Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Research Report - Range Cattle Research and Education Center ; RC-2007-1
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Sellers, Brent A.
Publisher: Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Publication Date: 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center


Research Report RC-2007-1



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2006
Range Cattle Research and Education Center

Brent A. Sellers


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through
harvesting. Knowledge of annual rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help
producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply
herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather conditions
influence germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. A knowledge of weather
cycles and extremes is helpful to a successful operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration,
and solar radiation for 2006 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC)
Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 65-year summary of data collected from this location. The
center is located 82 55' W and 270 26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72
km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific,
Inc) until 2005. Beginning in 2006, observations were collected using the Florida Automated
Weather Network (FAWN). Accuracy of rainfall as measured by the Weather Watch 2000 or
FAWN was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service standard
gauge. Measurements reported before 2006 were taken at 0900 h, thus data on a given day
represent the previous 24-h period. Beginning in 2006, measurements were recorded for an
entire 24-h period beginning at midnight.

Rainfall

Annual rainfall for 2006 was 35.86 inches (Table 1), which was 18.14 inches (33.5%)
lower than the 65-year average of 54.00 inches (standard deviation 11.09 inches) (Table 1). The
year with the least rainfall was 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured, and the year with the
greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Monthly rainfall totals were below the 65-year average for all months except February,
August, and December (Figure 1; Table 1). January, March, and April were excessively dry
compared to the 65-year mean. The dry weather, which carried into June before rainfall
exceeded the 65-year mean, prevented many common operations such as proper weed control
timings and planting. Unless irrigation was provided, the spring hay harvest was poor.


February 2007









There were 10 occurrences during 2006 when daily rain equaled or exceeded 1 inch, and
one rain event that exceeded 2 inches (Table 2). The single greatest daily rain event was 12 June
when 1.78 inches were recorded.



Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2006.

1942 to 2006 2006
Maximum / Minimum / 65-year Difference from
Month month month average Total 65-year average
---------------------------------------inches------------------------
January 8.45 0.03 2.16 0.17 -1.99
February 9.59 0.02 2.63 3.65 +1.02
March 12.34 0.13 3.16 0.27 -2.89
April 11.91 0.00 2.49 0.06 -2.43
May 10.58 0.00 3.78 2.21 -1.57
June 18.99 2.79 8.70 6.42 -2.28
July 19.74 1.87 8.41 3.88 -4.53
August 16.10 3.13 8.25 10.41 +2.16
September 20.11 1.14 7.37 4.21 -3.16
October 11.25 0.04 3.09 1.15 -1.94
November 11.22 0.07 1.95 0.82 -1.13
December 8.61 0.16 2.01 2.61 +0.60
Year total 54.00 35.86 -18.14
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.
t Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 64-year means.











Table 2. Daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2006, Range
Cattle REC.


March


April


Day F F inches m2 OF OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2 F OF inches m2


0.00 7.75
0.00 13.29
0.00 10.43
0.00 16.79
0.00 15.20
0.00 16.65
0.00 16.99
0.00 17.51
0.00 15.73
0.00 11.26
0.00 16.05
0.00 15.61
0.00 10.58
0.00 17.03
0.00 18.40
0.00 18.21
0.00 13.56
0.17 17.90
0.00 18.43
0.00 10.83
0.00 10.71
0.00 15.45
0.00 12.99
0.00 12.07
0.00 19.13
0.00 18.94
0.00 12.22
0.00 14.77
0.00 13.84
0.00 10.62
0.00 19.74


78 32
82 45
80 63
67 45
66 42
72 38
76 42
66 37
70 35
71 35
78 40
52 37
56 31
63 28
74 36
80 44
82 54
82 49
79 49
83 53
83 52
82 54
84 61
74 63
83 58
69 48
72 42
78 39


0.00 19.36
0.00 14.17
0.00 2.94
2.88 6.20
0.00 19.79
0.00 21.24
0.00 18.55
0.00 21.81
0.00 21.02
0.00 20.12
0.29 15.38
0.02 9.47
0.00 20.96
0.00 23.06
0.00 19.54
0.00 18.13
0.00 17.89
0.00 20.92
0.00 16.62
0.00 18.78
0.00 17.91
0.00 15.34
0.00 18.97
0.00 7.30
0.00 15.41
0.46 8.30
0.00 23.66
0.00 24.40


