• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Main






Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075797/00031
 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S.
Publisher: University of Florida Range Cattle Station
Place of Publication: Ona, Fla.
Publication Date: February, 1995
 Notes
General Note: Range Cattle Research and Education Center research report RC-1995-1
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00031
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Section
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




IOU




* Range Cattle Research and Education Center / February 1995
Research Report RC-1995-1 Marston Science
Libr ar

FEB 2 1 r3 5
CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 1994
Range Cattle Research and Education Center
R. S. KambacherUniversity of Florida
R. S. Kalmbacher1

Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations
from planting through harvesting. Knowledge of annual rainfall and
temperature cycles along with their extremes help producers
determine optimum times to prepare and plant seedbeds, to fertilize
pastures, to apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement
cattle on pasture or range. Weather conditions influence
germination, forage growth, quality, palatability, and
digestibility. A knowledge of weather cycles and extremes are
helpful to a successful cattle operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, pan
evaporation, and air temperature for 1994 obtained at the Range
Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida. The
center is located 820 55' W and 270 26' N in south central Florida
approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100
miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were recorded at 0900 hr daily and
covered the previous 24-hour period. Weather instruments, a
thermometer and hygrothermograph, were housed in a standard U.S.
Weather Bureau shelter located at five feet (1.5 m) above ground.

Precipitation:

There were 6 periods in 1994 when there were 10 or more
consecutive days with rainfall less than or equal to 0.01 inches
(Table 1). Dates for these periods were March 12 to 23 (12 days);
March 30 to April 18 (20 days); April 26 to May 7 (12 days);
October 15 to 25 (11 days); November 1 to 14 (14 days); and
November 18 to December 3 (16 days). On the other extreme, there
were 7 periods when there were 4 or more consecutive days with
rainfall greater than 0.01 inches. These periods were May 30 to
June 5 (7 days); June 15 to 18 (4 days); June 20 to 24 (5 days);
July 6 to 9 (4 days); August 7 to 10 (4 days); September 11 to 20
(10 days); and September 25 to 28 (4 days). There were 19 days
when one inch or more of rain was measured, 6 days with 2 inches or
more, and 3 days when 3 inches or more were measured. The greatest
rainfall measured in a 24-hour period was 4.9 inches on August 1.


'Professor, IFAS, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, Florida.








Table 1. Temperature, rainfall, and pan evaporation for 1994.


JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE

DAY Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap
F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches
1 71 50 0.00 0.13 71 52 0.00 0.06 78 63 0.00 0.20 79 50 0.00 0.28 90 62 0.00 0.11 91 66 1.16 0.25
2 78 60 0.67 0.07 65 47 0.16 0.04 75 65 0.93 0.09 75 47 0.00 0.12 90 66 0.00 0.38 89 70 0.29 0.09
3 79 59 0.10 0.01 60 35 0.03 0.12 77 56 1.84 80 55 0.00 0.23 91 71 0.00 0.17 79 71 1.87
4 71 51 0.56 0.11 65 44 0.00 0.04 74 39 0.00 0.26 85 51 0.00 0.12 91 69 0.00 0.25 83 70 0.66 0.15
5 67 37 0.00 0.23 77 50 0.00 0.15 71 45 0.00 0.22 81 52 0.00 0.24 90 65 0.00 0.14 89 68 0.05 0.11
6 58 34 0.00 80 54 0.00 0.16 77 48 0.00 0.25 85 58 0.00 0.32 87 60 0.00 0.22 89 70 0.00 0.19
7 74 50 0.00 0.08 83 61 0.00 0.06 80 58 0.00 88 64 0.00 0.12 88 63 0.00 0.31 89 72 0.00 0.16
8 79 55 0.05 0.25 87 54 0.00 0.19 82 57 0.00 0.06 86 64 0.00 0.19 88 64 0.04 84 73 1.00 0.53
9 71 42 0.04 0.14 85 60 0.00 0.27 83 58 0.00 0.17 88 68 0.00 0.11 88 65 0.00 0.34 91 75 0.00 0.20
10 71 42 0.00 0.01 88 62 0.00 0.04 84 60 0.00 0.24 85 61 0.00 0.21 91 65 0.00 0.24 91 72 0.00 0.24
11 76 60 0.00 0.07 87 64 0.00 0.10 82 43 0.04 0.25 86 64 0.00 0.21 90 66 0.24 0.22 92 70 0.00 0.38
12 78 64 0.00 0.10 88 67 0.00 0.24 68 45 0.00 0.32 87 68 0.00 0.24 91 64 0.00 0.16 93 69 0.00 0.14
13 82 60 0.00 0.12 85 68 0.05 0.03 77 51 0.00 0.07 86 62 0.00 0.14 90 65 0.00 0.36 94 72 0.00 0.29
14 76 50 0.39 0.14 83 54 0.00 0.17 79 50 0.00 0.06 89 64 0.00 0.29 93 69 0.00 0.00 94 71 0.00 0.31
15 62 36 0.00 0.21 74 48 0.00 0.21 77 39 0.00 0.27 90 67 0.00 0.16 92 67 0.00 0.14 94 71 0.02 0.09
16 70 43 0.00 0.09 79 57 0.00 0.06 77 51 0.00 0.19 90 62 0.00 0.01 94 70 0.04 0.25 93 70 0.06 0.29
17 70 43 0.00 0.13 75 61 0.00 0.07 79 48 0.00 0.18 91 65 0.00 0.28 95 67 0.00 0.43 93 70 0.95 0.23
18 79 62 0.68 0.06 68 62 0.49 0.07 74 42 0.00 87 67 0.00 0.31 89 67 0.00 0.23 89 69 0.57 0.11
19 64 45 0.00 0.17 76 66 0.10 0.17 82 57 0.00 0.27 87 66 0.11 0.15 86 66 1.02 0.14 90 71 0.00 0.16
20 62 46 0.00 80 65 0.00 0.19 86 57 0.00 0.07 88 66 0.02 0.08 88 66 0.02 0.22 91 72 0.12 0.16
21 65 52 0.00 0.09 83 65 0.00 86 68 0.00 0.36 88 66 0.11 0.05 82 55 0.00 0.40 90 70 0.25 0.29
22 68 45 0.00 0.20 83 66 0.12 0.13 86 65 0.00 0.15 88 66 0.06 0.20 80 51 0.00 0.28 90 73 1.02 0.25
23 72 45 0.00 0.12 84 63 0.00 0.17 85 66 0.00 0.12 90 67 0.00 0.17 82 54 0.00 0.17 87 71 0.54 0.10
24 75 49 0.00 0.01 85 65 0.49 0.19 85 63 0.35 0.23 90 66 0.12 0.14 88 55 0.00 0.29 92 73 0.06 0.20
25 77 52 0.00 0.09 71 56 0.01 0.05 88 65 0.00 0.15 85 63 0.21 0.20 91 58 0.00 0.23 93 73 0.00 0.15
26 79 52 0.00 0.08 79 60 0.00 0.24 87 69 0.00 0.12 86 67 0.01 0.15 90 64 0.00 0.26 92 75 0.00 0.43
27 78 64 0.00 0.09 78 52 0.00 0.16 90 68 0.00 0.28 89 68 0.01 0.18 92 60 0.00 0.20 93 69 0.07 0.13
28 81 69 0.22 0.19 74 55 0.00 0.04 90 68 0.00 0.32 87 64 0.00 0.36 92 62 0.00 0.26 95 68 0.00 0.26
29 84 71 0.00 0.16 90 60 0.84 0.28 87 61 0.00 0.21 89 67 0.00 0.06 93 70 0.00 0.25
30 85 70 0.00 0.10 74 53 0.01 0.10 87 65 0.00 0.25 91 67 0.05 0.14 92 70 0.19 0.21
31 81 58 0.20 0.07 77 58 0.00 0.17 92 65 0.87 0.49


Avg. 73.6 52.1 0.11 78.3 57.6 0.13 80.6 56.0 0.20 86.3 62.5 0.19 89.4 63.7 0.24 90.5 70.8 0.22
Max. 85 58 0.68 0.26 88 68 0.49 0.27 90 69 1.84 0.32 91 68 0.21 0.36 95 71 1.02 0.43 95 75 1.87 0.53
Min. 58 34 0.04 0.01 60 35 0.01 0.03 68 39 0.01 0.06 75 47 0.01 0.01 80 51 0.02 0.00 79 66 0.02 0.09
Total 2.91 3.33 1.45 3.43 4.01 5.46 0.65 5.73 2.28 7.10 8.88 6.34


Range Cattle REC.








Table 1 (cont.) Temperature, rainfall, and pan evaporation for 1994. Range Cattle REC.



JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER

)AY Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap Max Min Rain Evap
F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches F F inches inches


69 0.40
71 1.03
73 0.00
69 0.20
70 0.00
72 0.02
69 0.77
72 0.50
72 0.26
72 0.00
70 0.00
71 0.00
70 0.24
71 0.00
72 0.05
72 0.49
72 0.00
70 0.00
69 0.00
70 0.12
67 0.74
69 0.00
70 0.00
71 0.00
71 1.69
71 0.20
71 0.10
74 0.01
71 0.01
69 0.00
69 0.46


0.22
0.18
0.15
0.11
0.08
0.13
0.26
0.33
0.12
0.24
0.20
0.03
0.36
0.21
0.29
0.25
0.16
0.24
0.23
0.15
0.19
0.16
0.06
0.21
0.34
0.17
0.06
0.14
0.16
0.29
0.24


93
92
"90
92
92
91
90
91
8
97
93
91
89
91
86
85
87
91
93
93
94
92
92
93
92
87
91
92
89
90
92


4.90
0.00
1.21
0.08
0.17
0.00
0.17
0.06
0.26
0.28
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.09
0.57
0.50
0.39
0.00
0.980
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.67
0.00
0.00
0.94
0.00
0.00


93
94
94
93
92
88
91
91
87
91
91
92
89
86
83
84
89
90
90
89
81
85
87
91
90
80
85
83
84
87


0.17
0.28
0.30
0.19


88
85
87
88
90
86
87
90
90
90
88
85
85
83
87
83
84
85
82
85
85
89
88
87
88
86
84
80
82
86
88


73 0.09
72 0.17
72 0.50
72 0.11
69 0.00
69 0.00
69 0.00
70 0.00
70 0.00
71 0.11
70 0.03
70 0.39
69 0.01
68 0.12
65 0.00
64 0.00
65 0.00
65 0.00
63 0.00
63 0.00
64 0.00
64 0.00
65 0.00
67 0.00
64 0.00
65 0.05
66 0.72
63 0.00
65 0.00
68 0.05
68 0.92


0.09
0.08

0.34
0.13
0.16
0.12
0.06
0.28
0.23
0.17
0.12
0.18


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.54
1.20
008
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00


0.11
0.12
0.17
0.13
0.24
0.10
0.09
0.13
0.22
0.05
0.14
0.10
0.08
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.04
0.10
0.11
0.04
0.13
0.05
0.16
0.06
0.19
0.09
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.14


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.35
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
1.40
0.17
0.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00


0.24
0.01
0.15
0.08
0.06
0.10

0.05
0.60

0.14
0.09
0.05
0.06
0.18

0.10
0.06
0.03
0.08
0.09

0.11
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.08
0.06
0.00


Avg. 90.9 70.6 0.18 90.9 71.8 0.18 88.3 72.1 0.20 86.2 67.4 0.15 82.3 63.5 0.11 75.3 57.1 0.10
Max. 95 74 1.69 0.34 97 75 4.90 0.34 94 75 3.42 0.37 90 73 0.92 0.34 89 73 1.20 0.24 87 67 1.40 0.24
Min. 85 67 0.01 0.03 85 68 0.02 0.04 80 68 0.01 0.02 80 63 0.01 0.06 70 51 0.01 0.04 63 42 0.01 0.01
Total 7.29 5.72 11.86 4.92 20.11 4.19 3.27 4.36 1.84 3.32 2.58 2.75











Total rainfall for 1994 was 67.13 inches compared to a 52-
year average of 53.17 inches (Table 2). There was a difference of
13.96 inches between total 1994 rainfall and the 52-year average.
The year with the greatest rainfall was 1959, when 78.82 inches was
recorded at Ona. Monthly rainfall for January, March, June,
August, September, October, November, and December were above the
52-year averages for these months (Fig. 1, Table 2). September
1994 established a new 52-year record rainfall for that month
(20.11 inches).



Table 2. Summary of precipitation by months. Range Cattle REC,
1994.


