Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075797/00024
 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Research Report - Range Cattle Research and Education Center ; RC-2006-2
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Sellers, Brent A.
Publisher: Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Publication Date: 2005
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center


Research Report RC-2006-2



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2005
Range Cattle Research and Education Center

Brent A. Sellers


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through
harvesting. Knowledge of annual rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help
producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply
herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather conditions
influence germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. A knowledge of weather
cycles and extremes is helpful to a successful operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration,
and solar radiation for 2005 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC)
Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 64-year summary of data collected from this location. The
center is located 82 55' W and 270 26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72
km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific,
Inc). Accuracy of rainfall as measured by the Weather Watch 2000 was checked by comparing
with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service standard gauge. Measurements reported here
were taken at 0900 h, thus data on a given day represent the previous 24-h period.

Rainfall

Annual rainfall for 2005 was 61.83 inches (Table 1), which was 7.56 inches (14%)
greater than the 64-year average of 54.27 inches (standard deviation 10.93 inches) (Table 1).
The year with the least rainfall was 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured, and the year with
the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Monthly rainfall totals were above the 64-year average for all months except January,
August, September, and December (Figure 1; Table 1). In most cases, rainfall was evenly
distributed over the months when rainfall exceeded the 64-year average. Above average rainfall
in May and June hindered many planting/sprigging and haying operations. If not for Hurricane
Wilma on 24 October, which resulted in 4.66 inches of rain, October would have been relatively
dry.


March 2006









There were 17 occurrences during 2005 when daily rain equaled or exceeded 1 inch,
three rain events that exceeded 2 inches, and one event that exceeded 4 inches of rain (Table 2).
The single greatest daily rain event was 24 October when 4.66 inches were recorded.



Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2005.

1942 to 2005 2005
Maximum / Minimum / 64-year Difference from
Month month month average Total 64-year average
---------------------------------------inches------------------------
January 8.45 0.03 2.19 2.02 -0.17
February 9.59 0.02 2.62 3.93 +1.31
March 12.34 0.13 3.20 4.83 +1.63
April 11.91 0.00 2.53 3.57 +1.04
May 10.58 0.00 3.80 6.25 +2.45
June 18.99 2.79 8.73 11.68 +2.95
July 19.74 1.87 8.48 8.56 +0.08
August 15.72 3.13 8.21 7.30 -0.91
September 20.11 1.14 7.42 3.37 -4.05
October 11.25 0.04 3.12 6.13 +3.01
November 11.22 0.07 1.97 3.59 +1.62
December 8.61 0.16 2.00 0.60 -1.40
Year total 54.27 61.83 +7.56
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.
t Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 63-year means.











Table 2. Daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2005, Range
Cattle REC.


January


February


March


April


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day OF F inches m2 OF OF inches m2 F OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2
1 77 57 0.00 9.50 71 47 0.00 17.28 77 52 0.01 17.28 86 67 0.00 18.14
2 77 56 0.00 12.10 75 52 0.00 16.42 70 45 0.00 19.87 87 65 0.78 21.60
3 78 55 0.00 13.82 74 57 0.00 11.23 65 46 0.00 21.60 72 49 0.00 24.19
4 78 54 0.00 10.37 78 50 0.00 14.69 57 50 0.29 4.32 73 44 0.00 27.65
5 79 57 0.00 12.10 56 45 0.00 6.05 70 42 0.00 22.46 81 55 0.00 27.65
6 81 60 0.00 13.82 69 50 0.00 17.28 72 49 0.00 22.46 81 60 0.00 25.06
7 82 63 0.01 12.96 75 52 0.00 12.96 74 56 0.00 21.60 82 65 0.00 19.87
8 84 59 0.00 12.10 76 54 0.00 14.69 77 59 0.01 17.28 83 64 0.77 13.82
9 83 57 0.00 14.69 77 47 0.00 15.55 72 49 0.01 15.55 78 56 0.00 22.46
10 81 55 0.00 14.69 78 53 0.00 18.14 54 46 0.80 4.32 79 57 0.00 24.19
11 81 54 0.00 13.82 74 39 0.02 15.55 67 48 0.00 24.19 82 55 0.00 22.46
12 80 54 0.00 12.10 61 36 0.00 20.74 71 48 0.00 19.87 82 57 0.00 25.92
13 81 64 0.00 13.82 68 37 0.00 20.74 73 48 0.00 25.06 82 67 0.18 19.87
14 83 63 1.83 9.50 76 50 0.00 19.87 78 56 0.00 21.60 79 53 0.00 25.06
15 65 57 0.07 3.46 79 52 0.00 19.01 80 63 0.00 14.69 79 52 0.00 25.06
16 69 52 0.07 5.18 81 51 0.00 14.69 79 67 0.00 9.50 72 53 0.00 21.60
17 62 41 0.00 9.50 79 52 0.00 17.28 84 66 1.84 16.42 73 47 0.00 27.65
18 59 40 0.00 17.28 79 53 0.00 12.96 67 57 1.60 3.46 77 51 0.00 28.51
19 63 42 0.00 16.42 71 43 0.00 19.87 67 45 0.00 21.60 81 54 0.00 25.92
20 66 40 0.00 14.69 76 48 0.00 20.74 70 49 0.00 25.06 79 58 0.00 24.19
21 65 48 0.00 6.91 79 51 0.00 20.74 77 58 0.04 22.46 79 55 0.00 19.01
22 72 52 0.01 12.96 79 58 0.00 18.14 79 66 0.00 12.10 82 56 0.00 23.33
23 74 54 0.00 9.50 82 61 0.00 17.28 87 71 0.00 19.01 84 55 0.00 25.92
24 59 32 0.00 17.28 82 60 0.00 14.69 75 64 0.17 4.32 79 51 0.01 25.06
25 59 35 0.00 18.14 81 59 0.00 15.55 81 69 0.01 10.37 71 43 0.00 29.38
26 67 45 0.00 17.28 77 61 0.24 8.64 85 72 0.00 16.42 78 52 0.00 28.51
27 73 54 0.01 12.96 77 64 1.98 12.96 87 69 0.00 17.28 84 64 1.83 19.87
28 78 55 0.00 13.82 75 62 1.69 2.59 85 68 0.01 13.82 82 51 0.00 21.60
29 70 58 0.02 7.78 75 53 0.04 20.74 83 60 0.00 28.51
30 75 58 0.00 13.82 79 46 0.00 25.92 86 61 0.00 27.65
31 77 50 0.00 13.82 82 64 0.00 23.33
Avg 73 52 0.06 12.46 75 52 0.14 15.58 75 56 0.16 74.70 80 56 0.12 23.99
Max 84 64 1.83 18.14 82 64 1.98 20.74 87 72 1.84 87.1 87 67 1.83 29.38
Min 59 32 0.00 3.46 56 36 0.00 2.59 54 42 0.00 53.82 71 43 0.00 13.82
Total 2.02 386.19 3.93 436.33 4.83 533.96 3.57 719.71











Table 2. Continued.


May


June


August


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day F F inches m2 F oF inches m2 F F inches m2 OF OF inches m2
1 88 68 0.26 21.60 86 69 1.87 17.28 88 75 0.42 16.42 92 74 0.11 19.87
2 81 66 0.00 12.96 77 68 1.30 6.91 90 75 0.07 21.60 93 73 0.00 22.46
3 84 66 0.00 20.74 81 69 0.95 12.10 88 75 0.00 24.19 94 74 0.00 22.46
4 85 67 1.62 14.69 77 70 0.75 7.78 91 74 0.00 22.46 93 74 0.00 25.06
5 74 68 0.47 3.46 86 71 0.95 12.96 94 74 0.07 23.33 95 71 0.14 25.06
6 81 64 0.00 10.37 87 72 0.23 15.55 94 73 0.00 25.92 93 71 0.26 19.87
7 78 55 0.00 24.19 90 74 0.00 22.46 94 74 0.00 26.78 92 73 0.53 16.42
8 82 59 0.00 25.92 91 72 0.00 18.14 95 76 0.00 25.92 90 72 1.65 12.10
9 84 59 0.00 26.78 91 75 0.00 22.46 94 71 2.16 19.87 88 74 1.62 16.42
10 86 60 0.00 28.51 88 75 0.14 12.96 83 72 1.15 6.91 88 74 0.11 19.01
11 86 63 0.00 25.92 81 75 1.16 6.91 87 75 0.51 9.50 93 75 0.04 21.60
12 86 62 0.63 20.74 89 77 0.66 19.01 93 74 0.00 25.06 94 76 0.00 24.19
13 85 60 0.00 25.92 90 75 1.45 13.82 94 75 1.30 22.46 95 74 0.00 23.33
14 85 60 0.00 26.78 91 73 0.00 23.33 90 74 0.01 15.55 95 75 0.06 23.33
15 86 64 0.00 25.92 92 75 0.00 24.19 93 73 0.49 22.46 94 72 0.01 19.87
16 87 67 0.00 25.06 94 74 0.00 24.19 94 75 0.48 23.33 95 76 0.00 24.19
17 87 68 0.00 20.74 90 74 0.00 24.19 94 76 0.11 22.46 96 76 0.35 25.06
18 89 67 0.17 25.06 90 75 0.00 24.19 93 76 0.00 20.74 97 74 0.67 25.92
19 87 65 0.00 25.06 90 71 0.00 23.33 91 76 0.00 24.19 97 75 0.11 25.92
20 86 64 0.00 23.33 91 72 0.00 24.19 92 74 0.01 18.14 96 74 0.00 23.33
21 89 66 0.00 26.78 88 73 0.06 15.55 92 74 0.03 21.60 96 74 0.00 25.06
22 86 69 0.01 26.78 85 74 0.02 14.69 94 76 0.00 25.06 94 74 0.55 19.87
23 89 68 0.02 25.06 84 71 0.06 10.37 92 75 0.00 16.42 94 73 0.03 20.74
24 90 64 0.00 23.33 85 71 0.78 11.23 93 77 0.00 23.33 94 74 0.00 19.87
25 87 74 0.00 24.19 83 71 0.00 19.87 93 74 0.61 18.14 92 76 0.12 21.60
26 88 67 0.00 22.46 87 72 0.00 17.28 93 76 0.01 23.33 89 77 0.28 12.96
27 85 66 2.14 19.01 93 74 0.00 24.19 94 76 0.60 21.60 89 74 0.04 16.42
28 88 67 0.00 23.33 89 74 0.17 12.10 95 77 0.43 20.74 89 74 0.62 12.10
29 87 67 0.00 25.06 91 75 0.79 17.28 94 74 0.00 19.87 93 77 0.00 19.87
30 89 68 0.00 21.60 86 75 0.34 11.23 94 73 0.00 20.74 92 78 0.00 22.46
31 93 70 0.93 22.46 94 73 0.10 19.87 92 75 0.00 21.60
Avg 86 65 0.20 22.38 87 73 0.39 16.99 92 75 0.28 20.90 93 74 0.24 20.90
Max 93 70 2.14 28.51 94 77 1.87 24.19 95 77 2.16 26.78 97 78 1.65 25.92
Min 74 55 0.00 3.46 77 68 0.00 6.91 83 71 0.00 6.91 88 71 0.00 12.10
Total 6.25 693.81 11.68 509.74 8.65 647.99 7.30 648.02











Table 2. Continued.


September


October


November


December


Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
Day OF "F inches m2 F OF inches m2 F OF inches m2 OF OF inches m2
1 91 75 0.67 17.28 91 73 0.00 19.87 81 61 0.00 14.69 70 43 0.00 16.42
2 91 74 0.00 14.69 90 74 0.00 20.74 79 65 1.83 5.18 67 43 0.00 16.42
3 94 74 0.22 17.28 91 74 0.17 18.14 78 61 0.00 14.69 70 43 0.00 16.42
4 92 74 0.00 22.46 90 74 0.00 16.42 82 59 0.00 15.55 75 46 0.00 16.42
5 90 73 0.00 23.33 84 74 0.10 9.50 85 64 0.00 17.28 78 55 0.00 14.69
6 88 73 0.03 17.28 87 75 0.00 12.10 84 62 0.00 14.69 81 65 0.17 12.96
7 90 75 0.08 18.14 86 75 0.57 9.50 85 63 0.00 14.69 68 56 0.00 3.46
8 89 74 0.21 17.28 87 74 0.00 14.69 82 66 0.00 13.82 73 65 0.17 4.32
9 87 72 0.00 14.69 89 73 0.20 14.69 85 65 0.00 15.55 79 65 0.03 8.64
10 90 72 0.08 19.01 89 76 0.00 14.69 83 57 0.00 15.55 81 61 0.09 11.23
11 91 71 0.00 23.33 91 74 0.00 16.42 82 58 0.00 17.28 79 55 0.00 12.10
12 91 65 0.00 24.19 89 74 0.00 16.42 81 58 0.00 17.28 68 43 0.00 8.64
13 90 68 0.00 22.46 89 75 0.00 15.55 81 61 0.00 16.42 65 44 0.01 15.55
14 90 68 0.00 21.60 84 72 0.00 9.50 83 64 0.00 15.55 68 42 0.00 15.55
15 90 67 0.00 21.60 87 66 0.00 17.28 77 64 0.03 8.64 74 53 0.00 14.69
16 91 70 0.00 20.74 85 63 0.00 17.28 85 63 0.00 14.69 79 54 0.01 12.10
17 94 71 0.00 20.74 84 58 0.00 20.74 87 64 0.00 12.96 71 57 0.07 12.10
18 93 68 0.00 22.46 85 63 0.00 19.87 75 58 0.00 8.64 74 58 0.01 6.05
19 92 73 0.00 22.46 86 67 0.00 18.14 78 62 0.00 11.23 78 57 0.00 6.05
20 91 76 0.00 20.74 85 71 0.02 11.23 81 68 0.00 9.50 65 52 0.00 4.32
21 88 75 0.38 12.96 89 73 0.00 14.69 86 69 0.00 12.10 68 46 0.00 10.37
22 91 75 0.31 10.37 84 71 0.34 6.05 81 51 0.01 10.37 62 36 0.00 13.82
23 84 76 0.03 6.05 87 73 0.00 8.64 68 42 0.00 15.55 64 36 0.00 16.42
24 90 72 0.11 12.10 87 64 4.66 8.64 66 47 0.00 17.28 70 46 0.00 14.69
25 92 69 0.00 21.60 72 51 0.07 13.82 78 56 0.00 13.82 74 55 0.00 12.96
26 90 70 0.00 19.87 68 47 0.00 18.14 82 54 0.00 13.82 73 45 0.04 10.37
27 91 66 0.03 21.60 68 46 0.00 19.87 80 59 0.00 14.69 65 35 0.00 14.69
28 90 70 0.47 19.87 80 52 0.00 19.87 80 66 0.00 12.10 69 37 0.00 15.55
29 89 68 0.57 15.55 79 54 0.00 19.01 81 68 0.97 6.91 71 50 0.00 14.69
30 91 71 0.18 19.87 77 55 0.00 19.01 72 57 0.75 3.46 74 43 0.00 14.69
31 77 58 0.00 16.42 77 51 0.00 14.69
Avg 90 71 0.11 18.72 84 67 0.20 15.38 80.19 60.37 0.12 13.13 71.94 49.58 0.02 12.29
Max 94 76 0.67 24.19 91 76 4.66 20.74 86.50 69.27 1.83 17.28 81.10 65.45 0.17 16.42
Min 84 65 0.00 6.05 68 46 0.00 6.05 65.68 42.02 0.00 3.46 61.57 34.93 0.00 3.46
Total 3.37 561.60 6.13 476.93 3.59 393.98 0.60 381.07















0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
.II I I I I


December

November

October

September

August
July

June
May

April -

March -

February -
January -


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Rainfall (inches)


Figure 1. Monthly rainfall in 2005 compared with the 64-year average.







0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14


December -
November -
October


September

August
July
June

May

April
March

February

January


0 2 4 6 8 10 12


Inches


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2005.


2005
W 64 year average


SRain totaled 61.83"
S Evapo-transpiration totaled 36.24"


MEW









Evapo-transpiration


Evapo-transpiration is the total amount of water transferred from the earth to the
atmosphere. Rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration in all but three months during 2005 (Figure
2). This was atypical because evapo-transpiration generally exceeds rainfall in January to May
and October to December, which are months with limited rainfall. For the year, rainfall
exceeded evapo-transpiration by 25.59 inches.

Temperature

There was 1 day when daily-low shelter temperature was at or below 32 oF and 4 days
when low ground temperature reached freezing (Table 2). The extreme low temperature for
2004 occurred on 24 January when shelter and ground temperature reached 32 and 30 oF,
respectively. Scattered frost occurs when ground temperature reaches 35 oF. Based on this
observation, there were 4 incidences of frost (data not shown). Except for April and December,
all months in 2005 had greater mean low temperatures compared with the 62-year means (Table
3). Overall, mean temperature for 2005 was 1.6 oF greater than the 62-year mean.


Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature* for 2005 by months, Range Cattle REC.

Shelter Ground level
1944-05 2005 1944-05 2005 2005
Avg. Avg. Extreme Extreme Avg. Extreme
Month low low low Year low low low
------- --------------------------F------------------
January 49.3 52.3 18 1981 32 49.4 30
February 50.8 51.5 26 1976 36 48.5 31
March 54.6 56.1 26 1980 42 53.5 39
April 58.2 55.9 34 1971 43 52.9 40
May 63.4 65.2 43 1945 55 62.4 52
June 69.0 72.8 52 1984 68 71.2 67
July 71.2 74.5 62 several 71 72.6 69
August 71.8 74.3 61 1977 71 72.8 70
September 71.1 71.5 56 1962 65 69.4 63
October 64.8 66.7 51 several 46 64.1 42
November 57.0 60.4 25 1970 42 71.9 68
December 51.2 49.6 20 1962 35 66.0 62
Average 61.0 62.6 51 62.9
*C = (F 32) x 0.555
t Air temperature is measured using a thermometer in an instrument shelter designed to protect
meteorological equipment from exposure to direct sunlight, precipitation, and condensations,
while allowing for adequate ventilation so that the instruments measure environmental
parameters accurately.
1 Ground level temperature is measured with a soil probe, which measures the temperature at the
soil surface.











Solar Radiation:


Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2005 total monthly solar radiation can be
seen graphically in Figure 3. For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1
MJ results in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not
limiting and vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was received in
April 2005 (720 MJ) to produce 10,296 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for 2005
was 6,389 MJ.


December
November
October
September
August
July
June
May
April
March
February
January


400
MJ (Joules x 1,000,000)


Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2005.





Freeze hazard

The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5,
respectively. The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a
critical temperature before a selected date, while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of
the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date. Based on records from 1944 to
1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a
period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming
32 F) planted before the 1P of February would stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A
grower would probably lose five crops over 10 years by planting before the 1t of February.


1 2005 total = 6389 MJ


. . . .













100

90 35

80 -



70 4 35 F/
S60 -

E 50 F 450F 55F


20
0 40-/----7 -7---




10

01JAN 01 FEB 01MAR 01APR
Date

Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature
before a selected date.


100

90

80

70 28 'F '32 F

S60.- ---- ^ --- ^------ --
60
50- 35 F
3 0.------- ,'-- ^ __ _---------



20. ,_
10' 1 45 F
10

01JAN 01 FEB 01MAR 01APR
Date
10

Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature
before a selected date.

Acknowledgements: The author wishes to thank Shirley Searcy for data collection as well as Andrea Dunlap, Toni Wood, and Walt Beattie for
data preparation.




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