81 46 0.00 24.12
83 46 0.00 23.69
82 58 0.00 21.14
81 50 0.00 24.54
78 47 0.00 24.17
76 47 0.00 22.20
76 47 0.00 25.69
77 38 0.00 25.94
79 44 0.00 24.32
82 57 0.00 16.70
86 61 0.00 25.32
84 57 0.00 17.03
85 57 0.00 16.93
85 61 0.00 20.32
79 55 0.00 27.13
82 48 0.00 24.26
84 51 0.00 21.05
84 54 0.00 25.60
85 52 0.00 22.63
86 56 0.00 24.83
87 61 0.00 21.02
82 59 0.00 17.91
76 55 0.27 8.06
71 45 0.00 24.39
68 38 0.00 29.19
70 34 0.00 29.43
73 34 0.00 29.79
79 42 0.00 28.37
83 48 0.00 27.63
82 54 0.00 25.17
84 50 0.00 27.40


January


February


86 50 0.00 27.56
87 52 0.00 26.55
86 52 0.00 27.91
85 57 0.00 19.93
85 47 0.00 29.80
86 44 0.00 27.23
88 47 0.00 28.25
86 59 0.00 23.48
84 63 0.00 14.92
81 56 0.00 22.90
82 56 0.00 23.56
81 58 0.00 21.46
82 55 0.00 23.90
85 53 0.00 31.11
88 48 0.00 30.35
85 48 0.00 31.24
87 55 0.00 28.97
88 59 0.00 22.41
92 57 0.00 25.04
96 61 0.00 27.71
93 66 0.00 28.26
90 62 0.00 26.15
91 61 0.00 20.44
91 61 0.00 25.47
92 58 0.00 28.13
88 63 0.06 21.71
88 56 0.00 26.78
84 50 0.00 29.35
83 54 0.00 22.83
82 52 0.00 28.76


Avg 76 47 0.01 14.80 74 45 0.13 17.15 80 50 0.01 23.42 87 55 0.00 25.74
Max 84 64 0.17 19.74 84 63 2.88 24.40 87 61 0.27 29.79 96 66 0.06 31.24
Min 60 29 0.00 7.75 52 28 0.00 5.94 68 34 0.00 8.06 81 44 0.00 14.92
Total 0.17 458.68 3.65 480.23 0.27 726.00 0.06 772.15














August


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day I F F inches m2 F F inches m2 F F inches m2 OF F inches m2


0.00 30.87
0.00 31.21
0.00 32.12
0.00 32.02
0.00 31.23
0.00 31.68
0.00 30.33
0.00 26.52
0.33 23.43
0.00 25.48
0.00 22.79
0.00 32.86
0.00 31.87
0.00 31.95
0.00 20.82
0.42 4.60
0.04 30.22
0.00 29.00
0.00 30.09
0.00 31.33
0.00 29.23
0.00 15.66
0.00 10.59
0.00 20.98
0.00 23.06
1.42 17.80
0.00 27.72
0.00 31.39
0.00 28.87
0.00 26.29
0.00 27.90


84 69 0.00
91 67 0.66
90 65 0.00
92 66 0.00
92 64 0.00
93 60 0.00
91 66 0.00
95 66 0.00
97 64 0.00
93 65 0.00
83 68 0.47
80 72 1.78
83 72 0.75
89 69 0.02
92 68 0.00
96 68 0.00
90 71 0.06
91 69 0.00
94 69 0.00
94 69 0.00
94 70 0.00
94 66 0.00
94 64 0.00
93 65 1.02
85 69 0.81
89 71 0.00
91 71 0.00
95 67 0.15
94 67 0.00
93 68 0.70


16.50
22.13
29.46
25.95
28.23
30.08
21.28
29.11
29.26
21.58
10.55
3.64
12.24
24.27
29.90
30.68
18.21
23.41
28.29
28.33
27.07
28.11
27.17
19.65
12.23
21.72
27.45
28.51
25.81
23.79


0.00 26.48
0.27 15.25
0.20 23.51
0.00 26.53
0.00 25.74
0.32 18.71
0.09 11.08
0.10 18.03
0.00 20.40
0.00 22.04
0.43 12.02
0.10 21.36
0.05 14.19
0.09 21.72
0.00 28.68
0.00 27.69
0.00 25.80
0.00 21.12
0.89 12.59
0.37 15.21
0.00 27.78
0.00 16.75
0.55 18.52
0.02 21.98
0.00 27.83
0.00 27.12
0.06 21.68
0.32 15.59
0.00 27.13
0.00 25.81
0.02 25.49


