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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATIOBiCNTER
/Research Report CF 76-1 July 30, 1975
1975 Processing Sweet Corn Variety Trials
J. M. White
Assistant Horticulturist EP 2 7 1977
The Zellwood area of central Florida has been Ow
number of years. In 1974, over 8, 000 acres of sweet corn were reported
harvested in central Florida for fresh market. None were reported for processing.
The potential for a processor to expand his season by developing in Florida is
good as long as the profit to the farmer growing for the processor is equivalent
to that of the fresh market farmer. Cultural practices for growing processing
varieties are about the same as for fresh market varieties. The equipment for
planting, cultivating, spraying, and harvesting would be the same. For a farmer
to grow processing types of sweet corn, he would need to adjust his harvest
maturity slightly and to plant the variety or varieties which gives the best yield
and meets the processor's standards. In investigating this potential, a variety
test specifically for processing sweet corn was undertaken in Zellwood.
Seven processing sweet corn varieties plus Gold Cup were evaluated in
replicated trials on Everglades mucky peat in Zellwood in the spring of 1975.
Plots were five rows, 3 ft. on center and 25 ft. long. Four replications
were used. Prior to plantings, 600 lb. per acre of 5-5-8 fertilizer and a 2%
parathion bait for wireworm control at the rate of 40 lb. material per acre
were broadcast and disked to incorporate. Seeds were planted, two kernels
per drop, 8 to 9 inches apart on March 26. Plants were hand thinned to one
plant per 8 to 9 inches three weeks after emergence.
A 50-50 mixture of Randox and Vegadex 20 G at the rate of 30 lb. material
per acre was applied to control weeds. Methomyl was used on a daily basis from
silking until harvest for the control of corn earworm,
Gold Cup was harvested on June 3, two days late for optimum maturity.
Eversweet was harvested around two days early. Eversweet, H 74204 E. H. and
Tendertreat were harvested on June 6. The other five varieties were harvested
on June 3.
) Seeds were obtained from the following sources:
C Charter Research, Inc., Twin Falls, Idaho
F-2 FMC Corporation, El Macero, California 95618
H Joseph Harris Company, Rochester, New York 14624
R Rogers Brothers Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401
The center row from each replicate was harvested for yield and size data.
First and second ears on the stalk were measured separately. Varieties were
ranked in Table 1 by dozen of ears per acre from the first ear data.
NCX 243 had the highest yield with 1,331 dozen first ears per acre. High
winds caused lodging in H 74204 E. H. Jubilee and Tendertreat showed early
wind damage, but generally straightened in a few days. Eversweet had poor
emergence and slow growth as compared to the other varieties. Tendertreat
and 70-2021 had poor ear tip fill.
Tendertreat and H 74204 E.H. had the longest ears with an average length of
9.3 inches. NCX 243 had the largest diameter (width) ears averaging 2. 2 inches.
NCX 243 did not produce usable second ears. Jubilee produced the most (508
dozen per acre) usable second ears. Eversweet and 69-2588 had short stalks
and their ears were only 1.8 feet from the ground.
It should be noted the data in Table 1 represents one growing season. Under
different conditions, different results may be obtained.
Tendertreat, Eversweet and H 74204 E. H. were significantly lower in
number of first ears at the 5% level than the other varieties. There were no
significant differences in first ear numbers between NCX 243 and Gold Cup.
NCX 243 produced significantly more ears than the other varieties.
NCX 243, at the 5% level of testing, produced significantly higher tons per
acre of unhusked ears than any other variety tested. Gold Cup and Jubilee produced
significantly higher tons per acre than did Eversweet. The other varieties were
not significantly different.
The results of the experiment are presented in Table 1. Poor emergence
and slow growth reduced the yield of Eversweet. Both Tendertreat and 70-2021
had poor ear tip fill, but that is not as important in a processing variety as in a
fresh market variety. H 74204 E. H. would not be suitable for this area due to
lodging. Although NCX 243 ranked first in number of ears and tons per acre
for the first ears, Jubilee, Gold Cup, 70-2021, and 69-2588 produced more
marketable ears when the usable second ears were considered. Only Jubilee
produced more total tons per acre of unhusked ears than NCX 243. Additional
testing using more varieties would be necessary before recommendations could be
made. It appears, from this test, processing varieties are adaptable to central
Florida and could be a potential new market.
The author wishes to express thanks to General Food Corporation for a gift
to help support this work and for supplying the seeds used in this test.
Average yield, ear size, and general characteristics of replicated sweet corn varieties for processing,
Days First Ear Second Ear Total
to Doz. (2) Avg. Avg. Doz. Avg. Avg. Total doz. (4) (5)
har- ears/ Tons/ ear(3) ear(3) ears/ Tons/ ear(3) ear(3) tons/ ears/ Stalk Ear
Variety( Source vest acre acre length width acre acre length width acre acre height height
NCX243 F-2 69 1331t 6.5x 8.4 2.2 0 0 0 0 6.5 1331 6.2 2.
Gold Cup H 69 1283tu 5.1 y 7.4 1.8 290 1.0 7.3 1.4 6.1 1573 5.6 2.0
Jubilee R 69 1162 uv 5.2 y 8.6 1.8 508 1.7 7.7 1.5 6.9 1670 5.5 2.2
70-2021 R 69 1150 uv 4.5 yz 8.6 1.7 351 1.2 7.2 1.5' 5.7 1501 5.8 2.4
69-2588 R 69 1125 v 4.3 yz 8.2 1.8 242 0.7 6.6 1.6 5.0 1367 4.5 1.8
H74204E.H. C 72 944 w 4.2 yz 9.3 1.8 157 0.7 6.7 1.2 4.9 1101 6.1 2.6
Eversweet C 72 944 w 3.9 z 9.2 1.7 73 0.3 4.5 0.8 4.2 1017 5.1 1.8
Tendertreat C 72 895 w 4.4 yz 9.3 1.9 278 1.1 7.8 1.8 5.5 1173 6.9 3.C
Varieties ranked by yield in dozen
Tons per acre of unhusked ear.
Average ear length and width of 40
ears per acre of first ears.
husked ears in inches.
Stalk height from ground to base of tassel in feet.
Ear height from ground to base of ear in feet.
t, u, v, w, x, y, z means followed by same letter are not significantly different at 5% level
(Duncan's multiple range test).