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Group Title: Cabbage black speck and variety trials.
Title: Cabbage black speck and variety trials, 1975 -76
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075818/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cabbage black speck and variety trials, 1975 -76
Series Title: Cabbage black speck and variety trials.
Translated Title: Research report - UF Agricultural Research and Education Center ; CF-76-7 ( English )
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: White, J. M.
Strandberg, J. O.
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1976
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075818
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144607801

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        Historic note
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        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






<- /,..,'

.:7I, II0 ]


University of Florida 7,-
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION/ ENT'R
Sanford, Florida "i/

Research Report CF 76-7 May 6, 1976

Cabbage Black Speck and Variety Trials, 1975-76
J. M. White and J. 0. Strandberg
Assistant Horticulturist and Associate Plant Pathologist

We evaluated 64 lines and varieties of hybrid and open pollinated cabbage in
replicated trials and an additional 27 lines in observational plots for performance
and adaptability to Florida fresh market cabbage production conditions. These
tests were carried out under conditions which simulated those encountered in
commercial cabbage production. However, only minimum applications of
fertilizer and insecticides were employed. No disease control measures were
used. Black speck and storage ratings were made under severe storage
conditions which had previously been shown to enhance disease development,
i. e. storage at 4 C for 14 days.

Seedbeds were sown on October 21,- 1975, after hot water treatment of all
seed lots. Plants were transplanted on December 3, at AREC-Sanford, on Leon
fine sand previously fumigated with Shell DD to control nematodes. A
randomized incomplete block design was used with 4 replicates of 50 plants for
each entry. Observational lines were planted in a single row, 50 feet long, and
were not replicated. Plants were spaced 11.5 inches apart in 30-inch rows.
Harvesting began on March 4, 1976, and was concluded on March 29.

Data on resistance to black speck as well as a variety of horticultural
characteristics were obtained. Results are summarized in Table 1 and 2.
Disease ratings for black rot and Alternaria were noted only if plants showed
symptoms. A negative rating does not indicate resistance. Downy mildew
ratings on damage to mature heads was a quantitative rating.

We have included several new categories which were rated subjectively,
such as wrapper leaf protection and mechanical harvesting index which may be
helpful in evaluating varieties. We consider the varieties Rio Verde, Gourmet,
and Abbott & Cobb #5 as standard varieties which presently best fit Florida
growers requirements by virtue of their large share of the seed purchased.
Experimental lines should be compared with these hybrids if use in Florida is
anticipated.











Seed Source
Al Abbott and Cobb, Philadelphia, PA
A2 Asgrow Seed Co., Orange,CT
D Desert Seed Co., El Centro, CA
F Ferry-Morse Seed Co., San Juan Bautista, CA
H Joseph Harris Co., Rochester, NY
K Keystone Seeds, Hollister, CA
N1 FMC Corporation, Niagara Chem. Div., Modeste, CA
N2 Northrup King and Co., Minneapolis, MN
R Reed

S1 T. Sakata and Co., Yokohama, Japan

S2 Sluis and Groot, Enkhuizen, Holland
T Takii

Days to Harvest Number of days from transplanting to harvest.
Crates per Acre Based on 53 pounds per crate
Polar diameter and Core length measured in centimeters.
Holding Quality (in the field), Plant Uniformity, Head Uniformity, Head Cover,
Mechanical Harvest Index, Flavor, Firmness, Toughness, and Internal Quality -
1-poor; 2-fair; 3-good; 4-very good; 5-excellent.
Plant Color BG-blue green; DBG-dark blue green; DG-dark green; G-green;
LBG-light blue green; LG-light green; R-red; V-variable; YG-yellow green.
Head Shape EO-elongated oval; F-flat; FT-flattened top; O-ovoid; R-round;
SR-semi-round; Sl F- slightly flat; S1 P-slightly pointed; V-variable.
Downy Mildew O-no damage to outer head leaves; T-trace; 5-severe damage
to outer head leaves.
Alternaria and Black rot S-susceptible; a-means none was observed but does
not indicate resistance; SBR-systemic black rot.
Storage rating 1-poor storage characteristics with leaves yellow and
dessicated, abundant leaf necrosis; 5-good storage characteristics with little
or no change in leaf color or texture after 2 weeks at 4 C.
Black Speck Index The average incidence of black speck damage on 20 heads
recorded after 2 weeks of storage at 4 C. 0-no damage; 5-severe damage
extending to the center of the head.









5 ,612UME LI
4 J .1978


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION Uni. of Fr--
Sanford, Florida -

Research Report CF 75-5 May 23, 1975

Cabbage Black Speck Variety Trials, 1974-75

J. 0. Strandberg and J. M. White

As a continuation of work begun in 1965, forty lines and varieties of hybrid
and open pollinated cabbage were evaluated in replicated plots for performance
in central Florida. In addition. 21 lines were observed in non-replicated plots.

These tests were carried out under field conditions similar to those
encountered in commercial production in central Florida. However, black speck
ratings were made under severe storage conditions which had previously been
shown to be optimum for symptom development.

Seedbeds were started on October 10, 1974. Plants were transplanted on
November 14 at AREC-Sanford on a Leon fine sand previously fumigated with
25 gal per acre of a dichloropropane-dichloropropene mixture to control
nematodes. A randomized incomplete block design was used with four replicates
for each variety. Observational lines were planted in a single row 50 ft. long.
Plants were spaced 12 inches apart in 30-inch rows. Each replicate contained
50 plants.

Data on resistance to black speck as well as horticultural characteristics
were obtained. Results are summarized in Table 1 for the replicated trial and in
Table 2 for the observational lines. Black rot resistance ratings were not made
lue to a very low incidence of disease. One line in the replicated trial was not
harvested due to only occasional plants having formed heads. Five of the
observationall lines were not harvested for various horticultural reasons, usually
becausee no heads formed under Florida's winter growing conditions. Unfavorable
growing conditions produced smaller heads than normally observed and several
standardd varieties did not perform as well as expected in this trial. Harvesting
>egan on February 12, and ended on March 14, 1975.





Table 1.- Summary of data for cabbage variety trials, Sanford,


Florida, 1974-75.


Q WrapperS PolarT Equatorial Core ShapeT CoreT
Seed R Head Lb. leaf dia. dia. length index index
Variety source Lot No. Days ready head cover (P) (D) (C) P/D C/P

NrCT nn17 i -- -. .i


Ironhead
Hyb 30
Hercules Hyb 31
Hyb 63

Scorpio Hyb 84
Capricorn Hyb 8
NCX 9018
Hyb XP 1058
Hyb Express

Hyb Earlitimes
Hyb Red Head
Ex Hyb 6038
Ex Hyb 1454
Ex Hyb 1455 (red)

Ex Hyb 1556
Ex Hyb 1557
Ex Hyb 1558
Ex Hyb 1562
Hyb 6430

Hyb Sanibel
Hyb 15
Market Prize
Market Victor
Prime Pak


Herbst
Sakata
it
ti


SI
It


Niag
Asgr
41

Keys
it
It







tt
*



Har
It
ft
SI

FM


0330
9016A
7236A
7886


9622
2226


o ------
PC7350
3052














2381
2419
2373
2379
10220
o- ----


---- -
------


---- a
----- -
-------------------------------------------------


90
120
116
110

98
116
90
92
106

106
110
92
98
120

106
106
90
120
106

92
106
116
90
116


84
85
92
97

76
71
88
64
98

95
67
88
78
59

95
93
95
85
96

68
90
94
94
93


6. 41
1.2
3. 1
3.4
3.6

2.4
2.6
1.8
2.2
2. 7

1.9
2.2
2.0
2.3
2.2

2.6
2.3
1.9
2.7
2.8

2.3
2.1
2.7
1.7
2.7


6. 0
1.5
4.0
3.0
3.0

1.5
4.0
1.5
2.0
2.0

1.5
3.0
2.0
2,0
4.0

3.0
2.0
1.5
3.0
3.0

2.5
1.5
2.0
1.5
4.0


5.U
4.4
5.6
5.8
5.9

5.1
4.6
4.9
4.7
5.6

5.3
4.9
5.2
5.3
4.6

6.2
6.3
5.5
5.1
6.6

5.5
5.3
5.1
4.8
5.7


4.7
5.4
6.6
7.1
6.0

5.0
6.0
5.0
4.6
5.5

4.9
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.1

5.7
5.4
4.5
5.2
5.7

5.5
5.0
5.2
4.6
5.1


2.6
3.1
3.2
3.0
3.1

2.7
3.0
2.5
2.6
3.2

2.7
2.7
2.9
2.5
2.7

2.7
4.0
3,2
2.9
4.2

2.8
2.4
2,9
2,1
3.3


1.1
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0

1.0
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0

1. 1
1.0
1. 1
1. 1
0.9

1. 1
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.2

1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.1


0.5
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5

0,5
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.6

0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6

0.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0, 6

0.5
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.6











Table 1.- Cont'd.


Q % Wrapper Polar Equatorial CoreT ShapeT CoreT
Seed Head Lb./ leaf dia. dia. length index index
Variety source Lot No. Days ready head cover (P) (D) (C) P/D C/P
i a y_ no r J_) reD, "-, -P"D C.P


Hyb 11C x 28
Little Rock
Hyb 11C x 113
Gourmet
Hyb 11C x 110

Ex Hyb 11C x 123
Ex Hyb 11C x 117
NCX 9016
Hyb Danny Boy
NCX 902


F M
11
it
It
It

ft
it
Niag
it


NCX 907
Jack Pot
NCX 903
NCX 905 R
NCX 9018


------
11420

11420
- -- ---




- a -
----- a


----------
-a--aa-
--a a-
------
------


116
120
110
116
110

90
98
92
90
106

116
106
106
98


96
83
95
95
93

99
74
54
92
93

92
96
97
72


2.7
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.0

1,2
2.2
2.2
1.9
2.3

3.0
2.7
2.1
2.3


4.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
2.0

1.0
2.0
2.0
1.5
3.0

3.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
1.0


5.8
5.6
5.5
5.6
5.8

4.0
5.3
5.1
4.5
4.8

6.0
4.9
4.8
4.9


5.5
5.2
5.1
5.6
5.0

3.7
5.2
5.1
4.4
4.8


6.8
5.2
4.9
5.0
Not H


2.6
2.4
3.7
3.4
2.3

1.5
3.6
2.9
2.5
3.2


4.0
2,9
3.4
2.3
arve


1.1
1. 1
1.1
1.0
1.2


0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
st e d


0.5
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.4


0.7
0.6
0 7
0.5


----- -- ___





Table 1.- Cont'd.


InternalS Holding


Variety


NCX 9017
Ironhead
Hyb 30
Hercules Hyb 31
Hyb 63

Scorpio Hyb 84
Capricorn Hyb 88
NCX 9018
Hyb XP 1058
Hyb Express

Hyb Earlitimes
Hyb Red Head
Ex Hyb 6038
Ex Hyb 1454
Ex Hyb 1455 (red)

Ex Hyb 1556
Ex Hyb 1557
Ex Hyb 1558
Ex Hyb 1562
Hyb 6430

Hyb Sanibel
Hyb 15
Market Prize
Market Victor
Prime Pak


quality


3.5
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.5

3.5
2.5
4.0
3.0
2.0

1.5
3.5
2.5
3.0
3.5

4.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0

4.5
4.0
4.5
4.0
4.0


quality


2.0
2.0
4.5

4.5

3.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
3.5

2.0
2.5
2.5
4.5
2.5

3.5
2.5
3.5
4.0
3.5

3.0
3.5
4.5
1.0
4.5


SPlants
uni-


Head5
uni-


formity formit ness ness


2.5
4.5
4.5
4.0
4.5

4.0
3.5
3.0
4.0
4.0

3.5
4.5
3.5
3.5
2.0

3.5
1.5
4.0
3.0
3.5

3.0
2.5
4.0
4.0
4.5


2.5
2.0
4.0
4.0
4.5

4.0
2.5
2,5
4.0
3.5

3.5
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.0

4.0
1.5
4.0
3.0
4.0

3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0


3.5
2.0
4.0
4.0
3.0

3.5
3.5
4.0
3.0
3.0

3.0
4.0
3.5
4.0
3.5

4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

3.0
4.0
4.5
4.0
4.5


2.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
3.5

3.5
2.0
2.5
4.5
2.0

2.5
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.5

4.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2,0

2.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
2.0


WVT


Mech.
SS har-
Firm- Tough- veast


index


2.5
2.0
4.0
2.5
4.5

3.5
3.5
3.0
3.5
3.0

1.5
3.0
2.5
3.5
2.5

3.0
1.5
3.0
3.0
3,0

3.0
2.5
3.5
2.0
4.0


Flavor


4.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
4.0

4.0
2.0
3.5
2,0
2.0

0.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
1.5

2.5
1,5
4.0
1.0
2.5

4.0
3.0
2.5]
4.0
3.0


s HeadV
shape


R
SF
SR-F
F
R-SR


R
F
R
R
SR

PO
SR
SR
SR
R

0
0
0
SR
0

R
R
R
R
0


Plant
color


BG
DG
BG
BG
LBG


DG
LBG
LBG
BG
G-BG

G
R
G-BG
BG-YG
R

LBG
G
LBG
LBG
LBG

BG
BG
LBG
BG-LBG
BG


SBlackStor- BlacX
SBlack age spec
r spot rating inde
3.0 4.0 1.
1.0 5.0 2.
0.5 5,0 f
0.5 2.5 07
0.5 5.0 1.


1.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0

1.5
0.5
2.0
3.0
0.0

0.5
2.5
1.0
0.5
1.0

1.0
1,5
0.5
2.5
0.5


4.0
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.5

4.0

5.0
3.5


5.0
5.0
4.0
5.0
5.0

5.0
4.0
2.5
4.0
5.0


1.
2.
1.

1.

1.
0,'



0.

0.
0.


- -


.







Table 1.- Cont'd.


Mech.


Variety


Hyb 11C x 28
Little Rock
Hyb 11C x 113
Gourmet
Hyb 11CxllO

ExByb 11Cx123
ExIHyb 11Cxi17
NCX 9016
Hyb Danny Boy
NCX 902


NCX 907
Jack Pot
NCX 903
NCX 905R
NCX 9018 ]
NCX 9018


PlantS
Internal Holding uni-
quality quality formitv


4.5
4,5
2.5
2.5
4.0

4.0
2.0
2.5
3.0 O
2.0

2.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
4.0


4.5
4.5
3.5
4.5
4.5

4.0
4.0
-1.5
2.0
2.0


4.0
3.0
1.5
3.5
3.5


4.0
4.5
4.0
4.0
4.0

5.0
4.5
3.0
5.0
4.0

4.0
3.5
2.5
4.0
4.0


Head3
uni-
formitv


4.0
4.5
4.0
4.5
4.0

5.0
4.5
3.0
4.0
3.0


4.0
3.5
2.0
3.0
3.0


sShar-
Firm-S Tough- vest
ness nes indrt


4.5
4.5
3.0
4.0
4.5

4.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.0

3.0
2.5
2.0
4.0
4.0


2.5
2.0
3.5
2.0
2.0

3.0
2.0
3.0
2.5
2.5

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5


4.0
4.0
3.5
3.0
1.5

1.0
4.0
1.5
2.5
2.5

2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0


SHead PlantW
Vilnm ,.Sv qin- n o%* fv I


4.0
2.0
3.0
2.5
2.5

4.0
2.5
3.0
1.5
2.5

3.5
23 O5
2.0
3.0
3.0
3.0


SR-O


C


BG


O G
)-R LBG-LG
BG
O O-DBG


R
SR
R
R
SR


SR-F
F-R
SR
R
R


BG
YG
G-BG
G-YG
G

BG
LBG
LBG
BG
BG


xStor-
Black age
In- 4- A& *.. --


0,5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

2.0
1.0
0.5
3.5
0.5

0.5
1.0
1.5
0.5
0.5


5.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

4.0
4.0
5.0
4.0
5.0

1.5
4.5
5.0
3.5
3.5


t e d --------------------------------------..


Blac
spec
!


0.5
0.6
0.0
0. '
0.
0.

1.
1.
0
1.
1.

1.
0
0.
1.
1


Harves


- ---- -bL? J%- C a LN%--% av l zu oor s o rjin n


--


J-


- - - - - -




Table 2.- Summary of data for cabbage, OBSERVATIONAL LINES, Sanford, Florida, 1974-75.


Q% WrapperS Polar Equatorial Core Shape Core
Seed R Head Lb. / leaf dia. dia. length index index
Variety source Lot No. Days ready head cover (P) (D) (C) P/D C/P


Hyb Aquaris #86
F Hyb XP 5000
F Hyb XP 4477
F1 Hyb XP 4940
FI Hyb XP 4973

F Hyb XP 4978
Hyb 94 BR
FD 154 BR
GE 114 BR
Hyb Mercury
Hyb Enterprise

PSX-1173
732 Hyb RS type
Golden Acre
73290 F Hyb RS
type bolden A
Kopenhagen Mkt.
Golden Acre RS
73259 F1 Hyb RS


Sakata
NK

io
it

If

it

It

Desert
Asg


Peto


P591
I-----
-----


74Denns
M73503


001-900


Royal Sluis


cre
A


110

116
90
110

116
92
92
98
90
116


96

78

76
102
84
76


88

67
100
84


100
60
93
56
90
93

96

87

84
100
67
96


2.6
-- -
2.2
1.6
2.2


2.3
2.3
2.8
2.5
2.6
2.0

2.6

1.0

2.2
1.7
1.8
1.0


3.5
---2.5
3.5
1.0
2.5


5.
Data
4.
5.
5.


3.5
2.0
2.0
2.5

2.5

3.0

0.5


3
Sheet
9
3
0


5.3

4.2


5.6
Lost- -
4.6
4.3
5.3


6.0
5.1
5.6
5.5
4.8
5.0

4.9

3.8

3.6
4.6
4.0
3.3


Ostara (Savoy)
Winter White (R) II
WV inter White III
Ice Queen (Savoy)


Sluis & Groot

tf It
"1 "
"l "


-----------------------

------------------------


Not
It
11


0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6

0.5

0.6

0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5


Harvested
of
II


----------------------- If I1


----------------------------
- - - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -


0.5

0.5
0.5
0.7


1.0

1.1
1.2
0.9


1. 1

1.1


2.7

2.2
2.7
3.3


2.6

2.4

2.2
2.5
2.7
1.7


- -~- ~--` --- -


r--rr
I~~rr
rrcrr
rirr-r






Table 2.- Cont'd.


SPlant Heads Mech.
S Plant Head har- Stor- Blac1
Internal Holding uni- uni- Firm- Tough- vest Head Plant Black age spec
Variety quality quality formity formity ness ness index Flavor shape color spot rating index
i.~ pe ii i, s o ra i i i|,1


Hyb A quaris #86
F1 Hyb XP 5000
F1 Hyb XP 4477
F1 Hyb 4940
F.1 Hyb XP 4973


F1 Hyb XP 4978 2
Hyb 94 BR 2
FD 154 BR 3
GE 114 BR 4
Hyb Mercury 3
Hyb Enterprise 3

PSX-1173 4
732 Hyb RS type
Golden Acre 3
73290 F1 Hyb RS type
Golden Acre 4
Kopenhagen Mkt. A 3
Golden Acre RS 2
73259 F1 Hyb RS 4


4.0 4.5

3.0 3.5
4.0 3.5
2.0 4.0


4.0
3.0
2.5
3.5
3.5
4.0

4.0

1.0


4.5

3.5
3.0
3.5


4.0

4.5


4.0

2.5
4.0
1.5


4.0

4.0

3.0
3.0
2.0
4.0


4.0
-Data
2.0
4.0
2.5


3.5

3.0

4.0
3.0
2.0
4.0


4.0
Sheet
1.0
4.0
3.0


2,5
3.5
3.5
2,0
2.5
2.0

3.5

3.5

1.5
3.5
2.5
1.5


3.0
Lost
2.0
3.0
2.0


1.5

1.0

1.0
3.0
1.0
0.5


4.0 R-F G-BG 2.0 3.5 0.
------------------ ------------------....


1.0


SR
F-SR


3.0

2.5

4.0
3.5
2.5
4.0


SR
0
SR
R
O
SR

R

O

SR
SR
SR
SR


LBG
G-LBG
BG

LBG
LBG
G-BG
BG
G-BG
DBG

LBG

LG

YG
G
YG
LYG


1.0


0.5
0.5
1.5
1.0
1.5
1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5
2.0
3.5
1.0


4.0


6.3
1.6
1.

0.
0.8
0.
2.,
0.
0.


4.0

3.0

4.0
4.0
2,0
3.5


Ostara (Savoy)
.inter White (R) II
Winter White IUI
ite Queen (Savoy)


-------------------------------- No
-------------------------------- t
-------------------------------- it
--------------------------------- I
r~rrrr~l~r~~- !
l ie d l i O~ o S d ~ l ged-e 0


Harv


st ----------------------------------- -. -
--- -- -- -. m -- - - - - - -
I~~~~------LIII~~~~~~---------------------
. . . . ..~~l~~~ll~


---- -- -- -- -- -- --


t. 0

L 0O










Asgr Asgrow Seed Co., Orange, Conn.
Desert Desert Seed Co., El Centro, Calif.
F M Ferry Morse Seed Co., Inc. San Juan Bautista, Calif.
Har Joseph Harris Co., Inc. Rochester, N. Y.
Herbst Herbst Brothers, Seedsmen, Bruster, N. Y.
Keys Keystone Seeds, Hollister, Calif.
N K Northrup King and Co., Minneapolis, Minn.
Niag FMC Corporation, Niagara Chem. Div., Modesto, *Calif.
Peto Saticoy, Calif.
Royal Sluis Enkhuizen, Holland
Sakata T. Sakata and Co., Yokohama, Japan
Sluis and Groot Enkhuizen, Holland

Number of days from transplanting to harvest -

S1 poor; 2 fair; 3 good; 4 very good; 5 excellent
T
measurements taken in inches

1 poor potential; 2 fair potential; 3 possible; 4 potentially mechanically harvestable;
5 good potential

O=ovoid; R=round; SR=semi-round; F=flat; SF=semi flat; PO=pointed ovoid.

G=green; BG=blue, green; DG=dark green; LBG=light blue green; LG=light green;
R=red; YG=yellow green; LYG=light yellow green

0=no damage to outer head leaves 5=severe damage to outer head leaves. This
season most "black spot" damage was due to downy mildew-with lesser amounts
due to bacterial leaf spot.

1=poor storage characteristics with leaves yellow and dessicated, abundant leaf
necrosis 5=good storage characteristics little or no change in leaf color or
texture after 2 weeks at 4 C.

The average incidence of black speck damage on 20 heads recorded after 2 weeks of
storage at 4 C. Rated 0=no damage to 5=severe damage extending to the center of
.he head.




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