93 69
94 68
96 69
91 68
94 69
91 71
90 72
92 70
93 65
94 68
92 70
94 70
95 70
94 71
96 69
90 70
92 70
93 70
89 68
91 67
90 69
93 70
91 71
87 71
90 71
90 70
87 71
94 71
93 71
86 73
88 73


0.00 27.81
0.00 28.73
0.43 24.35
0.00 21.79
0.00 24.73
0.56 20.83
0.28 20.08
0.00 26.37
0.00 28.53
0.00 27.17
0.15 22.94
0.00 27.07
0.11 25.36
0.00 23.99
0.62 26.45
0.00 17.59
0.90 15.62
0.18 24.57
0.00 13.65
0.89 19.63
1.18 17.74
0.57 23.94
0.59 18.91
0.89 8.66
0.09 16.69
0.29 15.86
1.17 12.00
0.39 27.18
0.01 22.32
1.09 7.08
0.02 10.59


Table 2. Continued.


May


June


Avg 90 58 0.07 26.45 91 67 0.21 23.49 91 70 0.13 21.41 92 70 0.34 20.91
Max 97 68 1.42 31.24 97 72 1.78 30.68 96 72 0.89 28.68 96 73 1.18 28.73
Min 71 46 0.00 14.92 80 60 0.00 3.64 82 65 0.00 11.08 86 65 0.00 7.08
Total 2.21 819.90 6.42 704.60 3.88 663.82 10.41 648.24













October


November


December


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day F F inches m2 OF OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2


74 0.73 14.77
71 0.000.16 21.24
72 0.42 13.44
71 0.11 21.38
70 0.00 20.89
73 0.03 13.17
71 0.00 20.59
70 0.25 19.60
71 0.12 19.95
70 0.02 20.44
70 0.00 24.11
71 0.16 21.37
71 0.18 16.56
72 0.01 18.79
71 0.04 23.08
72 0.00 21.29
70 0.01 22.07
71 1.76 17.58
72 0.05 14.15
67 0.00 16.31
63 0.00 25.33
70 0.00 21.84
67 0.00 25.21
67 0.00 22.55
66 0.16 23.56
70 0.00 14.36
66 0.00 15.42
62 0.00 2170
59 0.00 22.90
64 0.00 23.71


89 63
90 63
88 66
86 66
88 65
89 65
89 61
88 63
83 58
85 57
86 56
89 66
89 66
83 56
85 55
86 58
85 64
89 67
91 67
90 67
92 66
92 67
94 57
70 43
78 39
82 51
86 58
77 56
80 47
83 56
86 59


0.00 23.91
0.00 23.42
0.00 17.66
0.00 21.55
0.00 19.74
0.00 23.59
0.00 21.30
0.00 18.83
0.00 22.89
0.00 22.91
0.00 19.47
0.00 16.78
0.00 19.88
0.00 18.60
0.00 20.45
0.00 19.88
0.00 12.83
0.00 15.15
0.00 17.47
0.00 16.06
0.00 17.03
0.00 20.69
0.00 15.33
0.00 22.26
0.00 21.36
0.00 19.25
0.00 17.91
1.15 13.04
0.00 20.85
0.00 18.75
0.00 16.67


0.00 14.53
0.00 7.83
0.00 17.59
0.00 18.40
0.00 15.63
0.00 15.68
0.11 6.89
0.01 13.31
0.00 18.86
0.00 18.21
0.00 17.07
0.00 13.78
0.00 13.38
0.00 15.17
0.00 5.89
0.70 5.97
0.00 17.19
0.00 18.20
0.00 18.30
0.00 12.33
0.00 17.23
0.00 16.18
0.00 17.41
0.00 16.08
0.00 14.09
0.00 10.77
0.00 11.84
0.00 12.48
0.00 10.39
0.00 13.81


Table 2. Continued.


