• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Main














Group Title: Black speck and bacterial diseases : cabbage variety trial ...
Title: Black speck and bacterial diseases, cabbage variety trial.
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075820/00001
 Material Information
Title: Black speck and bacterial diseases, cabbage variety trial.
Series Title: Mimeo Report - University of Florida Central Florida Experiment Station ; 67-1
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Walker, J. C.
Darby, J. F.
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1967
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075820
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144607799

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







CENTRAL FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Sanford, Florida

7March 22, 1967


APR 18 1967 BLACK SPECK AND BACTERIAL DISEASES
Cabbage Variety Trial, 1966-67

I jr J. C. Walker- Consultant, and
.. ..... .......... J. F. Darby, Plant Pathologist and Head


There are three important diseases of winter cabbage in the crop at Sanford
which are under consideration in the 1967 trials. These are 1) bacterial leaf
spot, a disease incited by Pseudomonas maucolicola; 2) black rot, another bac-
terial disease, incited by Xanthomonas campestris; and 3) black speck, a non-
parasitic disease which is associated with nutritional abnormalities as yet not
fully understood. We may consider these separately in relation to what may be
observed in the trial plot.

Bacterial leaf spot: This disease appears in cool weather as dark spots
averaging about 1/8 inch in diameter which occur primarily on the outside of the
outer head leaves. The bacteria live in the soil and are carried with wind-borne
soil on to the surface of the leaves. They enter the breathing pores when dew is
present and cause a break down which leads to the spots. For some unknown reason
the head leaves are not susceptible until a week or two before the head is ready
for harvest. Thus unless the variety is resistant it is essential to spray up to
a month before harvest with a copper fungicide plus Dithane M-22 or Manzate. When
a variety matures unevenly the heads do not become susceptible all at once. This
can be seen readily in open-pollinated varieties. Badger Market (Plots 1, 22, 29,
49) is one of the most susceptible. Among the more resistant varieties are King
Cole (Plot 17), Roundup (Plot 28), and Res. Danish (Plot 34).

It should be pointed out that bacterial leaf spot, in contrast with black
speck, is confined to one or two outer head leaves, while black speck may occur
throughout the head. Bacterial spot appears before harvest, while black speck
may not be visible at harvest but develops progressively after harvest, particu-
larly under cool storage.

Black speck: This appears as pinhead size black spots often in clusters on
leaves anywhere throughout the head. They may be visible on the outer head
leaves at harvest especially in cool midwinter weather but they may appear only
after several days in cool storage. In the latter the disease usually progresses
in appearance and severity with time up to 2 or 3 weeks after harvest. The cause
of black speck is unknown. There are indications that it is associated with high
copper content of the soil. Heads from varieties lower in black speck tend to be
lower in copper. Nutrition experiments with seedlings indicate that black speck
increases with increase in copper in the feeding solution. (See detailed report
by Dr. P. H. Williams.) A considerable difference between varieties in amount of
black speck at harvest and after storage was observed in the winter trials of
1965 and 1966. The present trials are designed to retest promising varieties
and evaluate new ones.

l/ Formerly Professor of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, now retired.






2 -


Black Rot: This bacterial disease is a continual trouble to cabbage growers.
The organism appears from one of 3 possible sources: 1) seed; 2) wild or culti-
vated plants related to cabbage, such as radish; 3) from previous crop refuse.
The disease shows as yellowing areas on leaves in which veins are conspicuously
black as are the veins in the midrib or leaf stem when cross sectioned. The
bacteria enter plants at any stage through water pores at edges of leaves. The
usual place of infection is in the seed bed. The control measures consist of
sanitary measures, fumigation of seed bed, and hot water treatment of seed.
Hybrid 904 (Plot 48) shows very severe damage from black rot. Many plants were
dead by February 3. Since this is the only seed lot showing this disease it
may be suspected that infection began with infested seed but this cannot be
proved.





