Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Station,
Publication Date: 2004
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Research Report RC-2005-2
February 2005



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2004


Range Cattle Research and Education Center


R. S. Kalmbacher
Professor, IFAS, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, Florida.


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through harvesting. Knowledge of annual
rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant
seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather
conditions influence germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. A knowledge of weather cycles and
extremes is helpful to a successful cattle operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapotranspiration, and solar radiation for 2004
obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida. The center is located 820 55' W and 270
26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of
the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific, Inc). Accuracy of rainfall as
measured by the Weather Watch 2000 was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service
standard gauge. Measurements reported here were taken at 0900 h, thus data on a given day represent the previous 24-h
period.

Rainfall:

Annual rainfall for 2004 was 65.14 inches, which was 11.16 inches (21%) greater than the 63-year average of 53.98 inches
(standard deviation 11.09 inches) (Table 1). The year with the least rainfall was 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured,
and the year with the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Monthly rainfall totals for March and April were below the 63-yr means for these months, indicating conditions were drier
than normal for pasture growth (Table 1, Figure 1). May 2004 rainfall exceeded the 63-yr mean, however, this was not
effective rainfall because 99% of the monthly rain was received in the first 4 d of May. Less than normal rainfall in June
and July was actually beneficial for cattle because pastures were not excessively wet. Rainfall in August and September far
exceeded the 63-yr mean because of hurricanes Charley, Frances, and Jeanne, and pastures were flooded. Rainfall in the 72-
h period associated with hurricane Charley (12-14 August) was 5.98 inches, Frances (4-6 September) was 5.53 inches, and
Jeanne (25-27 September) was 6.18 inches. Were it not for these three hurricanes, 2004 would have been relatively dry.

There were 18 occurrences during 2004 when daily rain equaled or exceeded 1 inch, nine rain events that exceeded 2
inches, five events that exceeded 3 inches, and three events that exceeded 4 inches of rain (Table 2). The single greatest
daily rain event was 14 August when 4.19 inches were recorded.


Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2004.





1942 to 2004 2004
Maximum Minimum 63-yr Diference
month month Average Total from
63-yr
average
--------------inches*--------------
January 8.45 0.03 2.19 1.45 -0.74
February 9.59 1 0.02 2.60 4.70 +2.10
March 12.34 0.13 1 3.18 0.37 -2.81
April 11.91 0.00 2.51 1 .46 -1.05
May 10.58 0.00 3.76 6.98 +3.22
June 18.99 1 2.79 8.52 5.34 -3.18
July 19.74 1.87 1 8.47 6.41 -2.06
August 15.72 3.13 8.23 16.10 +7.87
September 20.11 1.14 7.48 16.36 +8.88
October 11.23 0.04 3.07 0.79 -2.28
November 11.22 0.07 1.95 1.32 -0.63
December 8.61 0.16 2.02 3.86 +1.84
Year total 53.98 65.14 +11.16
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.
T Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 62-yr
means.


Table 2. Daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2004, Range Cattle
REC.
January I February March April
Day Max Min Rain MJ/ IMax Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/
F [F inches m2 F F inches m2 F "F inches m2 F 7F inches m2
I 81 5 0.00 13.82 65 55 0.87 3.46 76 59 0.00 18.14 79 0.00 27.65
2 79 58 0.00 11.23 78 56 0.01 9.50 77 59 0.00 13.82 69 42 0.00 28.51
3 80 1758 0.00 11.23 73 I5 0.01 11.23 81 560 10.00 16.42 73 4 0.00 27.65
4 81 61 0.00 12.96 76 54 0.00 16.42 81 60 0.00 13.82 75 45 0.00 128.51
5 3 57' 0.00 112.96 80 161 0.00 16.42 83 64 0.00 16.42 75 7 0.00 127.65
6 811 56 0.00 13.82 84 66 0.02 15.55 85 62 0.00 14.69 79 47 0.00 125.92
7 81 8148 0.00 112.96 85 162 10.11 14.69 84 66 0.00 19.87 83 53 0.00 126.78
63 44 0.00 14.69 66 41 0.04 11.23 82 57 0.00 16.42 81 7 0.00 120.74
'9 73 148 0.00 115.55 60 44 0.00 19.87 73 41 0.00 23.33 83 161 0.00 120.74
10 7 52 0.08 112.96 78 156 0.00 18.14 70 48 0.00 20.74 84 62 0.00 119.01





11 52 37 0.00 14.32 182 158 10.00 115.55 68 42 10.00 25.06 86 55 0.00 124.19
T0.00 4.32 82.00 15.55 68.00 25.06 0.00 24.19
12 66 43 0.00 117.28 82 59 0.00 12.96 74 47 0.00 25.06 88 F66 1.03 119.01
3F.o-17.28 82F F 12.96 74 25.06 88 19.01
-13 72 42 0.00 116.42 83 166 0.00 14.69 76 48 0.00 22.46 78 64 0.23 17.78
7216.42 8 14.69 76 22.46 78 7.78
-14 -69 136 0.00 116.42 72 163 10.01 6.05 78 54 0.00 24.19 77 151 0.00 118.14

16 -72 43 0.00 111.23 72 51 0.01 12.96 83 67 0.01 12.10 74 44 0.00 29.38
-17 -72 45 0.01 16.42 64 ~54 0.00 12.10 73 64 0.36 7.78 78 53 0.00 25.92
-18 76 55 0.19 12.10 63 41 0.00 9.50 79 50 0.00 23.33 79 54 0.00 26.78
312.10 63 9.50 79 23.33 79 26.78
-19 73 60 0.86 6.91 62 35~ 0.00 21.60 82 56 0.00 24.19 81 55 0.00 27.65
6.91 4 2 21.60 82 24.19 81 27.65
20 76 50 0.02 110.37 71 46 0.00 20.74 83 57 0.00 24.19 82 52 0.00 25.92
21 63 39 0.00 17.28 73 58 0.00 10.37 82 55 0.00 20.74 81 56 0.00 25.92
0.- 6F17.28 73 10.37 8 2 20.74 81 25.92
22 71 140 0.00 15.55 178 151 I0.00 114.69 82 57 0.00 25.06 81 158 0.00 120.74
0.00 15.55 78.00 14.69 82.00 25.06 0.00 20.74
23 69 40 0.00 17.28 80 5 0.00 19.01 76 49 0.00 25.92 8661 0.00 25.92
24 66 34 0.00 117.28 82 165 0.00 17.28 74 53 0.00 23.33 87 158 0.00 125.06
25 72 142 0.00 117.28 83 162 1.70 15.55 73 56 0.00 18.14 87 "65 0.00 126.78
26 77 54 0.00 116.42 68 162 1 0.63 3.46 77 60 0.00 19.87 86 162 0.00 125.92
27 82 167 0.05 112.96 75 152 10.01 16.42 80 60 0.00 22.46 87 166 0.00 125.06
12.96 F5 16.42 F64 22.46 F o 25.06
28 76 146 0.00 112.96 55 43~ 10.00 I 5.18 82 157 0.00 24.19 79 152 0.00 114.69
0.00 12.96 55.00 5.18 82.00 24.19 0.00 14.69
29 62 32 0.00 18.14 70 4 0.00 19.01 82 53 0.00 24.19 84 68 0.00 28.51
30 70 50 0.00 12.96 782 ~49 0.00 23.33 83 69 0.20 13.82
0.00 12.96 0.00 23.33 0.20 13.82



Max 18.14 85 21.60 85 25.92 88 29.38
Avg 73 148 13.63 74 4 13.50 79 ~51 20.35 80 |156 |23.85
Max 836-7 |0.86 18.14 185 166 | 1.70 121.60 85 67 0.36 25.92 188 169 1.03 129.38
Min 52 132 0 4.32 | 55 35 3.46 68 4 1 0 7.78 67 142 7.78
Total 1.45 422.50 4.70 391.41 0.37 630.74 1.46 715.41



May I June I July August
Day MaxMmn Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ MaxMin Rain MJ/
F F inches m2 F F inches m2 F F inches m F F inches m2
inches inches inches F7 inches
90 67 4.04 19.87 94 68 0.00 25.92 7 0.00 22.46 91 74 0.02 18.14
2 88 6 1.39 24.19 9 0.00 28.51 4 4 0.00 25.92 8 0.13 12.10
3 88 72 0.00 22.46 94 67 0.16 25.06 92 69 0.00 19.87 84 75 0.13 15.55
22.46 946 25.06 F92 19.87 F4 15.55
4 -78 66 1.46 18.64 95 66 0.00 24.19 93 71 0.75 19.87 86 75 0.24 14.69
F 6 3 ;8.64 6956 24.19 93F5 19.87 F86o 14.69
--5 -81 59 0.00 127.65 90 168 10.06 117.28 [93 72 0.08 22.46 -84 74 0.52 9.50
6 81 0.00 28.51 88 0.14 17.28 97 22.46 90 75 0.04 19.87
F528.51 88 19.87 F2 22.46 90 19.87





-7 86 162 0.00 126.78 192 66 0.04 24.19 94 70 0.00 22.46 91 77 0.00 121.60
-26.78 92F 24.19 F F.o 22.46 F 7FT-21.60
8 8F6 59 0.00 126.78 92 70 0.08 123.33 90 66 0.01 17.28 88 75 0.55 113.82
26.78 96 23.33 F0 o 17.28 88 13.82
9 84 64 0.00 128.51 92 71 0.00 23.33 93 69 0.00 24.19 85 74 0.07 9.50
F-24.19 91 19.01 F95o 25.06 F2 F 19.87
10 85 F62 0.00 124.19 91 70 0.01 19.01 95 70 0.00 25.06 92 73 0.00 19.87
S0.00 13.82 91 0.36 21.60 95 71 0.00 25.06 94 73 0.00 24.19
12 85 167 0.00 119.01 90 72 0.32 17.28 93 70 2.09 19.87 93 73 0.03 119.01
0 19.01 9 0 17.28 93 o 19.87 93 19.01
1"3 F86 165 0.00 123.33 9 0.00 24.19 92 72 0.00 25.06 91 172 0.55 119.87
23.33 92 24.19 92 25.06 91 19.87
-F14 86 66 0.00 126.78 93 71 1.11 21.60 91 72 0.09 20.74 87 73 4.19 7.78
15- 86 165 0.00 125.06 92 171 F0.23 19.01 90 73 0.00 25.92 90 172 0.94 14.69
25.06 19.01 25.92 14.69
16 89 67 -0.00 125.06 91 172 0.62 19.01 88 73 0.13 15.55 93 72 0.00 121.60
F F F 2 5 .0 6 9 1 1 9 .0 1 8F 1 5 .5 5 F g 2 1 .6 0
17 86 68 0.00 122.46 91 171 0.00 19.87 89 72 0.02 17.28 93 73 0.53 19.01
18 -87 64 0.09 123.33 91 72 0.00 22.46 86 75 0.14 13.82 94 72 3.62 19.87
23.33 91 22.46 T86 13.82 62 19.87
19 87 65 0.00 25.06 91 73 0.00 23.33 88 73 0.41 18.14 93 73 2.64 20.74
FF9725.06 91F 23.33 88 18.14 93 20.74
20 65 0.00 25.92 91 0.00 25.92 79 0.91 6.05 0.77 20.74
21 89 64 0.00 126.78 91 172 0.00 23.33 81 71 0.28 6.91 93 74 0.09 120.74
F oo-26.78 91 23.33 81 6.91 93 20.74
-22 89 65 0.00 125.92 90 72 0.00 123.33 90 71 0.00 19.87 96 76 0.10 119.01
23 90 63 0.00 126.78 92 67 0.00 125.06 92 71 0.00 24.19 94 74 0.01 121.60
F oo-26.78 F92- 25.06 92 o 24.19 F94 21.60
24 89 63 0.00 127.65 97 68 0.54 25.92 93 73 0.00 24.19 90 75 0.20 115.55
25 90 62 0.00 126.78 94 171 0.43 21.60 93 73 0.01 25.06 88 74 0.00 113.82
2526.78 9 21.60 93 25.06 8800 13.82
26 92 64 0.00 129.38 94 71 0.00 24.19 93 72 0.00 20.74 91 73 0.00 121.60
27 82 67 0.05 112.96 75 52 10.01 16.42 90 72 0.01 15.55 93 74 0.04 118.14
28 91 64 0.00 25.06 92 71 0.12 20.74 90 72 0.13 16.42 92 71 0.00 17.28
25.06 72 20.74 9 0 16.42 92 17.28

30 91 6 0.00 23.33 90 0.42 14.69 4 0.00 22.46 92 0.00 24.19
0.00 20.74 0.01 22.46 0.69 17.28
31 92 67 0.00 20.74 72 0.01 22.46 93 73 0.69 17.28

Avg 87 165 124.41 192 170 122.26 91 [ 72 20.12 91 1-7 117.89
"M-ax "94 72 | 4.04 129.38 | 97 | 73 | 1.11 |28.51 95 75 | 2.09 125.92 "96 77 4.19 124.19
Max .04 29.38 28.51 2.09 25.92 964.19 24.19
Min 78 57 -F 0 18.64 88 166 | 0 14.69" 79 66 F 0 6.05 84 71 0 17.78
Min 8.64 88 14.69 7 6.05 84 7.78
Total 6.98 756.85 5.34 667.89 6.41 623.79 16.10 554.68

