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Climatological report.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075797/00028
 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Station
Creation Date: 2008
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Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408
System ID: UF00075797:00028

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center February 2008

Research Report RC-2008-1



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2007
Range Cattle Research and Education Center

Brent A. Sellers


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through
harvesting. Knowledge of annual rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help
producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply
herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather conditions
influence seed germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration,
and solar radiation for 2007 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC)
Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 66-year summary of data collected from this location. The
center is located 82 55' W and 270 26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72
km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific,
Inc) from 1997 until 2005. Beginning in 2006, observations were collected using the Florida
Automated Weather Network (FAWN). Accuracy of rainfall as measured by the Weather Watch
2000 or FAWN was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service
standard gauge. Measurements reported before 2006 were taken at 0900 h, thus data on a given
day represent the previous 24-hour period. Beginning in 2006, measurements were recorded for
an entire 24-h period beginning at midnight.

Rainfall

Annual rainfall for 2007 was 41.66 inches (Table 1), which was 12.14 inches (22.6%)
less than the 66-year average of 53.80 inches (Table 1). The year with the least rainfall was 2000
when 32.02 inches were measured, and the year with the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82
inches were recorded.

Monthly rainfall totals were below the 66-year average for all months except August and
December (Figure 1; Table 1). March, April, and November were excessively dry compared to
the 66-year mean. The dry weather, which lasted into June, prevented many common operations
such as proper weed control timings and planting. Unless irrigation was provided, the spring hay
harvest was marginal.









There were 12 occurrences during 2007 when daily rainfall equaled or exceeded 1 inch,
three rain events that exceeded 2 inches, and two rain events that exceeded 3 inches (Table 2).
The single greatest daily rain event was 13 September when 3.51 inches were recorded.



Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2007.

1942 to 2007 2007
Maximum / Minimum / 66-year Difference from
Month month month average Total 66-year average
---------------------------------------inches------------------------
January 8.45 0.03 2.16 1.88 -0.28
February 9.59 0.02 2.63 2.47 -0.16
March 12.34 0.13 3.12 0.68 -2.44
April 11.91 0.00 2.48 1.93 -0.55
May 10.58 0.00 3.73 0.50 -1.57
June 18.99 2.79 8.69 8.60 -0.09
July 19.74 1.87 8.37 6.01 -2.36
August 16.10 3.13 8.25 8.36 +0.11
September 20.11 1.14 7.36 6.88 -0.48
October 11.25 0.04 3.07 2.15 -0.92
November 11.22 0.07 1.93 0.12 -1.81
December 8.61 0.16 2.01 2.08 +0.07
Year total 53.80 41.66 -12.14
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.
t Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 66-year means.











Table 2. Daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2007, Range
Cattle REC.


February


March


April


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day F F inches m2 F OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2 F OF inches m2


73 64
73 60
84 63
80 64
83 63
86 65
83 60
83 54
67 41
67 42
76 46
79 52
81 53
82 56
80 49
83 56
76 62
81 60
76 54
76 51
81 49
82 65
75 62
69 55
63 39
68 33
75 41
67 45
59 36
58 29
70 43


3.67
7.88
12.79
9.67
8.64
14.28
9.75
10.48
15.40
15.71
13.96
13.78
13.76
13.80
12.72
15.05
12.47
13.60
8.88
17.07
14.61
12.03
11.12
4.39
10.23
19.25
14.03
45.28
19.81
8.59
17.43


81 54 0 12.56
74 62 0.12 2.71
63 53 0.72 3.33
63 50 0.15 6.27
59 49 0.19 3.87
70 46 0 18.72
77 40 0 19.98
76 44 0 19.52
78 41 0 19.79
76 41 0 19.85
73 46 0 15.35
67 59 0.48 3.84
79 57 0.68 12.30
78 51 0 19.32
62 50 0 6.93
56 32 0 16.71
61 27 0 22.38
58 36 0.1 21.24
66 28 0 23.17
75 35 0 20.63
81 46 0 21.66
80 49 0 22.67
80 44 0.01 23.30
80 48 0 22.29
82 54 0 18.23
80 65 0.02 10.53
86 61 0 15.19
86 55 0 16.27


87 62
86 69
75 56
77 49
70 39
74 35
79 42
82 46
85 51
85 56
84 49
84 55
85 48
82 55
86 56
79 60
70 41
71 38
78 42
74 54
80 52
80 54
85 62
83 57
84 56
84 54
82 58
85 52
84 56
86 58
83 57