-3-


CABBAGE VARIETY TRIAL FALL, WINTER, 1966-67

Seed sown 9-30 to 10-3; transplanted Nov. 16 (except plot 52 transplanted Dec. 7).


Plot Seed Black speck index
No. Variety Source Lot No. 1966 I 1966 II 1967


Badger Market
Hybelle
Sanibel
Badger Hyb.
Badger Inb-13
Hyb.-18
Hyb.-19
Hyb.-21
Hyb.-32
Hyb.-33 Kleenkut
Early Glory 215
Market Topper
Market Prize
Globelle
Marion Market Y.R.
Wisc. Hyb.-7
Hyb. King Cole
Hyb. Dutch Man
Exp. Hyb. 901
From Wise. Bllhead
From Round Dutch
Badger Market
Marion Market
TBR Globe
Badger Blueboy
Rio Verde Hyb.-30
Badger Belle
Hyb. Round up
Badger Mkt. Y.R.
Globe Y.R.


J. Harris
U. Wis.
U. Wis.
U. Wis.
U. Wis.
Nia.
Nia.
Nia.
Nia.
N.K.
Asgrow
J. Harris
J. Harris
U.W.
Asgrow
U.W.
F.M.
F.M.
N.K.
Tr. Crops E.S.
Tr. Crops E.S.
N.K.
N.K.
N.K.
Asgrow
N.K.
U. Wis.
F.M.
F.M.
F.M.


1972
BI-12X3565 ]
BI-13X3565 I
738 A


6311-6655
6312-6654
6313-6655
6314-6656
111/01
10500
141/58
2005 A
3565 R
50501


12820-11643
10820-11661
110/W1
M-99-65
M-112-6511
118/26
141/57
131/4
90505
138/02


10820-11610
10620-11607
10620-11636


3.1 0.7
- 1.5 2.5
0.8 1.7
1.5
1.5 1.5
0.0
1.5
0.0
2.0
2.1
2.6 1.6 1.8
4.4 2.1 1.2
4.0 1.8 1.2
- 1.6 2.2
2.9 1.7 1.1
- 1.6 2.3
2.6 1.7 1.4
- 2.5
2.4


2.4


- 0.8
- 1.3
- 0.3
- 4.7
1.3 1.5


0.5
0.6
1.4
0.2


1.2





-4-


CABBAGE VARIETY TRIAL FALL, WINTER, 1966-67 (Cont'd.)

Plot Seed Black speck index
No. Variety Source Lot No. 1966 I 1966II 1967


Badger Belle
Green Back Y.R.
TBR Globe
Harris Res. Danish W-5
Res. Glory Y.R.
From Wis. Hollander
Badger Bllhead 14 Y.R.
Hyb. Superette
Hyb. Little Rock
Early Fungi X Huguenot
Res. Gldn. Acre
From 1959 VBL Selection
From 1959 VBL Selection
From 1959 VBL Selection
From 1959 VBL Selection
Baby Head
Exp. Hyb. 901
Hyb. 904
Badger Market Y.R.
Hyb.-30, Rio Verde
Bonanza X Huguenot
Exp. Hyb. D
Exp. Hyb. G.


Asgrow
J. Harris
J. Harris
J. Harris
F.M.
Tr. Crops E.S.
Asgrow
F.M.
F.M.
Tr. Crops E.S.
U.S.D.A.
Tr. Crops E.S.
Tr. Crops E.S.
Tr. Crops E.S.
Tr. Crops E.S.
U.S.D.A.
N.K.
N.K.
Asgrow
N.K.
Tr. Crops E.S.
J. Harris
J. Harris


90504
2001
1879
1881
10440-11672
M-94-65
77022 A
10820-11659
10821-11613
M-25-65
M-120-65
M-B-949-64
M-B-949-65
M-B-915-65
M-B-60-65
M-111-65
110/W1
SPLE
30500 A
138/02
M-13-65


3.9
1.2


1.0


1.1


4.7
3.5
2.0
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.5


4.8
1.9
0.7
1.4
1.9
0.4


- 0.6
- 0.1













-1.5


0.3


-- ----





-5-


HARVEST NOTES ON CABBAGE VARIETY TRIALS, 1967


These trials are a continuation of those in 1965 1966 in which resistance
to black speck and bacterial leaf spot were of major concern. The plants were
set on November 16, 1966. Seed had been sown September 30 to October 3, 1966.
No fungicidal spray was applied. Insect control was by sprays of Thuricide
applied weekly. Only one harvest was made for each lot. It is of interest to
note that in the first three harvest dates with the open-pollinated varieties
(Marion Market, Badger Market, Early Glory, and Globelle) less than 80% were
ready while with hybrids 3 cut better than 90%, 10 were between 80 and 90% and
only 4 fell below 80%. Black speck was determined after 2 weeks storage.

Early Varieties: Of those varieties harvested at 92 days. Sanibel, Badger
HybrHybridybrid 21, and Hybrid 904 were outstanding in yield. Hybrid 21 was
completely free from black speck. The other 3 were relatively low in black speck.
With regard to bacterial leaf spot there was a wide range of resistance,Badger
Market,Hybrid 21, and Kleenkut were high in leaf spot while Sanibel, Badger
Hybrid, Badger Belle, and Hybrid 904 were free or nearly so. Considering all
aspects Sanibel was in the lead in this group with Badger Hybrid second. The
latter is variable in head shape and only fair in internal structure. Hybrid
904 has an extremely long core. Sanibel, Kleenkut and Hybrid 904 had the best
holding capacity.

Second Early Varieties: Of the 11 varieties harvested at 99 days Hybelle
and Market Topper were outstanding in yield. Hybelle, Dutchman and Little Rock
were outstanding in resistance to bacterial leaf spot. King Cole and Hybrid 32
rated lowest in internal head structure. Hybrid 18 showed no black speck while
Little Rock had very little. King Cole, Dutchman, Superette and Little Rock
were outstanding in holding capacity. Four weeks after first harvest Superette
and Little Rock were standing perfectly.

Midseason Varieties: In the group harvested at 106 days only Marion Market
showed an appreciable amount of bacterial leaf spot. Market Prize, Rio Verde,
and Wis. Hybrid 7 led in yield, Globelle and Roundup were the only 2 out of 8
lots which rated Good in head structure, Globelle was outstanding in low core
length. It is to be noted that Globelle is the male parent of Sanibel and
Hybelle. Globelle, Wis. Hybrid 7, and Rio Verde had the best holding capacity.
Rio Verde is low in black speck.

Late Varieties: In the fourth harvest group (113 days) the two samples of
TBR Globe were outstanding in yield. The heads were so heavy that only 14 were
needed to fill a 50 lb sack. Harris Danish was outstanding in having no bac-
terial spot in 1967 and 1966. Badger Ballhead was a close second having none
in 1967 and 17% in 1966. TBR Globe had the highest yield and was very low in
black speck. Badger Ballhead was decidedly lower in black speck than Harris
Danish.

The major finding in the 1967 trials is that there are varieties which do
not black speck. These two are Hybrid 18 and Hybrid 21. In 1966 only Badger
Inbred 5 was in this category. Hybrid 18 and Hybrid 21 are different in type
from those commonly grown at Sanford. They have a distinct yellowish foliage
and the heads are decidedly flattened. Of the 2, Hybrid 21 had only fair





-6-


interior but a short core while Hybrid 18 had excellent interior except for a
longer core. Little Rock was practically free from black speck. It is fairly
early in maturity, has excellent interior, short core and unusually long holding
capacity. Superette is a close second to Little Rock. It had slightly more
black speck than the latter but it has excellent interior, short core and the
same long holding quality as Little Rock. Note also that Little Rock had no
bacterial leaf spot. Both of these varieties are recommended for commercial
trial.

