zinc sulfate (2 lbs/100
gal) gave a moderate response. These plots were located near one of the ditches
where the soil pH was higher than adjacent parts of the field where growth was
normal.

Caladium Nutrition on Peat Soils: R. B. Forbes and P. J. Westgate. Three
experiments with Candidum caladiums were conducted on newly cleared Istokpoga
peat near Lake Placid.

Experiment I: Major Nutrients (NPK Mg)
Experiment II: Minor Elements
Experiment III: Liming Experiment (3 different levels of dolomitic
limestone).






-7-


Carrot Variety Trials: The following varieties of carrots are growing in
replicated trials on both the Sanford and Zellwood farms:

Processor Varieties


Variety
Royal Chantenay

12H (new hybrid)
Danvers 126
Danvers HF

Royal Chantenay
Royal Chantenay 147BS2
Experimental 1958
Red Cored Chantenay
Danvers 126


Seed Source

Joseph Harris Company
1i If fi

Seed Research Specialists
it tt It


II It


Northrup, King & Co.
11 I! IT

tt it ti


If f1


Fresh Market Varieties
Waltham Hicolor

Hipak
Highlight
XP 64296
Carousel
Hicolor 9
Nantes 99
Experimental 8822
Imperator 58
Eureka
Imperator 408
Pacesetter
Waltham Hicolor

H 2132 (at Zellwood only)


Joseph Harris Company
11 it It

Asgrow
ii
1ft


tI

Keystone Vegetable Seeds
Seed Research Specialists
II 1I

Northrup, King & Co.
11 1I If


I1 It


Joseph Harris Company


Planting dates: Sanford, October 12, 1967

Zellwood, October 26, 1967.


Summary, 1967 Carrot Variety Trials


Hipak 310, Pacesetter and Long Imperator all did well at Sanford. Waltham
Hicolor was outstanding for yield and disease resistance at Zellwood. However
Pacesetter and Hipak 310 also did well and were of better flavor than Waltham.

Among the processor carrots, Danvers Half Long and Chantenay Royal 13 were
leaders at both locations in the first planting. The second planting gave a
little higher yields, with Danvers 126, Experimental 1958 and Red Core Chantenay
leading at both locations.


Plot No.
1








- 8 -


Water Quality Investigations Zellwood Drainage and Water Control District:
Water samples from canals in the district and from Lake Apopka have been taken
at intervals of every 2 to 4 weeks since September 1966. Analyses have been
made for plant nutrients, total solids (to include all suspended and dissolved
materials), DDT and parathion. The objective was to get information on water
quality throughout the whole cropping and seasonal sequence of at least one
whole year to determine to what extent the district may be contributing
nutrients or other "pollutants" to Lake Apopka.

Examples of these analyses are given in the two tables which follow.

Table 1.- Water Analysis. Samples of May 29, 1967.


Soluble
pH Salts


p.p.m.


NO
N


CaO MgO P205 K20


1 6.3 196 0 20 4 0.3 0.6 148 0.00
2 6.7 308 32 11 0.2 6 339 0.18
3 7.2 280 24 11 0.2 8 387 0.25
4 6.9 280 32 11 0.3 6 352 0.00
5 7.5 266 24 13 0.3 8 400 "
6 7.0 308 37 10 0.2 3 250 "
7 7.0 322 37 13 0.3 8 347 "
8 8.2 250 20 11 0.3 8 418 "
9 8.3 238 20 11 0.3 8 430 "
10 8.5 252 20 14 0.3 8 414 "


1The cooperation of the following individuals is acknowledged: Dr. J.
NeSmith, Soil Testing Laboratory, University of Florida; Mr. Doyle Goldon,
Chief, Pesticide Residue Section, Div. of Chemistry, State Dept. of Agriculture;
and Mr. Arch Hodges, Supervisor, Zellwood Drainage and Water Control District.


Sample
Station
Number


Total
Solids


DDT








-9-


Table 2.- Water Analysis.


Samples of July 11, 1967.


Soluble
pH Salts


NO3
N


p.p.m._______________


CaO MgO P205 20


1 6.5 224 0 15.8 1.8 1.8 12.5 180 0.00
2 7.1 322 0 36.9 8.8 0.6 10.4 289 0.00
3 7.0 385 0 46.4 8.8 12.8 51.6 1024 0.05
4 7.2 560 2 81.1 24.3 2.6 17.4 527 0.00
5 7.0 630 10 91.8 27.0 4.8 13.2 741 "
6 7.6 280 0 32.1 7.7 0.2 3.5 203 "
7 7.9 308 32.1 12.5 0.4 12.5 322 "
8 8.6 252 19.7 9.9 0.2 8.3 318 "
9 8.5 280 28.0 12.5 0.2 9.0 292 "
10 8.8 238 19.7 8.8 0.1 8.3 279 "



From the data so far it is apparent that water in the farm canals is
usually at or near the same range in both plant nutrients and salts as the
lake water. Much of the water in the canals during the dry season was lake
water seepage, so little pumping was done except when water levels became too
high and it was necessary to pump for short periods to lower the canals. Some
leaching of nutrients is evident in the July 11 samples and in those of August
29 since both were taken following periods of heavy rainfall.

During the corn season DDT was found in samples from canals adjacent to
corn fields. The highest concentration of DDT found was 0.25 ppm. No parathion
was detected.


Sample
Station
Number


Total
Solids


DDT






- 10 -


NEMATODE CONTROL

H. L. Rhoades

Nematicide Screening.- A total of 22 experimental nematicides were tested for
their effectiveness in controlling root-knot nematodes during 1967. Those giving
effective control at the rates applied were:


1. EP 248,
2. EP 257,
3. EP 297,
4. TD 1287,
5. TD 1288,
6. Bay 68138,
7. Dasanit,
8. Mocap,
9. NIA 15267,
10. Lannate,


25 gal/A
11 ii


7 lb/A
6 lb/A
6 lb/A
6 lb/A
5 lb/A
4 lb/A
10 lb/A


Morton Chemical Company


Pennsalt Chemicals Corporation


Chemagro Corporation


Mobil Chemical Company
Niagara Chemical Division
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.


Cover Crops.- Summer cover crops of sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), crotalaria
(Crotalaria spectabilis), Beefbuilder T sorghum, and Brabham field peas were
grown in rows 30 inches apart from May 18 August 28, 1967. Their effects on
nematode populations and yield of a subsequent crop of snap beans are shown in
Table 1. After the beans were harvested, the plots were disked and planted to
cabbage. Due to mixing of the plots through tillage, all of the cabbage is
severely damaged by the nematodes. This nematode damage can now be observed
in the field.

In observational plantings of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and South American
Marigold (Tagetes minute), sting and stubby-root nematodes built up on the peas
and the marigolds grew extremely slow in the seedling stage. It is doubtful if
either of these crops could be useful in a nematode control program.

Table 1.- Effect of cover crop and soil fumigation on nematode populations and
subsequent yield of snap beans.

Nematode populations Bean yield
Cover Crop Sting Stubby-root Root-knot index (bu/A)


Sesbania
Sorghum
Field peas
Crotalaria
D-D, 25 gal/A
LSD .05


653
464
364
38


643
166
52
9


2.94
1.38
1.72
1.22
2.0


155
110
185
257


.01 110
aSting and stubby-root nematode populations represent the number per pint of
soil following the rprowtb of The -over crops while the root-knot indey ~i based
on a rating of 1, no galling, to 5, severe g;Jling of the bean roots.







- 11 -


Nenaticides on Cabbage.- The results of an experiment conducted in an area
infested with sting and stubby-root nematodes in the late winter and spring of
1967 are presented in Table 2. An excellent increase in yield was obtained from
all treatments. The variety was TBR Globe.

Table 2.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of cabbage.

Application Nematode population Yield
Treatment method Sting Stubby-root (crates/acre)
Check -- 128 13 664
D-D, 25 gal/acre Broadcast 2 4 927
Temik, 2/Y lb/acre In-row 16 0 1070
Furadan, 4 Ib/acre 14 0 1037
Zinophos + Thimet,
2 lb each/acre 14 0 915
Thimet, 4 lb/acre 17 0 911
TH 336-N, 10 lb/acre 47 6 951
LSD .05 157
.01 213
aNematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest time.

Nematicides on Celery.- The results of an experiment conducted on Utah
52-70-2-13 celery in the late winter and spring of 1967 are presented in Table 3.
This experiment was conducted in an area infested primarily with the root-knot
nematode Meloidogyne incognita. All treatments gave a large increase in yield
with Furadan giving the highest.

Table 3.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and celery yield.

Application Root-knot Yield
Treatment method indexa (lb/plot)

Check -- 3.58 249
D-D, 25 gal/acre Broadcast 2.05 309
Vorlex, 7?2 gal/acre 2.68 317
Temik, 2Y Ib/acre In-row 1.80 369
Zinophos + Thimet,
2 lb each/acre 2.68 333
Furadan, 4 Ib/acre 1.85 419
LSD .05 0.42 69
.01 0.57 94

aBased on a galling index of 1, no galling, to 5, severe galling.










- 12 -


Nematicides on Cucumbers.- Nematicides were applied on Ashley cucumbers in
the spring of 1967 in an area infested with root-knot nematodes. Results are
shown in Table 4. D-D, DBCP, and Vorlex applied 2 weeks before planting ap-
parently escaped from the ridges too rapidly in the dry weather that followed
application to be very effective.

Table 4.- Effect of nematicides on root-knot nematodes and yield of cucumbers.