0 14.83
0 16.55
0 11.69
0 18.62
0 25.52
0 25.48
0 21.35
0 24.19
0 21.63
0 19.41
0 24.34
0 18.83
0 23.08
0 15.18
0 21.47
0.68 11.37
0 27.54
0 26.85
0 20.97
0 15.64
0 21.83
0 17.79
0 21.62
0 22.14
0 27.05
0 26.50
0 17.64
0 26.32
0 20.46
0 22.47
0 25.95


January


87 53
88 54
88 53
87 56
86 58
76 47
70 41
75 38
79 50
69 57
88 58
87 64
90 53
89 64
78 56
71 41
82 43
82 44
81 57
84 51
79 58
82 54
82 49
85 55
87 57
91 55
89 64
89 57
90 50
91 56


0 26.12
0 24.30
0 23.81
0 20.87
0 16.60
0.05 28.45
0 28.59
0 28.19
0.25 14.71
1.27 3.80
0.16 26.34
0.01 20.12
0 30.03
0 24.34
0.19 13.56
0 31.34
0 31.07
0 27.61
0 28.29
0 27.16
0 23.52
0 28.63
0 29.21
0 26.64
0 24.63
0 27.71
0 24.80
0 26.66
0 30.36
0 25.65


Avg 75 52 0.06 13.55 73 47 0.09 15.66 81 52 0.02 21.11 83 53 0.06 24.77
Max 86 65 0.78 45.28 86 65 0.72 23.30 87 67 0.68 27.54 91 64 1.27 31.34
Min 58 29 0 3.67 56 27 0 2.71 70 35 0 11.37 69 38 0 3.80
Total 1.88 2.47 438.51 0.68 654.31 1.93 743.1














August


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day I F F inches m2 F F inches m2 F F inches m2 OF F inches m2


88 51
92 53
94 56
95 58
91 66
91 61
78 51
82 51
86 56
89 60
90 59
91 63
93 65
89 64
86 65
91 64
89 60
88 60
86 63
87 59
87 53
89 60
88 63
87 61
88 62
87 60
89 59
91 60
89 61
88 62
88 62


0
0
0
0
0.34
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0
0
0.14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


27.16
27.13
30.30
29.36
19.43
23.92
30.12
28.42
29.87
21.46
25.37
19.05
24.79
15.13
23.61
20.53
21.16
20.81
23.03
25.42
31.32
27.29
27.57
26.79
28.34
24.62
23.78
25.17
25.24
23.71
19.60


78 66 1.3
83 68 0.7
87 68 0
87 68 0
90 65 0
86 68 0
91 68 1.28
88 66 0.37
92 63 0
95 69 0.05
93 71 0
93 69 0.1
87 65 0.03
88 62 0
91 65 0
93 66 0
91 67 0
86 70 0.37
92 68 0
92 68 0
87 70 0.37
91 67 0
90 62 0
93 64 0
96 65 0
91 66 0
88 71 0.54
88 69 0.01
89 70 0
94 70 3.48


5.66
19.89
26.59
25.81
26.64
9.65
22.49
17.07
28.15
24.14
19.85
29.42
16.63
26.00
24.03
27.26
25.38
12.92
23.25
24.11
20.17
26.99
25.90
26.76
29.00
25.01
20.06
16.44
21.80
16.39


91 69
92 68
91 67
98 70
88 71
91 72
93 72
92 71
95 71
94 72
95 74
94 72
92 74
93 71
96 69
93 70
95 72
97 73
95 72
95 69
93 70
90 68
87 72
89 69
94 69
95 73
94 69
92 67
88 71
90 71
87 72


Table 2. Continued.


May


June


0.02 13.38
0.09 15.35
1.02 19.14
1.4 8.94
0 18.80
0.08 17.06
0 23.86
0 22.54
0 25.80
1.64 22.86
0 25.29
0 28.29
0 25.22
0 29.30
0.23 26.10
0.05 24.84
0 28.77
0 28.83
0.02 15.40
0 27.34
0.48 13.92
0 25.10
0.29 15.05
0.03 13.99
0 26.09
0 27.82
0 22.31
0 20.78
0.39 19.16
0.14 20.38
0.13 10.51


87 72
82 72
94 69
95 70
94 70
94 73
95 72
96 73
95 72
97 73
97 72
95 71
94 72
93 73
92 73
92 71
92 70
90 69
94 71
94 75
94 73
94 69
92 69
94 71
95 69
93 69
94 75
94 72
94 72
93 71
92 72


0.13 12.74
1.83 10.61
0 28.17
0 29.28
0 26.88
0 24.65
0 24.71
0.46 22.57
0 25.69
0 27.37
0.56 24.65
0 24.05
0 25.37
0.02 20.55
0.02 18.64
0.22 21.72
0 25.27
0 24.54
0 25.55
0 24.73
0 24.96
0 26.19
0 23.08
0.07 14.17
2.78 23.39
0.95 22.06
0.12 25.61
0 25.69
0 26.43
0 24.49
1.2 13.37


Avg 98 66 0.02 24.82 90 67 0.29 22.12 93 71 0.19 21.36 93 72 0.27 23.13
Max 95 65 0.34 31.32 96 71 3.48 29.42 98 74 1.64 29.30 97 75 2.78 29.28
Min 78 51 0 15.13 78 62 0 5.66 87 67 0 8.94 82 69 0 10.61
Total 0.5 769.51 8.6 663.45 6.01 662.20 8.36 717.16













November


December


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day F F inches m2 OF OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2


91 72
93 72
92 70
93 72
93 72
91 69
91 70
92 71
90 71
87 70
92 71
96 70
95 69
94 69
94 72
94 73
92 73
89 70
86 72
86 69
91 72
87 71
89 72
89 71
89 71
85 70
90 68
92 71
88 71
86 68


18.84
19.28
20.12
26.21
22.84
22.26
23.96
20.97
24.47
12.23
19.18
22.17
21.71
24.99
23.18
21.80
23.58
23.62
17.27
12.32
24.97
11.67
10.78
20.28
21.73
16.15
21.66
22.28
19.44
23.13


86 67 0.01
87 70 0.84
91 70 0.01
92 74 0
90 74 0.22
89 75 0
88 74 0
88 72 0
90 71 0
91 69 0
91 69 0
88 67 0
87 66 0
86 64 0
88 65 0
90 66 0
91 67 0
89 70 0
90 69 0.1
79 73 0.27
88 72 0.12
90 74 0
89 71 0.06
79 68 0.05
75 64 0.07
84 65 0
83 71 0.08
83 70 0
84 69 0.12
80 70 0.19
83 71 0.01


20.53
12.93
16.85
19.23
13.54
17.50
15.59
18.69
20.31
20.47
20.94
20.23
19.03
20.50
18.55
17.36
16.46
14.12
16.83
6.42
11.96
15.64
17.48
6.51
7.60
13.02
7.38
10.71
12.88
9.89
12.32


85 72
84 61
78 52
80 46
79 44
80 51
74 50
76 46
75 46
77 41
79 49
80 53
79 57
81 56
82 51
65 40
76 41
80 47
79 51
81 54
82 54
83 59
75 56
81 50
85 61
85 62
86 62
84 64
86 63
80 62


Table 2. Continued.


September


October


0.027 12.66
0 19.33
0 19.54
0 19.38
0 20.30
0 15.30
0 14.10
0 18.35
0 9.58
0 19.15
0 17.57
0 11.35
0 3.15
0 14.02
0 17.58
0 5.55
0 17.84
0 14.70
0 14.65
0 15.29
0 14.5
0 11.25
0.06 9.85
0.02 15.07
0.01 14.04
0 13.28
0 12.45
0 9.37
0 12.56
0 7.96


83 59
86 59
83 56
72 42
74 38
82 49
85 51
85 61
84 59
84 60
84 60
84 59
88 57
80 65
85 69
75 48
59 38
73 38
79 48
77 50
75 50
73 46
80 57
82 54
82 56
73 53
85 54
85 61
84 59
84 63
83 65


0 14.01
0 16.20
0 15.45
0 17.06
0 16.26
0 15.73
0 12.66
0 14.32
0 14.15
0 11.10
0 13.72
0 12.64
0 15.04
1.7 5.52
0.01 9.79
0.19 12.21
0 17.14
0 12.28
0 11.40
0 11.49
0.183 15.57
0 10.07
0 12.42
0 9.62
0 9.28
0 6.25
0 13.07
0 14.01
0 9.68
0 12.17
0 6.89


Avg 91 71 0.23 20.44 87 70 0.07 15.21 80 53 0.00 14.01 80 60 0.07 12.49
Max 96 73 3.51 26.21 92 75 0.84 20.94 86 72 0.06 20.30 88 69 1.7 17.14
Min 85 68 0 10.78 75 64 0 6.42 65 40 0 3.15 59 38 0 5.52
Total 6.88 613.09 2.15 471.45 0.117 420.16 2.083 387.19















I 1--- 2007
December 2007
66 yr average
November
October









April I
March
February
January


0 2 4 6 8 10

Rainfall (Inches)


Figure 1. Monthly rainfall in 2007 compared with the 66-year average.




December I Rainfall
S- Evapo-transpiration
November
October
September

August
-July
C-
0
2 June
May
April
M arch
February
January


0 2 4 6 8 10

Inches


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2007. Cumulative rainfall
= 41.66" and cumulative evapo-transpiration = 35.87". No Evapo-transpiration data were
collected during April, November or December due to complications with the FAWN weather
system..











Evapo-transpiration

Evapo-transpiration is the total amount of water transferred from the earth to the
atmosphere. Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in January, March, May, and October during
2007 (Figure 2). Evapo-transpiration generally exceeds rainfall in January to May and October
to December, which are months with limited rainfall. According to the data, rainfall exceeded
evapo-transpiration by 5.79 inches for the entire year. However, no data were available during
April, November and December, when evapo-transpiration typically exceeds rainfall.

Solar Radiation:

Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2007 total monthly solar radiation can be
seen in Figure 3. For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results
in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not limiting and
vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was received in April 2007
(783 MJ) to produce 11,197 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for 2006 was 6,960
MJ.


December -
November
October
September
August
July
June
May
April
March
February
January


1000


Solar radiation (MJ)


Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2007. Cumulative solar radiation in 2007 = 6960 MJ
(MJ = Joules x 1,000,000)


2007 Total = 6960 MJ









Temperature

There were four days when daily-low shelter temperature was at or below 32 OF (Table 2).
The extreme low temperature for 2007 occurred on 17 February when shelter temperature
reached 26.9 F. Scattered frost begins when air temperature drops to 35 OF. Based on this fact,
there were 4 incidences of frost (data not shown) in 2007. Except for Janury, October, and
December, all months in 2007 had lower mean low temperatures compared with the 63-year
means (Table 3). Overall, mean low temperature for 2007 was 1.0 F lower than the 63-year
mean.

Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature* for 2007 by months, Range Cattle REC.

Shelter Ground level
1944-07 2007 1944-07 2007 2007
Avg. Avg. Extreme Extreme Avg. Extreme
Month low low low Year low low low
------- --------------------------F------------------
January 49.4 52.0 18 1981 29.2 65.6 56.2
February 50.6 47.2 26 1976 26.9 65.2 53.7
March 54.5 52.3 26 1980 34.6 67.0 61.7
April 58.0 53.0 34 1971 37.9 70.6 64.7
May 63.3 59.6 43 1945 50.5 76.7 72.4
June 69.0 67.1 52 1984 62.0 77.8 65.9
July 71.2 70.6 62 several 66.7 80.7 73.5
August 71.8 71.5 61 1977 68.8 82.1 78.6
September 71.1 70.7 51 1962 67.5 80.7 76.9
October 64.8 69.7 39 several 63.7 78.6 75.6
November 56.9 53.4 25 1970 40.2 70.1 65.6
December 51.3 54.4 20 1962 37.6 68.2 59.7
Average 61.0 60.0 73.6 67.0
*C = (F 32) x 0.555
t Air temperature is measured using a thermometer in an instrument shelter designed to protect
meteorological equipment from exposure to direct sunlight, precipitation, and condensations,
while allowing for adequate ventilation so that the instruments measure environmental
parameters accurately.
1 Ground level temperature is measured with a soil probe, which measures the temperature 4
inches below the soil surface.

Freeze hazard

The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5,
respectively. The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a
critical temperature before a selected date, while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of
the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date. Based on records from 1944 to
1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a
period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a










frost susceptible crop (assuming 32 F) planted before the 1st of February would stand a 50%
chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower has a significant likelihood of experiencing five crop
frosts over ten years by planting before the 1st of February.


0 E
01 NOV


01 DEC 01JAN


01FEB


Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature
before a selected date.


Date


10
Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance
before a selected date.


of the last attainment of a given temperature


Acknowledgements: The author wishes to thank Shirley Searcy for data collection and Toni
Wood and Walt Beattie for data preparation.