There is reasonable basis for the expectation that by further search for
low black speck types and crossing to combine desired type with resistance a
new variety or varieties may be expected to become synthesized in the not too
distant future.

Lots 52 and 53 were sown later than the other lots. They are both Danish
type. However of 49 plants in 1 replicate of 52, 46 were apparently inbreds.
In lot 53, 8 out of 37 were inbreds.

Lots 20, 21, and 40-46, were extremely variable in maturity, color, head
shape, and several plants bolted. Harvest records were not made.

Relation of post-harvest temperature to development of black speck: On
March 15, 1967, 30 heads of Market Prize were harvested. Ten heads were stored
at three different storage temperatures for two weeks and assayed after two weeks.
No black speck was visible at time of harvest. The results follow:
Temperature Black speck index
Constant temperature of 401F 1.4
In airconditioned building 700F 0.65
In outdoor room with fluctuating day and
night temperature 0.25

It is obvious that black speck developed most extensively at the low storage
temperature.





First harvest Average
days Yield hd. Heads Bact. Black speck
Var. Seed after % (Sacks wt. per If. spot 1966 1966Leaf Head Holding
No. Variety Source transp. ready per A) lbs sack 1967 1966 1967 I II color Shape Int. L/C capacity
(1) (2) (3) (4) (4) (5) (5) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

22 Badger ,kt NK 92 76 543 2.1 24 51 -- 0.7 -- 2.9 I 0 F 2.0 36
3 Sanibel UW 92 84 767 2.6 19 4 72 1.4 -- 0.8 I S Ex 2.3 9
4 Badger hybrid UW 92 86 891 3.0 17 7 -- 1.7 -- -- I S-0 F 2.0 19
8 Hybrid 21 NIA 92 83 782 2.7 19 37 -- O Y FL F 2.0 24
31 Badger Belle ASG 92 87 622 2.1 24 3 60 4.8 -- 4.7 I 0 F 1.8 24
10 Kleenkut NK 92 69 670 2.8 18 28 -- 2.1 Y S P 2.0 5
48 Hybrid 904 NK 92 88 754 2.5 20 0 1.5 -- BG S P 1.4 0
2 Hybelle UW 99 92 1039 3.2 16 4 92 2.5-- 1.5 I S Ex 2.0 0
5 Badg. Inbred 13 4W 99 47 322 2.1 24 23 -- 1.5 -- I 0 Ex 2.2 6
6 Hybrid 18 NIA 99 87 948 3.1 16 24 -- 0 I FL Ex 1.5 17
11 Early Glory ASG 99 74 836 3.2 16 54 43 1.8 2.6 1.6 Y S Ex 2.0 15
12 Mkrt Topper JH 99 87 1024 3.1 16 17 34 1.2 4.4 2.1 I 0-S Ex 1.8 19
17 King Cole FM 99 79 897 3.3 15 28 31 1.4 2.6 1.7 I S F 1.8 0
18 Dutchman FM 99 63 601 2.7 19 3 -- 2.5---- I S G 1.7 0
25 Badger Blueboy ASG 99 88 861 2.8 18 30 -- 1.4 1.3 BG-I 0-S G 1.9 12
38 Superette FM 99 86 931 3.1 16 10 -- 0.6 -- -- I S Ex 2.1 0
9 Hybrid 32 NIA 99 74 787 3.1 16 69 2.0- Y 0 P 1.6 2
39 Little Rock FM 99 80 787 2.818 -- 0.1 -- BG 0 Ex 2.3 0
28 Roundup FM 106 83 672 2.3 22 4 12 1.2 1.3 1.5 I S G 1.7 --
13 Market Prize JH 106 94 871 2.7 19 0 49 1.2 4.0 2.0 I S F 1.6 15
14 Globelle UW 106 79 694 2.5 20 0 31 2.2 -- 1.6 I S G 2.3 O
15 Marion Mkt ASG 106 78 750 2.8 18 25 47 1.1 2.9 1.7 Y NS P 1.7 8
23 Marion Mkt NK 106 77 770 2,7 19 9 47 0.5 2.9 1.7 Y -S F 1.8 21