Root-knot Yield
Treatment indexa (lb/plot)

Check 4.88 28.6
D-D, 72 gal/acre 4.56 39.8
DBCP, /2 gal/acre 4.10 55.4
Vorlex, 7/ gal/acre 4.42 33.6
Furadan, 2 lb/acre 2.50 98.6
4 lb/acre 2.26 99.4
Temik, 1 lb/acre 1.68 125.8
2 lb/acre 1.34 126.0
TH 336-N, 3 lb/acre 3.28 80.6
Dasanit, 4 lb/acre 2.90 92.0
Zinophos + Thimet, 1 lb each/acre 2.56 97.6
Thimet, 2 lb/acre 4.22 55.8
LSD .05 0.47 23.4
.01 0.62 31.2
a
Based on a root galling index of 1, no galling, to 5, severe galling.

Nematicides on Onions.- It has been found that in general, in the Central
Florida area, green onions can be readily produced from sets following soil fumi-
gation with Dichloropropene-Dichloropropane type fumigants, but that when onion
seed is planted, the plants grow so slowly that frequently the stubby-root nema-
tode reestablishes itself quickly enough that considerable damage occurs to the
crop. Since several promising nematicides have been found to control the stubby-
root nematode for a longer period of time than D-D, an experiment was conducted
to determine the effect of several of these nematicides on the yield of green
onions produced from seed. These results are shown in Table 5.








- 17 -


Table 5.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of green
onions.

Nematode populations Onionb
Treatment Sting Stubby-root yield

Check 118 32 0.16
D-D, 25 gal/acre 18 815 3.18
Furadan, 6 lb/acre 0 7 6.60
Temik, 6 lb/acre 0 10 6.62
Zinophos, 6 lb/acre 1 18 6.50
Zinophos + Thimet, 3 lb each/acre 3 30 7.70
Thimet, 6 lb/acre 1 37 8.02
Dasanit, 8 Ib/acre 0 14 6.50
LSD .05 4.64
.01 6.26
a
Number of nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at onion harvest.
pounds of onions obtained from 20 feet of one row.


Nematicides on Field Corn.- Nematicides were applied on Dixie 18 Hybrid
field corn in the spring of 1967 in an area infested with sting nematodes. All
treatments gave good control of the nematodes and gave a highly significant
increase in yield (Table 6).

Table 6.- Effect of nematicides on nematode populations and yield of field corn.

Application Sting nematode Yield
Treatment method population (Bu/A)


Check
D-D, 25 gal/A
Furadan, 3 lb/A
Temik, 3 lb/A
Mocap, 3 lb/A
Zinophos, 3 lb/A
Thimet, 3 lb/A
Dasanit, 5 lb/A
LSD .05


Broadcast
In-row
if
I,
'i
"i


11


556
19
12
23
42
58
12
10


.01
aNumber of nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil 80 day nfhter soil
treatment.


55
85
97
87
88
94
97
84
18
24








- 14 -


Nematicides on Leatherleaf fern.- An experiment was conducted in a commercial
fernery near Pierson, Florida that was heavily infested with lesion nematodes.
Results of the test are presented in Table 7.


Table 7.- Effect of nematicides on Pratylenchus penetrans populations
leaf fern roots and fern leaf production.


in leather-


Pounds Nematodes/ Yieldb
Treatment active/acre gram of root (lb/plot)

Check -- 825 6.0
DBCP (Nemagon) 34.6 214 5.9
69.2 128 6.7
Zinophos + Thimet 4.0 each 8 9,9
8.0 8 9.0
Temik 5.0 78 8.2
10.0 23 10.8
Furadan 8.0 3 9.3
16.0 2 11.2
TH 285-N 20.0 331 7.7
40.0 467 6.2
LSD .05 1.7
.01 2.2


Average number of nematodes extracted per
months after application of chemicals.
b.


gram (fresh weight) of root five


Average total weight of leaves produced per plot from six harvests.








- 15 -


ENTOMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS TO BE REPORTED

CABBAGE, CORN AND BEAN INSECTS


G. L. Greene


The following outline covers the material to be presented and lists the
color slides to be shown, 1 through 17.

I. Life cycle of the cabbage looper.
1. Eggs + newly hatched larvae
2. Larvae 5 instars
3. Pupae + adult moth
4. Larval feeding on cabbage plant

II. Field distribution of the cabbage looper
5. Time of year + age of plants
6. Leaf areas margin and internal
7. Eggs on the plant Table 1

III. Control of cabbage loopers on cabbage -
Memo No. 5 July 18, 1967.

IV. Fall armyworm on sweet corn
8. Eggs
9. Larvae
10. Adult moth
11. Effects on plants.

V. Corn earworm on sweet corn
12. Larvae
13. Adults

VI. Control of corn insects Memo No. 6 July 11, 1967 and Tables 2 and 3.

VII. Sweet corn varieties for Fall production Table 4.

VIII. Bean leaf roller on snap beans.
14. Eggs
15. Larvae
16. Pupae
17. Adults

IX. The effects of removing leaves from snap beans on yield Table 5.







- 16 -


FIELD DISTRIBUTION OF THE CABBAGE LCOPER

Samples of cabbage looper populations on cabbage are being conducted at
Sanford. Data from 1966-67 and 1967-68, currently in progress, indicate looper
populations are high on early fall and late spring planted cabbage. During the
winter months populations are relatively low because of temperatures below 50
degrees. Cabbage loopers develop faster and are more numerous when the low
daily temperatures are above 50 degrees.

Cabbage looper populations on cabbage plants vary according to the plant
growth. Looper populations begin to increase about 2 to 3 weeks after plants
are set in the field and continue to increase until the cabbage head is about
half grown. At harvest time the number of loopers present is much lower than
1 month prior to harvest. However, the total number of loopers is not directly
related to damage, because large size larvae do the most damage. This size
larvae are more common near harvest time than prior to harvest. Large larvae
are also difficult to control, and move toward the head as they feed.

With these points in mind (population peak 1 month prior to harvest and
large larvae hard to kill) we see the need to maintain good control of the
looper from the time the head forms until harvest. A skip in the insect control
program may result in insect damage appearing 3 weeks latter and the larger
sized worms present at this time are more resistant to chemical insecticides.

The need for placing insecticide sprays on the lower side of the cabbage
leaves in demonstrated in Table 1. Placing the insecticide where the eggs are
laid, insures contact of the insecticide by the young larvae. Young larvae are
much easier to kill than larger larvae and larvae that are missed for the first
week of their life are likely to survive and cause damage to the plants.

Eighty five percent of the eggs were found on the lower leaf surface and
64 percent near the leaf margin. In these areas of the leaf,insecticide cover-
age is most important.


Table 1.- Distribution of cabbage loopers on cabbage plants, Sanford, 1967.

Cabbage Leaf Surface Leaf area
Looper Lower Upper Margin Internal

Eggs 85% 15% 64% 36%


Larvae 69%


--- `--~-~ I----~~1--"----


31%








- 17 -


Table 2.-


Control of fall armyworms on sweet corn grown at Sanford, Florida,
using weekly and bi-weekly spray intervals, fall 1967.


Rate
active Application Per cent
ingredient/ interval of stalks
Treatment Material acre days damaged

1 Gardona 0.50# 3-4 9

2 0.75# 3-4 6

3 0.75# 7 69

4 1.0# 7 59

5 Deetox DDT 0.25#
Toxaphene 0.50# 3-4 99

6 Deetox DDT 0.50#
Toxaphene 1.0# 3-4 60

7 Sevin 1.0# 3-4 51

8 Sevin 1.5# 3-4 55

9 Sevin 2.0# 3-4 55

10 Check -- 100

11 Heliothis Bacillus
S7-422 2 qt. 7 100


All treatments were applied in 100 gal. of water per acre, 250 psi, 3 mph, and
6 nozzles per row with 4 nozzles directed toward the bud area of the plant.
There were 6 rows of sweet corn in each of the 4 replicated.


Applications began when the corn was 12" tall
September 7, 11, 14, 18, 22, 25 on treatments
September 14 after 2 Gardona applications had
September 18, 22, 25, 29, October 2.


and infested with budworms;
1-6. The Sevin treatments began
been made and continued through


Reading in plots 1-6 were taken September 28 and from plots 7-9 October 4. Check
plots on both days and in 2 locations had 100% of the stalks damaged.

Treatment number 11 was included to learn if that experimental material would
control insects other than the corn .arworrm, This best indinntes it was not
effective against the fall armyworm.








- 18 -


Table 3.-


Control of corn earworms on sweet corn during silking at Sanford,
Florida, Fall 1967. First application on day of first silking
October 7, and last was October 25, reading taken October 26.


Pounds of
Pounds of Active
Material/ Ingredient/ Dust Interval % corn earworm
Acre Material Acre Day free ears

33 Gardona 3% 1.0 1 98

25 DDT 10% + 2.50
Parathion 1% 0.25 2 98

17 Gardona 3% 0.50 1 97

25 0.75 1 97

25 DDT 10% 2.50
Parathion 1% 0.25 1 96

33 Gardona 3% 1.0 2 94

25 0.75 2 86

8 Sevin 25% 2.0 1 86

4 Sevin 50% 2.0 1 81

Check 50

-Check --- 44

-Check --- 19*


*Reduced fall armyworm population = more corn earworms in this plot, in all
check plots nearly 100% of the ears had worms in them, but many were fall
armyworms, which had apparently excluded the earworm larvae.








- 19 -


Table 4. Sweet corn variety trials during the fall
average of 100 observations, 20 from each


of 1967; each figure is the
of 5 replications.


Stalk Percent
Stalk size at of stalks Percent Ear
height base without of stalks Days to length
Variety feet inches suckers standing/ maturity inches


Zellwood muck Planted
W. Atlee Burpee
Silver Cross Bantam
Seneca Chief
Burpees Honeycross
Early Sunglow
Improved Surecross
Honey + Cream
Asgrow
Wintergreen
Merit
Harris
49T H3026
75703 3157F
Gold Cup

Sanford sand Planted
W. Atlee Burpee
Silver Cross Bantam
Seneca Chief
Burpees Honeycross
Early Sunglow
Improved Surecross
Honey + Cream


August 21


1
1
1
6/8
1
1

1
1

1
1
6/8


85
30
82
73
28
78

100
90

100
100
90


August 31


Asgrow
Wintergreen 3
Merit 3
Harris
49T H3026 2/2
75703 3157F 3


7/8
6/8
6/8
6/8
6/8
6/8

6/8
6/8


6/8
6/8


92
97
89
100
72
70

100
94


100
100


100
98
100
100
100
100

100
98


100 61
100 69


1/Stalk rot caused many stalks to fall over, Fusarium and Diplodia
organisms were found in the stalks.








- 20 -


During the Fall of 1967 a series of sweet corn varieties were planted at
Zellwood on the muck and at Sanford on sand land. This trial was begun to find
sweet corn varieties which can be used for fall production.

None of the varieties tested were considered desirable for fall planting on
a large scale. It is hoped that sweet corn lines producing ears too large in the
spring, will be included in tests this fall. From these lines we should find
one or more which will be suitable for fall production. Until one is found,
sweet corn cannot be produced during the fall at Zellwood. Resistance to stalk
rot caused by Fusarium spp. and Diplodia spp. will be needed because of the
supply of these organisms present.


Table 5.- Yields of Harvester Snap Beans Following Defoliation.


Soil type Plant age
& location at treatment

Fine sand 1 week
Sanford prebloom


During bloom


Peat
Zellwood


Defoliation
percentage


Yield/200 plants
pounds


Yield re-
duction (%)1/


13.29
8.31
5.30

12.34
12,75
6.38


46.50
46.50
37.50


During bloom


!At the 5% level of significance
different from the untreated plot.


no treatment yields were significantly


I' -


-- ----






- 21 -


BLACK SPECK OF CABBAGE

James 0. Strandberg

The disease of winter cabbage known as "Black Speck" continues to cause
substantial losses to growers in Florida. The causes of Black Speck are not
entirely known at this time. However, a thorough knowledge of the causes will
be necessary if economical methods for disease control are to be found. For
this reason, research to determine the factors which cause black speaking re-
mains a primary concern.

Black Speck appears as numerous, dark specks on the interior leaves of the
cabbage head. The leaves look as though black pepper had been sprinkled on
them. These symptoms have given rise to another popular name; "Pepper Spot".
The specks may be present on the cabbage at harvest time but more commonly,
become evident after the cabbage has been stored at a cool temperature. Damage
to the heads is due entirely to the unsightliness of the dark specks which
increase in number with storage time.

Black Speck is presumed to be a physiological disease since no micro-
organisms have been implicated as causal agents. Present evidence indicates
that interactions of certain soil factors, weather and the physiology of the
cabbage plant itself are responsible for the condition.

The individual specks on the cabbage leaf are minute areas in which the
leaf cells have been killed. Through observations of specially prepared tissue
samples under the light microscope, it has been determined that the epidermal
or outer layer of cells are killed first. Death and collapse of additional
cells proceeds inward, resulting in a small, sunken area on the leaf surface.
The death and collapse of these cells is usually accompanied by a darkening of
the dead tissues. Each necrotic area is associated with one or more stomata,
the tiny "breathing pores" present on the leaves and stems of plants. The two
guard cells of the stomata which are directly responsible for the opening and
closing of these pores, are killed first. Then the subsidiary, or adjacent
epidermal cells are killed. This is followed by the death of the mesophyll
cells lining the sub-stomatal chamber, which is in the interior of the leaf
directly beneath the stomata.

In addition to their role in gas exchange between the leaf and the atmos-
phere, stomata can secrete or guttate water. This guttation fluid may be seen
on foliar cabbage leaves under conditions of high humidity in the form of tiny
droplets. They are much more abundant on leaves in the interior of the cabbage
head and may be found there at any time during growth or post-harvest storage.
Guttation fluid is not pure water but contains many salts, sugars, amino and
organic acids in solution. Under conditions of low soil or atmospheric moisture,
the plant may re-absorb part of this fluid via the stomata. It is proposed
that the solutes become concentrated in the guttation fluid until levels are
reached which are toxic to the plant cells. This phenomenon may be intensified
by the large quantities of many salts taken up by plants as a direct result
of their presence in large concentrations in many of our Florida soils and
ground water. Copper has been implicated and we have produced Black Speck
symptoms in the laboratory by placing dilute solutions of sodium phosphate and
other salts on pieces of cabbage leaves. It is prolnble thaL no single element
or compound is entirely to blame.











- 22 -


Further experiments at this station have shown that initial cell damage
occurs in the field and that tissue darkening is brought about by storage of
the cut heads, especially at cool temperatures. This may complicate disease
control through regulation of storage conditions.

Other possibilities for disease control are through varietal resistance
and soil management or amendments. Both are being explored at present. It
is known that resistance to Black Speck is inherited. The genetics of re-
sistance are being investigated in cooperation with Dr. P. H. Williams of the
University of Wisconsin. Until the genetics of resistance are known and
specific breeding programs are initiated, we must continue to evaluate available
commercial varieties for tolerance to Black Speck.

Ninety-two lines of cabbage are being evaluated this season. Some lines
showing tolerance last season were severely specked this season. Preliminary
results for those varieties in Trial No. 1 are included with this report.
Complete results will be available in late March in a CFES Mimeo report.








Table 1. Preliminary Summary of Data, Cabbage Variety Trial No. 1, Sanford, Florida
Seeded 9/1/67. Transplanted 10/2/67.


First Harvest Yield Average
days 50 lb Wt/ No. Black Speck Black
Var. Seed after % units/ head heads/ Leaf Head Rating Holding Speck in


No. Variety Source transp.
(1)


113B
128A
130A

1320
132E
134A
Little Rock*
Superette*
Hybrid 901*
Rio Verde*
Emerald Cross*
A-S Cross
B-A Cross
M-S Cross
N-S Cross
0-S Cross
R-A Cross
R-C Cross
R-K Cross
P-0 Cross


ready acre lbs 50 lb color
(2)
-- -- -- -- G
-- Var
S BG
-- -- YG
-- -- -- -- G
-- -- -- -- YG
97 716 2.1 24 BG
55 528 2.7 19 I
77 672 2.5 20 I
94 970 3.1 16 BG
53 364 1.9 21 I
80 771 2.7 19 BG
71 654 2.6 19 BG
84 885 3.0 17 BG
80 657 2.3 22 BG
79 714 2.6 19 YG
92 850 2.6 19 BG
89 820 2.6 19 I
87 881 2.9 17 I
86 827 2.6 19 BG


Shape
(3)
Var
Var
Var
Var
Var
Var
S
R
SR
SR
SR
F
F
F
S
F
F
F
F
F


1966 1967 1968 quality field


TOES
TOES
TCES

TCES
TCES
TCES
FM
FM
NK
NK
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii


122
122
122

122
122
122
111
88
103
123
99
103
104
123
103
111
123
123
123
104


-- -- 1.6
-- -- 1.5
-- -- 3.0
-- -- 0.9
-- -- 1.3
-- -- 2.0
-- 0.1 1.1
-- 0.6 2.7
-- 2.4 2.8
-- 0.2 0.8
-- __ 2.5
-- -- 2.1
-- -- 1.3

-- 0.4
-- -- 1.6
-- -- 1.2

-- -- 1.5
-- 2.3
1.4
-- --. 5.0


Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Exit.
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Poor
Good
Good







Cont'd.


Table 1.-


First Harvest
days
after %
transp. ready


Yield Av
50 lb Wt/
units/ head
acre lbs


erage
No.
heads Leaf
50 lb color
(2)


Head
Shape
(3)


Black Speck
Rating
1966 1967 1968


Black
Holding Speck in
quality field


21 S-D Cross
22 Hybrid 18*
23 Hybrid 21*
24 Globelle*
25 Marion Mkt.*
26 Hybrid 18*
27 Hybrid 31
28 Hybrid 42*
29 Pack-Rite (39)*
30 Harvest Queen*
31 Hybrid 21*
32 Market Prize
33 Globe 62M*
34 TBR Globe*
35 Resistant Glory
36 G-71
37 G-73


Takii
SRS-Niag
SRS-Niag
SRS-Niag
SRS-Niag
Sakata
Sakata
Sakata
Sakata
Sakata
Sakata
Harris
Cor-Key
NK
FM
Cornell
Cornell


111
123
111
ill
104
111
111
104
104
79
96
104
88
103
104
96
123
123


970
735
861
655
820
630
945
783
494
641
708
689
634
722
6o8


3.1
2.2
2.7
2.6
2.9
2.1
2.9
2.7
2.2
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.5
2.5
2.4


F
F
F
R
S
F
SR
SR
R
R
F
SR
S
S
R
Var
Var


1.9
0.0 0.7
-- 0.0 0.0
1.6 2.2 3.2
1.7 0.5 1.1
1.4
1.1
1.5
-- -- 1.0
0.7
-- 0.2
-- 1.2 2.6
1.2 0.4
0.8 0.2 2.2
-- 1.9 1.4
3.1
3.5


*Variety may be seen in Variety Trial No. 2.
(1) TCES = Truck Crops Experiment Station, Clemson Univ., Charleston, S.C.; FM = Ferry Morse Seed Co.(Inc.);
hL = Northrup King & Co.; Takii & Co. Ltd., Japan; SRS-Niag = SRS- Niagara; FMC Corp.; T. Sakata & Co., Japan;
Joseph Harris Co. Inc.; Cor-Key = Corneli Keystone Seeds; Cornell University.
(2) G = Green; BG = Blue-Green; I = intermediate between Y and BG; YG = Yellow-Green; Var = variable.
(3) F = Flattened; R = Round; S = Spherical; SR = Semi Round; Var = variable.


Var.
No.


Variety


Seed
Source
(1)


Good
Fair
Poor
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
Fair
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Fair
Fair
Fair
Poor
Poor


(1)-- -


Cont'd.








- 25 -


CABBAGE VARIETIES INCLUDED IN
VARIETY TRIAL NUMBER TWO


Seeded 9/21/67


Transplanted 11/1/67


Black Speck Index
No. Variety Seed Source and Lot No. 1966 1967 196*


Market Topper
Improved Globe
Hybrid Emerald
Experimental Hybrid 63
Globelle
FI Hybrid
Little Rock
Superette
Fl Hybrid
Rio Verde
F1 Hybrid
Hybrid W. 41
Hybrid W-42
Hybrid W-59
Hybrid W-63
Hybrid W-68
Hybrid W-70
Sanibel
Sanibel
Hybelle
Globelle
Hybrid 18
Hybrid 21
Badger Inbred 4 x Globelle
Badger Belle
Hybrid 18
Badger Inbred 10
Badger Inbred 10**
Pack Rite


Jo Harris
NK
NK
NK
NK
Keystone 9477
FM
FM
Keystone 9478
NK
Keystone 9479
Walton
Walton
Walton
Walton
Walton
Walton
UW 196;
UW 25-8
UW 25-9
UW 3565
SRS-Niag
SRS-Niag
UW 25-9
UW BI-1
Sakata
UW 25-4
UW 25-4
Sakata


2.1 1.2
-- --




1.6 2.2 3.2

-- O-l lo
0.1 1.1
0.6 2.7


-- 0.--2
-- 0.2


312A
73A
5R


0.8 1.4
0.8 1.4
1.5 2.5
1.6 2.2
-- 0.0
-- 0.0


i67A
.2


0.8

















3.2
0.7
0.0


4.7 4.8
-- -- 1.4


5s
-6s


1.0








- 26 -


Variety


Badger Blueboy
Hybrid 21
Head Start
Globe 62M
T1R Globe
Early Glory 215
Marion Market
Badger Belle**
Resistant Danish W5**


Seed Source and Lot No.


Asgrow
Sakata
Asgrow
Asgrow
NK
Asgrow
Asgrow
Asgrow
J. Harris


Black Speck Index
19t6 1967 196B*


1.3

--

1.2
0.6
1.6

1.7
4.7
0.3


1o4
-- 0.2


0.8
1.8

0.5
4.8
1.4


0.4

2.2


1.1


Results from 1967-68 Trial No. 1 where available.

Indicates less than 4 replicates. May be in A and B plots only.


_ I __ ____I


_ _^_ _~_ __


_ -CICII----_- I


U---L- -----








- 27 -


WEED CONTROL IN VEGETABLE CROPS

W. T. Scudder

Studies conducted during the past year to select the best chemical herbicides
for 10 different vegetable crops are summarized in the following table:


Cropa
Snap beans (S)


Chemical
diphenamid DNBP
*CDEC + CDAA
*CDEC
*trifluralin
diphenamid.
amiben
CDEC + propachlor


Ratec
(Ib ai/a)
2+2
3+3
6
3/4
6
3
3+3


Timing
Pre E


Results
Overall
WC CT rating
E E 1


PPI
PPI


Pre E
ti
it
11


E F


Cabbage (S)


propachlor
*CDEC + CDAA
*nitrofen
*CDEC
*trifluralin
*nitrofen
diphenamid
*DCPA


3+3
3
6
3/4
4
6
10.5


Post T
it
3 wks Post T
Post T
PPI
Post T
It


G E 1


P E


aLetters in parenthesis indicate soil type,
(Sanford); (P) = peat soil (Zellwood).


as follows: (S) = sand soil


bFor list of registered chemical trade names and formulations, see last
page. Treatments marked by an asterisk (*) are approved for use.
CChemical rates are expressed in terms of the pounds of active ingredient
per acre.
Timing of applications: PPI = pre-plant incorporated (cultivated or
disked in before planting); Pre E = pre-emergence (after seeding); Post T =
post-transplant (after transplanting); Post E = post--emrnt gence (boLh..crop and
weeds emerged),
eWeed control (WC) and crop tolerance (CT) are rated as follows: E =
excellent; G = good; F = fair; P = poor.


__














Chemicalb
*linuron
prometryne
C-6313
*linuron
prometryne
C-6313
prometryne
nitrofen
nitrofen
CDAA + CDEC
CDEC + propachlor
prometryne


Ratec
(lb ai/a)
2
2
4


Timingd
Post E
It
"


Pre E
Post E
It


3 + 3 Pre E
3+3 "
4 "


Results
Overall
WC CT rating
E E 1
E E 1
E E 1


E G
F E
P E
G F
G P
E P


Carrots (P)


*linuron
* it
prometryne
nitrofen
*linuron
prometryne
nitrofen
linuron
prometryne
nitrofen
linuron
prometryne


Celery (S)


CDEC + propachlor
prometryne
GS-14260
linuron


*CDAA + CDEC
prometryne
nitrofen
nitrofen
linuron
GS-14260


3+3
3
2
1/2
3+3
1/2
4

3
3
4


Ey Post T
La Post T
11

Ey Post T
La Post T
it


- 28 -


Crop
Carrots (S)


1/2
1
4
2
2


Post E
11
It
it

Post E
I1

Pre E


Post E
Pre E


E F








- 29 -


Cropa
Celery (P)


Ratec
Chemical (lb ai/a)
CDEC + propachlor 3 + 3
prometryne 4
linuron 1Y2


Timing
Ey Post T
La Post T
tI


Results
Overall
WC CT rating
E E 1
E E 1
E E 1


*CDEC + CDAA
prometryne
nitrofen


Corn (S)


Corn (P)


Cucumbers (S)


Onions (S)


Potatoes (S)


*atrazine + oil
*propachlor
*CDEC + CDAA
*atrazine
*atrazine + oil

*CDAA

*atrazine + oil
*propachlor

*CDAA
*atrazine
*atrazine
*atrazine

*2,4-D

amiben
Bindone
*NPA
CP-42718
diphenamid
amiben ester
CDEC


propachlor
CDAA
DCPA
CIPC

propachlor
*CDAA + CDEC
*diphenamid
*DCPA


3+3
2
4


2 + 2 gal

5
3+3
3
3 + 2 gal
6

2 + 2 gal
5
5
3
3
2 + 2 gal
1/2


Ey Post
La Post
it

Post E
Pre E

it
it


E E


F E


Post E
Pre E
11
Post E
Pre E
f11

Post E

Pre E
if
it
Post E
Pre E
it

Pre E


F E


G E 1


6
10.5


La Pre E


P E

G E


3+3
6
10o5













Chemical
UC-22463

propachlor
pebulate
R-2063
bensulide
benefin
propachlor
trifluralin
*CDEC


Summer squash (S)*amiben
NPA
diphenamid
CDEC


Ratec
(lb ai/a)
4
6


Timingd
Pre E
"


1t

PPI
11


Pre E


1/Y PPI
3 Pre E

2 Pre E
4 11


Results
Overall
WC CT rating
E E 1
E E 1
G G 2


E F
F F
G P

G E
F E


SOYBEAN PRODUCTION

Excellent soybean yields were produced in a 95 acre grower planting at
Zellwood on the farm of Richard Whittington. All plantings were made in July
following spring vegetable crops and without additional fertilizer. Recom-
mended pest control practice were followed. Typical acre yields, determined
by averaging the weights of beans produced on 3 accurately measured plots for
each variety, were:


Lee
Dare
Semmes
Bragg
Hampton
Hardee


52.2 bushels
56.1 "
46.1 "


52.3 "
37.7 "
41.6 "


On mineral soil at Sanford, a study was conducted to determine the most
satisfactory method of inoculation while at the same time treating the soybean
seed with fungicide. This seed treatment is necessary to control seed and
soil-borne diseases which reduce germination and field stands. Due to a lack
of compatibility of these treatments when both are applied together at planting
time, there has been frequent failure of nodulation with resulting poor and
uneven crop growth. Of several methods tested, the best root nodulation, crop
growth, and plant yield was obtained where the bacterial inoculum was sprayed
on the freshly prepared soil and disked in before planting, and then the seed
was treated with a fungicide at planting time.


- 30 -


Cropa
Spinach (P)









- 31 -


HERBICIDES TRADE NAMES & FORMULATIONS


Chemical
Amiben
Amiben ester
Atrazine
Benefin
Bensulide
c-6313
CDAA
CDEC
CIPC
CP-42718
2,4-D, amine
DCPA
Diphenamid

Diphenamid-DNBP
GS-14260
Linuron
Nitrofen
NPA
Oil
Pebulate
Prometryne
Propachlor
,R-2063
Sindone
Trifluralin
UC-22463


Trade Name
Vegiben


Atrazine
Balan
Prefar


Randox
Vegadex
Chloro IPC
--

(several brands)
Dacthal
Dymid
Enide
Enide-Dinitro


Lorox
Tok
Alanap
Sun Oil 11E
Tillam
Caparol
Ramrod
Ro-Neet


Treflan
Sirmate


Formulation
2 lb/gal SC
2 lb/gal EC
80% WP
1.5 Ib/gal EC
4 lb/gal EC
50% WP
4 lb/gal EC
4 lb/gal EC
4 lb/gal EC
80% SP
4 lb/gal EC
75% WP
80% WP
50% WP
2 + 1.5 Ib/gal EC
50% WP
50% WP
2 lb/gal EC
2 lb/gal'SC
technical
6 lb/gal EC
80% WP
65% WP
6 lb/gal EC
2 Ib/gal EC
4 lb/gal EC
4 lb/gal EC




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