Group Title: Climatological report for Range Cattle Experiment Station, University of Florida
Title: Climatological report.
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 Material Information
Title: Climatological report.
Series Title: Climatological report.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Station,
Publication Date: 2003
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075797
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143383408

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Research Report RC-2004-1
February 2004



CLIMATOLOGICAL REPORT 2003


Range Cattle Research and Education Center


R. S. Kalmbacher
Professor, IFAS, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, Florida.


Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through harvesting. Knowledge of annual
rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant
seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather
conditions influence germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. A knowledge of weather cycles and
extremes is helpful to a successful cattle operation.

This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapotranspiration, and solar radiation for 2003
obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida. The center is located 820 55' W and 270
26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of
the Atlantic Ocean.

Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific, Inc). Accuracy of rainfall as
measured by the Weather Watch 2000 was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service
standard gauge.

Rainfall:

Annual rainfall for 2003 was 65.46 inches, which was 11.65 inches (22%) greater than the 62-year average of 53.81 inches
(standard deviation 11.09 inches) (Table 1). The year with the least rainfall was 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured,
and the year with the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded.

Monthly rainfall totals for the March to June period exceeded the 62-year means for these months (Table 1, Figure 1),
which was very beneficial for pasture growth. Rainfall was not a limiting factor for pasture production in spring. Rainfall in
June was excessive, but this was compensated for by less than normal rainfall in July.

Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2003.
1942 to 2003 2003
Maximum Minimum 62-yr Diference
month month Averaget Total from
Total
62-yr
average
------------------ inches*----------------
January 8.45 1 0.03 1 2.21 1.03 -1.18





February 9.59 0.02 2.56 2.17 -0.39
March 12.34 0.13 3.22 4.31 +1.09
April 11.91 0.00 2.53 4.31 +1.78
May 10.58 0.00 3.71 5.36 +1.65
June 18.99 2.79 8.58 15.80 +7.22
July 19.74 1.87 8.51 4.51 -4.00
August 15.72 3.13 8.10 10.09 +1.99
September 20.11 1.14 7.34 11.04 +3.70
October 11.23 0.04 3.10 1.14 -1.96
November 11.22 0.07 1.96 2.71 +0.75
December 8.61 0.16 1.99 2.99 +1.00
Year total 53.81 69.46 +11.65
*Inches x 2.54 = cm.
T Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 61-yr
means.


Table 2. Daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2003, Range Cattle
REC.
January February March April
D Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max ain Mxx Min Rain MJ/
inches m2 F F inches 2 F Finches m2 inches2
S- 79 64" 0.91 19.50 179 149 0.00 116.42 83 65 0.00 11.23 62 138 0.00 127.65
4957916.42 83 11.23 62 27.65
13.82 6 12.96 85 12.10 7 25.06
-2 7-75 0.00 113.82 69 41 0.00 112.96 85 71 0.00 12.10 71 0.00 125.06
3 75 60 0.00 12.10 73 41 0.00 19.01 83 61 10.05 12.96 76 152 0.00 123.33
4 64 40 0.01 10.37 77 53 0.00 116.42 79 62 0.63 14.69 79 160 0.00 120.74
10.37 7 16.42 79 14.69 79 20.74
-5 60 136 0.00 116.42 78 156 0.10 110.37 85 64 0.01 17.28 85 60 0.00 25.06
16.42 10.37 17.28 25.06
-6 66 40 0.00 15.55 73 47 0.00 18.14- 87 68 0.00 18.14 86 66 0.00 21.60
15.55 73 18.14 87 18.14 86 21.60
1 69 141 0.00 15.55 81 61 0.00 14.69 87 68 0.00 17.28 87 69 0.00 19.87
15.55 81 14.69 87 17.28 19.87
8F 62 34 0.00 16.42 74 57 0.00 4.32 85 70 0.00 16.42 89 70 0.00 20.74
-9 65 42 0.00 16.42 64 F55 0.04 10.37 82 F63 0.44 12.96 87 67 0.15 T20.74
16.42 10.37 12.96 20.74
10 i 70 52 0.00 115.55 77 156 0.00 7.78 85 66 0.01 18.14 83 58 1.14 19.01
1-1 76 59 0.04 111.23 80 50 0.50 110.37 81 F62 0.00 16.42 67 59 0.01 18.14
12 70 44~ 0.00 15.55 73 43 0.00 119.87 85 65 0.00 19.01 69 51 0.00 118.14
15.55 73 19.87 8519.01 18.14
12.96 19.88787 14.69 78 26.78
13 65 48 0.00 12.96 71 F 0.00 119.87 87 67 0.03 14.69 -78 0.00 126.78
14 F71 49 0.00 110.37 73 44 0.00 119.01 85 63 0.00 19.87 82 5 0.00 126.78
15 65 141 0.00 112.10 77 156 0.00 118.14 85 65 0.00 17.28 84 59 0.00 124.19
16 62 0.00 1642 83 00 17.28 84 63 000 17.28 82 4 0.00 25.92
16.42 83 17.28 84 17.28 82 25.92





17 74 I52 0.02 116.42 183 164 10.47 18.64 85 65 10.84 17.28 84 I64 0.00 121.60
-0.02 16.42 83.47 8.64 850.84 17.28 0.00 21.60
18 57 131 0.00 112.10 73 T 0.01 114.69 82 61 10.26 15.55 86 161 0.00 124.19
0.00 12.10 73.01 14.69 82.26 15.55 0.00 24.19
19 -54 32 0.00 116.42 71 150 0.00 19.87 83 62 0.55 16.42 87 164 0.00 124.19
20 61 35 0.00 117.28 80 58 0.00 18.14 87 72 0.00 18.14 86 62 0.00 125.92
21 70 37 0.00 117.28 184 1641 0.00 111.23 88 73 10.38 19.01 85 162 0.00 125.06
0.00 17.28 84.00 11.23 88.38 19.01 0.00 25.06
22 72 50 0.00 17.28 86 67 0.00 13.82 83 69 0.43 8.64 85 63 0.00 23.33
0.05 13.82 84 0.50 13.82 82 64 0.00 11.23 84 0.00 23.33
24 63 28 0.00 15.55 74 47 0.00 22.46 70 59 0.55 10.37 83 57 0.00 25.92
15.55 74 22.46 70F 10.37 E83 25.92
25 -49 -33 0.00 19.01 80 58 0.00 21.60 77 53 0.00 25.06 87 -69 0.00 122.46
619.01 4 21.60 77 25.06 .2 22.46
15.55 82 15.55 F2 21.60 F5 18.14
26 66 44 0.00 15.55 82 62 0.00 15.55 80 61 0.00 21.60 85 63 2.83 18.14
S0.00 16.42 84 63 0.00 17.28 82 65 0.00 17.28 75 0.00 11.23
28 66 136 0.00 118.14 80 169 0.55 7.28 79 62 0.13 12.10 84 166 0.00 123.33
FTF.618.14 80 7.28 F8 12.10 84 23.33
29 69 0.00 16.42 61 0.00 18.14 87 0.18 21.60
-F- 13.82 F F-618.14 825F 23.33
F30 753 148 0.0.000 18.14 485 -69 0.00 123.33
31 77 0.00 15.55 75 46 0.00 7.78

Avg 68 44 14.88 77 54 15.00 3 164 15.89 82 -60 22.58
14.88 15.00 15.89 22.58
Max 0.91 19.01 6 0.55 22.46 73 0.4 25.06 89 7 2.83 7.65
Min 49 128 0 9.50 64 141 | 0 4.32 170 146 0 7.78 62 |38 0 11.23
2 F9.50 o 4.32 707.78 62 11.23
Total 1.03 461.39 2.17 419.90 4.31 492.49 4.31 677.38


Table 2. Continued
May June I July August
Day MaxMim Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain MJ/ MaxMin Rain MJ/
-F F inches m2 IFinchesl m F F inches m2 TF -- inches m
'80 -70- 0.56 13.82 87 70 0.00 25.92 93 75 0.00 22.46 91 1 0.36 17.28
2 83 165 0.01 120.74 89 69 0.00 126.78 91 73 0.00 25.06 91 73 0.66 118.14
-20.74 89 26.78 91 25.06 916 18.14
3 86 66 0.00 125.92 91 1701 0.05 123.33 89 74 0.00 17.28 -91 172 0.44 115.55
F3,F725.92 9103 23.33 890 17.28 91 15.55
4 -89 165 0.00 125.06 84 172 0.18 9.50 88 72 0.00 17.28 90 -73 0.12 119.87
25.06 84 9.50 88 17.28 90 19.87
5 89 69 0.00 24.19 88 172 0.12 16.42 89 71 0.31 14.69 90 74 0.03 20.74
Fvg TF24.19 887 16.42 893o 14.69 F2 20.74
-6 -91 71 -0.00 22.46 88 70 0.00 16.42 92 75 0.00 21.60 88 74 0.00 12.96
71 -91 71 0.00 24.19 91 73 0.92 20.74 91 73 0.00 21.60 90 75 0.00 23.33
8 93 71 0.00 25.92 89 76 0.16 19.01 92 76 0.09 21.60 86 73 0.23 11.23
S- 70 0.00 25.06 88 0.41 15.55 930.84 17.28 84 0.07 12.96
10 93 71 0.00 25.06 85 70 0.47 F 8.64 [94 73 0.00 23.33 85 72 1.40 4.32
1 93 172 0.00 122.46 192 171 10.00 125.06 693 1 0.01 25.06 8 2 72 0.52 7.78
S9 7 0.00 24.19 92 7 0.00 23. 93 73 0.01 25.06 84 0. 7.78
0.00 24.19 92.00 23.33 93.44 19.87 1.36 9.50





-13 90 171 -0.00 125.06 91 72 0.00 19.87 94 173 0.08 18.14 93 75 0.21 119.87
25.06 1 19.87 6 18.14 5 F19.87
14 90 168 0.00 125.06 92 1711 0.01 21.60 91 74 0.10 19.87 91 -75 0.68 122.46
T F Fo 25.06 92 21.60 91 19.87 91 22.46
15 88 66 0.34 14.69 93 74 0.00 23.33 92 72 0.00 20.74 840.31 9.50
-16 89 168 0.00 120.74 92 75 0.00 20.74 91 73 0.00 20.74 "92 74 0.00 119.87
F20.74 9 20.74 91 20.74 92 19.87
-17 92 169 0.00 121.60 88 172 0.97 18.14 89 71 0.00 17.28 92 172 0.22 118.14
21.60 88 18.14 F9 17.28 92 18.14
-18 92 171 0.98 123.33 92 73 0.03 22.46 93 73 0.00 23.33 92 73 0.00 125.06
23.33 92 22.46 FT 23.33 F9o 25.06
19 91 171 0.69 25.92 83 73 10.91 6.91 93 71 0.01 23.33 94 74 0.96 10.37
20 92 68 1.91 21.60 88 74 1.25 14.69 91 73 0.30 16.42 86 70 1.39 9.50
21 89 68 0.00 23.33 76 73 5.17 4.32 [91 75 0.01 22.46 88 72 0.38 18.14
4F.T-23.33 F.4.32 -o-22.46 18.14
22 -87 67 0.00 23.33 76 72 2.90 9.05 91 72 0.00 24.19 90 73 0.05 17.28
23 88 70 0.44 20.74 81 75 1.03 4.32 91 73 0.06 17.28 87 72 0.19 11.23
20.74 81 4.32 91 17.28 87 11.23
24 79 69 0.43 7.78 84 73 0.10 13.82 [92 70 0.00 20.74 89 72 0.37 13.82
7.78 84 13.82 T- 20.74 .4 13.82
25 88 69 0.00 21.60 89 70 0.00 23.33 90 70 0.01 21.60 92 73 0.11 18.14
26 90 168 0.00 125.92 189 1691 0.00 125.92 [89 70 1.59 14.69 90 74 0.00 117.28
0.00 25.92 89.00 25.92 89.59 14.69 0.00 17.28
27 9067 0.00 125.06 190 72 0.00 23.33 92 74 0.00 20.74 91 74 0.00 117.28
825.06 90 23.33 92 20.74 91 17.28
28 89 72 0.00 22.46 91 172 0.03 19.87 93 74 0.00 23.33 3 75 0.00 120.74
22.46 91 19.87 93 23.33 93F- 20.74
29 84 167 0.00 118.14 86 171 0.79 16.42 93 72 0.00 21.60 90 75 0.03 115.55
-18.14 86F1 16.42 93.9 21.60 90 F 15.55
30 85 164 0.00 125.92 91 75 0.30 21.60 ['92 71 0.12 24.19 93 75 0.00 119.87
25.92 91 21.60 92 24.19 93 19.87
'31 '86 F66 0.00 125.06 90 71 0.54 16.42 93 176 0.00 22.46
F25.06 73 16.42 93.3 22.46

Avg 89 69 22.47 88 72 17.91 92 73 20.46 89 173 16.14
Max 3 7 1.91 25.92 93 5.17 26.78 4 7 1.59 25.06 94 7 1.40 25.06
Min 79 164 F 0 7.78 1 76 169 F 0 4.32 88 170 0 1 9 82 7 0 14.32



Table 2. Continued
September October November December
Day Max IMin Rain I MJ/ Max IMin I Rain I MJ/ IMax Min Rain MJ/ M Max IMin Rain I MJ/
mF F inches m2 F F inches m2 F F inches m2 OF m2 inches m2
- 92 75 0.05 119.87 80 73 0.01 16.91 86 66 0.00 16.42 73 54 0.00 115.55
2519.87 8 6.91 86 16.42 73 15.55
"2 92 73- 1.02 115.55 81 T70 0.00 9.50 84 67 0.00 15.55 74 43 0.00 115.55
3 89 75 0.09 116.42 179 68 0.00 10.37 85 70 0.08 14.69 77 51 0.00 114.69
4 90 74 0.94 14.69 86 171 0.00 16.42 [84 70 0.01 11.23 77 I 56 0.00 12.10
5 85 76 0.27 110.37 86 71 0.00 115.55 2 84 71 0.00 8.64 82 59 0.00 113.82
F27 10.37 86 o 15.55 84. 8.64 820T 13.82
6 82 F 73 1.25 3.46 87 69 0.00 118.14 89 73 0.81 11.23 74 50 0.00 6.05
3.46 87 18.14 89 11.23 74 6.05
1 88 74- 0.07 119.87 189 169 0.00 19.01 281 68 1.22 7.78 58 37 0.00 115.55
8 90 74 0.00 20.74 88 68 0 1.01 81 13.82 0.00 16.42
F20.74 8 18.14 86 13.82 64 16.42





-9 8-9 70 0.00 22.46 89 70 0.00 19.01 86 73 0.00 12.96 72 53 0.00 12.96
22.46 89 19.01 86 12.96 72 o 12.96
10 -88 -72 0.00 21.60 88 170 0.00 19.01 783 70 0.00 10.37 77 '59 0.00 11.23
F821.60 F 19.01 83 10.37 F7 11.23
-i1 90 --71 0.00 ]20.74 86 172 0.01 12.10 83 67 0.00 12.96 77 52 0.03 7.78
12 88 170 0.00 122.46 88 172 0.00 12.10 84 65 0.00 16.42 64 138 0.00 114.69
422.46 8 12.10 F4 16.42 F84 F 14.69
"13 91 172 0.00 120.74 88 172 0.00 14.69 84 62 0.00 14.69 70 151 0.01 115.55
14 '90 172 1.82 115.55 187 73 0.00 12.10 83 52 0.00 15.55 76 163 1.57 F8.64
15 92 73 0.00 122.46 87 70 0.03 13.82 79 55 0.00 17.28 71 44 0.19 4.32
16 90 171 0.00 19.87 81 60 10.00 19.87 81 58 10.00 16.42 66 4 0.01 15.55
-17 "89 74 0.00 118.14 84 1641 0.00 19.01 82 61 0.00 13.82 76 163 1.17 8.64
S18.14 84 19.01 82 13.82 76 8.64
18 90 170 0.04 18.14 86 1641 0.00 14.69 83 65 0.00 11.23 64 36 0.01 8.64
18.14 86 14.69 1837 11.23 F64o 8.64
19 91 71 0.00 22.46 84 163 0.00 19.87 85 67 0.01 12.10 62 46 0.00 15.55

21 90 75 0.13 15.55 85 66 0.00 16.42 [75 54 0.00 17.28 58 36 0.00 16.42
15.55 85 16.42 75o 17.28 F8 16.42
22 91 73 0.00 20.74 86 160 0.00 17.28 79 F 56 0.00 16.42 65 45 0.00 15.55
F20.74 8 17.28 79 16.42 65.F 15.55
23 90 73 0.00 18.14 85 66 0.00 18.14 79 57 0.00 13.82 72 54 0.00 14.69

25 92 73 0.00 122.46 187 64 10.00 19.01 82 66 0.00 15.55 76 148 0.00 111.23
F 22.46 87 19.01 82 15.55 76 11.23
26 87 171 2.65 110.37 187 169 10.07 114.69 80 62 10.00 10.37 68 49 0.00 112.10
-2.65 10.37 87.07 14.69 80.00 10.37 0.00 12.10
27 84 74 0.00 115.55 186 167 10.00 115.55 83 62 10.00 14.69 73 I50 0.00 112.96
0.00 15.55 86.00 15.55 83.00 14.69 0.00 12.96
28 86 73 0.70 9.50 187 169 10.00 115.55 4 59 10.00 13.82 74 49 0.00 115.55
0.70 9.50 87.00 15.55 84.00 13.82 0.00 15.55
29 84 73 1.36 18.64 82 166 11.02 16.05 83 143 0.00 14.69 75 152 0.00 112.96
1.36 8.64 82.02 6.05 83.00 14.69 0.00 12.96
30 77 172 0.65 13.46 181 158 10.00 117.28 6 41 10.00 17.28 77 54 0.00 111.23
0.65 3.46 81.00 17.28 61.00 17.28 0.00 11.23
31 84 166 10.00 17.28 80 54 0.00 112.96
17.28 0512.96

-Avg 89 73 116.68 8s 167 15.55 82 162 13.59 71 149 112.88
716.68 15.55 13.59 12.88
Max 93 76 2.6 122.46 89 73 1.02 19.87 89 73 1.22 17.28 82 63 1.7 16.42
F2 22.46 F59 19.87 89 17.28 F8 16.42
Min 77 1 70 1 3.46 79 17 0 i 6.05 61 41 0 5.18 58 136 0 14.32
STotl 1 3.04 0024 6.5 1 5.1 40781 .3.7
24 500.24 77482.12 EF407.81 399.17






18
17
16 current yr
15 -i I 62 yr
14
13
12
11
( 10
9


7j
5




Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month



Figure 1. Rainfall in 2003 compared with the 62-year mean.


There were 20 occurrences during 2003 when daily rain equaled or exceeded 1 inch and four rain events that
exceeded 2 inches (Table 2). The single greatest daily rain event was 21 June when 5.17 inches were recorded.
Except for July, which was 4 inches below the 62-year mean rainfall, all summer months were above 62-year means
and there was typical flooding of pastures at Ona. (Fig.l).

Evapo-transpiration

Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in only three months during 2003 (Figure 2). This was unusual because
evapo- transpiration generally exceeds rainfall in January to May and October to December, which are months with
limited rainfall. For the year, rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration by 30.08 inches. Historically, annual evapo-
transpiration has exceed annual rainfall at the Range Cattle REC.






20
19
18 I Rain totaled 65.46"
17 =E Evapotranspiration totaled 35.38"
16
15
14-
13

(n 11
102
o
c 9
8
7
6
5-
4-
3-


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month


Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2003.


Temperature:

There were three and seven days when daily low-shelter and daily low ground temperatures, respectively, were at or
below 32 OF (Table 2). The extreme low temperature for 2003 occurred on 24 January when shelter and ground
temperature reached 28 and 27 OF, respectively. Scattered frost occurs when ground temperature reaches 34 OF.
Based on this observation, there were 11 incidences of frost (data not shown). Except for January and December, all
months in 2003 had higher mean low temperatures compared with the 60-year means (Table 3). March was
especially warm, and combined with greater than normal rainfall, March was an excellent month for pasture
growth. Overall, mean temperature for 2003 was 2.4 OF higher than the 60-year mean.


ITable 3. Summary of minimum temperature (OF)* by months, Range Cattle REC.
I Shelter Temperature Ground Temperature
1944-03 2003 1944-03 2003 2003
Avg. Avg. Extreme r Extreme Avg. Extreme
Low Low Low Low Low Low
January 49.3 44.3 18 1981 28 41.8 27
February 50.7 54.3 26 1976 41 51.8 37
March 54.6 63.8 26 1980 46 61.3 44
April 58.2 60.2 34 1971 38 57.3 35
May 63.3 68.7 43 1945 64 66.5 61
June 68.9 72.1 52 1984 69 69.9 66
SJuly 71.2 72.7 62 several 70 70.8 68
August 71.7 73.3 61 1977 70 71.3 69





September 71.0 72.8 56 11962 70 70.7 67
October | 64.7 67.3 42 several 57 64.5 54
November 56.9 62.0 25 1970 41 159.1 36
December 51.2 49.2 20 1962 36 46.0 32
SAvg. 61.0 63.4 52.5 60.9 49.7
I*C =( F 32)x 0.555


Solar Radiation:

Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2003 total monthly solar radiation can be seen graphically in Figure 3.
For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry
matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not limiting and vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically,
enough solar radiation was received in May 2001 (696 MJ) to produce 9,950 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar
radiation for 2003 was 6208 MJ.


700

600

500

400

300

200


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month


Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2003.


Freeze hazard:

The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The fall
freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a critical temperature before a selected date,
while the spring freeze hazard shows the chance of the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical
date. Based on records from 1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can
be expected over a period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming
320F) planted before the 1st of February would stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower would probably
lose five crops over 10 years by planting before the 1st of February.


















so 322
ICKI
-~ 132 E~l
20 /

40




301



t0 ?

Dat
n -OV OI ---- O- N -
ontop~


Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature before a selected date.


























Gri------mueium---s------- s----------
date.
30






OIJAN OWiED S1 MAR, UAPR




Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature before a selected
date.

Acknowledgments:
We gratefully acknowledge data collections by Shirley Searcy, as well as data preparation by Andrea Dunlap.



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