1942 to 1994 1994
Maximum / Minimum / 52-yr Difference from
month month Average Total 52-year average

----------------------inches*-----------

January 8.45 0.03 2.17 2.91 +0.74
February 8.38 0.13 2.58 1.45 -1.13
March 8.60 0.13 3.14 4.01 +0.87
April 11.91 0.00 2.38 0.65 -1.73
May 10.58 0.00 3.84 2.28 -1.56
June 18.99 2.79 8.63 8.88 +0.25
July 19.74 2.92 8.59 7.29 -1.30
August 15.72 3.13 8.10 11.86 +3.76
September 20.11 1.14 7.05 20.11 +13.06
October 11.23 0.04 3.07 3.27 +0.20
November 6.34 0.07 1.78 1.84 +0.06
December 6.25 0.16 1.84 2.58 +0.74

Year total 53.17 67.13 +13.96

*Inches x 2.54 = cm.



















24- EI'94
22- *52 YR
20-
18-
16-
n 14-
0 12 -
10-
8
6-
4-



Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec





Figure 1. Monthly 1994 rainfall at The Range Cattle REC
compared to the 52-year mean rainfall at Range
Cattle REC.



Evaporation:
Rainfall exceeded pan evaporation in every month except the
rainy months of June through September (Table 1, Fig. 2). Total
pan evaporation was 56.90 inches compared to total rain of 67.13
inches (Table 2). The difference between 1994 pan evaporation and
1994 rainfall was +10.23 inches. There were several days when pan
evaporation was not measured (Table 1), therefore total annual
* evaporation is slightly underestimated. Pan evaporation records
have been recorded since 1981 at Ona and the 13-year average annual
pan evaporation is 58.60 inches compared to 53.17 inches of rain
(52-year average).





















24 DRAIN
22 MPE
20
18
16
S14
o 12
10



4
2 i


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec





Figure 2. Monthly 1994 rainfall compared to monthly 1994 pan
evaporation (PE) at the Range Cattle REC.



Temperature:

January, February, November and December were relatively warm
with minimum low temperatures of 340F, 350F, 51F and 420F,
respectively (Table 1). There was one day when temperature was
340F (January 6), when there was scattered frost. Compared to the
50-year monthly averages, every month in 1994 (except September)
was warmer than the 50-year average for that respective month
(Table 3).








Table 3.


Summary of minimum temperature
Range Cattle REC


(F)* by months


Shelter Temperature 1994
1944-94 1944-1994 1994 Ground Temperature
Avg. Avg. Extreme Extreme Avg. Extreme
Low Low Low Year Low Low Low


January 49.3 52.1 18 1960,80 34 52.7 36
February 50.4 57.6 26 1956 35 58.0 36
March 54.3 56.0 26 1948 39 56.2 39
April 58.0 62.1 34 1957,83 47 62.7 46
May 63.0 63.7 43 1954,56 51 64.6 50
June 68.7 70.8 52 1984 66 71.4 62
July 71.0 70.6 62 several 67 71.7 70
August 71.6 71.8 61 1968,81 68 73.1 69
September 70.9 72.1 56 1945 68 72.7 68
October 64.4 67.4 42 1946,81 63 68.0 63
November 56.7 63.5 25 1957 51 64.4 50
December 50.8 57.1 20 1953 42 57.7 42

Avg. 60.8 63.7 52.6 64.4 52.6


*C = (OF 32) x 0.556


Freeze hazard:

The fall and spring freeze hazards for Ona REC are shown in Figs.
3 and 4, respectively. The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of
experiencing the first attainment of a critical temperature before a
selected date, while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of the
last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date.
Based on records from 1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what
will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a period of
years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost
susceptable crop (assuming 320F) planted before the 1st of February
would stand a 50 percent chance of survival (Fig. 4). A grower would
probably lose five crops over 10 yr by planting before the 1st of
February.




































Figure 3.


Date
Crrcaltemoerature --- ---- .2 --- 4 - 5S

Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of
attainment of a given temperature before


the first
a selected date.


01JAN OlFEB 01MAR
Date
Crfticl, temperature 28 ,....... --. 55 --- 32


Figure 4.


Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of
attainment of a given temperature before a


the last
selected date.


Acknowledgements:


We gratefully acknowledge data collections by Shirley Searcy and Winnie Painter,
as well as data preparation by Lisa Roberts.


OIAPR


01NOV


01DEC


01JAN




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs