Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Station
Publication Date: 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center February 2009

Research Report RC-2009-1



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2008
Range Cattle Research and Education Center

Brent A. Sellers


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting
through harvesting. Knowledge of annual rainfall and temperature cycles along with
their extremes help producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant seedbeds,
fertilize pastures, apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or
range. Weather conditions influence seed germination, forage growth, palatability, and
nutritive value.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-
transpiration, and solar radiation for 2008 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and
Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 66-year summary of data
collected from this location. The center is located 820 55' W and 270 26' N in south
central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles
(160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell
Scientific, Inc) from 1997 until 2005. Beginning in 2006, observations were collected
using the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN). Accuracy of rainfall as
measured by the Weather Watch 2000 or FAWN was checked by comparing with
rainfall measured by a US Weather Service standard gauge. Measurements reported
before 2006 were taken at 0900 h, thus data on a given day represent the previous 24-
hour period. Beginning in 2006, measurements were recorded for an entire 24-h period
beginning at midnight.

Rainfall

Annual rainfall for 2007 was 50.05 inches (Table 1), which was 3.69 inches
(6.9%) less than the 67-year average of 53.76 inches (Table 1). The year with the least
rainfall was 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured, and the year with the greatest
rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Monthly rainfall totals were below the 66-year average for all months except April,
June and August (Figure 1; Table 1). Rainfall for the month of July was near normal
as rainfall was only 0.29 inches below normal. Rainfall deficits in excess of 1 inch were






2


recorded in January, September, October, and November. Above normal rainfall in
April provided some growth of forages for hay, resulting in a fairly good hay crop.

There were 13 occurrences during 2008 when daily rainfall equaled or exceeded
1 inch, two rain events that exceeded 2 inches (Table 2). The single greatest daily rain
event was 21 September when 2.92 inches were recorded.



Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2008.

1942 to 2008 2008
Maximum / Minimum / 67-year Difference from
Month month month average Total 67-year average
----------------------------------- inches --------- -------------------
January 8.45 0.03 2.14 1.10 -1.04
February 9.59 0.02 2.62 1.71 -0.91
March 12.34 0.13 3.12 2.40 -0.70
April 11.91 0.00 2.50 4.00 1.50
May 10.58 0.00 3.71 2.83 -0.88
June 18.99 2.79 8.72 10.33 1.61
July 19.74 1.87 8.37 8.08 -0.29
August 16.10 3.13 8.28 10.14 1.86
September 20.11 1.14 7.34 5.72 -1.62
October 11.25 0.04 3.05 1.73 -1.32
November 11.22 0.07 1.91 0.79 -1.12
December 8.61 0.16 2.00 1.22 -0.78
Year total 50.05 -3.69
53.76
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.
t Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 67-year
means.


Evapo-transpiration

Evapo-transpiration is the total amount of water transferred from the earth to the
atmosphere. Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in January, February, March, May,
and from October-December during 2008 (Figure 2). Evapo-transpiration generally
exceeds rainfall in January to May and October to December, which are months with
limited rainfall. According to the data, rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration by 9.26
inches for the entire year.










Table 2. Daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2008,
Range Cattle REC.


March


April


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day OF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2


70 51 0.04
52 32 0.00
56 28 0.00
67 40 0.00
75 45 0.00
79 53 0.00
81 55 0.00
81 53 0.00
85 48 0.00
82 57 0.00
81 51 0.00
84 55 0.00
83 60 0.05
69 41 0.00
68 37 0.00
74 46 0.02
77 65 0.16
68 63 0.01
83 62 0.64
65 42 0.05
74 41 0.00
81 55 0.00
82 61 0.08
72 58 0.00
70 47 0.00
78 45 0.02
71 41 0.30
70 35 0.00
77 34 0.00
81 53 0.00
81 50 0.00


2.55
17.31
17.16
12.90
12.43
14.51
13.99
15.33
16.20
12.55
13.69
13.78
11.45
17.85
16.66
13.35
2.93
4.17
9.81
5.66
14.96
13.90
10.92
5.45
17.96
13.94
17.15
19.64
17.72
17.00
16.29


80 50 0.00 10.29
86 45 0.00 16.72
85 50 0.00 16.66
86 54 0.00 15.67
85 58 0.00 15.77
84 60 0.00 15.04
84 63 0.00 13.28
78 62 0.26 9.33
75 57 0.11 7.23
76 46 0.00 20.49
76 41 0.00 20.18
77 53 0.34 6.35
76 50 0.20 9.59
71 40 0.00 22.58
79 45 0.00 20.13
81 51 0.00 20.94
85 51 0.00 18.36
85 60 0.24 13.58
74 48 0.00 21.97
76 46 0.00 13.69
80 57 0.21 11.47
85 65 0.06 17.81
84 63 0.26 12.52
81 64 0.00 13.95
82 62 0.00 18.72
84 69 0.03 17.68
69 38 0.00 15.35
63 34 0.00 24.71
76 35 0.00 22.35


79 45
80 49
82 52
78 62
79 59
78 56
86 63
70 38
71 34
77 50
80 60
78 50
79 43
73 43
85 57
86 64
82 60
82 55
86 62
78 51
81 49
71 55
84 63
73 43
70 37
76 44
81 48
86 50
85 55
86 56
84 64


0.00 20.83
0.00 22.50
0.00 21.71
0.01 8.86
0.18 15.70
0.05 11.79
0.37 16.58
0.12 24.53
0.00 26.22
0.00 17.33
0.01 13.50
0.35 22.28
0.00 22.98
0.09 12.71
0.00 21.12
0.00 19.39
0.00 25.48
0.00 22.95
0.00 24.81
0.41 10.51
0.00 27.23
0.81 4.84
0.00 17.51
0.00 22.30
0.00 27.76
0.00 22.41
0.00 27.50
0.00 24.77
0.00 22.49
0.00 20.39
0.00 20.97


January


February


0.75 16.78
1.63 22.28
0.08 17.67
0.04 22.20
0.27 23.18
0.82 20.70
0.01 23.28
0.00 14.60
0.00 20.42
0.00 25.48
0.01 9.66
0.00 23.81
0.00 14.45
0.00 24.97
0.00 26.47
0.00 30.89
0.00 27.71
0.00 28.91
0.00 24.59
0.37 19.27
0.00 29.98
0.00 30.58
0.00 27.73
0.00 25.33
0.00 25.74
0.02 26.90
0.00 27.36
0.00 25.00
0.00 18.88
0.00 30.98


Avg 75 49 0.04 13.01 79 52 0.06 15.89 80 52 0.08 19.98 83 55 0.13 24.17
Max 84 65 0.64 19.64 86 69 0.34 24.71 86 64 0.81 27.76 89 65 1.63 30.98
Min 52 28 0.00 2.55 63 34 0.00 6.35 69 34 0.00 4.84 65 39 0.00 14.45
Total 1.10 403 1.71 461 2.40 619 4.00 725













July


August


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day OF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2


85 50 0.00
85 53 0.00
91 53 0.00
90 62 0.00
88 56 0.00
92 52 0.00
91 59 0.00
92 60 0.00
91 66 0.00
92 65 0.00
90 65 0.00
88 52 0.00
91 47 0.00
87 58 0.00
92 56 0.00
90 61 0.00
90 65 0.00
90 70 0.00
84 69 0.30
85 69 0.53
89 71 0.00
88 72 1.36
92 69 0.64
91 67 0.00
91 66 0.00
84 59 0.00
87 60 0.00
92 63 0.00
93 64 0.00
92 66 0.00
99 66 0.00


30.90
30.06
29.55
26.25
30.28
30.94
28.38
28.42
25.98
29.29
25.19
31.20
31.77
30.01
30.12
26.47
22.58
22.56
11.86
10.96
24.44
10.29
17.59
27.73
26.09
25.50
24.98
26.09
31.47
29.81
28.60


94 66 0.00 26.00
94 62 0.20 26.20
94 64 0.41 20.43
96 66 0.00 31.00
94 69 0.00 29.02
95 69 0.00 27.47
93 68 0.00 28.42
92 65 0.03 24.26
90 65 0.55 14.58
93 65 1.02 27.53
92 65 0.12 31.08
92 68 1.98 19.05
88 67 0.08 18.41
93 67 0.00 25.95
93 69 0.00 28.04
88 67 0.00 16.85
90 68 0.01 27.04
91 69 0.00 25.62
90 69 0.03 20.07
92 66 0.39 21.62
85 69 1.78 7.16
88 67 0.00 13.56
92 65 0.00 27.47
93 69 0.00 24.01
92 69 0.07 20.34
87 68 0.11 13.14
94 67 0.55 18.74
96 68 0.13 22.60
93 68 0.56 22.44
93 69 2.31 23.84


0.11 21.42
0.03 19.24
0.73 16.46
0.25 27.88
0.01 29.00
0.05 24.03
0.34 19.46
0.60 16.56
0.05 23.06
0.00 26.38
0.00 28.35
0.01 14.91
0.47 17.06
0.26 21.14
0.11 18.79
2.47 6.02
0.39 12.63
0.00 27.11
0.00 27.72
0.00 29.08
0.09 26.24
0.95 22.91
0.50 21.96
0.00 15.91
0.01 28.23
0.01 24.93
0.02 21.11
0.10 16.12
0.00 21.10
0.51 18.41
0.01 16.23


Table 2. Continued.


May


June


0.00 23.37
0.17 20.10
0.00 23.14
0.28 17.44
1.87 25.32
0.00 27.11
0.00 24.23
0.68 14.87
0.30 12.68
0.07 21.68
0.00 26.66
0.49 17.30
0.00 22.75
0.34 13.91
0.00 13.37
0.65 15.28
0.07 24.58
0.07 13.31
1.87 2.30
0.00 12.45
0.07 19.10
0.35 15.72
1.09 12.11
1.25 17.17
0.00 23.36
0.00 23.90
0.00 20.14
0.00 19.91
0.00 25.38
0.50 11.60
0.02 11.07


Ava 90 62 0.09 25.96 92 67 0.34 22.73 91 70 0.26 21.27 90 72 0.33 18.43
Max 99 72 1.36 31.77 96 69 2.31 31.08 96 73 2.47 29.08 96 76 1.87 27.11
Min 84 47 0.00 10.29 85 62 0.00 7.16 79 67 0.00 6.02 76 69 0.00 2.30
Total 2.83 805 10.33 682 8.08 659 10.14 571












November


December


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day OF F inches m2 oF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2 oF OF inches m2


92 75 0.00
91 75 0.00
92 74 0.00
90 73 0.00
87 75 0.00
94 67 0.00
92 70 0.00
92 72 0.00
90 77 0.19
88 78 0.02
92 81 0.00
92 74 0.00
94 72 0.00
94 72 0.44
96 71 0.01
93 73 1.56
92 72 0.02
91 71 0.06
89 69 0.00
93 69 0.09
92 72 2.92
90 73 0.05
88 73 0.02
86 40 0.03
87 63 0.00
89 61 0.00
92 62 0.00
83 69 0.04
86 71 0.15
80 67 0.12


21.77
24.00
19.41
22.85
15.00
25.05
22.22
22.23
14.70
10.31
20.39
23.56
24.33
23.75
23.72
19.22
19.33
20.62
22.23
21.88
20.19
18.01
17.49
15.15
21.02
24.86
21.08
0.08
11.85
6.02


88 66 0.00 18.95
88 63 0.00 22.54
90 60 0.00
84 66 0.00 10.91
85 71 0.23 10.63
90 72 0.75 11.56
86 71 0.01 16.56
91 69 0.00 19.32
90 70 0.00 17.15
91 71 0.11 15.76
82 69 0.00 14.48
90 74 0.00 18.93
87 72 0.02 14.72
86 70 0.01 17.84
86 64 0.00 17.92
86 65 0.00 18.20
87 63 0.00 17.09
87 63 0.00 19.13
82 58 0.00 21.93
82 61 0.00 14.19
84 59 0.00 19.65
83 61 0.00 14.37
83 70 0.21 8.92
80 69 0.35 6.34
83 68 0.04 10.54
80 55 0.00 21.29
81 50 0.00 20.90
66 44 0.00 21.88
70 38 0.00 20.66
75 40 0.00 21.00
79 54 0.00 17.76


77 55
76 62
83 61
72 59
67 57
82 54
84 53
82 55
78 49
79 44
81 52
87 64
88 69
89 67
84 64
65 41
71 37
73 40
67 35
72 36
77 43
71 42
73 45
76 47
78 45
74 39
75 36
80 36
80 43
77 56


0.01 14.98
0.03 6.47
0.00 6.91
0.00 2.94
0.00 3.20
0.00 10.75
0.00 11.35
0.00 12.22
0.00 11.76
0.00 12.74
0.00 11.71
0.00 8.74
0.00 9.88
0.00 8.79
0.00 7.51
0.00 14.16
0.00 13.96
0.00 13.32
0.02 18.47
0.00 19.12
0.00 16.18
0.00 18.45
0.00 17.49
0.00 16.68
0.00 11.44
0.00 19.20
0.00 17.96
0.00 17.93
0.00 17.59
0.73 5.37


Table 2. Continued.


September


October


0.13 15.51
0.16 17.75
0.00 17.60
0.00 14.60
0.00 17.32
0.05 12.96
0.00 17.36
0.00 17.06
0.00 12.37
0.00 13.15
0.85 4.17
0.00 12.30
0.00 14.83
0.00 8.42
0.00 8.78
0.00 14.75
0.00 11.49
0.00 13.59
0.00 16.06
0.00 15.03
0.00 15.72
0.00 16.12
0.00 15.38
0.03 14.14
0.00 10.41
0.00 16.22
0.00 15.69
0.00 14.90
0.00 15.60
0.00 16.51
0.00 14.70


Avg 90 71 0.09 19.08 84 63 0.06 16.71 77 50 0.03 12.58 77 50 0.04 14.21
Max 96 81 2.92 25.05 92 74 0.75 22.54 89 69 0.73 19.20 86 67 0.85 17.75
Min 80 61 0.00 0.08 66 38 0.00 6.38 65 65 0.00 2.94 63 33 0.00 4.17
Total 5.72 572 1.73 501 0.79 377 1.22 440

















December

November

October

September

August

July

June

May

April

March

February

January


Rainfall (inches)


Figure 1. Monthly rainfall in 2008 compared with the 67-year average.


December

November

October

September

August

July

June

May

April

March

February

January


Inches


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration
rainfall = 50.05" and cumulative evapo-transpiration = 40.79".


during 2008. Cumulative


I- I 2008
67 yr average


I I Rainfall
Evapo-transpiration


I

I

I


---------


I

I

I


-

-

-


-

-

-

-

-

-










Solar Radiation:

Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2008 total monthly solar radiation can be
seen in Figure 3. For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ
results in about 14.3 Ib/A of plant dry matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not
limiting and vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was received
in April 2008 (725 MJ) to produce 10,368 Ib/A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for
2008 was 6,817 MJ.


December
November
October
September
August
July
June
May
April
March
February
January


Solar radiation (MJ)


Figure 3. Total monthly solar


radiation for 2008. Cumulative
MJ (MJ = Joules x 1,000,000)


solar radiation in 2008 = 6,817


Temperature

There were two days when daily-low shelter temperature was at or below 32 OF (Table
2). The extreme low temperature for 2008 occurred on 3 January when shelter temperature
reached 28.1 OF. Scattered frost begins when air temperature drops to 35 OF. Based on this
fact, there were 9 days when frost was widespread or scattered across the landscape (data
not shown) in 2008. Except for February, August and September, all months in 2008 had
lower mean low temperatures compared with the 64-year means (Table 3). Overall, mean
low temperature for 2008 was 0.5 oF lower than the 64-year mean.


M 2008 Tota = 6817 MJ









Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature for 2008 by months, Range Cattle REC.


Shelter
2008 1944-08
Avg. Extreme
low low


Year


2008
Extrem
e


Ground level
2008
Avg. Extrem
low e
low


January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Average
oC = (OF -


49.3
50.6
54.5
58.0
63.2
68.9
71.2
71.8
71.1
64.8
56.8
51.3
61.0
32) x 0.555


t Air temperature is measured using a thermometer in an


instrument shelter designed to


protect meteorological equipment from exposure to direct sunlight, precipitation, and
condensations, while allowing for adequate ventilation so that the instruments measure
environmental parameters accurately.
t Ground level temperature is measured with a soil probe, which measures the temperature 4
inches below the soil surface.

Freeze hazard

The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4
and 5, respectively. The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first
attainment of a critical temperature before a selected date, while the spring freeze hazard
shows the chance of the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date. Based
on records from 1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but
what can be expected over a period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a
frost susceptible crop (assuming 32 oF) planted before the 1st of February would stand a
50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower has a significant likelihood of experiencing
five crop frosts over ten years by planting before the 1t of February.


Month


1944-08
Avg.
low


48.5
52.3
52.2
55.5
61.6
67.2
70.5
72.5
71.3
62.7
49.5
50.4
59.5


1981
1976
1980
1971
1945
1984
several
1977
1962
2008
1970
1962


28.1
34.2
34.4
38.8
47.1
62.2
67.0
69.1
60.7
37.5
34.9
32.9


63.6
66.1
67.4
71.7
77.4
79.2
80.0
78.4
79.7
75.0
67.1
63.4
72.4


57.2
61.2
61.9
67.1
72.4
76.2
71.1
78.4
68.6
64.0
60.5
56.8
66.3


---------------------OF....................--------------------


-----------------OF.................-----------------


























20
10
o
01 N(


01FEB


Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given
temperature before a selected date.


10
Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given
temperature before a selected date.






Acknowledgements: The author wishes to thank Shirley Searcy for data collection as
well as Toni Wood and Joseph Noel for data preparation.




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