Table 2. Continued
I September I October November December
Da Max M Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Mn Rain MJ/ Max1M Rain MJ/
inches m inches 2 F inches m2 inches m2
-1 96 69 | 1.25 122.46 91 172 0.00 20.74 86 67 0.00 18.14 81 164 0.00 14.69
7 .01 18.14 91 72 0.00 19.87 87 67 0.00 12.96 81 0.00 13.82
18.14 91 19.87 87 12.96 591 F 13.82





3 9 5 0.04 16.42 90 70 0.00 20.74 7 65 0.00 15.55 75 0.00 6.05
4 92 73 0.01 23.33 900.00 21.60 89 0.00 16.42 71 0.00 14.69
S 0.79 11.23 91 72 0.00 19.87 6 0.03 15.55 75 0.00 12.10
3.46 90 19.01 74 16.42 78 12.96
S7' 82 7 4.11 13.46 190 7 0.00 19.01 74 56 10.01 16.42 78 0.00 112.96
S88 76 0.63 12.10 88 72 0.00 17.28 79 0.00 17.28 83 2 0.00 13.82
"'8 86 77F 0.20 116.42 84 66 0.00 14.69 79 49 0.00 19.01 80 162 0.00 9.50
16.42 84 14.69 FT 19.01 80 9.50
'9 89 74 -0.52 115.55 87 166 0.00 19.01 78 51 0.00 18.14 "84 164 0.00 110.37
0 152 5.55 87 19.01 78 18.14 84 10.37
10 92 74 1.93 19.01 88 70 0.00 19.01 1 62 0.15 12.10 F85 66 0.00 111.23
1oF2 19.01 F88 19.01 8F 12.10 85 11.23
11 91 75 0.00 120.74 186 73 0.01 111.23 81 10.00 17.28 80 57 0.31 16.05
FT,-20.74 86F3 11.23 F8 F1 17.28 80 6.05
-12 '90 '74 0.00 120.74 180 169 10.78 16.05 82 62 0.00 14.69 72 37 0.00 112.10
20.74 80 6.05 F2 14.69 72 12.10
13 91 76 0.00 19.87 88 167 0.01 17.28 83 60 0.00 14.69 64 40 0.00 15.55
"14 -89 78 0.01 13.82 83 163 0.00 17.28 82 66 0.00 10.37 76 51 0.05 14.69
13.82 17.28 10.37 14.69
15 85 79 0.00 7.78 84 164 0.00 19.87 78 59 0.00 8.64 62 34 0.00 115.55
F7.78 8F 19.87 78 8.64 6 15.55
-16 I88 77 0.00 10.37 84 53 0.00 13.82 79 60 0.00 13.82 60 41 0.00 15.55
0.00 10.37 84 13.82 05 13.82 60 15.55
-17 -92 77 0.00 20.74 79 54 0.00 21.60 77 55 0.00 12.96 70 52 0.00 12.96
-18 90 74 0.00 21.60 83 63 0.00 20.74 78 55 0.00 15.55 66 56 0.32 5.18
"19 91 171 0.00 119.87 87 169 0.00 14.69 80 153 0.00 14.69 71 45 0.00 18.64
319.87 8 14.69 80 14.69 71 8.64
20 90 171 0.03 118.14 187 168 10.00 112.10 81 57 10.00 15.55 67 142 0.00 113.82
0.03 18.14 87.00 12.10 81.00 15.55 0.00 13.82
21 82 172 0.40 18.64 188 171 10.00 114.69 82 56 10.00 15.55 56 34 0.00 15.55
0.40 8.64 88.00 14.69 82.00 15.55 0.00 15.55
22 82 74 0.25 19.50 88 166 10.00 17.28 84 60 0.00 16.42 71 148 0.00 114.69
F9.50 88 17.28 84 16.42 7 14.69
23 86 170 0.00 115.55 184 166 10.00 116.42 [84 61 10.00 13.82 K77 163 0.00 111.23
0.00 15.55 84.00 16.42 84.00 13.82 0.00 11.23
24 89 170 0.00 119.87 84 60 10.00 15.55 81 65 0.00 10.37 74 60 0.09 13.46
25 8 70 0.00 119.87 83 64 10.00 18.14 84 71 0.18 12.10 63 52 0.33 12.59
SF 19.87 83P. 18.14 841F 12.10 63o 2.59
26 85 75 3.51 112.10 185 164 I0.00 118.14 F77 47 0.00 12.96 69 I50 2.76 0.86
3.51 12.10 85.00 18.14 77.00 12.96 2.76 0.86
-27 -82 -76 2.55 5.18 84 163 0.00 17.28 71 53 0.00 16.42 54 -37 0.00 10.37
28 87 74 0.12 19.01 83 161 0.00 18.14 77 57 0.95 13.82 66 47 0.00 14.69
FFI- 19.01 18.14 F13.82 P14.69
-29 -88 72 0.00 120.74 83 165 0.00 14.69 [77 ~53 0.00 16.42 70 51 0.00 12.10
30 89 71 0.00 19.87 85 165 0.00 17.28 78 53 0.00 15.55 73 -52 0.00 12.10
19.87 8.14 17.28 78 F 15.55 73 2 0 12.10
S31 86 62 0.00 15.55 75 58 0.00 12.96
615.55 0F5 512.96

Avg 88 74 116.07 86 66 17.09 81 |59 114.77 72 51 111.29
Max 96 1 79 | 4.11 123.33 191 173 1 0.78 121.60 | 89 | 71 1 0.95 19.01 85 166 | 2.761 15.55
4.11 23.33 91 .78 21.60 89 19.01 2.76 15.55
Min 69 0 1 3.46 79 53 0 6.205 71 47 | 0 8.64 4 34 0 0.86
T l 16.36 4822 9 29.6 12 43.4 349.92
4 482.12 529.64 443.24 349.92




























Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Month


Figure 1. Rainfall in 2004 compared with the 63-year mean.






20 -
19
18 Rain totaled 65.14"
17 i Evapotranspiration totaled 37.00"
16
15
14
13
12
(n 11-
S10













Month
C- 9

7
6







Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Month


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2004.


Evapo-transpiration

Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in five months during 2004 (Figure 2). This was typical because evapo-
transpiration generally exceeds rainfall in January to May and October to December, which are months with
limited rainfall. For the year, rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration by 28.14 inches.

Temperature:

There was 1 d when daily-low shelter temperature was at or below 32 OF and 4 d when low ground temperature
reached freezing (Table 2). The extreme low temperature for 2004 occurred on 29 January when shelter and ground
temperature reached 32 and 29 OF, respectively. Scattered frost occurs when ground temperature reaches 35 OF.
Based on this observation, there were 4 incidences of frost (data not shown). Except for January and April, all
months in 2004 had higher mean low temperatures compared with the 61-yr means (Table 3). August and
September were especially warm, perhaps due to tropical storm activity. Overall, mean temperature for 2004 was 1 o
F higher than the 61-year mean.


[Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature (OF)* by months, Range Cattle REC.
I Shelter Ground level
1944-04 2004 1944-04 2004 2004
Avg. Avg. Extreme Yr Extreme Avg. Extreme
Low Low Low Low Low Low





January 49.3 48.2 18 1981 32 45.8 29
February 50.7 54.4 26 1976 35 52.3 32
March 54.6 55.7 26 1980 41 52.1 37
April 58.2 55.6 34 1971 42 52.3 39
May 63.3 64.8 43 1945 57 62.2 54
June 69.0 70.1 52 1984 66 68.0 64
July 71.2 71.7 62 several 66 70.0 65
August 71.8 73.3 61 1977 71 72.4 70
September 71.1 73.8 56 1962 69 72.1 67
October 64.8 66.2 42 several 53 63.7 49
November 57.0 58.9 25 1970 47 56.9 43
December 51.2 51.3 20 1962 34 48.9 31
Avg. 61.0 62.0 51.1 59.7 48.3
C = (F 32) x 0.555


Solar Radiation:
Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2004 total monthly solar radiation can be seen graphically in Figure 3.
For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry
matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not limiting and vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically,
enough solar radiation was received in May 2004 (757 MJ) to produce 10,825 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar
radiation for 2004 was 6568 MJ.






800-

2004 total=6568 MJ
700-


600-
0

C) 500
0

x 400-


0 300


; 200


100



Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Month

Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2004.


Freeze hazard:

The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The fall
freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a critical temperature before a selected date,
while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical
date. Based on records from 1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can
be expected over a period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming
320F) planted before the 1st of February would stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower would probably
lose five crops over 10 years by planting before the 1st of February.


















so 322
leKI
-~ 132 E~l
20 /

40




301



t0 ?

Dat
n -OV OI ---- O- N -
ontop~


Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature before a selected date.


























Gri------mueium---s------- s----------
date.
30






OIJAN OWiED S1 MAR, UAPR




Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature before a selected
date.

Acknowledgments:
We gratefully acknowledge data collections by Shirley Searcy, as well as data preparation by Andrea Dunlap.



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