September


12.18
15.15
14.42
7.24
13.84
12.67
6.01
12.77
14.87
14.29

18.07
5.24
4.04
9.51
4.36
11.35
12.97
15.26
14.51
10.28
0.00
11.03
8.17
1.47
3.91
16.62
15.46
15.38
12.71
13.38


Avg 90 69 0.14 19.98 86 60 0.04 19.22 78 52 0.03 14.13 78 57 0.08 10.90
Max 94 74 1.76 25.33 92 67 1.15 23.91 87 67 0.70 18.86 87 67 1.29 18.07
Min 85 59 0.00 13.17 70 39 0.00 12.83 62 35 0.00 5.89 63 39 0.00 0.00
Total 4.21 599.32 1.15 595.81 0.82 423.88 2.61 327.15
















December
November
October
September
August
July
June
May
April
March
February
January


6
Rainfall (inches)


Figure 1. Monthly rainfall in 2006 compared with the 65-year average.


10 12


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2006.
= 35.86" and cumulative evapo-transpiration = 42.90"


Cumulative rainfall


2006
1 65 year average


r anfl


S Rainfall
S Evapo-transpiration


I ______________________________________________________


December -
November -
October -
September -
August
July
June
May
April -
March -
February
January


6
Inches


9:: 1










Evapo-transpiration


Evapo-transpiration is the total amount of water transferred from the earth to the
atmosphere. Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in all but four months during 2006 (Figure 2).
Evapo-transpiration generally exceeds rainfall in January to May and October to December,
which are months with limited rainfall. For the year, evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall by
7.04 inches.

Temperature

There was 3 days when daily-low shelter temperature was at or below 32 oF (Table 2).
The extreme low temperature for 2006 occurred on 14 February when shelter temperature
reached 27.7 oF. Scattered frost begins to occur when air temperature drops to 35 oF. Based on
this fact, there were 11 incidences of frost (data not shown) in 2006. Except for December, all
months in 2006 had lower mean low temperatures compared with the 64-year means (Table 3).
Overall, mean low temperature for 2006 was 2.6 oF lower than the 64-year mean.

Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature* for 2006 by months, Range Cattle REC.

Shelter Ground level
1944-06 2006 1944-06 2006 2006
Avg. Avg. Extreme Extreme Avg. Extreme
Month low low low Year low low low
------- --------------------------------------------
January 49.3 47.5 18 1981 29 62.5 57.3
February 50.6 44.7 26 1976 28 60.5 52.6
March 54.6 50.0 26 1980 34 65.7 60.9
April 58.1 55.3 34 1971 44 73.1 68.0
May 63.3 59.3 43 1945 46 76.4 71.1
June 69.0 67.4 52 1984 60 79.9 77.2
July 71.2 70.1 62 several 65 80.2 77.6
August 71.8 69.8 61 1977 65 80.9 79.1
September 71.1 69.2 51 1962 59 79.4 76.0
October 64.7 59.6 39 several 39 75.4 75.4
November 56.9 52.2 25 1970 35 67.0 58.5
December 51.3 57.3 20 1962 39 67.6 61.0
Average 62.1 59.5 73.3 68.9
*C = (F 32) x 0.555
t Air temperature is measured using a thermometer in an instrument shelter designed to protect
meteorological equipment from exposure to direct sunlight, precipitation, and condensations,
while allowing for adequate ventilation so that the instruments measure environmental
parameters accurately.
1 Ground level temperature is measured with a soil probe, which measures the temperature 4
inches below the soil surface.











Solar Radiation:


Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2006 total monthly solar radiation can be
seen in Figure 3. For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results
in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not limiting and
vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was received in April 2006
(480 MJ) to produce 6,864 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for 2006 was 7,220 MJ.


December -
November
October
September
August
July
June
May
April
March
February
January


200


400


600


800


1000


Solar radiation (MJ)


Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2006. Cumulative solar radiation in 2006 = 7220 MJ
(MJ = Joules x 1,000,000)





Freeze hazard

The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5,
respectively. The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a
critical temperature before a selected date, while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of
the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date. Based on records from 1944 to
1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a
period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming
32 oF) planted before the 1P of February would stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A
grower would probably lose five crops over 10 years by planting before the 1t of February.













100

90 45

80 35

0/
60

S50 32 F28

I 40

30 / /

20

10

01 NOV 01 DEC 01JAN 01 FEB
Date

Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature
before a selected date.


100

90

80

70 28 'F' 32 F

S60.- ---- ^ --- ^------ --
60
50- 35 F
3 0.------- ,'-- ^ __ _---------



20. ,_
10' 1 45 F
10

01JAN 01 FEB 01MAR 01APR
Date


Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature
before a selected date.

Acknowledgements: The author wishes to thank Shirley Searcy for data collection as well as Andrea Dunlap, Toni Wood, and Walt Beattie for
data preparation.




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