First harvest
days Yield
after % (Sacks
transp. ready per A)
(2) (3)


Average
hd. Heads
wt. per
lbs sack


Bact.
lf. spot
1967 1966
(4) (4)


Black speck
1966 1966
1967 I II
(5) (5) (5)


Leaf Head
color Shape Int. L/C
(6) (7) (8) (9)


16 Wis. Hybrid 7 UW 106 93 835 2.6 19 0 13 2.3 -- 1.6 BG SR F 1.7 0
19 Hybrid 901 NK 106 72 690 2.8 18 0 2.4 I 0-S P 1,6 12
26 Rio Verde NK 106 84 879 3.0 17 2 -- 0.2 -- BG SR F 2.1 0
24 TBR Globe NK 113 85 1103 3.6 14 26 27 0.6 1.2 0.8 I S G 2.0 8
33 TBR Globe JH 113 85 1047 3.5 14 16 27 0.7 1.2 0.8 I S G 2.2 3
35 Res. Glory FM 113 90 866 2.8 18 13 47 1.9 1.0 1.0 I 0 F 2.0 10
32 Greenback JH 113 65 665 2.9 17 20 35 1.9 3.9 3.5 I SR G 2.4 0
34 Harris Danish JH 113 71 670 2.7 18 0 0 1.4 -- 0.3 BG S G 1.9 0
37 Badger BH ASG 113 70 630 2.6 19 0 17 0.4 1.1 0.5 BG S Ex 1.7 0
7 Hyb 19 NIA 113 76 764 2.9 17 12 -- 1.5 -- -- Y SR Ex 1.7 3
(1) NK = Northrup King Co.; UW = University of Wisconsin; NIA = Niagara Chemical Division of Food Machinery Corp.;
ASG = Asgrow Seed Co.; FM = Ferry Morse Co.; JH = Joseph Harris Co.
(2) Days after transplanting to first harvest.
(3) Percent of plants ready at first harvest.
(4) Bacterial leaf spot: figures represent the percentage of heads which were sufficiently spotted to be rejected
at the packing shed.
(5) Black speck on 20 heads, 5 from each replicate, was recorded after 2 weeks in cold storage. Grades were
0 = none to 5 very severe extending to center of head. Record of 1966 each (I) and late (II) trials are
included for comparison.
(6) Leaf color Y = yellow green; BG = blue green; I = intermediate between Y and BG.
(7) Head shape S = spherical; 0 = ovoid, that is top to bottom diameter exceeds side to side diameter; SR = semi
round, that is top to bottom diameter slightly less than side to side diameter; FL = decidedly flattened.
(8) Head interior rated according to compactness, prominence of mid ribs, core length.
(9) L/C is the factor derived by dividing core length into the top-bottom diameter of head. A factor of 2 or
higher is most desirable; 1.6 1.9 is acceptable; 1.5 and below is undesirable.
(10)Holding capacity indicated by percent of heads bursting 2 weeks after first harvest.


Var.
No.


Variety


Seed
Source
(1)


Holding
capacity
(10)






- 9 -


STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF BLACK SPECK

P. H. WilliamsJ
University of Wisconsin


In order to gain more information on the nature of black speck, and in view
of the possible relation of copper (Cu) to its development, a number of experi-
ments were conducted at the University of Wisconsin greenhouse and laboratory.
Certain inbreds and hybrids which showed varying degrees of black speck in the
1966 field trials at Sanford were selected. One open-pollinated variety, Badger
Market, was included. Seedlings were grown in quartz sand to which standard
Hoagland's nutrient solution ( 1 x Cu) was applied. In some trays the copper
was increased to 10 times that of normal (10 x Cu) and in others 100 times that
of normal (100 x Cu). These correspond to 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 p.p.m. of copper.
After one month replicate 10-plant samples were dug, dried, ground and analyzed
for copper in the tissue as well as for 13 other elements including iron (Fe)
and zinc (Zn). Other lots of plants from the same pans were placed in poly-
ethylene bags at 350F for one month and observed for specks at intervals.

The results of these experiments are summarized as follows:

1. After growing one month at high Cu followed by 2 to 4 weeks in the cold,
black speck appeared on stems, petioles, and leaves of lines susceptible in
the field.

2. Black speck became more severe with increase of Cu in the nutrient and
with increase of time in cold storage.

3. The results in the greenhouse as to varietal susceptibility were parallel
to those observed in the field at Sanford. Thus the most susceptible inbred
(Badger Inbred 7) showed most severe speaking while the most resistant one
(Badger Inbred 5) had very little speaking or none. Market Topper and Market
Prize showed uniform speaking at high Cu while Badger Market (an open-polli-
nated variety) segregated in this respect.

4. At higher levels of Cu, iron deficiency showed in Badger Inbred 7 quite
soon as it did in some individuals in Badger Market. The iron in Hoagland's
solution was supplied only as citrate.

5. The tissue analysis results for Cu, Fe, and Zn are shown in the table.
Badger Inbred 5 which showed no black speck in field or greenhouse took up
less Cu than the others at each level of Cu in the nutrient. Badger Inbred 3
which looked good in the Sanford field trials and no black speck in the
greenhouse, except for a little at 100 x Cu, also had a low level of Cu in
the 100 x Cu nutrient. Badger Inbred 7 and Market Prize, on the other hand,
had almost 2 times as much in the tissues as BI-3 and BI-5.

High Cu certainly appears to interfere with Fe uptake. In further studies
Fe citrate will be compared with EDTA.


1/ Associate Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.




- 10 -


Cu seems to be the culprit in this disease. There also appears to be a good
chance of genetic control through development of resistant varieties by selection.
The role of cool temperature in hastening symptoms is still undetermined, but we
are looking into the Cu mediated oxidative enzymes as to their possible role in
production of blackening. It appears from results so far that we have an easy
and fast system for screening young plants for black speck tolerance. Work is
being continued on perfection of the "pan test" for screening of large numbers
of seedlings. Since open-pollinated varieties such as Badger Market and Globelle
show definite segregation into resistant and susceptible classes in the field,
and in the greenhouse with Badger Market, the possibility is good for selection
for black speck resistance within otherwise desirable varieties.


Black Speck rating and copper, iron and zinc concentration in
cabbage varieties grown at various copper concentrations.


the tissues of


Cu level Black Speck rating a
in nutrient Cabbage Speck rating Tissue Level ppm
solution variety In field In greenhouse Cu Fe Zn
1 X Cu Badger Inbred 3 1.3 0 6.6 85 25
(0.02 ppm) Badger Inbred 5 0 0 4.6 52 18
Badger Inbred 7 4.7 1 6.6 85 24
Badger Market 0 6.6 75 17
Market Prize 2.0 0 6.6 95 24
Market Topper 2.1 0 4.6 85 17

10 X Cu Badger Inbred 3 1.3 0 8.8 65 22
(0.2 ppm) Badger Inbred 5 0 0 6.2 63 18
Badger Inbred 7 4.7 3 8.8 59 12
Badger Market 0 8.8 59 17
Market Prize 2.0 1 8.8 65 16
Market Topper 2.1 2 8.8 79 18

100 X Cu Badger Inbred 3 1.3 1 18.0 52 25
(2.0 ppm) Badger Inbred 5 0 0 17.0 63 38
Badger Inbred 7 4.7 5 34.0 59 25
Badger Market 1 21.0 52 22
Market Prize 2.0 3 34.0 65 21
Market Topper 2.1 3 28.0 65 22


Concentration, ppm dry weight
bAt Central Florida Experiment
CAt University of Wisconsin.


basis.
Station


Farm, Sanford.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs